Sample records for solids ss content

  1. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M


    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  2. Comparison of the microbial communities in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) reactors operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang


    The microbiomes involved in liquid anaerobic digestion process have been investigated extensively, but the microbiomes underpinning solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) are poorly understood. In this study, microbiome composition and temporal succession in batch SS-AD reactors, operated at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures, were investigated using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A greater microbial richness and evenness were found in the mesophilic than in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors. Firmicutes accounted for 60 and 82 % of the total Bacteria in the mesophilic and in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, respectively. The genus Methanothermobacter dominated the Archaea in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, while Methanoculleus predominated in the mesophilic SS-AD reactors. Interestingly, the data suggest syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as an important pathway for biogas production during the thermophilic SS-AD. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that temperature was the most influential factor in shaping the microbiomes in the SS-AD reactors. Thermotogae showed strong positive correlation with operation temperature, while Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were positively correlated with daily biogas yield. This study provided new insight into the microbiome that drives SS-AD process, and the findings may help advance understanding of the microbiome in SS-AD reactors and the design and operation of SS-AD systems.

  3. Fabrication of Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by utilizing the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution with low-temperature annealing

    Pan, X.F. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Yan, G., E-mail: [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Qi, M. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Cui, L.J. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, C.S. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Liu, X.H. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Feng, Y.; Zhang, P.X. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Liu, H.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei 230031 (China); and others


    Highlights: • This paper reported superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Al wires. • The Nb{sub 3}Al wires were made by using Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution powders. • The Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires have been successfully fabricated. • The transport J{sub c} of Nb{sub 3}Al wires at 4.2 K, 10 T is up to 12,700 A/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: High-performance Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire is a promising candidate to the application of high-field magnets. However, due to the production problem of km-grade wires that are free from low magnetic field instability, the Nb{sub 3}Al wires made by rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) are still not available to the large-scale engineering application. In this paper, we reported the properties of the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires, which were made by using the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution, as well as the low temperature heat-treatment at 800 °C for 10 h. The results show that Nb{sub 3}Al superconductors in this method possess very fine grains and well superconducting properties, though a little of Nb{sub 2}Al and Nb impurities still keep being existence at present work. At the Nb{sub 3}Al with a nominal 26 at.% Al content, the onset T{sub c} reaches 15.8 K. Furthermore, a series of Nb{sub 3}Al wires and tapes with various sizes have been fabricated; for the 1.0 mm-diameter wire, the J{sub c} at 4.2 K, 10 T and 14 T have achieved 12,700 and 6900 A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. This work suggests it is possible to develop high-performance Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by directly using the Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution without the complex RHQT heat-treatment process.

  4. Energy content of municipal solid waste bales.

    Ozbay, Ismail; Durmusoglu, Ertan


    Baling technology is a preferred method for temporary storage of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to final disposal. If incineration is intended for final disposal of the bales, the energy content of the baled MSW gains importance. In this study, nine cylindrical bales containing a mix of different waste materials were constructed and several parameters, including total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, moisture content, loss on ignition, gross calorific value and net calorific value (NCV) were determined before the baling and at the end of 10 months of storage. In addition, the relationships between the waste materials and the energy contents of the bales were investigated by the bivariate correlation analyses. At the end, linear regression models were developed in order to forecast the decrease of energy content during storage. While the NCVs of the waste materials before the baling ranged between 6.2 and 23.7 MJ kg(-1) dry basis, they ranged from 1.0 to 16.4 MJ kg(-1) dry basis at the end of the storage period. Moreover, food wastes exhibited the highest negative correlation with NCVs, whereas plastics have significant positive correlation with both NCVs and TCs. Similarly, TOCs and carbon/nitrogen ratios decreased with the increase in food amounts inside the bales. In addition, textile, wood and yard wastes increase the energy content of the bales slightly over the storage period.

  5. Total Suspended Solid Content in Raha Waters, Northeast of Celebes



    Full Text Available Measurement on Total Suspended Solid (TSS in Raha waters were carried out in May 2001. The results showed that the content of total suspended solid varied between 74,8 – 78,9 ppm with averages content is 76,5 ppm. This content is still suited to the threshold value stated by government decree in 1988 for fishery and sea conservation park, but not suitable for recreation (swimming, diving activity.

  6. The Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) and the Vocal Handicap Index (VHI): a comparison of structure and content.

    Wilson, J A; Webb, A; Carding, P N; Steen, I N; MacKenzie, K; Deary, I J


    Self report measures of voice function are in frequent use, but have had inadequate psychometric evaluation. We aimed to perform a substantial factor analysis of two measures of voice impairment, the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Both the 30-item questionnaires were completed by 319 dysphonic voice clinic attenders (99M, 220F). Principal components analysis confirmed that both instruments reflected general voice abnormality. The VoiSS comprised three factors - impairment (15 items), emotional (8 items) and related physical symptoms (7 items) - each with a good internal consistency. Analysis of the VHI suggested that it contains only two subscales. When a three-factor solution was imposed on the data, analysis failed to support the currently advised three 10-item subscale interpretations. Instead, we found a physical (voice impairment) domain (8 items), a psychosocial domain (14 items) and a factor with 8 items related to difficulty in being heard. The VHI requires further statistical refinement to identify its subscale structure. The VoiSS was developed from 800 subjects and is psychometrically the most robust and extensively validated self report voice measure available.

  7. [Dynamic QTL and correlated characters of tomato soluble solid content.].

    Jia, Jun-Zhong; Tian, Li-Ping; Xue, Lin; Wei, Yi-Nong


    Two hundred and six F2:3 families from the cross between TD22 and HT-1-1-1-1 were used for dynamic QTL research of tomato soluble solid content and correlative traits, and correlation analysis of soluble solid content (SSC) with fruit weight (FW), fruit shape index (FSI), soluble sugar, vitamin C (VC), and organic acid at three different development stages. The results showed that there were differences in QTL loci for soluble solid content during the three stages of tomato fruit development. Four and eight QTLs were detected in green ripe stage and red ripe stage, respectively. These QTLs showed dynamic changes, and two markers LEaat006 and Tomato|TC162363 were detected in two stages, which might be useful in molecular-marker assisted selection (MAS). The result also showed that there was extremely significant difference in SSC at the three different stages, and its main correlative traits were different at different stages. Soluble solid content was positively correlated with soluble sugar, but negatively correlated with FW at green ripe stage; SSC was positively correlated with soluble sugar and organic acid at yellow ripe stage; SSC was positively correlated with soluble sugar and organic acid, but negatively correlated with fruit weight at red ripe stage. Based on correlation analysis of these traits, linear regression model was constructed. Non-tested varieties were used to test the fitness, and the result showed that it is well fitted, and the fitness is above 95%.

  8. Certification of primary standards for solid fat content (SFC) determination

    Bernreuther, A.; Schimmel, H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.


    Spreadability of fat containing food products can be easily assessed by the solid fat content (SFC). Usually, SFC is determined by direct methods based on low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. A system of primary and secondary reference materials is required to calculate so-called

  9. Waffen-SS

    Christensen, Claus Bundgård

    Bogen analyserer SS-organisationens væbnede gren, Waffen-SS ud fra en række vinkler. De vigtigste er: 1) koblingen mellem Waffen-SS og resten af SS, 2) Waffen-SS som militær faktor i Det Tredje Rige, 3) Waffen-SS soldaternes politiske indoktrinering, 4) relationerne mellem de mange nationaliteter...

  10. Novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA virus with di-cistronic genome from intestinal content of freshwater carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Ákos Boros

    Full Text Available A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306 with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio fished by line-fishing from fishpond "Lőrinte halastó" located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long--non-in-frame--open reading frames (ORFs, which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins. The deduced amino acid (aa sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32% and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3 of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum, ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature.

  11. Effect of the solid content on anaerobic digestion of meat and bone meal.

    Wu, Guangxue; Healy, Mark Gerard; Zhan, Xinmin


    The effect of the solid content on anaerobic digestion of meat and bone meal (MBM) was investigated in batch reactors at MBM solid contents of 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%. There was no significant difference in the specific methane (CH(4)) production potential with respect to the total volatile MBM solids (TVS) applied at these solid contents, which ranged from 351 to 381 ml CH(4)/g TVS. However, the highest CH(4) yield with respect to the removed volatile MBM solids (RVS) was 482 ml CH(4)/g RVS at the MBM solid content of 5%; the CH(4) yields were 384-448 ml CH(4)/g RVS at the other MBM solid contents. The lag time of CH(4) production rose with the increase in the solid content. The longer lag time at MBM solid contents of 5% and 10% was due to inhibition caused by high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and free ammonia in the reactors, but the inhibition was reversible. The production of VFAs during the digestion varied with solid contents: at the solid content of 1%, only acetic acid was detected; at 2%, both acetic and propionic acids were detected; and at 5% and 10%, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids were detected. After 93-day digestion, the volatile MBM solid reduction was 92%, 91%, 79% and 80% at MBM solid contents of 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively.

  12. Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross.

    Sun, Y D; Liang, Y; Wu, J M; Li, Y Z; Cui, X; Qin, L


    Fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content are important factors determining fruit quality of tomatoes; however, the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lycopene and soluble solid content have not been well studied. We mapped the chromosomal regions controlling these traits in different periods in F(2:3) families derived from a cross between the domestic and wild tomato species Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Fifteen QTLs for lycopene and soluble solid content and other related traits analyzed at three different fruit ripening stages were detected with a composite interval mapping method. These QTLs explained 7-33% of the individual phenotypic variation. QTLs detected in the color-changing period were different from those detected in the other two periods. On chromosome 1, the soluble solid content QTL was located in the same region during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. On chromosome 4, the same QTL for lycopene content was found during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. The QTL for lycopene content on chromosome 4 co-located with the QTL for soluble solid content during the full-ripe period. Co-location of lycopene content QTL and soluble solid content QTLs may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or a cluster of genes via physiological relationships among traits. On chromosome 9, the same two QTLs for lycopene content at two different fruit ripening periods may reflect genes controlling lycopene content that are always expressed in tomato fruit development.

  13. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Wu Gao; Yunmin Chen; Liangtong Zhan; Xuecheng Bian


    Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) depend largely on the waste’s initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW). After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW), the following findings were obtained: (1) HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC) than LKWC MSW, but the field ca-pacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2) the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3) compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG) generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4) the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5) the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  14. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Wu Gao


    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  15. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.


    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  16. Heavy-metal contents in suspended solids of Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake and its environmental significances

    ZHU Guang-wei; CHI Qiao-qiao; QIN Bo-qiang; WANG Wen-min


    Surface water was taken from river mouth to the central area of Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large shallow eutrophic lake in China. Suspended solids were condensed by centrifugation 25 L surface water samples from each selected site. Suspended solids and surface sediments were further freeze-dried and microwave digested before determining the metals by ICP-AES. Among the metals analyzed in suspended solids and sediments, contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in suspended solids were significantly higher than those in sediments while contents of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Pb, and V in suspended solids were 10%-30% higher than those in sediments. Sr and Ti contents in suspended solids and sediments were very similar. Na content in suspended solids was lower than that in sediments. Heavy metals were significantly accumulated in suspended solids. From the river mouth to the center of Meiliang Bay,contents of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in suspended solids showed a gradual decreasing trend indicating the river(Zhihugang River) still discharged large quantity of heavy metalsto Meiliang Bay. The study suggests that the geochemical behaviors and ecological effects of heavy metals in suspended solids may serve as a good indicator for the pollution of lake.

  17. Nondestructive Estimation of Moisture Content, pH and Soluble Solid Contents in Intact Tomatoes Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Anisur Rahman; Lalit Mohan Kandpal; Santosh Lohumi; Kim, Moon S.; Hoonsoo Lee; Changyeun Mo; Byoung-Kwan Cho


    The objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to evaluate chemical components such as moisture content (MC), pH, and soluble solid content (SSC) in intact tomatoes by using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 1000–1550 nm. The mean spectra of the 95 matured tomato samples were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and multivariate calibration models were built by using partial least squares (PLS) regression with different preprocessing spectra. The results showed tha...

  18. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary


    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of sludge differing in inorganic solids content: performance comparison and the effect of inorganic suspended solids content on degradation.

    Duan, Nina; Dai, Xiaohu; Dong, Bin; Dai, Lingling


    High inorganic suspended solids (ISS) content of sludge in many areas (especially with combined sewage systems) results in low VS/TS (volatile solids, VS; total solids, TS) levels and raises concerns about its effect on anaerobic digestion. The performances of sludge anaerobic digestion with different feeding VS/TS levels as well as the effect of ISS content on the anaerobic degradation process were investigated in completely stirred tank reactors by semi-continuous and batch experiments. In semi-continuous experiment with sludge at VS/TS of 61.4%, 45.0, 30.0% and 15.0%, biogas yield, VS reduction and methane content decreased logarithmically with the feeding VS/TS decreasing; slightly higher volatile fatty acid concentration was observed at VS/TS 15%. Results of the batch experiments suggested that acetogenesis and methanogenesis are obviously affected by high ISS addition, while hydrolysis is less affected. The retardment of substrate conversion rate is probably attributed to decreased mass transfer efficiency at high ISS content.

  20. Effect of solid content variations on PZT slip for tape casting

    Gang Jian


    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT particles with pure tetragonal structure were synthesized by solid-state reaction method and used for preparation of slurries with different solid contents (34–80 wt.%. Then, PZT thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. It was shown that the slurry prepared from ball-milled particles exhibited better rheology properties than slurry from particles which were not ball-milled. Measurement of sedimentation volumes and zeta potentials indicated particle aggregation, resulting in weak stability of the slurries with high solid contents. The microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT sintered films were investigated in terms of solid contents. Ceramic films prepared from the slurry with solid contents of 73 wt.% had the optimal structure and properties. After poling at 200 °C with an applied field of 1.2 kV/cm, a d33 of 294 pC/N was achieved; typical ferroelectric properties were also observed with a Ps of 38 μC/cm2.

  1. [Characteristics of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of high-solids-content waste].

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xi-hui


    Based on the experiments of digestion of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge in both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) with 20, 10, 7.5, 5d hydraulic retention time (HRT), operating characteristics of ASBR for treatment of high-solids-content waste were investigated. ASBR can efficiently accumulates suspended solids and keep high concentration solids, however there exists a "critical point" of ASBR, which means the maximum capability to accumulate suspended solids without negative effects on ASBR stability, and beyond which the performance deteriorates. Under steady condition, ASBR can sustains high solid retention time (SRT) and mean cell retention time (MCRT), the SRT and MCRT is 2.53 approximately 3.73 and 2.03 approximately 3.14 times of hydraulic retention time (HRT) when treating thermo-hydrolyzed sludge, respectively. Therefore, compared to traditional continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR), the efficiency of ASBR enhances about 7.13% approximately 34.68%.

  2. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  3. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu


    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  4. Acid-Base Interactions of Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid in Amorphous Solid Dispersions Using a Combined UV/FTIR/XPS/ssNMR Study.

    Song, Yang; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Chen, Xin; Nie, Haichen; Su, Ziyang; Fang, Ke; Yang, Xinghao; Smith, Daniel; Byrn, Stephen; Lubach, Joseph W


    This study investigates the potential drug-excipient interactions of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) and two weakly basic anticancer drugs, lapatinib (LB) and gefitinib (GB), in amorphous solid dispersions. Based on the strong acidity of the sulfonic acid functional group, PSSA was hypothesized to exhibit specific intermolecular acid-base interactions with both model basic drugs. Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy identified red shifts, which correlated well with the color change observed in lapatinib-PSSA solutions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra suggest the protonation of the quinazoline nitrogen atom in both model compounds, which agrees well with data from the crystalline ditosylate salt of lapatinib. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) detected increases in binding energy of the basic nitrogen atoms in both lapatinib and gefitinib, strongly indicating protonation of these nitrogen atoms. (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy provided direct spectroscopic evidence for protonation of the quinazoline nitrogen atoms in both LB and GB, as well as the secondary amine nitrogen atom in LB and the tertiary amine nitrogen atom in GB. The observed chemical shifts in the LB-PSSA (15)N spectrum also agree very well with the lapatinib ditosylate salt where proton transfer is known. Additionally, the dissolution and physical stability behaviors of both amorphous solid dispersions were examined. PSSA was found to significantly improve the dissolution of LB and GB and effectively inhibit the crystallization of LB and GB under accelerated storage conditions due to the beneficial strong intermolecular acid-base interaction between the sulfonic acid groups and basic nitrogen centers.


    Miloš Matúš


    Full Text Available The moisture content of densified biomass is a limit parameter influencing the quality of the solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as the production process of this biofuel. The paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of moisture content of densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs. Experiments based on the single-axis densification of spruce sawdust were realized by hydraulic piston press, where the densified logs were produced under room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the quality properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, were studied. The results show the necessary moisture ranges for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel.

  6. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  7. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen;


    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6...

  8. Model for on-line moisture-content control during solid-state fermentation

    Nagel, F.J.J.I.; Tramper, J.; Bakker, M.S.N.; Rinzema, A.


    In this study we describe a model that estimates the extracellular (nonfungal) and overall water contents of wheat grains during solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae, using on-line measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase. The model uses elemental ba

  9. Adhesive performance of washed cottonseed meal at high solid contents and low temperatures

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising biobased wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WSCM in a pilot scale for promoting its industrial application. In this work, we tested the adhesive strength and viscosity of the adhesive preparation with high solid contents (up to 30%...

  10. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  11. Effect of Oxidizing Medium on Synthesis Gas Content at Solid Fuel Gasification

    Korotkikh Alexander


    Full Text Available Solid fuel gasification is promising technology in sphere of clean energy. The synthesis gas content for air-blown fixed bed gasification may be defined using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The minimization procedure was realized via steepest descent method. The feed consisted of steam, air and coal at standard conditions. The temperature and gas content were calculated at different ratios of coal/steam/air. It was found that optimal syngas content resulted at component ratio of 1.0/0.5/2.2 with the ambient temperature of 1300 K and syngas heating power of 7.7 kJ/m3.

  12. Influence of municipal solid waste compost application on heavy metal content in soil.

    Yuksel, Orhan


    Municipal solid waste composts (MSWC) are widely used over agricultural lands as organic soil amendment and fertilizer. However, MSWC use may result in various adverse impacts over agricultural lands. Especially, heavy metal contents of MSWC should always be taken into consideration while using in agricultural practices. The present study was conducted to find out heavy metal contents of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and to investigate their effects on soils. Experiments were carried out in three replications as field experiments for 2 years. Dry-based MSWC was applied to each plot at the ratios of 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 t ha(-1). Results revealed that heavy metal content of MSWC was within the allowable legal limits. Compost treatments significantly increased Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Pb content of soils (p compost doses. Although compost treatments significantly increased soil heavy metal contents, the final contents were still within the allowable legal limits. Results showed that MSWC doses over 10 t ha(-1) may create a heavy metal risk in long term for soils with pH ≥ 7. Therefore, in MSWC use over agricultural lands, heavy metal contents should always be taken into consideration and excessive uses should be avoided.

  13. [Effect of moisture content on anaerobic methanization of municipal solid waste].

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Bouchez, Théodore


    Biogas production, gas and liquid characteristics were investigated for comparing the effect of moisture content on methanization process of MSW with different compositions of food waste and cellulosic waste. Batch reactors were used to study the anaerobic methanization of typical Chinese and French municipal solid waste (MSW) and cellulosic waste with different moisture content, as 35%, field capacity (65%-70%), 80%, and saturated state (> 95%). The results showed that for the typical Chinese and French waste, which contained putrescible waste, the intermediate product, VFA, was diluted by high content of water, which helped to release the VFA inhibition on hydrolysis and methanization. Mass amount of methane was produced only when the moisture content of typical French waste was higher than 80%, while higher content of moisture was needed when the content of putrescible waste was higher in MSW, as > 95% for typical Chinese waste. Meanwhile the methane production rate and the ultimate cumulated methane production were increased when moisture content was leveled up. The ultimate cumulated methane production of the typical French waste with saturated state was 0.6 times higher than that of the waste with moisture content of 80%. For cellulosic waste, high moisture content of cellulosic materials contributed to increase the attachment area of microbes and enzyme on the surface of the materials, which enhance the waste hydrolysis and methanization. When the moisture content of the cellulosic materials increased from field capacity (65%) to saturated state (> 95%), the ultimate cumulated methane production increased for 3.8 times.

  14. Speckle tracking and speckle content based composite strain imaging for solid and fluid filled lesions.

    Rabbi, Md Shifat-E; Hasan, Md Kamrul


    Strain imaging though for solid lesions provides an effective way for determining their pathologic condition by displaying the tissue stiffness contrast, for fluid filled lesions such an imaging is yet an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel speckle content based strain imaging technique for visualization and classification of fluid filled lesions in elastography after automatic identification of the presence of fluid filled lesions. Speckle content based strain, defined as a function of speckle density based on the relationship between strain and speckle density, gives an indirect strain value for fluid filled lesions. To measure the speckle density of the fluid filled lesions, two new criteria based on oscillation count of the windowed radio frequency signal and local variance of the normalized B-mode image are used. An improved speckle tracking technique is also proposed for strain imaging of the solid lesions and background. A wavelet-based integration technique is then proposed for combining the strain images from these two techniques for visualizing both the solid and fluid filled lesions from a common framework. The final output of our algorithm is a high quality composite strain image which can effectively visualize both solid and fluid filled breast lesions in addition to the speckle content of the fluid filled lesions for their discrimination. The performance of our algorithm is evaluated using the in vivo patient data and compared with recently reported techniques. The results show that both the solid and fluid filled lesions can be better visualized using our technique and the fluid filled lesions can be classified with good accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  16. DSCu/SS joining techniques development and testing

    Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment


    Joining techniques of alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) and type 316L stainless steel (SS) has been investigated aiming at applying to the fabrication of the ITER first wall/blanket. As the joining method, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of solid plates and/or blocks has been pursued. By a screening test including HIP temperatures of 980-1050degC, it was concluded that the HIP temperature of 1050degC would be optimum for the simultaneous HIPping of DSCu/DSCu, DSCu/SS and SS/SS. With DSCu/SS joint specimens HIPped at 1050degC, tensile, impact, fatigue, crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were performed as well as mechanical test of structural model with one SS circular tube embedded. Typically, the properties of the joints were almost the same as those of DSCu or SS base metal with the same heat treatment of the HIP process, thus good joints were obtained, though parts of properties were decreased at elevated test temperature. Typical results of the mechanical test of structural mode indicated that a crack initiated at the inner surface of the SS tube under cyclic operation, and the lifetime of the first wall structure could be evaluated by existing SS fatigue data. Two HIPped first wall panel mock-ups were successfully fabricated with built-in coolant tubes: one was 300 mm long and the other 800 mm long. The former was thermo-mechanically tested with high heat fluxes corresponding to the ITER operation conditions. The mock-up showed good heat removal performance during the high heat flux tests. In addition, there were no cracks and delaminations found at HIPped interfaces by microscopic observation after all tests. Ultrasonic testing have been tried as a non-destructive examination method, and detectable defect size at SS/SS, DSCu/DSCu and DSCu/SS joint interfaces were estimated. (author)

  17. [Determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry].

    Yao, Jian-Zhen; Hao, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Rui-Ling; Li, Xiao-Jing; Li, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Qin


    A method for the determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry was presented. The dedicated high content tin spectrum standard series was developed. K2S2O7, NaF, Al2O3 and carbon powder were used as buffers and Ge was used as internal standard, and the ratio of sample/matrix/buffer is 1 : 1 : 2. A weak sensitive line (Sn 242. 170 0 nm) was used as the analytical line. The technologies of vertical electrodes, AC arc overlap spectrograph, interception of the exposure, quantitative computer translation spectrum and background correction were used. The determination range is 100-22 350 microg x g(-1), the detection limit is 16.64 microg x g(-1), and the precision is (RSD, n = 12) 4.11%-6.46%. The accuracy of the method has been verified by determination of high content of tin in national geochemical standard samples and the results are in agreement with certified value. The method can be used for measurement directly without dilution of high content of tin in geochemical samples, and it greatly improved the detection upper limit for the determination of tin with solid emission spectroscopy and has certain practical value.

  18. Quantification of the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber cultured on solid surfaces.

    Chysirichote, Teerin; Reiji, Takahashi; Asami, Kazuhiro; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa


    We evaluated whether the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber NBRC 32318, cultured on a solid surface (agar) containing different carbon and nitrogen sources, could be used as a measure of biomass. The relationship between the amounts of glucosamine and biomass was independent of the cultivation period, but was dependent on the carbon source (D-glucose, D-fructose, maltose, sucrose, or rice starch) and the nitrogen source (ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, or yeast extract) in the agar; it was also dependent on the culture method (solid-surface culture or submerged culture). We concluded that the amount of glucosamine extracted from M. ruber is a useful index for the fungal biomass when the relationship between M. ruber biomass and glucosamine content has previously been calibrated for the carbon and nitrogen sources used. Examination of microphotographs of M. ruber hyphae in conjunction with quantification of the glucosamine and biomass contents indicated that the variation in the glucosamine content per unit biomass affects the hyphal morphology of the fungus, and especially the hyphal diameter.

  19. SS Cygni Revisited

    R. C. Smith


    Full Text Available New spectroscopic and photometric observations of SS Cygni, the brightest dwarf nova system, have been obtained, with the aim of mapping starspots on the surface of the secondary star. Four nights of echelle spectroscopy in quiescence have been obtained using the 2.2-m telescope at San Pedro Martir (Mexico in August 2012 and another two nights at the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory, USA, in September 2012, but these data are still being reduced. Simultaneous CCD photometry was also obtained at the two sites, and the Mexican photometry was extended into the subsequent long outburst. This presentation reveals some interesting photometric behaviour in that outburst, but further data will be necessary before the nature of the behaviour can be determined.

  20. Nondestructive Estimation of Moisture Content, pH and Soluble Solid Contents in Intact Tomatoes Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Anisur Rahman


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to evaluate chemical components such as moisture content (MC, pH, and soluble solid content (SSC in intact tomatoes by using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 1000–1550 nm. The mean spectra of the 95 matured tomato samples were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and multivariate calibration models were built by using partial least squares (PLS regression with different preprocessing spectra. The results showed that the regression model developed by PLS regression based on Savitzky–Golay (S–G first-derivative preprocessed spectra resulted in better performance for MC, pH, and the smoothing preprocessed spectra-based model resulted in better performance for SSC in intact tomatoes compared to models developed by other preprocessing methods, with correlation coefficients (rpred of 0.81, 0.69, and 0.74 with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.63%, 0.06, and 0.33% Brix respectively. The full wavelengths were used to create chemical images by applying regression coefficients resulting from the best PLS regression model. These results obtained from this study clearly revealed that hyperspectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for the nondestructive prediction of chemical components in intact tomatoes.

  1. A degradation model for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste.

    Chen, Yunmin; Guo, Ruyang; Li, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hailong; Zhan, Tony Liangtong


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has a high content of kitchen waste (KW), and therefore contains large quantities of water and non-hollocellulose degradable organics. The degradation of high KW content MSW cannot be well simulated by the existing degradation models, which are mostly established for low KW content MSW in developed countries. This paper presents a two-stage anaerobic degradation model for high KW content MSW with degradations of hollocellulose, sugars, proteins and lipids considered. The ranges of the proportions of chemical compounds in MSW components are summarized with the recommended values given. Waste components are grouped into rapidly or slowly degradable categories in terms of the degradation rates under optimal water conditions for degradation. In the proposed model, the unionized VFA inhibitions of hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis are considered as well as the pH inhibition of methanogenesis. Both modest and serious VFA inhibitions can be modeled by the proposed model. Default values for the parameters in the proposed method can be used for predictions of degradations of both low and high KW content MSW. The proposed model was verified by simulating two laboratory experiments, in which low and high KW content MSW were used, respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured data of the experiments. The results show that under low VFA concentrations, the pH inhibition of methanogenesis is the main inhibition to be considered, while the inhibitions of both hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis caused by unionized VFA are significant under high VFA concentrations. The model is also used to compare the degradation behaviors of low and high KW content MSW under a favorable environmental condition, and it shows that the gas potential of high KW content MSW releases more quickly.


    Fei Yang; Chuanshan Zhao


    Surface sizing can improve the surface performances of paper. In this article we used surfacing sizing and ultra fine talcum powder to improve the quality of base paper. The results showed that the optimal formulation is: sodium hexametaphosphate 0.4 parts,PC-01 25 parts and 100 parts ultra fine talcum powder. The solids content of coating is 18%. Surface sizing and low solids coating can improve brightness,opacity, IGT Pick resistance, and breaking length which were improved by 3.4%, 6.5%, 2.07m/sec and 700m separately than uncoated paper respectively. K and N ink absorption value was reduced from 62.1 to 34.6. The method can be used to produce base paper for art paper and ultra low weight coated paper (ULWC). It can reduce the cost of art paper.

  3. Fast characterization of solid organic waste content with near infrared spectroscopy in anaerobic digestion.

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Jimenez, Julie; Lemoine, Margaux; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe


    The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand. We built a Partial Least Square regression model with 295 samples and validated it with an independent set of 46 samples across a wide range of solid wastes found in anaerobic digestion units. The standard errors of cross-validation were 90mgO2⋅gTS(-1) carbohydrates, 2.5∗10(-2)g⋅gTS(-1) lipids, 7.2∗10(-3)g⋅gTS(-1) nitrogen and 99mgO2⋅gTS(-1) chemical oxygen demand. The standard errors of prediction were 53mgO2⋅gTS(-1) carbohydrates, 3.2∗10(-2)g⋅gTS(-1) lipids, 8.6∗10(-3)g⋅gTS(-1) nitrogen and 83mgO2⋅gTS(-1) chemical oxygen demand. These results show that near infrared spectroscopy is a new fast and cost-efficient way to characterize solid wastes content and improve their anaerobic digestion monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid-liquid reactions: The effect of Cu content on Sn-Ag-Cu interconnects

    Lu, Henry Y.; Balkan, Haluk; Simon, K. Y.


    The impact of copper content on the Sn-Ag-y%Cu (Ag=constant=3.5; y=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0) interconnects was investigated in this study. The copper content and solid-liquid (S-L) reactions were used as inputs, and the outputs were the interfacial microstructure evolution and joint macro-performance. Surface microetching microscopy, cross-section microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, shear test, and differential scanning calorimetry were used in the studies. It was discovered that as-soldered Sn-Ag-y%Cu interconnects could have different interfacial microstructures depending on copper content; no Ag3Sn plates were observed for any alloy groups. After the S-L reactions, Ag3Sn plates occurred for all groups. The magnitude of the Ag3Sn plate growth depended on copper content. This and other effects of copper content on Sn-Ag-Cu interconnects are discussed in this article.

  5. Cultivation Methods for Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with High Soluble Solids Content Using the Vertically Split Root System

    HAYASHI, Hiroyuki; TOYOFUKU, Kyoko; TAGUCHI, Takiko; OGAWA, Atsushi


    For the cultivation of tomatoes with high soluble solids content, the root system was split vertically and irrigation to the upper part of the root system was stopped to create split vertically (SR treatment...

  6. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    Mohd Zubir MatJafri


    Full Text Available This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2 = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  7. The Solid Phase Curing Time Effect of Asbuton with Texapon Emulsifier at the Optimum Bitumen Content

    Sarwono, D.; Surya D, R.; Setyawan, A.; Djumari


    Buton asphalt (asbuton) could not be utilized optimally in Indonesia. Asbuton utilization rate was still low because the processed product of asbuton still have impracticable form in the term of use and also requiring high processing costs. This research aimed to obtain asphalt products from asbuton practical for be used through the extraction process and not requiring expensive processing cost. This research was done with experimental method in laboratory. The composition of emulsify asbuton were 5/20 grain, premium, texapon, HCl, and aquades. Solid phase was the mixture asbuton 5/20 grain and premium with 3 minutes mixing time. Liquid phase consisted texapon, HCl and aquades. The aging process was done after solid phase mixing process in order to reaction and tie of solid phase mixed become more optimal for high solubility level of asphalt production. Aging variable time were 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes. Solid and liquid phase was mixed for emulsify asbuton production, then extracted for 25 minutes. Solubility level of asphalt, water level, and asphalt characteristic was tested at extraction result of emulsify asbuton with most optimum ashphal level. The result of analysis tested data asphalt solubility level at extract asbuton resulted 94.77% on 120 minutes aging variable time. Water level test resulted water content reduction on emulsify asbuton more long time on occurring of aging solid phase. Examination of asphalt characteristic at extraction result of emulsify asbuton with optimum asphalt solubility level, obtain specimen that have rigid and strong texture in order that examination result have not sufficient ductility and penetration value.

  8. Ultraviolet-visible transmittance techniques for rapid analysis of sugar content and soluble solids content of fresh navel orange juices

    Liu, Yande; Ouyang, Aiguo; Luo, Ji; Ying, Yibin


    Sugar content (SC) and soluble solids content (SSC) are very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-invasively by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The feasibility and methods of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques for rapid quantifying SC and SSC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by its spectral transmittance. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared in our work. Three different kinds of mathematical spectra treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 200-800 nm and two kinds of reference standards were also investigated. Three kinds of models including partial least square regression (PLSR), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC and SSC in navel orange juice. Calibration models based on the different spectral ranges were also compared. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of prediction set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC and SSC were 0.965 and 0.961, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC and SSC were 0.857 and 0.888, and the corresponding RMSEP were 0.562 and 0.492 respectively. The results show that ultraviolet-visible transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-invasive estimation of fruit juice SC and SSC.

  9. Sample Preparation (SS): SE55_SS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Full Text Available 80℃ until analysis. The frozen tissues were homogenized in five volumes of 80% aqueous methanol containing 0...SE55_SS01 Metabolic profiling Collected sample tissues were weighed and stored at -

  10. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar


    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  11. [Application of solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry to mensuration of brain iron content in rats].

    Zhang, Nan; Sheng, Qing-hai; Shi, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Zhi-guo; Duan, Xiang-lin; Chang, Yan-zhong


    In the present study, the authors performed the solid sampling and detected the iron levels in cortex, hippocampus and striatum of rat brain by GFAAS. The authors' results showed that there are no remarkable difference between the data obtained by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption and liquid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption. Compared to liquid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption, the sample pre-treatment stage was obviously simplified, the cost was reduced significantly, and the time was shortened significantly in the solid sampling GFAAS. This study will be beneficial to the mensuration of iron content in micro-tissue of animal by solid sampling GFASS.

  12. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content].

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e


    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique.




    Full Text Available The process of protein enrichment of cactus pear (Nopalea cochenillifera (L. Salm Dyck by solid state fermentation with the use of Aspergillus niger and Rhyzopus sp. was studied for improving the nutritional value of this cactus species for use as animal feed. The experiments were conducted in the Agroindustrial Waste Laboratory of State University of Southwest Bahia (Brazil. To this end, we have evaluated the effects of biotransformation on the levels of protein, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as the potential degradability. Bioconversion was carried out using cactus pear as the only substrate, without supplementation with nitrogen, mineral and vitamin sources. The fermentation with Aspergillus niger promoted a 78% increase in/of protein content and reductions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of 40%, 36%, and 28%, respectively. Degradability, in turn, was observed to have increased by 66 % after 240 h. On the other hand, the fermentation with Rhyzopus sp. was less efficient, with a 69% increase in protein content, and reductions in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of 30%, 28%, and 18%. In turn, degradability was seen to have increased by 51%. The fermentation of cactus pear by Aspergillus niger and Rhyzopus sp. exhibited the protein enrichment and increased protein degradability of this Cactaceae. Moreover, this is the most ever efficient micro-organism used in bioconversion. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative to ruminant feeding in arid or semi-arid land.

  14. High solids content, soap-free, film-forming latexes stabilized by laponite clay platelets.

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Guimarães, Thiago Rodrigues; Pereira, Ana Maria Cenacchi; Alves, Gizelda Maria; Moreira, José Carlos; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dos Santos, Amilton Martins


    High solids content film-forming poly[styrene-co-(n-butyl acrylate)] [poly(Sty-co-BuA)] latexes armored with Laponite clay platelets have been synthesized by soap-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene and n-butyl acrylate. The polymerizations were performed in batch in the presence of Laponite and a methyl ether acrylate-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomer in order to promote polymer/clay association. The overall polymerization kinetics showed a pronounced effect of clay on nucleation and stabilization of the latex particles. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy observation confirmed the armored morphology and indicated that the majority of Laponite platelets were located at the particle surface. The resulting nanostructured films displayed enhanced mechanical properties.

  15. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of {sup 60}Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  16. Modular Coils with Low Hydrogen Content Especially for MRI of Dry Solids.

    Timon Eichhorn

    Full Text Available Recent advances have enabled fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of solid materials. This development has opened up new applications for MRI, but, at the same time, uncovered new challenges. Previously, MRI-invisible materials like the housing of MRI detection coils are now readily depicted and either cause artifacts or lead to a decreased image resolution. In this contribution, we present versatile, multi-nuclear single and dual-tune MRI coils that stand out by (1 a low hydrogen content for high-resolution MRI of dry solids without artifacts; (2 a modular approach with exchangeable inductors of variable volumes to optimally enclose the given object; (3 low cost and low manufacturing effort that is associated with the modular approach; (4 accurate sample placement in the coil outside of the bore, and (5 a wide, single- or dual-tune frequency range that covers several nuclei and enables multinuclear MRI without moving the sample.The inductors of the coils were constructed from self-supporting copper sheets to avoid all plastic materials within or around the resonator. The components that were mounted at a distance from the inductor, including the circuit board, coaxial cable and holder were manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene.Residual hydrogen signal was sufficiently well suppressed to allow 1H-MRI of dry solids with a minimum field of view that was smaller than the sensitive volume of the coil. The SNR was found to be comparable but somewhat lower with respect to commercial, proton-rich quadrature coils, and higher with respect to a linearly-polarized commercial coil. The potential of the setup presented was exemplified by 1H/23Na high-resolution zero echo time (ZTE MRI of a model solution and a dried human molar at 9.4 T. A full 3D image dataset of the tooth was obtained, rich in contrast and similar to the resolution of standard cone-beam computed tomography.

  17. Combined liquid and solid-phase extraction improves quantification of brain estrogen content

    Andrew eChao


    Full Text Available Accuracy in quantifying brain-derived steroid hormones (‘neurosteroids’ has become increasingly important for understanding the modulation of neuronal activity, development, and physiology. Relative to other neuroactive compounds and classical neurotransmitters, steroids pose particular challenges with regard to isolation and analysis, owing to their lipid solubility. Consequently, anatomical studies of the distribution of neurosteroids have relied primarily on the expression of neurosteroid synthesis enzymes. To evaluate the distribution of synthesis enzymes vis-à-vis the actual steroids themselves, traditional steroid quantification assays, including radioimmunoassays (RIA, have successfully employed liquid extraction methods (e.g., ether, dichloromethane or methanol to isolate steroids from microdissected brain tissue. Due to their sensitivity, safety and reliability, the use of commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA for laboratory quantification of steroids in plasma and brain has become increasingly widespread. However, EIAs rely on enzymatic reactions in vitro, making them sensitive to interfering substances in brain tissue and thus producing unreliable results. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol for combined, two-stage liquid/solid phase extraction as compared to conventional liquid extraction alone for the isolation of estradiol (E2 from brain tissue. We employ the songbird model system, in which brain steroid production is pronounced and linked to neural mechanisms of learning and plasticity. This study outlines a combined liquid-solid phase extraction protocol that improves the performance of a commercial EIA for the quantification of brain E2 content. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our optimized method for evaluating the region specificity of brain E2 content, compare these results to established anatomy of the estrogen synthesis enzyme and estrogen receptor, and discuss the nature of potential EIA interfering

  18. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit


    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  19. Effect of magnesium content on the semi solid cast microstructure of hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys

    Hekmat-Ardakan, Alireza


    A comprehensive study of microstructural evolution of A390 hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy (Al-17%Si-4.5%Cu-0.5%Mg) with addition of Mg contents up to 10% was carried out during semi solid metal processing as well as conventional casting. As a first step, the FACTSAGE thermodynamic databank and software was applied in order to investigate the phase diagram, the solidification behavior as well as the identification of the components that are formed during the solidification of A390 alloy with different Mg contents for equilibrium and non-equilibrium (Schiel) conditions. With higher Mg content between 4.2 - 7.2 %, the Mg2Si intermetallic phase is solidified in the eutectic network according to the ternary reaction together the primary silicon due to the binary reaction of Liq → Si + Mg2Si. However the primary silicon is still the first solidified phase in this critical Mg zone. For Mg contents greater than 7.2%, the Mg2Si solidifies first as a primary phase. In fact, the Mg2Si is solidified during the primary, the binary and the ternary reactions and can be observed in the microstructure as a eutectic phase and a pro-eutectic phase with different morphology. In the next stage, the experimental tests were carried out in order to verify the accuracy of the results obtained by the FACTSAGE software. The microstructures of the A390 and the 6 and 10 wt% Mg alloys were investigated using conventional casting and rheocasting (stir casting) processes with continuous cooling solidification. The results showed that, for both processes, the microstructure of the eutectic network for high Mg alloys, specifically the eutectic Si phase is modified compared to the eutectic Si in the microstructure of A390 alloy. However the alloys with 6% and 10% Mg have a similar eutectic morphology. The eutectic formation temperature was measured by placing the thermocouple into the melt for determination of the cooling curves. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) test were also carried

  20. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency

    Simões, Ilka S.


    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isoconsistency diagrams. The incompatibility among the oils was decreased after reaction and improved the composition plasticity, demonstrated by the increment of solids value and yield value at room temperature.Se interesterificaron, en el laboratorio, mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO: 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 en condiciones predefinidas (0.4% metóxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100oC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por su contenido de grasa sólida (SFC y su consistencia. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de un sistema eutéctico en las mezclas de PO y PKO, principalmente en las proporciones 80/20, 60/40 y 50/50, demostrado por los diagramas de isosólidos y de isoconsistencia. La incompatibilidad entre los aceites disminuyó después de la interesterificación y la plasticidad de las mezclas mejoró, hecho demostrado por el incremento del contenido de sólidos y del límite de fluidez a temperatura ambiente.

  1. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Sri Hartati


    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  2. Sample Preparation (SS): SE59_SS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Full Text Available SE59_SS01 Drought stress Three-week-old plants vertically grown on GM plates were i...ncubated in 24-well plates (TPP, Each plant was put in a well with 3 ml water. Three

  3. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel


    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solid content in strawberry by near infrared spectroscopy

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiu; Peng, Yankun

    This paper indicates the feasibility to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithms as a rapid nondestructive method to estimate the soluble solid content (SSC) in strawberry. Spectral preprocessing methods were optimized selected by cross-validation in the model calibration. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression model. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated according to root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (R2 c) in calibration set, and tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R2 p) in prediction set. The optimal siPLS model was obtained with after first derivation spectra preprocessing. The measurement results of best model were achieved as follow: RMSEC = 0.2259, R2 c = 0.9590 in the calibration set; and RMSEP = 0.2892, R2 p = 0.9390 in the prediction set. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and siPLS with efficient spectral preprocessing is a useful tool for nondestructively evaluation SSC in strawberry.

  5. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay


    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  6. Polonium content in sediments and other solid tailings generated by mining industry

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Central Mining Institute, 40-166 Katowice, Pl. Gwarkow 1 (Poland)


    All legal limits or recommendations concerning NORM include only primordial radionuclides and secular equilibrium state among all decay products is assumed. This is not valid for a majority of residues from NORM industry where activity concentration of progenies can substantially differ each other. Upper Silesia Coal Basin is a unique region where mining activity is continuously done over longer period of time and this include discharging of radium-bearing water to environment and creating huge amount of solid wastes where at the beginning radium is the most dominant radionuclide. With time other daughter products start to build up and actual exposure to radiation is changing. One of them is polonium that with regard to its chemical properties can be easily accumulated in non-human biota resulting in the increase of radiation exposure. In our work we focused attention on sediments where content of {sup 210}Po was determined by chemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry. Chemical preparation involves organic matter destruction and dissolution of the sample itself (if possible). In our research we employed wet digestion by means of mixture of concentrated acids: HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, HCl. Later on polonium was spontaneously deposited onto silver disc and measured with use of alpha spectrometry. In this article we want to show results of our study and as well to present some conclusions concerning changes in radiation risk assessment when actual concentration of polonium is taken into consideration. (authors)

  7. Nonionic Polymerizable Emulsifier in High-Solids-Content Acrylate Emulsion Polymerization

    LU Deping; HUANG Hongzhi; SHEN Ling; XIE Jin; GUAN Rong


    Stable high-solids-content acrylate emulsion were obtained with a nonionic polymerizable emulsifier allyloxy nonylphenoxy poly (ethyleneoxy) (10) ether (ANPEO10),and a conventional emulsifier OP-10 as a reference sample.1H NMR proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 has been incorporated into the resulted acrylate polymers.TEM demonstrates that there are some differences in the particle morphologies.AFM proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 migrating to the surface of the emulsion film was much less than the conventional emulsifier OP-10.The polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 can enhance the adhesion with glass plate compared to the conventional emulsifier.Furthermore,with increasing amount of emulsifier,the surface free energy of the films first decreased and then increased,and the adhesion with glass plate is initially enhanced and then attenuated.The water-resistance and solvent-resistance of the films prepared by the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 are superior to those prepared by the conventional emulsifier OP-10.


    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等


    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  9. Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Xia-ping FU; Jian-ping LI; Ying ZHOU; Yi-bin YING; Li-juan XIE; Xiao-ying NIU; Zhan-ke YAN; Hai-yan YU


    The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation,fast response,and non-destructiveness.We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats.Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun'an,Zhejiang,China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm.A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study.Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of ioquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method.Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives,multiple scatter correction (MSC),and the standard normal variate (SNV).Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800-2500 nm),short NIR (800~1100 nm),and long NIR (1100~2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options.The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats,with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21,1.00,0.965,and 1.16 °Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao,Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong,Chun'an-Dahongpao,and Chun'an-Jiajiaozhong,respectively.The acidity prediction was not satisfactory,with the RMSEP of 0.382,0.194,0.388,and 0.361 for the above four loquats,respectively.The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit.

  10. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan


    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  11. Improved solid fuels from co-pyrolysis of a high-sulphur content coal and different lignocellulosic wastes

    T. Cordero; J. Rodriguez-Mirasol; J. Pastrana; J.J. Rodriguez [ETSII, University of Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering


    Co-pyrolysis of blends of a high-sulphur coal with different biomass wastes has been investigated as a way to obtain improved solid fuels. Experiments have been performed in a thermogravimetric laboratory system and in a pilot-scale mobile bed furnace, this last operating at 600{sup o}C. The presence of biomass enhances coal desulphurization upon thermal treatment in significant relative amounts, giving rise about as much as twice percent sulphur loss at high biomass-to-coal ratios in the starting blend in comparison with the S loss occurring upon pyrolysis of coal alone. Combustion experiments with chars resulting from co-pyrolysis of these coal-biomass blends confirm this significantly improved desulphurization. Thus, co-pyrolysis of blends of high-sulphur coals with biomass wastes provides a potential way to obtain improved solid fuels combining good heating values with environmentally acceptable S contents. The chars resulting from co-pyrolysis show heating values within the range of high-quality solid fuels whereas the ash contents remain in the vicinity of that of the starting coal except in the case of the coal-straw blend where the relatively high ash content of this biomass waste leads to co-pyrolysis chars with substantially higher ash contents and lower heating values. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Assessment of a modified and optimised method for determining chemical oxygen demand of solid substrates and solutions with high suspended solid content.

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M


    A modified approach to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of solid substrates based on the DIN 38414-S9 standard method is proposed. The adapted procedure is assessed and compared with standard methods widely used for water and wastewater such as the American Public Health Association-American Water Works Association-Water Pollution Control Federation (APHA-AWWA-WPCF) standard methods 5220 B-open reflux (SM-OR) and 5220 D-closed reflux colorimetric (SM-CR). Solutions with high suspended concentration of solids, as well as digestates from an anaerobic reactor, were used during the comparative test. For solid substrates, the COD recovery was about 100% when the proposed method was used. For solutions with solid content higher than 20 g TS L(-1), the recovery was only completed when the proposed method was used, showing that the methods traditionally employed are not very appropriate for samples with the described characteristics. For instance, percentages of COD recovery in the ranges of 77.3-87.1% and 89.4-94.1% were achieved when the SM-OR and SM-CR methods were used, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC) and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use


    Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC) by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 c...

  14. A novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquids by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Xin, Li-Ping; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Hui-Chao; Barnes, Donald G


    This work demonstrates a novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquid (polymer-enriched) samples. The method is based multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) on a headspace vial at a temperature above boiling point of water. Thus, the trend of water loss from the tested liquid due to evaporation can be followed. With the limited MHE-GC testing (e.g., 5 extractions) and a one-point calibration procedure (i.e., recording the weight difference before and after analysis), the total amount of water in the sample can be determined, from which the total solid contents in the liquid can be calculated. A number of black liquors were analyzed by the new method which yielded results that closely matched those of the reference method; i.e., the results of these two methods differed by no more than 2.3%. Compared with the reference method, the MHE-GC method is much simpler and more practical. Therefore, it is suitable for the rapid determination of the solid content in many polymer-containing liquid samples.

  15. 76 FR 17988 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-4 and SS-4PR


    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-4 and SS-4PR AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form SS-4, Application for Employer Identification Number, and Form SS- 4PR, Solicitud de Numero de Indentification Patronal (EIN). DATES:...

  16. Fluoride content in plaque solids and fluid after ingestion of fluoridated milk.

    Martínez-Mier, Esperanza A; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Buckley, Christine; Weitz, Andrea; Villa, Alberto; Zero, Domenick T


    This study explored differences in dental biofilm solids and fluid fluoride after ingestion of NaF or Na2FPO3 in milk or non-fluoridated milk. Eighteen volunteers ingested 1 mg fluoride in 200 mL of milk or 200 mL of non-fluoridated milk. Biofilm samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60, and 240 min and biofilm solids and fluid were micro-analyzed for fluoride. Analysis of variance was performed and the total delivery, retention, and clearance of fluoride to biofilm solids and fluid were estimated as the area under the curve between 0 and 240 min. No statistically significant differences were found for baseline values. Biofilm fluid fluoride values ranged from 0.11 ± 0.05 to 0.21 ± 0.08 µg F/mL while biofilm solid values ranged from 0.62 ± 0.39 to 1.75 ± 1.16 µg F/g. Biofilm fluid values were significantly lower at 60 min for Na2FPO3 in milk. Clearance profiles for biofilm fluid diverged after the initial 60 min. Na2FPO3 had a smaller area under the curve from 60 to 240 min than NaF. Results of this study indicate that the release and clearance of fluoride in biofilm vary among fluoridation compounds and that the concentrations in biofilm solids and fluid also vary and are not correlated to each other in many cases.

  17. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biogas from solid waste residues of palm oil mill industry by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Suksong, Wantanasak; Kongjan, Prawit; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Imai, Tsuyoshi; O-Thong, Sompong


    This study investigated the improvement of biogas production from solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of oil palm biomass by optimizing of total solids (TS) contents, feedstock to inoculum (F:I) ratios and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Highest methane yield from EFB, OPF and OPT of 358, 280 and 324m(3)CH4ton(-1)VS, respectively, was achieved at TS content of 16%, C:N ratio of 30:1 and F:I ratio of 2:1. The main contribution to methane from biomass was the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest methane production of 72m(3)CH4ton(-1) biomass was achieved from EFB. Bacteria community structure in SS-AD process of oil palm biomass was dominated by Ruminococcus sp. and Clostridium sp., while archaea community was dominated by Methanoculleus sp. Oil palm biomass has great potential for methane production via SS-AD.

  18. Biochar from Swine solids and digestate influence nutrient dynamics and carbon dioxide release in soil.

    Marchetti, Rosa; Castelli, Fabio


    Large amounts of livestock manure solids are expected to become available in the near future due to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents. The charring of manure solids for biochar (BC) production represents an opportunity for recycling organic matter (OM) of high nutrient value. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of BC from swine solids (SS) to improve soil fertility through nutrient supply and decomposition of the OM incorporated into soil and to verify a possible interaction effect on soil nutrient dynamics between digestate application and soil amendment with BC. We monitored at laboratory scale the soil mineral nitrogen (N) and Olsen phosphorus (P) content, and the cumulative carbon dioxide (CO-C) release in treatments with or without a supply of digestate obtained from a biogas plant. The experiment was performed in laboratory microcosms during a 3-mo incubation period. Compared treatments were soil amendments with SS, BC from SS, wood chip, BC from wood chip, and soil with no amendment, each of them with and without incorporation of digestate (10 treatments in total). Soil N levels were unaffected by BC amendments and only increased temporarily when digestate was applied to soil amended with SS or BC from SS. For the same N content, the BC from SS supplied much more P than the nontreated OM. The amount of cumulative CO-C released from soil with BC with or without digestate did not differ from that in the unamended control soil and was lower than that in the soils with noncharred amendments. Soil amendment with BC from SS does not modify soil N availability, whereas it increases the content of P available for crops and reduces the release of CO-C from digestate applied to soil for agricultural purposes.

  19. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Aljuobori Ahmed


    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  20. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e


    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  1. Two stage hydrolysis of corn stover at high solids content for mixing power saving and scale-up applications.

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie


    A two stage hydrolysis of corn stover was designed to solve the difficulties between sufficient mixing at high solids content and high power input encountered in large scale bioreactors. The process starts with the quick liquefaction to convert solid cellulose to liquid slurry with strong mixing in small reactors, then followed the comprehensive hydrolysis to complete saccharification into fermentable sugars in large reactors without agitation apparatus. 60% of the mixing energy consumption was saved by removing the mixing apparatus in large scale vessels. Scale-up ratio was small for the first step hydrolysis reactors because of the reduced reactor volume. For large saccharification reactors in the second step, the scale-up was easy because of no mixing mechanism was involved. This two stage hydrolysis is applicable for either simple hydrolysis or combined fermentation processes. The method provided a practical process option for industrial scale biorefinery processing of lignocellulose biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland.

    Horttanainen, M; Teirasvuo, N; Kapustina, V; Hupponen, M; Luoranen, M


    For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50-60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Content

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  4. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    Koirala, K.


    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  5. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Attilio Converti


    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  6. 高固含量水性聚氨酯的研究进展%Research Progress of Waterborne Polyurethane with High Solid Content

    彭绍军; 金勇; 漆锐


    The technical difficulties in the synthesis of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content were introduced based on the solid content limitation theory of latex.The progress in the synthesis of high solid content of waterborne polyurethane was reviewed.The developing direction of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content was prospected.%通过对乳液固含量极限理论的介绍,阐述了高固含量水性聚氨酯合成的技术难点,综述了高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成研究进展,并对其发展方向进行了展望.

  7. Research Progress of Waterborne Polyurethane with High Solid Content%高固含量水性聚氨酯的研究进展(续)

    彭绍军; 金勇; 漆锐


    The technical difficulties in the synthesis of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content were introduced based on the solid content limitation theory of latex.The progress in the synthesis of high solid content of waterborne polyurethane was reviewed.The developing direction of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content was prospected.%通过对乳液固含量极限理论的介绍,阐述了高固含量水性聚氨酯合成的技术难点,综述了高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成研究进展,并对其发展方向进行了展望.

  8. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad


    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  9. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure Beneath the Western Atlantic Ocean and Eastern North America from SS Precursors

    Schmerr, N. C.; Beghein, C.; Kostic, D.; Baldridge, A. M.; West, J. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Bull, A. L.; Montesi, L.; Byrne, P. K.; Hummer, D. R.; Plescia, J. B.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Lekic, V.; Schmidt, B. E.; Elkins, L. J.; Cooper, C. M.; ten Kate, I. L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Parai, R.; Glass, J. B.; Ni, J.; Fuji, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Zhao, C.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Koelemeijer, P.; Courtier, A. M.; Dalton, H.; Waszek, L.; Bahamonde, J.; Schmerr, B.; Gilpin, N.; Rosenshein, E.; Mach, K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Caracas, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.; Du Frane, W. L.; Kellogg, L. H.


    Seismic discontinuities within the mantle arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. In particular, the depth and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are attributed to solid-state phase changes sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition, where regions of thermal heterogeneity produce topography and chemical heterogeneity changes the impedance contrast across the discontinuity. Seismic mapping of this topography and sharpness thus provides constraint on the thermal and compositional state of the mantle. The EarthScope USArray is providing unprecedented access to a wide variety of new regions previously undersampled by the SS precursors. This includes the boundary between the oceanic plate in the western Atlantic Ocean and continental margin of eastern North America. Here we use a seismic array approach to image the depth, sharpness, and topography of the upper mantle discontinuities, as well as other possible upper mantle reflectors beneath this region. This array approach utilizes seismic waves that reflect off the underside of a mantle discontinuity and arrive several hundred seconds prior to the SS seismic phase as precursory energy. In this study, we collected high-quality broadband data SS precursors data from shallow focus (ocean lithosphere to underlying continental lithosphere, as while deeper reflectors are associated with the subduction of the ancient Farallon slab. A comparison of the depth of upper mantle discontinuities to changes in seismic velocity and anisotropy will further quantify the relationship to mantle flow, compositional layering, and phases changes.

  10. Sosiaalinen media kahvilaviestinnässä

    Suvisuo, Anni


    Työssä tarkastellaan sosiaalisen median merkitystä kuluttajaviestinnässä. Työn toimeksiantajana toimii Oy Gustav Paulig Ab (myöhemmin Paulig). Sosiaalisen median merkitys kuluttajakäyttäytymisessä on laaja käsite, joten työ keskittyy sosiaalisen median merkitykseen kahvilaviestinnässä. Aihe on ajankohtainen, koska sosiaalisen median merkitys viestinnässä on yksi osa brändien markkinointia. Kuluttajakäyttäytyminen perustuu kuluttajan omiin mielenkiinnonkohteisiin. Viestinnän ja kuluttajan ...

  11. 滇池水体中总悬浮物含量的遥感定量模型%Remote sensing quality model of SS(suspended solid)in the dianchi lake water bodies

    赵碧云; 贺彬; 朱云燕; 袁国林


    Using synchronous monitoring data and TM data of la ndsat 5 , TMimage remote sencing Suspended Solid(SS) water quality model is established by corre lative degree analysis between Suspended Solid concentration and data of differe nt TM bands. The model successfully applied to remote sensing dynamic monitorin g of Suspended Solid in the Dianchi Lake water bodies.%利用滇池1999年4月14日陆地卫星TM数据与准同步全湖面监测资料,对滇池全湖水体总悬浮物含量与不同波段遥感值的关系进行了关联度分析,并据此建立了TM图像遥感总悬浮物水质模型,该模型被成功地应用于滇池水体总悬浮物的遥感动态监测。

  12. Modeling of secondary treated wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation: effects of suspended solids content.

    Brahmi, Mounaouer; Belhadi, Noureddine Hamed; Hamdi, Helmi; Hassen, Abdennaceur


    This work aimed to study UV-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to propose a formulation of the kinetics of secondary treated wastewater disinfection and to underline the influence of suspended solids on the inactivation kinetics of these strains. Some investigations were carried out for the validation of some simulation models, from the simplest, the kinetics model of Chick-Watson reduced to first order, to rather complex models such as multi-kinetic and Collins-Selleck models. Results revealed that the involved processes of UV irradiation were too complex to be approached by a simplified formulation, even in the case of specific strains of microorganisms and the use of nearly constant UV radiation intensity. In fact, the application of Chick-Watson model in its original form is not representative of the kinetics of UV disinfection. Modification, taking into account the speed change during the disinfection process, has not significantly improved results. On the other hand, the application of Collins-Selleck model demonstrates that it was necessary to exceed a least dose of critical radiation to start the process of inactivation. To better explain the process of inactivation, we have assumed that the action of disinfectant on the survival of lonely microorganisms is faster than its action on suspended solids protected or agglomerated to each others. We can assume in this case the existence of two inactivation kinetics during the processes (parallel and independent) of the first-order. For this reason, the application of a new kinetic model by introducing a third factor reflecting the influence of suspended solids in water on disinfection kinetics appeared to be determinant for modeling UV inactivation of P. aeruginosa in secondary treated wastewater.

  13. Total Suspended Solid Content And Sediment On The Bottom Surface Of Panimbang Water



    Full Text Available The study of dynamics oceanography have been executed on June 2004 in the East season. Distribution of total suspended solid on the surface and bottom waters at the Estuary of Ciliman River is lower than Estuary of Cibungur River. Generally mud and silty mud of sediment on the bottom surface waters covered the western part of Panimbang beach. Gravel, silty sand and muddy sand with forams, fraction of mollust and corals found at the Southwest of the study area. In that area is also found many floating of Bagan Apung which is assumed as rich with fishes.

  14. [Application of characteristic NIR variables selection in portable detection of soluble solids content of apple by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Zhaq, Chun-Jiang


    In order to detect the soluble solids content(SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly, a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple. Different wavelength variable selection methods, including unin- formative variable elimination (UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro- posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS. The back interval LS- SVM (BiLS-SVM) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM. Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model, respectively. The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962, 0.403°Brix respectively for SSC. The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detection model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision. The study can provide a reference for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer.

  15. Modeling transportation of suspended solids in Zhujiang River estuary, South China

    CHEN Xiaohong; CHEN Yongqin; LAI Guoyou


    A three-dimensional transportation model for suspended solids (SS) in Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary, South China, was developed by coupling with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The model was validated using hourly measured data of sediment contents during 25-26, July 1999. The results showed that modeled contents matched well with measured ones and that the modeled top layer distribution agreed with the remotely sensed image of suspended solids in summer. The modeled results showed clearly the layers of suspended solids in depth, with larger sediment contents in lower layers though in the interface between salt water and freshwater the lowest contents appeared in middle layer. In overall, the suspended solids inflow from 8 rivers, transport southwestward, and carried by strong coastal flow in Zhujiang River estuary. Contours of sediment contents in the estuary spread further to the open sea during ebb tide rather than flood tide which reflects that the suspended solids in the estuary are land sourced.

  16. Effect of moisture content on solid-state interaction at the interface between magnesium stearate and captopril

    Cheng, Wen-Ting; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang


    A grinding process was used to accelerate the solid-state interaction at the interface between magnesium stearate (MgSt) and captopril (CAP) in the presence or absence of water. The 110 °C-preheated MgSt/CAP or MgSt/CAP ground mixture showed a 5.06% (w/w) or 6.07% (w/w) water content, respectively, which was >4.29% (w/w) for the original MgSt alone. The increased water content in each ground mixture was due to the atmospheric absorption of water caused by grinding. A small infrared (IR) peak at 1562 cm -1 appeared in the IR spectrum of the 110 °C-preheated MgSt/CAP ground mixture, whereas a stronger IR peak at 1541 cm -1 with a shoulder at 1556 cm -1 was observed for the MgSt/CAP ground mixture. These IR peaks were possibly related to the solid-state interaction at the interface between MgSt and CAP via hydrogen bonding of adsorbed water. However, an excess of water added in the MgSt/CAP ground mixture could exacerbate the solid-state interaction of MgSt and CAP to form a stearic acid as evidenced by the IR peak at 1705 cm -1. This may be due to the neutralization between basic MgSt and acidic CAP. In addition, thermal Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy also confirmed that the thermal-dependent dehydration process might alter the IR peak intensity of MgSt/CAP ground mixtures.

  17. Temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships in municipal solid waste for the interpretation of bulk electrical resistivity data

    Pilawski, Tamara; Dumont, Gaël; Nguyen, Frédéric


    Landfills pose major environmental issues including long-term methane emissions, and local pollution of soil and aquifers but can also be seen as potential energy resources and mining opportunities. Water content in landfills determine whether solid fractions can be separated and recycled, and controls the existence and efficiency of natural or enhanced biodegradation. Geophysical techniques, such as electrical and electromagnetic methods have proven successful in the detection and qualitative investigation of sanitary landfills. However, their interpretation in terms of quantitative water content estimates makes it more challenging due to the influence of parameters such as temperature, compaction, waste composition or pore fluid. To improve the confidence given to bulk electrical resistivity data and to their interpretation, we established temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships that we tested on field and laboratory electrical resistivity measurements. We carried out two laboratory experiments on leachates and waste samples from a landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium. We determined a first relationship between temperature and electrical resistivity with pure and diluted leachates by progressively increasing the temperature from 5°C to 65°C, and then cooling down to 5°C. The second relationship was obtained by measuring electrical resistivity on waste samples of different volumetric water contents. First, we used the correlations obtained from the experiments to compare electrical resistivity measurements performed in a landfill borehole and on reworked waste samples excavated at different depths. Electrical resistivities were measured every 20cm with an electromagnetic logging device (EM39) while a temperature profile was acquired with optic fibres. Waste samples were excavated every 2m in the same borehole. We filled experimental columns with these samples and measured electrical resistivities at laboratory temperature

  18. Determination of Solids Content of Charcoal-Impregnated Polyurethane Foams Using Density Measurements


    de la mousse de polyurethane impr~gnge au charbon de bois donnant des r~sultats dont les 6carts types sont inf~rieurs A 0,7 %. Sont pr~sentges des...que la teneur en charbon de bois. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT/R9SUMf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . ii INTRODUCTION...tione of title, body of abstract arid indexi ng annotation must he entered wvlheii the overall docuiletil is classiliedl I. ORIGINATING ACTiVITY 2a




    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.



    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  1. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar


    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying.

  2. Contents

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  3. Co-digestion of municipal sewage sludge and solid waste: modelling of carbohydrate, lipid and protein content influence.

    Nielfa, A; Cano, R; Pérez, A; Fdez-Polanco, M


    Solid wastes from industrial, commercial and community activities are of growing concern as the total volume of waste produced continues to increase. The knowledge of the specific composition and characteristics of the waste is an important tool in the correct development of the anaerobic digestion process. The problems derived from the anaerobic digestion of sole substrates with high lipid, carbohydrate or protein content lead to the co-digestion of these substrates with another disposed waste, such as sewage sludge. The kinetic of the anaerobic digestion is especially difficult to explain adequately, although some mathematical models are able to represent the main aspects of a biological system, thus improving understanding of the parameters involved in the process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the experimental biochemical methane potential on the co-digestion of sewage sludge with different solid wastes (grease; spent grain and cow manure) through the implementation of four kinetic models. The co-digestion of grease waste and mixed sludge obtained the best improvements from the sole substrates, with additional positive synergistic effects. The Gompertz model fits the experimental biochemical methane potential to an accuracy of 99%, showing a correlation between the percentage of lipid in the substrates and co-digestions and the period of lag phase.

  4. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki


    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg(-1) VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions.

  5. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Felix B. Masok


    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  6. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum-doped zinc oxide with different alumina contents

    Yu-Hsien Chou; J L H Chau; W L Wang; C S Chen; S H Wang; C C Yang


    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) ceramics with 0−2.5 wt.% alumina (Al2O3) content were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique. It was found that AZO grains became finer in size and more irregular in shape than undoped ZnO as the Al2O3 content increased. Addition of Al2O3 dopant caused the formation of phase transformation stacking faults in ZnO grains. The second phase, ZnAl2O4 spinel, was observed at the grain boundaries and triple junctions, and inside the grains. In this study, a 3-inch circular Al2O3 (2 wt.%)-doped ZnO ceramic target sintered at 1500°C for 6 h has a relative density of 99.8% with a resistivity of 1.8 × 10-3 -cm. The AZO film exhibits optical transparency of 90.3% in the visible region and shows an electrical resistivity of 2.5 × 10-3 -cm.

  7. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 chemotherapics and 3 antibiotics were evaluated by random experiment with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analysis of TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer, and the pH values were determined by potentiometry. Results: The mean TSS contents ranged from 11.73 (Keflaxina to 63.83 (Azitromed. The minimum and maximum mean pH values were 4.12 (Keflaxina and 10.97 (Zitroneo, respectively. Conclusions: The chemotherapic antimicrobials evaluated in this study presented the highest TSSC means, while the antibiotics showed pHs below the values considered as critical, which may contribute to the development of caries lesions in case of inadequate administration of these medications to children.

  8. Determination of Total Soluble Solids Content (Brix and pH in Milk Drinks and Industrialized Fruit Juices

    Alessandro Leite CAVALCANTI


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC - Brix refratometry and pH values of milk drinks (yogurts and chocolate drink and fruit juices ready to drink (FJRD. Method: Twenty milk drinks and ten fruit juices were evaluated by random experiment, with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analyis of TSSC were made for Brix refratometry and pH were determined. Results: The TSS content of drinks ranged from 13.26 to 26.30 for milk drinks and 10.23 to 13.53 to ready to drink juice. The maximum and lower values to pH were, respectively, 3.58 and 7.01 for milk drinks and 3.07 and 3.72 to drink juice. Conclusion: The high the concentration of TSSC verified in the milk and juice drinks, associated to a low pH can contribute to the development of decay lesions in case they be consumed in excess by the children.

  9. SS433 Trek 2: light curve analysis.

    Fukue, J.; Obana, Y.; Okugami, M.

    The authors have calculated theoretical light curves of SS433 during eclipse and precession, using a model in which SS433 consists of a geometrically thick torus around a compact star and a companion star filling the Roche lobe. The favorite combination is that the mass ratio is about 2 (a compact star is a black hole) and the surface temperature of the companion is around 17000K.

  10. Reclamation with blue-green algae: changes in nucleic acids, protein and nitrogen content of algae exposed to solid waste of a chlor-alkali factory

    Mishra, B.B.; Nanda, D.R.; Misra, B.N.


    During an attempt at the possible reclamation of solid waste from a chlor-alkali factory by blue-green algae, the effects of the solid waste on biochemical variables were studied. DNA, RNA, protein, and algal nitrogen content of the algal material showed a significant decrease with increase in time and also solid waste concentration. An increase in RNA/DNA ratio and a decrease in protein/RNA ratio were also observed. Algae accumulated appreciable amounts of mercury from the waste, showing dependence on both concentration and time. Significant correlations were obtained between mercury uptake and concentrations of the waste and between different combinations of algae and mercury uptake.

  11. [Psychogram of the Auschwitz commander: insight and confrontation through destruction. On the autobiography of Rudolf Höss].

    Zeiler, J


    By reference to the personality of Rudolf Höss, the author illuminates once again the terrifying juxtaposition of criminality and apparent normality in the psychic life of a Nazi criminal. The inferno of the concentration camp is interpreted as a perverse explication and staging of split-off ideational contents in the mind of Höss.

  12. Calibration of near infrared spectroscopy for solid fat content of fat blends analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance data

    Rodrigues, J.C. [Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Grupo Florestal e dos Produtos Florestais, ISA/DEF, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Nascimento, A.C. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DAIAT, Dep. Agro-Industrias, Centro de Estudos Agro-Alimentares, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, A. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DEF, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Osorio, N.M. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DAIAT, Dep. Agro-Industrias, Centro de Estudos Agro-Alimentares, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Pires, A.S. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Gusma o, J.H. [FIMA/VG, Marinhas de Dom Pedro, 2695-361 Santa Iria de Azoia (Portugal); Fonseca, M.M.R. da [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira-Dias, S. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DAIAT, Dep. Agro-Industrias, Centro de Estudos Agro-Alimentares, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail:


    The functional properties of fats are determined by the distribution pattern of fatty acid residues in their acylglycerols, which may be modified by ester interchange (transesterification). In the margarine industry, the time course of the transesterification of fat blends is monitored by assaying for the amount of the solid fraction at different temperatures (SFC-solid fat content) currently measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to quantify the SFC of different fat blends using NMR data for calibration. SFC values of 128 samples, consisting of different blends of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and concentrates of triglycerides enriched with {omega}-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were assayed by NMR prior to (64 samples) and following inorganic (10 samples) or lipase-catalysed transesterification (54 samples). Prior to SFC measurement by NMR, sample preparation takes about 90 min. With NIRS technique, a faster determination is achieved since NIR spectra for SFC estimations are directly obtained on the sample at room temperature. High correlations were obtained for cross-validation of the data estimated by NIRS models and NMR for SFC assays at 10 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.91, RMSECV = 2.4), 20 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.96, RMSECV 1.7), 30 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.96, RMSECV = 1.3) and 35 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.96, RMSECV = 1.3) of the different blends tested. The obtained results show that NIRS is a reliable technique to replace NMR for SFC estimation.

  13. Measurement of moisture, soluble solids, and sucrose content and mechanical properties in sugar beet using portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression, was used to predict the moisture, soluble solids and sucrose content and mechanical properties of sugar beet. Interactance spectra were acquired from both intact and sliced beets, using two portable spectrometers ...

  14. Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover for the production of bioethanol at high-solids content.

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos


    Corn stover (CS) was hydrothermally pretreated using CH3COOH (0.3 %, v/v), and subsequently its ability to be utilized for conversion to ethanol at high-solids content was investigated. Pretreatment conditions were optimized employing a response surface methodology (RSM) with temperature and duration as independent variables. Pretreated CS underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step at a custom designed free-fall mixer at 50 °C for either 12 or 24 h using an enzyme loading of 9 mg/g dry matter (DM) at 24 % (w/w) DM. Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of liquefacted corn stover resulted in high ethanol concentration (up to 36.8 g/L), with liquefaction duration having a negligible effect. The threshold of ethanol concentration of 4 % (w/w), which is required to reduce the cost of ethanol distillation, was surpassed by the addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF achieving this way ethanol titer of 41.5 g/L.

  15. [Transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur during thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of sludge with high solid content].

    Zhuo, Yang; Han, Yun; Cheng, Yao; Peng, Dang-Cong; Li, Yu-You


    The transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated after thermal hydrolysis pretreatment at 165 degress C for 50 min. The results showed that the hydrolysis efficiency of VSS could reach as high as 43.35%, 54.36% of protein and 65.12% of carbohydrate were transferred to dissolved organics, respectively, and the main component of dissolved organic matter in hydrolysate was dissolved protein (52.18% ), 54.23% of insoluble organic nitrogen was turned into dissolved nitrogen and 22.13% of dissolved nitrogen in hydrolysate was converted to ammonia. The transformation rate of insoluble phosphorus was 30.52%. Dissolved phosphorus was mostly transformed to phosphate (79.84%) as phosphorus-accumulating bacteria cells were crushed. 50.03% of insoluble organic sulfur was hydrolyzed, and little change was detected in sulfide (0.50%). The analysis results of the organic compounds transformation are valuable for treatment of the thermal hydrolysis pretreated sludge with high solid content.

  16. [Characteristic wavelengths selection of soluble solids content of pear based on NIR spectral and LS-SVM].

    Fan, Shu-xiang; Huang, Wen-qian; Li, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Zhang, Bao-hua


    To improve the precision and robustness of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) on pear. The total number of 160 pears was for the calibration (n=120) and prediction (n=40). Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used before further analysis. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select most effective wavelengths after uninformative variable elimination (UVE) from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra respectively. The selected variables were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to build models for de- termining the SSC of pear. The results indicated that LS-SVM model built using SNVE-UVE-GA-SPA on 30 characteristic wavelengths selected from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.956, 0.271 for SSC. The model is reliable and the predicted result is effective. The method can meet the requirement of quick measuring SSC of pear and might be important for the development of portable instruments and online monitoring.

  17. Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits

    LU Hui-shan; XU Hui-rong; YING Yi-bin; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan; TIAN Hai-qing


    Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79°Brix.

  18. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment:a comparison

    Kim-seng CHIA; Herlina ABDUL RAHIM; Ruzairi ABDUL RAHIM


    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive,green,and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it,as compared with classical analytical methods.The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple.First,we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data.Second,PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables.Third,the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models.The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN.Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.

  19. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud


    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS(-1)), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS(-1)) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.


    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  1. Comparison of solid-state anaerobic digestion and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid anaerobic digestion.

    Lin, Long; Yang, Liangcheng; Xu, Fuqing; Michel, Frederick C; Li, Yebo


    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid AD were compared under thermophilic condition. Total solids (TS) contents of 22%, 25%, and 30% were studied for SS-AD, and 35%, 45%, and 55% for composting. Feedstock/effluent (F/E) ratios of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were tested. In composting, the greatest carbon loss was obtained at 35% TS, which was 2-3 times of that at 55% TS and was up to 50% higher than that in SS-AD. In SS-AD, over half of the degraded carbon was converted to methane with the greatest methane yield of 121 L/kg VS(feedstock). Methane production from SS-AD was low at F/E ratios of 2 and 3, likely due to the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (up to 5.6g/kg). The N-P-K values were similar for SS-AD digestate and compost with different dominant nitrogen forms.

  2. Aikuisoppija työssä oppimassa

    Rautiainen, Sisko


    Kehittämistyön tavoitteena oli selvittää puhdistusalan aikuisoppijan huomioon ottaminen ja riittävä henkilökohtaistaminen meneillään olevissa laitoshuoltajien koulutuksissa. Työ pohjautuu kirjallisuuteen ja aikuisopiskelijoille laadittuun kyselyyn, jossa he itse arvioivat oppimistaan ja itseohjautuvuuttaan. Kysely toteutettiin yhdelle päätoimisesti opiskelevalle ryhmälle ja kahdelle oppisopimusryhmälle. Tässä työssä itsearvioinnilla tarkoitetaan oman toiminnan ja osaamisen arviointia. Itseohj...

  3. 47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SS emission types. 97.311 Section 97.311... SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur... station in another country that permits such communications. SS emission transmissions must not be...

  4. Effects of minor Si on microstructures and room temperature fracture toughness of niobium solid solution alloys

    Kong, Bin, E-mail:; Jia, Lina, E-mail:; Su, Linfen, E-mail:; Guan, Kai, E-mail:; Weng, Junfei, E-mail:; Zhang, Hu, E-mail:


    Controlling the elements content in the niobium solid solution (Nb{sub SS}) is significant for the better comprehensive performance of Nb-silicide-based alloys. In this paper, the effects of minor Si on the microstructures and room temperature fracture toughness of Nb–(0/0.5/1/2)Si–27.63Ti–12.92Cr–2.07Al–1.12Hf (at%, unless stated otherwise) solid solution alloys were investigated. The alloys were processed by vacuum arc-casting (AC), and then heat treated (HT) at 1425 °C for 10 h. In HT alloys, Nb{sub SS} grains are refined gradually with the increase of Si content. Meanwhile, the volume fraction of Cr{sub 2}Nb and silicides phases precipitates increases. The fracture toughness of HT alloys decreases at first but then increases in the range of 0 to 2% Si, because it is a combinatorial process of positive and negative effects caused by the addition of Si. The refinement of Nb{sub SS} grains displays positive effect on fracture toughness, while the increase of solid solubility of Si in Nb{sub SS} and brittle Cr{sub 2}Nb and Nb-silicides precipitate phases display negative effect.

  5. Effect of Laser Surface Melting on the Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion Resistance of 304L SS Weldment

    Suresh, Girija; Dasgupta, Arup; Kishor, P. S. V. R. A.; Upadhyay, B. N.; Saravanan, T.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi


    The manuscript presents the effect of laser surface melting (LSM) on the microstructural variations and pitting corrosion resistance of 304L SS weldment fabricated by gas tungsten arc welding of 304L SS plates using 308L SS filler wire. The weld region was examined by X-ray radiography for defect detection. LSM of 304L SS weldment was performed using Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Microstructural evaluation was carried out using optical and electron back scatter diffraction techniques. The microstructure of 304L SS base was found to be austenitic, while the weld region of 304L SS weldment contained delta ferrite distributed in austenite matrix. The microstructure of LSM 304L SS weldment was found to be homogeneous austenite matrix with sparsely distributed ferrite. Ferrite measurements showed a decrease in the percentage ferrite in the fusion zone of 304L SS weldment after LSM. A profound enhancement in the pitting corrosion resistance was observed after LSM, which could be attributed to the homogeneous microstructure and decrease in the ferrite content. Pit density was found to be higher in the heat-affected zone of the weldment. Very few pits were observed in the LSM 304L SS weldment compared to the as-weldment.

  6. [Determination of soluble solids content in Nanfeng Mandarin by Vis/NIR spectroscopy and UVE-ICA-LS-SVM].

    Sun, Tong; Xu, Wen-Li; Hu, Tian; Liu, Mu-Hua


    The objective of the present research was to assess soluble solids content (SSC) of Nanfeng mandarin by visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with new variable selection method, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin. A total of 300 Nanfeng mandarin samples were used, the numbers of Nanfeng mandarin samples in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 150, 75 and 75, respectively. Vis/NIR spectra of Nanfeng mandarin samples were acquired by a QualitySpec spectrometer in the wavelength range of 350-1000 nm. Uninformative variables elimination (UVE) was used to eliminate wavelength variables that had few information of SSC, then independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract independent components (ICs) from spectra that eliminated uninformative wavelength variables. At last, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used to develop calibration models for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin using extracted ICs, and 75 prediction samples that had not been used for model development were used to evaluate the performance of SSC model of Nanfeng mandarin. The results indicate t hat Vis/NIR spectroscopy combinedwith UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is suitable for assessing SSC o f Nanfeng mandarin, and t he precision o f prediction ishigh. UVE--ICA is an effective method to eliminate uninformative wavelength variables, extract important spectral information, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model. The SSC model developed by UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is superior to that developed by PLS, PCA-LS-SVM or ICA-LS-SVM, and the coefficient of determination and root mean square error in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 0.978, 0.230%, 0.965, 0.301% and 0.967, 0.292%, respectively.

  7. The contents and forms of solid-phase species of radioactive strontium and cesium in Taiwan soils.

    Chien, S W Chang; Wang, M C; Chiu, C L; Lin, Yu-Ming; Lai, Shu-Ying


    This study was to investigate the activities and contents of (137)Cs in the profiles of selected arable and forest soils in Taiwan and various solid-phase species of (85)Sr and (137)Cs in selected arable soils in Taiwan. The gamma (gamma) ray spectra of the collected soil samples and some of the soils amended with (85)Sr and (137)Cs were measured. The data indicate that the arable soils from Sanhsing series, Sanhsing Township and Chuangwei series, Chuangwei Township, Ilan County, and from Tunglochuan series, Pinglin Township, Taipei County shows significantly higher radioactivity of (137)Cs (ND - 11.0 +/- 0.2 Bq kg(-1)). Furthermore, the radioactivity of (137)Cs in the mountain soils (1.24 +/- 0.07 - 42 +/- 1 Bq kg(-1)) from Yuanyang Lake Nature Preserve among Ilan, Taoyuan, and Hsinchu Counties is the highest among the investigated mountain forest soils. This may be mainly attributed to the fact that Ilan County is located in the northeastern part of Taiwan and faces the northeastern and northern seasonal winds with lots of precipitation annually from mid-autumn through mid-spring next year and is receiving greater amount of fallouts yearly. Due to longer reaction period (>or=3 y) of (137)Cs with soil components, (137)Cs was mainly in the forms bound to oxides and to organic matter in the soil amended with (137)Cs and in the soil contaminated with (137)Cs. On the contrary, due to shorter reaction period (<60 d) of (85)Sr with soil components, (85)Sr was mainly in exchangeable form and partially in the forms bound to carbonates and oxides in the soils amended with (85)Sr.

  8. SS 433: Stationary lines and primary eclipses

    Bowler, M G


    Some stationary lines in the emission spectra of SS 433 are eclipsed, but most are not. Lines attributed to a circumbinary disk are not eclipsed, but double in relative intensity during primary eclipse. A C II doublet is eclipsed and Doppler shifts over two periods yield an orbital speed of 176 +/- 13 km/s.

  9. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Abdelhadi Makan


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  10. Effect of Ni content on strengthening solid solution of 18 carat gold alloy%镍元素对18 K金固溶强化的影响

    李桂华; 何文军; 王义善; 黄准; 刘雪松


    采用氧气乙炔火枪制备了4种镍质量分数分别为0,2.5,5,8%的18K金合金;利用显微硬度仪和X射线衍射仪研究了镍质量分数对18 K金固溶强化的影响.其研究结果表明:随着镍质量分数的增加,合金的硬度不断增加;这主要是由于镍质量分数的增加提高了合金的固溶度,加强了固溶强化机制.此外,镍元素对金的固溶强化效果要强于其他补口元素,这也是合金硬度提高的原因.%Four kinds of 18K gold alloys containing 0,2.5,5 and 8%Ni respectively were prepared using oxygen acetylene gun .The effect of Ni content on strengthening the solid solution of 18 carat gold alloys was investigated using by micro-hardness tester and X-ray diffractometer .Results show that the hardness of the alloys was increased with the Ni content;the increase of Ni content improved the solid solubility of the alloy ,resulting in an enhanced solid solution strengthening mechanism .In addition ,the solid solution strengthening effect of Ni content on Au is stronger than other mending elements ,which is the another explanation of the increased hardness .

  11. Influence of the microwave absorbent and moisture content on the microwave pyrolysis of an organic municipal solid waste

    Beneroso Vallejo, Daniel; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel


    [EN] Microwave pyrolysis is presented in this study as a recycling approach for municipal solid waste treatment. The process is based on the conversion of solid waste to syngas (CO + H2) by means of a microwave absorbent. Experiments to characterise the syngas produced were performed using the char obtained from the pyrolysis of a municipal solid waste as microwave absorbent in the microwave power range of 150–450 W and in an absorbent-to-waste ratio range of 0.2:1 to 1:1 (wt.%:wt.%). A rich-...

  12. The effect of treating plum tree with Rovral (iprodion and Euparen (dichlofluanid on the content of soluble solids in fruit

    Halina Borecka


    Full Text Available The concentration of soluble solids in plum fruit varied and depended on the cultivar, year, and fungicide treatment. Plums from trees treated with Rovral (iprodion contained in some case the lowest level of soluble solids, higher or equal levels were found in those sprayed with Euparen (dichlofluanid, and the highest concentration of soluble solids was in fruits from untreated trees. Explanation of this phenomenon is possible by looking for changes in photosynthesis of treated and untreated leaves. Fungicide treatment of some plum cultivars, particularly with Rovral, decreased the photosynthesis of the leaves.

  13. SS433: The microquasar link with ulxs?

    P. A. Charles


    Full Text Available SS433 es el microcuasar prototipo de la Galaxia y posiblemente incluso an alogo a las fuentes ULX si se tiene en cuenta la energ a cin etica de los \\jets". Sin embargo y a pesar de 20 a~nos de estudio, nuestras restricciones sobre la naturaleza del sistema binario son extremadamente grandes debido a la di cultad de localizar rasgos espectrales capaces de revelar la naturaleza y el movimiento del donador de la masa. Los espectros azules de alta resoluci on recientemente obtenidos cuando el disco (en precesi on se encuentra de per l, sugieren que la binaria se halla cerca de la fase de envolvente com un, lo cual hace extremadamente dif cil obtener las restricciones cin eticas. Sin embargo, encontramos evidencia de un donador masivo como era de esperar para la muy alta tasa de transferencia de masa inferida y comparamos las propiedades de SS433 con las de Cyg X3.

  14. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero


    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules.

  15. The multifrequency monitoring of microquasars. SS433

    Trushkin, S A; Nizhelskij, N A


    The principal results of daily observations with the RATAN-600 radio telescope of X-ray binary with relativistic jets microquasar SS433 in 1986--2003 are presented. We have measured the flux densities at 0.96, 2.3, 3.9, 7.7, 11.2 and 21.7 GHz in different sets, duration from a week to some months. In general there are 940 observations of SS433 and more than 4500 flux density measurements in the period. Observations show that radio spectra are well fitting by a power law. The mean spectral index remained the same, $-0.60\\pm0.14$ during almost 20 years at least, and mean accuracy of the index determination was better than 0.1 in our multi-frequency observations, i.e. it was higher than in the intensive two-frequency monitoring of SS433 with the three-element GBI interferometer. Flux density data and spectra `on-line' plotting are accessible on the CATS data base site:

  16. Ultra fast magic angle spinning solid - state NMR spectroscopy of intact bone.

    Singh, Chandan; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Kayastha, Arvind M; Sinha, Neeraj


    Ultra fast magic angle spinning (MAS) has been a potent method to significantly average out homogeneous/inhomogeneous line broadening in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy. It has given a new direction to ssNMR spectroscopy with its different applications. We present here the first and foremost application of ultra fast MAS (~60 kHz) for ssNMR spectroscopy of intact bone. This methodology helps to comprehend and elucidate the organic content in the intact bone matrix with resolution and sensitivity enhancement. At this MAS speed, amino protons from organic part of intact bone start to appear in (1) H NMR spectra. The experimental protocol of ultra-high speed MAS for intact bone has been entailed with an additional insight achieved at 60 kHz.

  17. SolidWorks : opetuspaketti

    Myllymäki, Vesa


    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin mahdollisuuksia tehdä opetusvideoita SolidWorks -ohjelman käyttämisestä. Tähän tarkoitukseen löydettiin menetelmään sopiva ohjelma, CamStudio, jota sitten sovellettiin käytännössä. Camstudio ja SolidWorks ohjelmia hyödyntäen luotiin videoita kolmiulotteisista mallinnusprosesseista. Menetelmä toimi, mutta sen käyttökelpoisuuteen liittyi ongelmia. Videoden laatu on heikko, mutta sen parantaminen merkitsisi suurempaa tiedostokokoa, mikä voi tuottaa tietokantaongelmia. ...

  18. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Anahita Khoramnia


    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming


    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. X-Ray Visions of SS Cygni

    Young, D. L.


    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is the most sophisticated X-ray observatory launched by NASA. Chandra is designed to observe X-rays from highenergy regions of the universe, such as X-ray binary stars. On September 14, 2000, triggered by alerts from amateur astronomers worldwide, Chandra observed the outburst of the brightest northern dwarf nova SS Cygni. The cooperation of hundreds of amateur variable star astronomers and the Chandra X-Ray scientists and spacecraft specialists provided proof that the collaboration of amateur and professional astronomers is a powerful tool to study cosmic phenomena.

  1. Aistinvarainen arviointi ammattikeittiössä

    Nyman, Johanna


    Aistinvarainen arviointi on laaja käsite, johon kuuluu kuvailevat menetelmät, erojen suuruuden arviointi ja erotustestit. Nämä kolme alakäsitettä jakautuvat vielä pienempiin osiin. Tässä tutkimuksessa keskityttiin ja käytettiin aistinvaraisen arvioinnin kuvailevan menetelmän yhtä osa-aluetta, yleistä kuvailevaa menetelmää. Aistinvaraisen arvioinnin menetelmiä käytetään kahdella alueella, aistinvaraisessa tutkimuksessa, jossa koulutettu raati arvioi elintarvikkeita ja ruoan hyväksyttävyys...

  2. Ball Indentation Studies on the Effect of Nitrogen on the Tensile Properties of 316LN SS

    Mathew, M. D.; Ganesh Kumar, J.; Ganesan, V.; Laha, K.


    Type 316L(N) stainless steel (SS) containing 0.02-0.03 wt% carbon and 0.06-0.08 wt% nitrogen is used as the major structural material for the components of fast reactors. Research is underway to improve the high-temperature mechanical properties of 316LN SS by increasing the nitrogen content in the steel above the level of 0.08 wt%. In this investigation, ball indentation (BI) technique was used to evaluate the effect of nitrogen content on the tensile properties of 316LN SS. BI tests were conducted on four different heats of 316LN SS containing 0.07, 0.11, 0.14 and 0.22 wt% nitrogen in the temperature range 300-923 K. The tensile properties such as yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased with increase in nitrogen content at all the investigated temperatures. These results were consistent with the corresponding uniaxial tensile test results. These studies showed that BI technique can be used to optimize the chemical composition during alloy development by evaluating tensile properties with minimum volume of material.

  3. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J


    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)


    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS with Hydrophobic Properties and Excellent Thermal Stability

    Wonseok Cho


    Full Text Available Hydrophobic and comparatively thermally-stable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, i.e., poly(styrene sulfonate-co-vinyltrimethoxysilane (PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS copolymer was successfully synthesized via the introduction of silane coupling agent into the PSS main chain to form P(SS-co-VTMS copolymers. PSS and P(SS-co-VMTS copolymers were successfully synthesized via radical solution polymerization, and PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS was synthesized via Fe+-catalyzed oxidative polymerization. The characterization of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS was performed through an analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results, water contact angle and optical images. The electrical properties of conductive PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS thin films were evaluated by studying the influence of the VTMS content on the electrical and physical properties. The conductivity of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS decreased with an increase in the VTMS content, but was close to that of the PEDOT:PSS, 235.9 S·cm−1. The introduction of VTMS into the PSS copolymer improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability and increased the hydrophobicity. The thermal stability test at a temperature over 240 °C indicated that the sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS increased by 3,012%. The sheet resistance of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS, on the other hand, only increased by 480%. The stability of PEDOT:P(SS-co-VTMS was six-times higher than that of the reference PEDOT:PSS.

  6. Deceleration of SS433 radio jets

    Panferov, A A


    The mildly relativistic jets of SS\\,433 are believed to inflate the surrounding supernova remnant W\\,50 depositing in its expansion possibly more than 99% of their kinetic energy (\\cite[1998]{Dub98}). Where and how this transformation of energy is curried out, it is not yet known. What can we learn from it that the jets decelerate and the deceleration is non-dissipative, i.e. radiatively dark. In this paper we unclose the observed deviations of the precessing radio jets of SS\\,433, within a few arcseconds from a jets source, from the ballistic track, described by the kinematic model, as a signature of the deceleration which, on other hand, issues from the jets colliding with ambient medium. For that we model kinematics of these colliding jets. The ram pressure on the jets is estimated from the observed profile of brightness of synchrotron radiation along the radio jets. We have found that to fit observed locus the radio jets should be decelerated and twisted, additionally to the precession twist, mostly withi...

  7. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... was observed for both the blend and products. Isothermal crystallization kinetics was characterized by the Fisher- Turnbull model. The highest free energy was observed for the blend. A small deformation with oscillation tests shows a significant difference between the blend and interesterified products...

  8. Genetic variation for bulb size, soluble solids content and pungency in the Spanish sweet onion variety Fuentes de Ebro. Response to selection for low pungency

    Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Balcells Oliván, María; Mallor, F.; Sales, E.


    The cultivar ‘Fuentes de Ebro’ is a long-day onion grown in the northeast of Spain, which is characterized by its succulence and low pungency. However, to match the market demand the size, pungency, and storability need to be improved. We have evaluated these quality-related bulb traits in 15 grower’s open-pollinated lines of this cultivar. Phenotypic variation observed for bulb weight, size and soluble solids content was significantly affected by location, growing season and line, while pung...

  9. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can


    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena


    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  11. Research on Changes of Vc Content and Soluble Solid Concentration Content during Strawberry Fruit Ripening%草莓果实成熟过程中Vc和可溶性固形物含量的变化

    张桂霞; 王英超; 石璐


    [ Objective ] The purpose was to investigate the proper harvest stage of the strawberry fruit. [ Method ] Taking pot strawberry fruit as research materials,the changes of fruit hardness and contents of the Vc and the soluble solid concentration during strawberry fruit ripening were studied. [ Result ] As strawberry fruit ripening, the fruit hardness reduced, the content of Vc decreased, the soluble solid concentration was first increasing and then reclucing. [ Conclusion ] During strawberry fruit ripening, the fruit hardness reduced and the internal quality of fruit increased.%[目的]探索草莓的最佳采收期.[方法]以盆栽草莓果实为试验材料,研究草莓成熟过程中果肉硬度、维生素C含量和可溶性固形物含量的变化规律.[结果]随着草莓果实的成熟,果肉硬度逐渐下降,维生素C含量逐渐上升,可溶性固形物含量呈先上升后下降的趋势.[结论]随着草莓果实的成熟,果肉硬度下降,内在品质提高.

  12. Filtration of contaminated suspended solids for the treatment of surface water.

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Davarpanah, Neginmalak; Fukue, Masaharu; Inoue, Tomohiro


    As few technologies exist worldwide for the treatment of contaminated surface water, a new approach is currently under development consisting of an in situ water treatment system based on a floating filtration process for adsorbed contaminants such as heavy metals. Laboratory filtration tests were performed for the removal of contaminated suspended solids (SS) from surface water. SS, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and organic carbon (OC) were monitored. Of the four filters (two non-woven geotextiles, a woven geotextile and a sand filter) evaluated, filter 1 (a non-woven geotextile) was the most effective for removal % of the total suspended solids. The results demonstrated excellent efficiency by filter No. 1, for reducing turbidity by 93-98%, as well as SS by up to 98.9% and COD by 65-71% for three sites with initial turbidities of 70, 20, and 120 NTU, respectively. The level of heavy metal removal was 98.9% due the heavy metal content of the suspended solids (60 mg kg(-1) of Cu, 90 mg kg (-1) of Ni, 130 mg kg(-1) of Zn, 200 mg kg(-1) of Cr, and 80 mg kg(-1) of Pb). The development of this technology could potentially protect the public and aquatic plants and animals from dangerous contaminants such as heavy metals adsorbed onto the suspended solids.

  13. The effect of solid content on silylated-{gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PVDF-HFP-coated PE separators for lithium secondary battery

    Im, Jong Su; Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Several PVDF-HFP/silylated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated PE (polyethylene) separators with various solidities (various compositions of PVDF-HFP/silylated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by a dip-coating of PE separators in PVDF-HFP/silylated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/acetone mixtures. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the chemical reactions between silane coupling agent and {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The SEM images of the coated separators showed that various morphologies could be produced by changing the composition of total contents of binder and solid contents. The effects of composition in inorganic material (silane coupling agent-treated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and binder (PVDF-HFP) on the physio-chemical properties of the prepared separators such as liquid electrolyte uptake, and ion conductivity were investigated and reported in this paper.

  14. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas


    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  15. Effects of different surface modification and contents on municipal solid waste incineration fly ash/epoxy composites.

    Goh, C K; Valavan, S E; Low, T K; Tang, L H


    Incineration fly ash, a waste from municipal solid waste incineration plant can be used to replace conventional filler as reinforcing filler to enhance the mechanical strength of a composite. Surface modification was performed on the incineration fly ash before mixing into the soft polymer matrix so as to improve interfacial bond of the filler and epoxy resin. In this study, detailed characterisation of mechanical, morphological and leaching behaviours of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash infused composite has been carried out. Flexural and tensile test was conducted to determine the effect on mechanical properties of the composite by varying the concentration of incineration fly ash filler added into polymer matrix and surface modification of incineration fly ash filler using silane coupling agent and colloidal mesoporous silica (CMS). The results indicated that composite infused with incineration fly ash filler surface treated with CMS shown improvement on the tensile and flexural strengths. In addition, SEM images showed that surface modification of incineration fly ash with colloidal mesoporous silica enhanced the interfacial bonding with polymer resin which explained the improvement of mechanical strength. Leaching test showed result of toxic metals such as Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Cd and Rb immobilised in the polymer matrix of the composite. Hence, the use of MSWI fly ash as reinforcing filler in the composite appears green and sustainable because this approach is a promising opportunity to substitute valuable raw material with MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of a single stranded (ss) DNA

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Thakur, Siddarth; Burin, Alexander


    The objective of the present study was to develop an understanding of short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to assist the development of new DNA-based biosensors. A ssDNA model containing twelve bases was constructed from the 130-145 codon sequence of the p53 gene. Various thermodynamic macroscopic observables such as temperature, energy distributions, as well as root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the nucleic acid backbone of the ssDNA were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The AMBER program was used for building the structural model of the ssDNA, and atomistic MD simulations in three different ensembles were carried out using the NAMD program. The microcanonical (NVE), conical (NVT) and isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensembles were employed to compare the equilibrium characteristics of ssDNA in aqueous solutions. Our results indicate that the conformational stability of the ssDNA is dependent on the thermodynamic conditions.

  17. Biological conversion of forage sorghum biomass to ethanol by steam explosion pretreatment and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation at high solid content

    Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Maria Jose; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Gonzalez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes [Renewable Energy Department-CIEMAT, Biofuels Unit, Madrid (Spain)


    In this work, forage sorghum biomass was studied as feedstock for ethanol production by a biological conversion process comprising the steps of hydrothermal steam explosion pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes, and fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Steam explosion conditions were optimized using a response surface methodology considering temperature (180-230 C) and time (2-10 min). Sugar recovery in the pretreatment and the enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated solid were used to determine the optimum conditions, i.e., 220 C and 7 min. At these conditions, saccharification efficiency attained 89 % of the theoretical and the recovery of xylose in the prehydrolyzate accounted for 35 % of the amount of xylose present in raw material. Then, a simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) process was tested at laboratory scale on the solid fraction of forage sorghum pretreated at optimum condition, in order to evaluate ethanol production. The effect of the enzyme dose and the supplementation with xylanase enzyme of the cellulolytic enzyme cocktail was studied at increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) in SSF media. Results show good performance of SSF in all consistencies tested with a significant effect of increasing enzyme load in SSF yield and final ethanol concentration. Xylanase supplementation allows increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) with good SSF performance and final ethanol content of 55 g/l after 4-5 days. Based on this result, about 190 l of ethanol could be obtained from 1 t of untreated forage sorghum, which means a transformation yield of 85 % of the glucose contained in the feedstock. (orig.)

  18. Study on Individual PAHs Content in Ultrafine Particles from Solid Fractions of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Fumes

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Elżbieta Dobrzyńska


    In order to characterize PAHs emissions of diesel engine fuelled with diesel and its blend (B20, B40). In the particle phase, PAHs in engine exhausts were collected by fiberglass filters using Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and then determined by a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FL). The main content in exhaust gases from diesel engine, regardless the type of applied fuel, is constituted by the particles fraction of diameter

  19. Stability of strange stars (SS) under radial oscillation

    Sinha, M; Dey, M; Ray, S; Bhowmick, S; Sinha, Monika; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira; Ray, Subharthi; Bhowmick, Siddhartha


    A realistic Equation of State (EOS) leads to strange stars (ReSS) which are compact in the mass radius plot, close to the Schwarzchild limiting line (Dey et al. 1998). We carry out a stability analysis under radial oscillations and compare with the EOS of other SS models. We find that the ReSS is stable and an M-R region can be identified to that effect.

  20. Pre-Column derivatization Chiral HPLC Method for the separation and quantification of (R,R)-2,8-diazobicyclo [4.3.0]nonane content in (S,S)-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, A Key Intermediate of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride

    Bulusu Lakshmi sushma; Madhusudhan, G.; A. Jayashree; Koti Reddy Yeruva


    A simple and robust analytical method was developed for the separation and quantification of (R,R)-isomer in (S,S)-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, a non chromophoric moiety and key intermediate in the synthesis of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride by using pre-column derivatization reagent 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD Chloride). The derivatization was brought to be optimized at room temperature. The separation was achieved on Chiralpak IC 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column with isocratic elution mode ...

  1. Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate

    Liu, Wenning; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth; Khaleel, Moe


    Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high-temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high-temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced after stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence, the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this article, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in detail.

  2. Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced upon stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in details.

  3. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.


    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  4. Diagnostics of SS433 with the RXTE

    Filippova, E; Fabrika, S; Postnov, K; Seifina, E


    We present analysis of extensive monitoring of SS433 by the RXTE observatory collected over the period 1996-2005. The difference between energy spectra taken at different precessional and orbital phases shows the presence of a strong photoabsorption near the optical star, probably due to its powerful dense wind. Assuming that a precessing accretion disk is thick, we recover the temperature profile in the X-ray emitting jet that best fits the observed precessional variations of the X-ray emission temperature. The hottest visible part of the X-ray jet is located at a distance of $l_0/a\\sim0.06-0.09$, or $\\sim2-3\\times10^{11}$cm from the central compact object and has a temperature of about $T_{\\rm max}\\sim30$ keV. We discovered appreciable orbital X-ray eclipses at the ``crossover'' precessional phases (jets are in the plane of the sky, disk is edge-on) which put a lower limit on the size of the optical component $R/a\\ga0.5$ and an upper limit on a mass ratio of binary companions $q=M_{\\rm x}/M_{\\rm opt}\\la0.3-...

  5. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Altamirano, D.; O'Brien, T. J.; Page, K. L.; Templeton, M. R.; Körding, E. G.; Knigge, C.; Rupen, M. P.; Fender, R. P.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S.; Migliari, S.; Remillard, R. A.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.; Waagen, E. O.


    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disc material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows that the compact jet remained active throughout the outburst with no radio quenching.

  6. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    Russell, T D; Sivakoff, G R; Altamirano, D; O'Brien, T J; Page, K L; Templeton, M R; Koerding, E G; Knigge, C; Rupen, M P; Fender, R P; Heinz, S; Maitra, D; Markoff, S; Migliari, S; Remillard, R A; Russell, D M; Sarazin, C L; Waagen, E O


    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disk material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows th...

  7. Solid phase epitaxy of EuTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrates with different oxygen contents

    Shimamoto, K.; Hirose, Y.; Nakao, S.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.


    We investigated solid phase epitaxy (SPE) of EuTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrates with different oxygen contents. Amorphous EuTiOx thin films were deposited onto SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition and crystallized by subsequent annealing in a vacuum chamber. A pure perovskite EuTiO3 phase was obtained on the reduced (i.e., oxygen-depleted SrTiO3) substrate, while an Eu2Ti2O7 phase was obtained on the oxygen-rich one. These results suggest that oxygen migration occurs between the EuTiOx film and SrTiO3 during SPE. The electric properties of the fabricated EuTiO3 thin films also depended on the amount of oxygen vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate.

  8. 高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成研究进展%Progress in the Synthesis of Waterborne Polyurethane with High Solid Content

    曲家乐; 王全杰; 刘立忠


    对水性聚氨酯的发展做了简要综述,并基于球型密堆积数学模型对影响水性聚氨酯乳液粒径以及粒径分布的各种因素做了论述.最后总结了各种新型的合成方法,并进一步对高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成做了展望.%The development of waterborne polyurethane was briefly overviewed and the various factors of infecting the wate.r-based polyurethane emulsion particle size and size distribution were discussed-basing on the mathematical model of ball close to the accumulation. At last a variety of new synthetic methods were concluded, and then the synthesis of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content was prospected.

  9. Russia turns to U.N. to condemn Waffen SS


    Venemaa algatusel võeti Genfis ÜRO Inimõiguste komisjoni istungil vastu resolutsioon, mis mõistab hukka omaaegsete Waffen-SS-i võitlejate õigustamise ja ülistamise, SS-laste auks mälestusmärkide püstitamise, nende rongkäigud ja muud sedalaadi üritused

  10. Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease.

    Wanek, Justin; Gaynes, Bruce; Lim, Jennifer I; Molokie, Robert; Shahidi, Mahnaz


    The known biophysical variations of hemoglobin (Hb) S and Hb C may result in hemodynamic differences between subjects with SS and SC disease. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare conjunctival hemodynamics between subjects with Hb SS and SC hemoglobinopathies. Image sequences of the conjunctival microcirculation were acquired in 9 healthy control subjects (Hb AA), 24 subjects with SC disease, and 18 subjects with SS disease, using a prototype imaging system. Diameter (D) and blood velocity (V) measurements were obtained in multiple venules of each subject. Data were categorized according to venule caliber by averaging V and D for venules with diameters less than (vessel size 1) or greater than (vessel size 2) 15 µm. V in vessel size 2 was significantly greater than V in vessel size 1 in the AA and SS groups (P ≥ 0.009), but not in the SC group (P = 0.1). V was significantly lower in the SC group as compared to the SS group (P = 0.03). In AA and SS groups, V correlated with D (P ≤ 0.005), but the correlation was not statistically significant in the SC group (P = 0.08). V was inversely correlated with hematocrit in the SS group for large vessels (P = 0.03); however, no significant correlation was found in the SC group (P ≥ 0.2). Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics in SS and SC disease may advance understanding of sickle cell disease pathophysiology and thereby improve therapeutic interventions.

  11. Two New Sharp Ostrowski-Grüss Type Inequalities

    Zheng Liu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use a variant of the Grüss inequality to derive two new sharp Ostrowski-Grüss type inequalities related to a perturbed trapezoidal type rule and a perturbed generalized interior point rule, respectively, which provide improvements of some previous results in the literatures.

  12. e-VLBI observations of SS 433 in outburst

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Trushkin, S.; Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Spencer, R.; Rushton, A.; Burgess, P.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Pazderski, E.; Borkowski, K.; Hammargren, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.


    We have observed the X-ray binary SS 433 on November 6, 2008 between 13:48-18:35 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Jodrell Bank MkII and Cambridge. The X-ray binary SS 4

  13. [Near-infrared spectra combining with CARS and SPA algorithms to screen the variables and samples for quantitatively determining the soluble solids content in strawberry].

    Li, Jiang-bo; Guo, Zhi-ming; Huang, Wen-qian; Zhang, Bao-hua; Zhao, Chun-jiang


    In using spectroscopy to quantitatively or qualitatively analyze the quality of fruit, how to obtain a simple and effective correction model is very critical for the application and maintenance of the developed model. Strawberry as the research object, this research mainly focused on selecting the key variables and characteristic samples for quantitatively determining the soluble solids content. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm was firstly proposed to select the spectra variables. Then, Samples of correction set were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA), and 98 characteristic samples were obtained. Next, based on the selected variables and characteristic samples, the second variable selection was performed by using SPA method. 25 key variables were obtained. In order to verify the performance of the proposed CARS algorithm, variable selection algorithms including Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and SPA were used as the comparison algorithms. Results showed that CARS algorithm could eliminate uninformative variables and remove the collinearity information at the same time. Similarly, in order to assess the performance of the proposed SPA algorithm for selecting the characteristic samples, SPA algorithm was compared with classical Kennard-Stone algorithm Results showed that SPA algorithm could be used for selection of the characteristic samples in the calibration set. Finally, PLS and MLR model for quantitatively predicting the SSC (soluble solids content) in the strawberry were proposed based on the variables/samples subset (25/98), respectively. Results show that models built by using the 0.59% and 65.33% information of original variables and samples could obtain better performance than using the ones obtained by using all information of the original variables and samples. MLR model was the best with R(pre)2 = 0.9097, RMSEP=0.3484 and RPD = 3.3278.

  14. At-line near-infrared spectroscopy for prediction of the solid fat content of milk fat from New Zealand butter.

    Meagher, Lucy P; Holroyd, Stephen E; Illingworth, David; van de Ven, Frank; Lane, Susan


    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations that will allow prediction of the solid fat content (SFC) of milk fat extracted from butter by one measurement during manufacture were developed. SFC is a measure of the amount of the solid fraction of fat crystallized at a temperature expressed as a percentage (w/w). At-line SFC determinations are currently performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which involves a 16 h delay period for tempering of the milk fat at 0 degrees C prior to the SFC measurements, from 0 to 35 degrees C in a series of 5 degrees C increments. The NIR spectra (400-2500 nm) were obtained using a sample holder maintained at 60 degrees C. Accurate predictions for the SFC (%) were developed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression models to relate the NIR spectra to the corresponding NMR values. The independent validation samples (N = 22) had a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.385-0.762% for SFC between 0 and 25 degrees C, with SFC reference values ranging between 70.42 and 8.96% with a standard deviation range of 3.36-1.47. The low bias (from -0.351 to -0.025), the slopes (0.935-1.077), and the excellent predictive ability (R2; 0.923-0.978) supported the validity of these calibrations.

  15. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo


    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings.

  16. Pre-Column derivatization Chiral HPLC Method for the separation and quantification of (R,R-2,8-diazobicyclo [4.3.0]nonane content in (S,S-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, A Key Intermediate of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride

    Bulusu Lakshmi sushma


    Full Text Available A simple and robust analytical method was developed for the separation and quantification of (R,R-isomer in (S,S-2,8-diazobicyclo[4.3.0]nonane, a non chromophoric moiety and key intermediate in the synthesis of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride by using pre-column derivatization reagent 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD Chloride. The derivatization was brought to be optimized at room temperature. The separation was achieved on Chiralpak IC 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column with isocratic elution mode with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol, ethanol and diethyl amine in the ratio of 1:1:0.1 (v/v/v. The eluents were monitored at 340 nm using a UV detector.

  17. Study on Individual PAHs Content in Ultrafine Particles from Solid Fractions of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Fumes

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska


    Full Text Available In order to characterize PAHs emissions of diesel engine fuelled with diesel and its blend (B20, B40. In the particle phase, PAHs in engine exhausts were collected by fiberglass filters using Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI and then determined by a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FL. The main content in exhaust gases from diesel engine, regardless the type of applied fuel, is constituted by the particles fraction of diameter <0.25 μm. Particles sized <0.25 μm constituted on average approximately 68% of particles in diesel exhaust gases and approx. 50% of particles emitted by biodiesel B20 and B40. When the B100 bioester additive was applied, the total emission of particles was reduced thus the volume of toxic substances adsorbed on them was lower. The analysis of chemical composition of <0.25 μm exhaust gas fraction showed that there were mainly 3- and 4-ring aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas of diesel fuel while in B40 single PAHs with the number of rings of 4 and 5 were detected. An application of ELPI permitted a further separation of <0.25 μm particle’s fraction and a real-time determination of interalia number, mass, and surface concentrations.

  18. Removal of organic load and suspended solids from water by electrocoagulation method

    Ilie Pisoi


    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC is an electrochemical technique involving in-situ generation ofcoagulation agents from sacrificial anodes by type of aluminium and iron. In the present study EC hasbeen evaluated as a treatment technology for organic load and suspended solids removal from a realwastewater proceeded from pulp and paper industry, which was characterized by high content of organicload and suspended solids. The efficiency of the electrocoagulation process was assessed by monitoringChemical Oxygen Demand (COD and suspended solids (s.s. parameters. Laboratory- scale experimentswere conducted with aluminum anode to assess its efficiency under galvanostatic regime. To establishthe optimum operational parameter selected as current density, the electrolysis was carried out at 50,100 and 200 Am-2. The electrocoagulation process performance was assessed based on the efficiencies ofCOD and s.s. removal correlated with the specific electrical energy consumption. Applying EC processallowed to achieve the COD removal efficiencies ranged between 83.80 and 94.00 % and s.s. removalefficiencies between 87.77 and 95.47 %.

  19. Effect of solid content and composition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings on physico-chemical and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins.

    Contreras-Oliva, Adriana; Rojas-Argudo, Cristina; Pérez-Gago, Maria B


    Citrus fruit represent an important source of vitamin C, as well as other bioactive compounds. Edible coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of citrus by providing a semi-permeable barrier to water and gases, which depends on coating composition, solid content (SC), and cultivar. However, little is known about the effect of coatings on citrus nutritional quality. This work studies the effect of coating composition and SC of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW)-shellac coatings on the physico-chemical, sensory and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins. Coatings prepared at the same lipid content differed in the BW:shellac ratio (1:3 and 3:1) and SC of the formulations (40 and 80 g kg⁻¹). The coating with 1:3 BW:shellac ratio and 80 g kg⁻¹ SC was the most effective controlling weight loss, although it was less effective than the commercial wax tested. Increasing SC had a greater effect than the BW:shellac ratio in fruit internal atmosphere and sensory quality, with the presence of off-flavour when coatings were applied at 80 g kg⁻¹ SC. Nutritional quality was not affected by the application of the different treatments. HPMC-lipid coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of 'Oronules' mandarins. However, care should be taken controlling formulation SC to avoid the build-up of off-flavour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Solid-state bioconversion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by Rhizopus oligosporus to improve total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic functionality.

    Sánchez-Magaña, Luis Martin; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Ayala-Rodríguez, Ana Edith; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc


    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of time during solid state bioconversion (SSB) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of chickpea. Chickpea cotyledons were inoculated with a suspension of Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 35 °C for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 108 h. The best time to produce bioprocessed chickpea (added with seed coats) flour with the highest AoxA was 108 h. SSB substantially increased TPC and AoxA of chickpea extracts in 2.78 and 1.80-1.94 times, respectively. At 36 and 96 h of fermentation, the SSB process improved in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (AI and GI indexes) activities of chickpea extracts in 83 and 370%, respectively. SSB is a good strategy to enhance health-linked functionality of chickpea, due to improved TPC, AoxA and content of strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes.

  1. KiSS-1 expression in human breast cancer.

    Martin, Tracey A; Watkins, Gareth; Jiang, Wen G


    The KiSS-1 gene encodes a 145 amino acid residue peptide that is further processed to a final peptide, metastin, a ligand to a G-coupled orphan receptor (OT7T175/AXOR12). KiSS-1 has been identified as a putative human metastasis suppressor gene in melanomas and in breast cancer cell lines. This study aimed to determine the expression and distribution of KiSS-1 and its receptor in human breast cancer tissues and to identify a possible link between expression levels and patient prognosis. Frozen sections from breast cancer primary tumours (matched tumour 124 and background 33) were immuno-stained with KiSS-1 antibody. RNA was reverse transcribed and analyzed by Q-PCR (standardized using beta-actin, and normalized with cytokeratin-19 levels). Levels of expression of KiSS-1 were higher in tumour compared to background tissues (3,124+/-1,262 vs 2,397+/-1,181) and significantly increased in node positive tumours compared to node negative (3,637+/-1,719 vs 2,653+/-1,994, P = 0.02). KiSS-1 expression was also increased with increasing grade and TNM status. There were no such trends with the KiSS-1 receptor. Expression of KiSS-1 was higher in patients who had died from breast cancer than those who had remained healthy (4,631+/-3,024 vs 2,280+/-1,403) whereas expression of the receptor was reduced (480+/-162 vs 195+/-134). Immunohistochemical staining showed increased expression of KiSS-1 in tumour sections. Insertion of the KiSS-1 gene into the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, resulted in cells that were significantly more motile and invasive in behaviour, with reduced adhesion to matrix, using respective assays. In conclusion, KiSS-1 expression is increased in human breast cancer, particularly in patients with aggressive tumours and with mortality. Over-expression of KiSS-1 in breast cancer cells result in more aggressive phenotype. Together, it suggests that KiSS-1 plays a role beyond the initial metastasis repressor in this cancer type.

  2. Electrochemical studies on the performance of SS316L electrode in electrokinetics

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Bae, Jeong-Hyo


    Organic and trace metal pollutants are removed by employing various electrodes in an electrokinetic (EK) process. Stainless steel was used either as an anode or a cathode by various investigators in electroremediation systems. In the present study, the role of SS316L as an anode and cathode in EK system was studied by the measurements of pH, conductivity of electrolyte, and potential of the anode and cathode at different current densities. The weight loss of the anode and cathode and the leaching of chromium, iron, and nickel at different current densities were measured and discussed with an electroosmosis process. The electrochemical behavior of SS316L electrode in neutral, acidic and alkaline pH in soil environment was studied by an electrochemical technique viz. polarization study. Surface analysis of SS316L after EK was done by XPS and SEM. The higher conductivity was noticed at anolyte when compared to catholyte. The weight loss of the anode was in the following order 0.615 > 0.307 > 0.123 mA/cm2 and the cathode corrosion rate was vice versa. Peroxide production was also noticed at the anolyte, which may encourage the degradation of the total organic content (TOC) in the soil. The OCP (open circuit potential) of SS316L was about +75 mV vs SCE in the soil extract; while adding acetic acid, the potential shifted to the positive side, to about +380 mV vs SCE. The breakdown potential and the range of passivation potential were higher in acetic acid added system when compared to other systems. Pitting was observed on both the anode and cathode within 48 h during the EK process. The present study concludes that SS is not a proper electrode material for the EK process.

  3. Effect of Acetylene Black Content in Li4Ti5O12 Xerogel Solid-State Anode Materials on Half-Cell Li-ion Batteries Performance

    Abdurrahman, N. M.; Priyono, B.; Syahrial, A. Z.; Subhan, A.


    The effect of Acetylene Black (AB) additive contents in lithium titanate/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on Li-ion Batteries performance is studied in this work. The LTO active material for Li-ion batteries anode was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method to form TiO2 xerogel continued by mixing process with LiOH in ball-mill and then sintered to obtain spinel LTO. The LTO powder is characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The spinel LTO and TiO2 rutile were detected by XRD diffractogram. The LTO powder is in the form of agglomerates structure. This powder then was mixed with PVDF binder (10%wt) and AB additives with various amount from 10%wt (LTO2 Ac-1), 12%wt (LTO2 Ac-2), and 15%wt (LTO2 Ac-3) of total weight solid content to form electrode sheet. Half-cell coin battery was made with lithium metal foil as a counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge discharge (CD) test used to examine the battery performance. The highest resistance value is obtained in LTO2 Ac-3 sample with 15%wt of AB. It might be caused by the formation of side reaction product on electrode surface at initial cycle due to high reactivity of LTO2 Ac-3 electrode. The highest initial capacity at CV test and CD test was obtained in LTO2 Ac-1 (10%wt AB) sample, due to the best proportion of active material content in the compound. While, in the charge-discharge test at high current rate, the best sample rate-capability performance belongs to LTO2 Ac-3 sample (15%wt AB), which still have 24.12 mAh/g of discharge capacity at 10 C with 71.34% capacity loss.

  4. A substitute for BOC modulation based on SS-CPM

    Su, Chengeng; Guo, Shuren; Zhou, Hongwei


    CPM (continuous phase modulation) has been widely used in the field of satellite communication, which has high spectrum efficiency and constant envelope. This paper explores the applicability of CPM to satellite navigation. A SS-CPM (Spread-Spectrum CPM) modulation is investigated. The SS-CPM with tuned parameters can resemble the spectrum of Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation and yields comparable performance in terms of tracking accuracy, multipath mitigation, anti-jamming, and compatibility. The BOC-like SS-CPM signal maintains the constant envelope at transmission and less out-band emission in radio determination satellite service (RDSS) band, which provides a reference modulation for COMPASS satellite navigation signal.

  5. An investigation on Incoloy 800-SS304 clad plate by explosive welding

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Pingcang; Zhou, Yigang; Wang, Hunian [Xi' an Tianli Clad Metal Mateials Co., Ltd. (China); Huang, Zhanghong [Xi' an Western Titanium Technologies Co., Ltd. (China)


    In this paper, Incoloy800 and 304 stainless steel (SS304) were clad by explosive welding. Accordingly, hardness, tensile strength, shearing strength, bending properties and microstructure of the clad plates were evaluated. The bonding interface showed a wavy morphology. Line scanning results indicated that there was no diffusion area through the bonding interface. Whereas, a colorful zone was observed at the wave ridge of the base metal (white area in optical microscopy and black area in scanning electronic microscopy). Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicated that compositions and contents of the colorful zone were the same as that in the base metal. Hardness testing showed that the highest value of hardness was obtained in the colorful zone. Thus, the colorful zone was an intensive deformation area in SS304, which was produced by shock pressure from collision. Mechanical tests showed that the clad plate was acceptable according to ASTM specification. (orig.)

  6. 蛹虫草固态发酵对3种皂苷含量的影响分析%Study on Three Ginsenoside Contents Changed in Solid-state Fermentation by Cordycepsmilitaris

    闫梅霞; 逄世峰; 张瑞; 侯微; 王英平


    研究蛹虫草固态发酵人参须,超高效液相色谱仪测定单体人参皂苷Rb1、Rc、Rd含量,分析发酵过程中其含量变化。固态发酵过程中3种人参皂苷含量变化显著,同一皂苷不同时期含量相差较大。%To Study ginseng Cordyceps solid state fermentation by cordycepsmilitaris ,ultra high-performance liquid chromatograph was used to analyze monomer ginsenosides Rb1 ,Rc ,Rd content ,and its content in the fermentation process .Solid state fermentation process caused three kinds of ginseng saponin content changes significantly ,the same saponin content in different periods was quite different .

  7. Brucella T4SS: the VIP pass inside host cells.

    Lacerda, Thais Lourdes Santos; Salcedo, Suzana Pinto; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre


    For many Gram-negative bacteria, like Brucella, the type IV secretion system (T4SS) has a critical role in bacterial virulence. In Brucella, the VirB T4SS permits the injection of bacterial effectors inside host cells, leading to subversion of signaling pathways and favoring bacterial growth and pathogenesis. The virB operon promoter is tightly regulated by a combination of transcriptional activators and repressors that are expressed according to the environmental conditions encountered by Brucella. Recent advances have shed light on the Brucella T4SS regulatory mechanisms and also its substrates. Characterization of the targets and functions of these translocated effectors is underway and will help understand the role of the T4SS in the establishment of a replication niche inside host cells.

  8. Predictability of Joint Promotion Examinations in SS2 on Academic ...

    Predictability of Joint Promotion Examinations in SS2 on Academic ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... on academic performance of students in Senior School Certificate Examinations.

  9. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias


    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysing the correlations of long-term seasonal water quality parameters, suspended solids and total dissolved solids in a shallow reservoir with meteorological factors.

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping


    To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.

  11. Application of principal component regression and artificial neural network in FT-NIR soluble solids content determination of intact pear fruit

    Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yande; Fu, Xiaping; Lu, Huishan


    The artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used successfully in applications such as pattern recognition, image processing, automation and control. However, majority of today's applications of ANNs is back-propagate feed-forward ANN (BP-ANN). In this paper, back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) were applied for modeling soluble solid content (SSC) of intact pear from their Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectra. One hundred and sixty-four pear samples were used to build the calibration models and evaluate the models predictive ability. The results are compared to the classical calibration approaches, i.e. principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and non-linear PLS (NPLS). The effects of the optimal methods of training parameters on the prediction model were also investigated. BP-ANN combine with principle component regression (PCR) resulted always better than the classical PCR, PLS and Weight-PLS methods, from the point of view of the predictive ability. Based on the results, it can be concluded that FT-NIR spectroscopy and BP-ANN models can be properly employed for rapid and nondestructive determination of fruit internal quality.

  12. Effect of Al Content on the Isomerization Performance of Solid Superacid Pd-S2O82-/ZrO2-Al2O3☆

    Hua Song; Na Wang; Hualin Song; Feng Li; Zaishun Jin


    The effect of Al content on the performance of the Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2–Al2O3 solid superacid catalyst was studied using n-pentane isomerization as a probe reaction. The catalysts were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fou-rier transform Infrared (FTIR), specific surface area measurements (BET), thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2–Al2O3 catalyst made from Al2O3 mass fraction of 2.5%exhibited the best perfor-mance and its catalytic activity increased by 44.0%compared with Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2. The isopentane yield reached 64.3%at a temperature of 238 °C, a reaction pressure of 2.0 MPa, a space velocity of 1.0 h−1 and a H2/n-pentane molar ratio of 4.0. No obvious catalyst deactivation was observed within 100 h.

  13. 高固含量低粘度POP的合成研究%Study on Synthesis of Polymer Polyether Polyols with High Solid Content and Low Viscosity

    李玉松; 郝敬颖; 朱姝


    Polymer polyether polyol( POP) was prepared by three-reactor continuous process which was double-feed process and double absorption process, compared with product by the traditional process.The average grain size and scope of POP dispersion was tested by the photon nano particle size instrument.The influence of POP dispersion particle size to POP viscosity was analysed.Results showed that the viscosity of POP product by double-feed process was decreased about 1000 mPa·s.The POP product of the high solid content and low viscosity was prepared.%采用双进料和双老化三釜连续工艺合成高固含量聚合物多元醇(POP),与传统工艺合成高固含量POP进行了对比.并用光子纳米粒度仪测试POP分散体粒子平均粒径和范围,分析POP分散体粒径大小对POP粘度的影响.结果表明,采用双进料工艺合成的POP产品粘度可降低1000 mPa·s,实现了制备高固含量低粘度的POP产品.

  14. Evaluating misoprostol content in pregnant women with hourly oral administration during labor induction by microElution solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Hung, Cheng-Han; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Chan, Tzu-Min; Lee, Maw-Rong


    Misoprostol is a widely used alternative of prostaglandin for labor induction. Based on previous studies, we envision that small and frequent oral dosage of misoprostol is an effective method for labor induction. To monitor the misoprostol content during labor induction, a rapid, sensitive, and selective microElution solid phase extraction (μElution SPE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Using μElution SPE could minimize the sample consumption and elution volume in order to maximize the sample enrichment and throughput. The misoprostol acid, a metabolite of misoprostol, was gradient separated in a Bidentate C18 column, then quantified by highly-selective reaction monitoring (H-SRM) in a total run time of 6min. The developed method was optimized and validated in human plasma, and showed linear range of 0.01-10ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.001ng/mL. The recovery ranged from 89.0 to 96.0%, and no significant matrix effect or carryover was observed. The precision, accuracy and stability were met with the criteria of U.S. FDA guidance. The developed method was successfully applied to evaluate misoprostol concentration during labor induction in pregnant women. The concentration-time profiles approves that hourly oral administration of misoprostol is a safe and effective method without drug accumulation for labor induction.

  15. Architecture of SS7-IP Interworking%SS7与IP互通体系结构

    罗国明; 寇化栋


    随着电信网和互联网融合技术的发展,传统电路交换技术将逐步转向分组技术.下一代电信网是基于IP的网络,SS7及呼叫控制原理是软交换控制系统的重要组成部分.首先介绍了SS7与IP互通的概念模型和SIGTRAN协议体系,对4种信令适配子层协议和SCTP进行了详细的阐述和分析.给出了3种主要的互通模式,对如何实现基于IP的SS7传送和构建IP SS7网的相关技术进行了研究.

  16. Influence of Mn-Co Spinel Coating on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic SS Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    Venkatachalam, Vinothini; Molin, Sebastian; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Ming CHEN; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    Chromia forming ferritic stainless steels (SS) are being considered for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications. However, protective coatings are in general needed to avoid chromium volatilization and poisoning of cathodes from chromium species. Mn-Co spinel is one of the promising candidates to prevent chromium outward diffusion, improve oxidation resistance and ensure high electrical conductivity over the lifetime of interconnects. In the present study, unif...

  17. SS-mPMG and SS-GA: tools for finding pathways and dynamic simulation of metabolic networks.

    Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Ono, Naoaki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Hirai, Masami Y; Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Sawada, Yuji; Yamashita, Yui; Chiba, Yukako; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Fumihide; Kanaya, Shigehiko


    Metabolomics analysis tools can provide quantitative information on the concentration of metabolites in an organism. In this paper, we propose the minimum pathway model generator tool for simulating the dynamics of metabolite concentrations (SS-mPMG) and a tool for parameter estimation by genetic algorithm (SS-GA). SS-mPMG can extract a subsystem of the metabolic network from the genome-scale pathway maps to reduce the complexity of the simulation model and automatically construct a dynamic simulator to evaluate the experimentally observed behavior of metabolites. Using this tool, we show that stochastic simulation can reproduce experimentally observed dynamics of amino acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this simulation, SS-mPMG extracts the metabolic network subsystem from published databases. The parameters needed for the simulation are determined using a genetic algorithm to fit the simulation results to the experimental data. We expect that SS-mPMG and SS-GA will help researchers to create relevant metabolic networks and carry out simulations of metabolic reactions derived from metabolomics data.

  18. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    Aghdam, Ehsan Fathi; Kinnunen, V.; Rintala, Jukka A.


    This paper presents mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), biowaste (BW), sewage sludge (SS), and co-digestion of BW and SS. Average methane yields of 386 ± 54, 385 ± 82, 198 ± 14, and 318 ± 59 L CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) were obtained for OFMSW...

  19. Biomass hydrolysis inhibition at high hydrogen partial pressure in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Cazier, E A; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Escudie, R


    In solid-state anaerobic digestion, so-called ss-AD, biogas production is inhibited at high total solids contents. Such inhibition is likely caused by a slow diffusion of dissolved reaction intermediates that locally accumulate. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 and CO2 partial pressure on ss-AD. Partial pressure of H2 and/or CO2 was artificially fixed, from 0 to 1 557mbars for H2 and from 0 to 427mbars for CO2. High partial pressure of H2 showed a significant effect on methanogenesis, while CO2 had no impact. At high [Formula: see text] , the overall substrate degradation decreased with no accumulation of metabolites from acidogenic bacteria, indicating that the hydrolytic activity was specifically impacted. Interestingly, such inhibition did not occur when CO2 was added with H2. This result suggests that CO2 gas transfer is probably a key factor in ss-AD from biomass.

  20. Influence of cobalt and manganese content on the dehydrogenation capacity and kinetics of air-exposed LaNi{sub 5+x}-type alloys in solid gas and electrochemical reactions

    Raekelboom, E.; Cuevas, F.; Percheron-Guegan, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares CNRS, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Knosp, B. [SAFT, 111 bd. Alfred Daney, 33074 Bordeaux (France)


    The effect of cobalt and manganese content on the dehydrogenation properties of air-exposed MmB{sub 5+x}-type (Mm = mischmetal; B = Ni, Al, Co and Mn) alloys was investigated both in solid gas and electrochemical reactions. The cobalt and manganese content were varied separately while keeping constant the plateau pressure of the hydrides. The increase of the cobalt content leads to a decrease of the hydrogen capacity whereas the manganese content has no much effect. In solid gas reactions, the kinetics were found to be limited by the hydrogen diffusion through the surface oxidation layer. As for the electrochemistry, the kinetics are limited by a corrosion layer formed in alkaline medium. The desorption rates for both processes increase as the cobalt or manganese content decreases. This is thought to be due to an enhancement of the hydrogen diffusivity through the oxidation layer. As a result, a low cobalt or manganese content in MmB{sub 5+x} alloys is found to be beneficial for the hydrogen desorption kinetics in both processes. (author)

  1. Interaction of Rheumatoid Factor with Immobilized ss-DNA

    WANG Lian-yong; LU Jing; YU Yao-ting


    Rheumatoid factors(RFs) are the characteristic autoantibodies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recent researches in our laboratory showed that the immobilized single-stranded DNA(ss-DNA) immunoadsorbent can selectively remove RFs from the serum of patients. In the present paper are studied the modification of argininine, tryptophan, lysine residues and carboxyl terminus of IgGRF, which was separated from patients′ serum, with 1,2-cyclohexanedione(CHD), N-bromosuccinimide(NBS), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate(PP) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide(EDC) respectively, and their effects on the adsorption capacity of the immobilized ss-DNA immunoadsorbent for IgGRF. After the specific modification, the corresponding adsorption capacities of the adsorbents were changed from 48%, 46%, 44% and 54% to 84%, 14%, 21% and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the electrostatic or ionic-bonding is essential for the interaction between ss-DNA and IgGRF.

  2. Thermal Analysis of Compressible CO2 Flow for PFE TeSS Nozzle of Fire Detection System

    Zhang, Y. Michael; Lee, Wen-Chin; Keener, John F.; Smith, F. D.


    A thermal analysis of the compressible CO2 flow for the Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) system has been performed. A SINDA/FLUINT model has been developed for this analysis. The model includes the PFE tank and the TeSS nozzle, and both have initial temperature of 72 F. In order to investigate the thermal effect on the nozzle due to discharging CO2, the PFE TeSS nozzle pipe has been divided into three segments. This model also includes heat transfer predictions for PFE tank inner and outer wall surfaces. The simulation results show that the CO2 discharge rates have fulfilled the minimum flow requirements that the PFE system discharges 3.0 Ibm CO2 in 10 seconds and 5.5 Ibm of CO2 in 45 seconds during its operation. At 45 seconds, the PFE tank wall temperature is 63 F, and the TeSS nozzle cover wall temperatures for the three segments are 47 F, 53 F and 37 F, respectively. Thermal insulation for personal protection is used for the first two segments of the TeSS nozzle. The simulation results also indicate that at 50 seconds, the remaining CO2 in the tank may be near the triple point (gas, liquid and solid) state and, therefore, restricts the flow.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Compressible CO2 Flow for PFE TeSS Nozzle of Fire Detection System

    Zhang, Y. Michael; Lee, Wen-Chin; Keener, John F.; Smith, F. D.


    A thermal analysis of the compressible CO2 flow for the Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) system has been performed. A SINDA/FLUINT model has been developed for this analysis. The model includes the PFE tank and the TeSS nozzle, and both have initial temperature of 72 F. In order to investigate the thermal effect on the nozzle due to discharging CO2, the PFE TeSS nozzle pipe has been divided into three segments. This model also includes heat transfer predictions for PFE tank inner and outer wall surfaces. The simulation results show that the CO2 discharge rates have fulfilled the minimum flow requirements that the PFE system discharges 3.0 Ibm CO2 in 10 seconds and 5.5 Ibm of CO2 in 45 seconds during its operation. At 45 seconds, the PFE tank wall temperature is 63 F, and the TeSS nozzle cover wall temperatures for the three segments are 47 F, 53 F and 37 F, respectively. Thermal insulation for personal protection is used for the first two segments of the TeSS nozzle. The simulation results also indicate that at 50 seconds, the remaining CO2 in the tank may be near the triple point (gas, liquid and solid) state and, therefore, restricts the flow.

  4. e-VLBI observations of SS 433 in outburst

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Trushkin, S.; Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Spencer, R.; Rushton, A.; Burgess, P.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Pazderski, E.; Borkowski, K.; Hammargren, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.


    We have observed the X-ray binary SS 433 on November 6, 2008 between 13:48-18:35 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Jodrell Bank MkII and Cambridge. The X-ray binary SS 433 is in outburst. Trushkin & Nizhelskij (ATel #1819) reported a major flare already active during the RATAN-600 observations in the 1-22 GHz band on 2008 October 28.

  5. Ostotilaustellisten ostolaskujen prosessi ja ongelmakohdat Yritys Oy:ssä

    Sireni, Paula


    Tämä opinnäytetyö tutustuu toimeksiantajayritykselle suhteellisen uuteen prosessiin, ostotilaustellisten ostolaskujen käsittelyprosessiin. Toimeksiantajayrityksestä käytetään tässä työssä nimitystä Yritys Oy. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää, kuinka hyvin Yritys Oy:llä toimii ostotilaustellisten ostolaskujen käsittelyprosessi ja mitä ongelmakohtia sieltä löytyy. Tavoitteena on selvittää mahdollisten ongelmien aiheuttajat ja etsiä niille parannus- ja kehitysehdotuksia sekä luoda k...

  6. Thermal balance of the jet in the microquasar SS433

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S


    Thermal balance of the jet in the source SS433 is considered with account of radiative and adiabatic cooling, and different heating mechanisms. We consider jet heating by the inverse Compton effect of coronal hard X-ray quanta on jet electrons, the influence of shock wave propagation along the jet, and jet kinetic energy transformation into heat via Coulomb collisions of jet and corona protons. The most important heating mechanism for the source SS433 turns out to be Coulomb collisions of jet particles with the surrounding medium.

  7. 27 CFR 24.47 - Execution of IRS Form SS-4.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Execution of IRS Form SS-4... Number § 24.47 Execution of IRS Form SS-4. (a) Preparation. The application on IRS Form SS-4, together... center as instructed on the Form SS-4. (b) Signature. The application will be signed by: (1)...

  8. 75 FR 10017 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-8


    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-8 AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form SS-8, Determination of Worker... Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding. OMB Number: 1545-0004. Form Number: SS-8. Abstract: Form SS-8...

  9. 78 FR 23981 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-8


    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-8 AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form SS-8, Determination of Worker... Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding. OMB Number: 1545-0004. Form Number: SS-8. Abstract: Form SS-8...

  10. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    Dong, Kai; Yan, Yan; Wang, Pengchong; Shi, Xianpeng; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ke; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin


    In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA) and a multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS). The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MPEG) and stearic acid (SA). The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE). Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX) as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in MDR cancer therapy. PMID:27785018

  11. The development of a quantitative assay for the detection of anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-LA/SS-B autoantibodies using purified recombinant proteins.

    Veldhoven, C H; Meilof, J F; Huisman, J G; Smeenk, R J


    A characteristic of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus is the presence of anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B autoantibodies in their circulation. In order to investigate specific autoantibody levels in the sera of these patients quantitative assays for the detection of both anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B reactivity were developed. Ro/SS-A (60 kDa) and La-SS-B (50 kDa) cDNAs were cloned and expressed in E. coli as non-fusion proteins. These were purified to homogeneity using two different purification protocols. With these recombinant antigens, specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. 40 sera positive for anti-Ro/SS-A autoantibodies in counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) were tested in both the Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B ELISA. Activity values reproducibly ranged from 1536 to 120,000 U in the Ro/SS-A ELISA and from 763 to 2,500,000 U in the La/SS-B ELISA. The suitability of these ELISAs as screening assays was further investigated by testing 200 sera sent to our laboratory for routine detection of autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigen (ENA: anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B). Both ELISAs showed a high sensitivity and specificity (Ro/SS-A ELISA 85% and 94%, La/SS-B ELISA 100% and 98% respectively), when compared to the standard assays, the RNA-precipitation assay and the HeLa immunoblotting test. From these data we conclude that a quantitative analysis of both anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B autoantibodies is now possible using purified recombinant non-fusion proteins. For screening purposes the La/SS-B ELISA showed a great improvement in sensitivity for the detection of anti-La/SS-B activity in comparison to the La/SS-B CIE, while the Ro/SS-A ELISA almost equalled the performance of the Ro/SS-A CIE.

  12. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen


    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).

  13. Dissociation between the effects of somatostatin (SS) and octapeptide SS-analogs on hormone release in a small subgroup of pituitary- and islet cell tumors

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); H.A. Visser-Wisselaar (Heleen); C. van Uffelen; M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuyderwijk; P. Uitterlinden (Piet); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); J.M. Kros (Johan)


    textabstractThe effects of somatostatin (SS-14 and/or SS-28) and of the three octapeptide SS-analogs that are available for clinical use (octreotide, BIM-23014 and RC-160) on hormone release by primary cultures of 15 clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFA), 7

  14. Fine refinement of solid state structure of racemic form of phospho-tyrosine employing NMR Crystallography approach.

    Paluch, Piotr; Pawlak, Tomasz; Oszajca, Marcin; Lasocha, Wieslaw; Potrzebowski, Marek J


    We present step by step facets important in NMR Crystallography strategy employing O-phospho-dl-tyrosine as model sample. The significance of three major techniques being components of this approach: solid state NMR (SS NMR), X-ray diffraction of powdered sample (PXRD) and theoretical calculations (Gauge Invariant Projector Augmented Wave; GIPAW) is discussed. Each experimental technique provides different set of structural constraints. From the PXRD measurement the size of the unit cell, space group and roughly refined molecular structure are established. SS NMR provides information about content of crystallographic asymmetric unit, local geometry, molecular motion in the crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding pattern. GIPAW calculations are employed for validation of quality of elucidation and fine refinement of structure. Crystal and molecular structure of O-phospho-dl-tyrosine solved by NMR Crystallography is deposited at Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center under number CCDC 1005924.

  15. SS-sümbol stalinistide teenistuses / Uno Raudkivi

    Raudkivi, Uno


    Eesti Waffen SS Diviisis teeninud autor leiab, et leegionäride süüdistamine fašismis ja natsionalismis on süütuse presumptsiooni rikkumine. Lisa: Uno Raudkivi sõjaväeteenistuse lühikronoloogia

  16. Katariina kirikus algab Geeniuste mäss / Kai Ilustrumm

    Ilustrumm, Kai


    Briti Nõukogu toetusel Pärnus, Tartus ja Tallinnas toimuvatel inglise filmide päevadel "Geeniuste mäss" näidatakse ka 3 Lindsay Andersoni nn. Travise triloogia filmi "Kui..." (1968), "Oo, õnneseen!" (1973) ja "Ravila Britannia" (1982), kus Mick Travise rollis on Malcolm McDowell (1943). Lisatud kava

  17. Katariina kirikus algab Geeniuste mäss / Kai Ilustrumm

    Ilustrumm, Kai


    Briti Nõukogu toetusel Pärnus, Tartus ja Tallinnas toimuvatel inglise filmide päevadel "Geeniuste mäss" näidatakse ka 3 Lindsay Andersoni nn. Travise triloogia filmi "Kui..." (1968), "Oo, õnneseen!" (1973) ja "Ravila Britannia" (1982), kus Mick Travise rollis on Malcolm McDowell (1943). Lisatud kava

  18. Outburst from SS 433 observed with BOOTES-2/COLORES

    Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Jelinek, M.; et al.


    In light of the recent extreme outburst of SS 433 (ATELs #6347, #6355) and follow-up by SWIFT (ATEL #6364) the 0.6m TELMA robotic telescope at the BOOTES-2 (+COLORES) astronomical station in Malaga (Spain), obtained optical 4000-9000 A spectra starting at 2014-08-01 and ending at 2014-08-07.

  19. Impact of total solid content and extraction pH on enzyme-aided recovery of protein from defatted rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) press cake and physicochemical properties of the protein fractions.

    Rommi, Katariina; Ercili-Cura, Dilek; Hakala, Terhi K; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lantto, Raija


    Pectinase treatment was used to facilitate protein recovery from defatted rapeseed (Brassica rapa) cold-pressing residue in water-lean conditions and without pH adjustment. Effect of extraction pH on protein yield and physiochemical properties of the protein concentrates was assessed. Enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates was feasible at high (40%) solid content and improved protein recovery at pH 6. Comparable protein yields (40-41% of total protein) from enzyme-aided water extraction (pH 6) and nonenzymatic alkaline extraction (pH10) at 10% solid content suggested that after enzymatic treatment, rapeseed protein could be extracted without exposure to alkali. However, water extraction required dilute conditions, whereas alkaline extraction was feasible also at 20% solid content. The water extracts possessed better protein solubility, higher ζ-potential, and smaller particle size than isoelectric precipitates from alkaline extraction, indicating higher dispersion stability. This is suggested to be mediated by electrostatic interactions between proteins and pectic carbohydrates in the water extracts.

  20. PVB基高固体含量推进剂胶片的力学性能%Mechanical Properties of PVB-based High Solid Content Propellant Films

    尚帆; 王江宁; 宋秀铎; 郑伟


    The polyvinyl butyral (PVB)-based propellant films containing 78% CaCO3 were prepared by rolling process of light roller.The effects of PVB with different relative molecular mass and 1 1 kinds of liquid paraffins with different content of alcohols,acids and esters on the mechanical properties of propellant films were analyzed by means of statics mechanical test.The section morphology of the propellant films was observed by SEM.Results show that when PVB with relative molecular mass of 40 000 as an adhesive and liquid paraffin containing 5% alcohol as processing assistant are used,the internal structure of the propellant films is dense,the mechanical properties of propellant films are the best,with the low temperature tensile elongation of 2.97% and the high temperature tensile stress of 3.55 MPa.The rolling process of light roller is safe and stable for preparation of the PVB-based high solid content propellant when CaCO3 is substituted by RDX.The tensile stress and tensile elongation of propellant contai-ning RDX with particle size of 43.25μm are 45% and 17% higher than those of propellant containing RDX with par-ticle size of 21.02μm.%采用光辊压延工艺制备了含质量分数78%碳酸钙(CaCO3)的聚乙烯醇缩丁醛(PVB)基推进剂胶片。通过静态力学试验分析了不同相对分子质量PVB和11种液体石蜡对推进剂胶片力学性能的影响,用扫描电镜观察了推进剂胶片的剖片形貌。结果表明,以相对分子质量为40000的PVB作黏合剂、醇质量分数为5%的液体石蜡作工艺助剂时,推进剂胶片内部结构致密,力学性能最佳,低温延伸率为2.97%,高温拉伸强度为3.55 MPa。用黑索今(RDX)全部替代CaCO3时,可安全稳定地制备 PVB 基高固体含量推进剂。含43.25μm RDX 的推进剂比含21.02μm RDX的推进剂的拉伸强度及延伸率分别高45%和17%。

  1. Multiresolution imaging of mantle reflectivity structure using SS and P'P' precursors

    Schultz, Ryan; Gu, Yu J.


    Knowledge of the mantle reflectivity structure is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract, and properly interpret, small seismic arrivals. Among the various data types and techniques, long-period SS/PP precursors and high-frequency receiver functions are routinely utilized to increase the confidence of the recovered mantle stratifications at distinct spatial scales. However, low resolution and a complex Fresnel zone are glaring weaknesses of SS precursors, while over-reliance on receiver distribution is a formidable challenge for the analysis of converted waves from oceanic regions. A promising high frequency alternative to receiver functions is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of ˜5 and ˜200 km, respectively, owing to their spectral content, shallow angle of incidence and near-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a novel processing method for both SS (or PP) and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, stacking, Radon transform and depth migration. A suite of synthetic tests is performed to quantify the fidelity and stability of this method under different data conditions. Our multiresolution survey of the mantle at targeted areas near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveal both olivine and garnet related transitions at depths below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, and the anomalous amplitudes near the plate boundary zone indicate a sharp (˜10 km thick) transition that likely resonates with the frequency content of P'P' precursors. The migration of SS precursors in this study shows no evidence of split 660 reflections, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite


    Ni Putu Eka Apsari Yuniari


    Full Text Available The combination of the system has been doing to improve the reliability of wireless communication. One parameter that indicates the reliability of wireless communication is to reduce the value of BER. The 4G technology uses OFDM transmission technique combined with MIMO antenna technique. Other than that, the combination between transmission technique can also be done, by incorporating the concept of multicarrier (OFDM and spread spectrum as known as multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS. The combination of OFDM, spread spectrum, and MIMO are supported by the advantages of each of these techniques is expected to give a good performance in supporting the reliability of wireless communication. This research aimed to compare the value of BER vs. Eb/No between MC-SS MIMO system and OFDM MIMO system. The test of these systems are conducted by simulation using MatLab 2012 which aims to provide an overview of other related technologies are capable of providing wireless communication reliability.  The results of the simulation shows that the value of BER on MC-SS MIMO system is lower than MIMO OFDM system for all Eb/No. This condition also applies to AWGN and Rayleigh Fading channel. Kombinasi sistem dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kehandalan komunikasi wireless. Salah satu parameter yang menunjukkan kehandalan komunikasi wireless adalah dengan mengurangi nilai BER. Pada teknologi 4G menggunakan kombinasi teknik transmisi OFDM dengan teknik antena MIMO. Selain daripada itu, kombinasi antar teknik transmisi juga dapat dilakukan, yaitu dengan menggabungkan konsep multicarrier OFDM dengan spread spectrum yang selanjutnya dikenal dengan multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS. Kombinasi antara OFDM, spread spectrum, dan MIMO yang didukung oleh kelebihan dari masing-masing teknik tersebut diharapkan mampu memberikan performansi yang baik dalam mendukung kehandalan komunikasi wireless. Dalam paper ini akan dibandingkan performansi menurut BER vs. Eb/No dari sistem

  3. Imaging Transition Zone Thickness Beneath South America from SS Precursors

    Schmerr, N.; Garnero, E.


    We image detailed upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath a number of geologically active regions, including the South American subduction zone, the Scotia plate subduction zone, and several volcanic hotspots (e.g., the Galapagos Islands), in a region ~10,000 km by 10,000 km wide, spanning 70° S to 20° N and 20° W to 110° W. Precursors to the seismic phase SS are analyzed, which form as a result of underside reflections off seismic discontinuities beneath the midpoint of the SS path and are highly sensitive to discontinuity depth and sharpness. Our SS dataset consists of over 15,000 high-quality transverse component broadband displacement seismograms collected from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), the Canadian National Seismic Network (CNSN), as well as data from EarthScope seismic stations, and from the Canadian Northwest Experiment (CANOE) temporary broadband array deployment. This dataset densely samples several regions in our study area and significantly improves the sampling for this area compared to previous precursor studies. Data with common central SS bouncepoints are stacked to enhance precursory phases. Solution discontinuity structure depends on a number of factors, including dominant seismic period, crustal correction, signal-to-noise ratio threshold, and tomography model used for mantle heterogeneity correction. We exclude precursor data predicted to interfere with other seismic phases, such as topside reflections (e.g., s670sS), which have been demonstrated to contaminate final stacks. Solution transition zone thickness is at least 20 km thicker than global average estimates of 242 km along the northwestern portion of the South American subduction complex (Peru, Ecuador, and Columbia); this thickening extends 1000-1500 km to the east beneath the continent, but does not appear to continue south of -20° latitude along the convergent margin. A minimum of 10 km of thickening is imaged to the west of the Scotia

  4. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    De Micheli Lorenzo


    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  5. Optical results of the black hole microquasar SS 433


    We present optical spectroscopic observations of SS 433 during different precessional and orbital phases.Our 2004,2007 and 2008 data provide us a good chance to study the variability of the Hα line at different orbital phases for nearly the same disk inclination.The data show that the Hα of SS 433 usually had a symmetric profile between orbital phases 0.25-0.75,while an asymmetric structure with a strong red peak was observed for other orbital phases.We suggest that the orbital variability of Hα emission is connected with accretion flow from the donor star to the accretion disk.In addition,we attribute the dramatic increase of Hα emission during our 2007 observational run,which had a time scale of one day,to the emergence of strong jets.

  6. Käsihygienia hoitotyössä


    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää Vaasan keskussairaalan teho-osastojen ja kirurgisten vuodeosastojen hoitohenkilökunnan käsihygienian toteutumista hoitotyössä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on lisätä hoitohenkilökunnan tietoa oikeasta käsihygieniasta ja siten estää infektioiden leviämistä osastoilla. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin strukturoidulla kyselylomakkeella Vaasan keskussairaalan aikuisten ja lasten teho-osastoilta ja kirurgisilta vuodeosastoilta. Vastausprosentti oli 81. Kyselylomake ...

  7. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle


    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate re...

  8. Atle Næss: Roten av minus en

    Linda Hamrin Nesby


    Full Text Available Atle Næss har skrevet flere romaner, og to biografier om hhv Edevard Munch og Galileo Galilei. Med Roten av minus en kombinerer han roman- og biografigenren, og skriver både en kjærlighetshistorie, et utkast til en biografi og et riss av en selvbiografi som i sum blir til en roman om hvorvidt livet har den orden og nødvendighet som biografien er satt til å formidle

  9. Revisiting the HST Fine Guidance Sensor Parallax of SS Cygni

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McArthur, Barbara


    Recently, our results for the HST FGS parallax of SS Cyg (Harrison et al. 2000) have been called into question due to a recent radio parallax for this object (Miller-Jones et al. 2013). We have re-analyzed the data for our FGS program on SS Cyg and derive a revised parallax of 7.3 +/- 0.2 mas (137 pc). This parallax is 17% larger than that originally published. We discuss the new analysis effort, and the reasons for the change in our result. We believe we have identified why the radio parallax (8.77 mas) disagrees with the FGS results: We find that if we allow for a roll of two degrees in the HST coordinate system, we obtain the discrepant VLBA radio parallax. It is impossible, however, for the error in the roll of HST to be more than a few tenths of a degree, or else the FGS would not lock-on to the program targets. This roll leads to the large, and erroneous VLBA parallax for SS Cyg. We note that the radio parallax for the black hole system V404 Cyg (Miller-Jones et al. 2009) is also much larger than the spectroscopic parallax of its secondary star. In addition, we closely examine the attempt by Nelan & Bond (2013) to reconcile the FGS data set with the radio result. We identify what we believe to be significant issues with their analysis. Finally, we present a quantitative abundance analysis for SS Cyg, RU Peg, and GK Per derived from moderate resolution K-band spectroscopy. We find severe carbon deficiencies (10 to 20% of the solar value) in the secondary stars of all three objects. We describe the Python program "kmoog" which generates synthetic spectra, and autonomously compares them to observational data.

  10. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  11. Dynamics of single-stranded DNA tethered to a solid

    Radiom, Milad; Paul, Mark R.; Ducker, William A.


    Tethering is used to deliver specific biological and industrial functions. For example, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is tethered to polymerases and long sequences of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during replication, and to solids in DNA microarrays. However, tethering ssDNA to a large object limits not only the available ssDNA conformations, but also the range of time-scales over which the mechanical responses of ssDNA are important. In this work we examine the effect of tethering by measurement of the mechanical response of ssDNA that is tethered at each end to two separate atomic force microscope cantilevers in aqueous solution. Thermal motion of the cantilevers drives the ends of the ssDNA chain at frequencies near 2 kHz. The presence of a tethered molecule makes a large difference to the asymmetric cross-correlation of two cantilevers, which enables resolution of the mechanical properties in our experiments. By analysis of the correlated motion of the cantilevers we extract the friction and stiffness of the ssDNA. We find that the measured friction is much larger than the friction that is usually associated with the unencumbered motion of ssDNA. We also find that the measured relaxation time, ∼30 μs, is much greater than prior measurements of the free-molecule relaxation time. We attribute the difference to the loss of conformational possibilities as a result of constraining the ends of the ssDNA.

  12. 高产铁载体棉田土壤细菌SS05的筛选与鉴定%Screening and identification of a high yield sideropho-resproducing bacteria SS05 isolated from cotton soil

    林天兴; 唐梅; 黄明远; 管芩澜; 龚明福


    [目的]研究从棉田土壤中筛选得到的高产铁载体细菌产铁载体能力、分类地位和抑菌活性.[方法]通过改良蔗糖-天冬氨酸培养基选择性筛选产铁载体细菌,通过分光光度计法测定铁载体活性,通过混菌法测定产铁载体细菌上清液对棉花枯萎病致病菌尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum)的抑菌效果,采用形态学、生理生化鉴定及16S rDNA序列系统发育分析对高产铁载体菌株进行鉴定.[结果]从棉田土壤中筛选到162株产铁载体细菌,30株产铁载体能力较强的细菌中21株具有较高产铁载体能力,菌株SS05的铁载体活性单位达到98.3%;在低铁条件下,SS05上清液对F.oxysporum具有显著的抑制作用;SS05与莫哈韦芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mojavensis)最为接近.[结论]SS05是高产铁载体菌株,与莫哈韦芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mojavensis)最为接近,在低铁培养条件下其上清液对F.oxysporum具有显著的抑制作用.%[Objective] The objective of this study was to examine the production of siderophore, taxonomic position and antifungal activity of high yield siderophore-producing bacteria isolated from Xinjiang cotton field soil. [Methods] high yield siderophore-producing bacteria were isolated by modified sugar-aspartic acid (MSA) medium and siderophore activity was measured by spectrophotometer method. The inhibitory effect against fusarium wilt pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum) was measured by mixed culture method. The strain SS05 was identified according to morphological features, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences of the strain. [Results] There were 163 siderophore-producing bacteria strains isolated from cotton soil and 21 of 30 tested strains has high siderophore-producting capacity. The total siderophore relative content of strain SS05 was 98.3%. The supernatant of SS05 cultured with low concentrations of Fe3+ has significant inhibitory effect against F. Oxysporum. Strain SS05 was

  13. Dynamic Changes in Ginsenoside Rb 2 and Rb3 Content in Solid-state Fermentation%人参须固态发酵中皂苷 Rb 2与 Rb 3的动态变化

    闫梅霞; 崔丽丽; 许世泉; 刘俊霞; 王英平


    以人参须为发酵基质进行赤芝双向固态发酵,测定发酵过程中人参皂苷Rb2和Rb3的含量,分析固态发酵对其影响。发酵作用使基质中Rb2和Rb3含量发生显著变化,但2种皂苷含量变化不同。Rb2在发酵初期和发酵后期都出现含量先升高后降低的过程,Rb3仅在发酵初期含量先升高后降低,发酵结束时基质中未检测到2种皂苷。%Bidirectional solid-state fermentation was carried out through the strains of Ganoderma lucidum in ginseng .The content of ginseno-side Rb2 and Rb3 was determined and the impact on the ginsenoside by solid -state fermentation was analyzed .The content of Rb2 and Rb3 changed significantly through the fermentation ,but the two kinds of ginsenoside content varied differently .The content of Rb2 increased in the early fermentation stage ,then decreased in the late fermentation stage ,the level of Rb3 increased then decreased only in the early fermentation stage ,the two kinds of ginsenoside content was 0 by the end of the fermentation .

  14. Research on Protection Measures of SS7%SS7信令安全防护措施研究




  15. Investigation on SS316, SS440C, and Titanium Alloy Grade-5 used as Single Point Cutting Tool

    Mr.Kothakota Suresh Kumar


    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to find alternative materials for the cutting tools used in turning operations. The conventional materials like tungsten carbide(WC, titanium carbide(TiC, cubic boron nitride (CBN and diamond used as cutting tools for turning operations on lathe are expensive. Titanium grade 5 (Ti-6Al-4V, SS440C/AISI440C and SS316 are some of the materials which satisfy the necessary requirements for turning metals and polymer materials. These materials are machined as per the standard tool signature of high-speed steel tool (HSS and are subjected to necessary heat treatment for hardening and then finish ground. The machined tools thus prepared were used to turn mild steel and aluminium workpieces. The cutting forces at play are determined using lathe tool dynamometer and plotted on a MCD (Merchant’s Circle Diagram. The cutting tools are also subjected to tests to determine tool life, wear and work hardening. It is found that the performance and tool life of SS440C is better and cost effective compared to existing tools. Even though Ti-6Al-4V is comparatively costly it could be used for obtaining good surface finish.

  16. Beginning of the End: The Leadership of SS Obersturmbannfuehrer Jochen Peiper


    SS Sonderkommando Zossen (special commando) and SS Sonderkommando Jüterbog into the Adolf-Hitler- Standarte (Adolf Hitler guards). Hitler, himself...members, including Dietrich, were promoted for “distinguished service” (1991, 13). Butler points out that in 1934 the unit was renamed SS Standarte ...though little is known of this period (Agte 1999, 7-9; Westemeier 1996, 5-6). His next leadership experience was in the SS Reiter Standarte where he

  17. Fertilization strategies affect phosphorus forms and release from soils and suspended solids.

    Borda, Teresa; Celi, Luisella; Bünemann, Else K; Oberson, Astrid; Frossard, Emmanuel; Barberis, Elisabetta


    The release of phosphorus from soils in surface runoff is strongly influenced by fertilizer inputs and contributes significantly to agriculturally driven eutrophication. This work evaluated the forms and availability of P in bulk soils and suspended solids (SS) produced by a water dispersion test that mimics the action of rain events and/or irrigation. This test was applied on soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with mineral N, P, and K (NPK); mineral P and K (PK); bovine slurry and P (S); or manure and P (M) for 15 yr. The P surplus in the treated soils was in the order NPK fertilizer-derived P salts in the suspended solids control P forms and exchangeability for mineral fertilizer treatments, whereas in M soil carbon content assumed a key role.

  18. 基于OPNET的SS7协议MTP2层仿真实现%Simulation Realization of MTP2 in SS7 Based on OPNET

    黄显安; 王可人



  19. SS7电力机车再生制动的运用分析%Application of Regenerative Braking for SS1 Electric Locomotive




  20. 27 CFR 40.361 - Execution and filing of Form SS-4.


    ... such district as provided for in 26 CFR § 301.6091-1. The application shall be signed by: (a) The... Form SS-4. 40.361 Section 40.361 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Execution and filing of Form SS-4. The application on IRS form SS-4, together with any...

  1. Magic-Angle-Spinning Solid-State NMR of Membrane Proteins

    Baker, Lindsay A.; Folkers, Gert E.; Sinnige, Tessa; Houben, Klaartje; Kaplan, M.; van der Cruijsen, Elwin A W; Baldus, Marc


    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) provides increasing possibilities to examine membrane proteins in different molecular settings, ranging from synthetic bilayers to whole cells. This flexibility often enables ssNMR experiments to be directly correlated with membrane protein function. In this

  2. PEG-SS-PPS: reduction-sensitive disulfide block copolymer vesicles for intracellular drug delivery.

    Cerritelli, Simona; Velluto, Diana; Hubbell, Jeffrey A


    Under appropriate conditions, block copolymeric macroamphiphiles will self-assemble in water to form vesicles, referred to as polymersomes. We report here polymersomes that can protect biomolecules in the extracellular environment, are taken up by endocytosis, and then suddenly burst within the early endosome, releasing their contents prior to exposure to the harsh conditions encountered after lysosomal fusion. Specifically, block copolymers of the hydrophile poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the hydrophobe poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) were synthesized with an intervening disulfide, PEG17-SS-PPS30. Polymersomes formed from this block copolymer were demonstrated to disrupt in the presence of intracellular concentrations of cysteine. In cellular experiments, uptake, disruption, and release were observed within 10 min of exposure to cells, well within the time frame of the early endosome of endolysosomal processing. This system may be useful in cytoplasmic delivery of biomolecular drugs such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and DNA.

  3. Unsteady Processes in Solid Propellant Combustion,


    0—AflO ~5a INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECNICA AEROESPACIAL MADRID (SPAIN) F/S 21/9.2UNSTEADY PROCESSES IN SOLID PROPELLANT COMBUSTION . (U) MAY...PRO C E SS E S IN SOLID P R O P E L L A N T C O M B U S T I O N H A. Crespo and M. Kindelán Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial Madrid , Spain j

  4. Plan estratégico S&S

    Sejnaui, Pamela


    S&S es una empresa de comercialización de calzado, bolsos y accesorios, que cuenta con tres puntos de venta en la ciudad de Cali. El panorama actual de las ventas de la empresa no es positivo pues hay una preocupante disminución de ventas. Teniendo en cuenta la situación actual que enfrenta la empresa, el objetivo de este plan estratégico es ofrecer una propuesta de soluciones que se puedan implementar en un corto y mediano plazo para lograr la sostenibilidad futura de la empresa.

  5. Study on dynamic performance tests for SS7B and SS7C type electric locomotives%SS7B与SS7C型电力机车的动力学性能试验研究

    俞展猷; 封全保



  6. Tapahtuman mallintaminen kauppakeskusmiljöössä

    Mäenpää, Piia


    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda kauppakeskusmiljööseen sopiva tapahtumakonsepti kohdennetulle asiakaskohderyhmälle, tässä tapauksessa seniori-ikäisille yli 65-vuotiaille. Kokonaisvaltaisesti tapahtuman mallinnuksen tavoitteeksi määriteltiin lisäksi uudenlaisen asiakaslähtöisen palvelukulttuurin luominen kauppakeskusmiljööseen, asiakkaiden aktivointi palveluiden sekä synergian luominen yksityisten eri toimijoiden välillä kauppakeskuksessa ja osuuskaupan sisällä. Konseptoinnin tausto...

  7. QR-koodi turvallisuusviestinnässä

    Käkönen, Valtteri


    Tämän päättötyön aiheena oli kartoittaa QR-koodin käyttöä ja käyttömahdollisuuksia turvallisuusviestinnässä. QR-koodi on lyhenne sanoista Quick Response ja tämä tekniikka on lähtöisin tehtaista, joissa liukuhihnalla kulkevien tavaroiden nopea tunnistaminen on tarpeellista. QR-koodin voi lukea kamerallisella mobiililaitteella. Yleensä QR-koodi luodaan internetsivusta, jolloin käyttäjä on helppo ohjata halutun aineiston ääreen URL-osoitteen pituudesta riippumatta. Selvitys aloitettiin etsim...

  8. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail:; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  9. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  10. Antioxidant and antiedema properties of solid-state cultured honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (higher Basidiomycetes), extracts and their polysaccharide and polyphenol contents.

    Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean Teik


    Culinary-medicinal honey mushroom or Mi-Huan-Ku, Armillaria mellea (AM), is a popular ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine for treating diseases of geriatric patients. This study aimed to examine the effect of cultured substrates on the mycelial growth of AM and evaluate its antioxidant and antiedema activities as well as its total polysaccharide and polyphenol contents. Results showed that AM grew best on the maize medium and worst on the potato medium. AM ethanol extract (AM-EtOH) showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than AM aqueous extract (AM-H₂O). However, they were weak in metal chelation and reducing power. AM-EtOH but not AM-H₂O at 200 mg/kg showed antiedema activity in rats. The total β-glucan content of AM-H₂O and AM-EtOH was 21.95% and 3.50%, respectively. AM-EtOH showed higher phenol but lower flavonoid content than AM-H₂O. These results indicate that maize is a good source of substrate for mass production of AM mycelia, and its potency of DPPH radical scavenging and antiedema activities was contributed mainly by the phenolic compounds, not the level of polysaccharide content.

  11. Rapid Radio Flaring during an Anomalous Outburst of SS Cyg

    Mooley, K P; Fender, R P; Sivakoff, G R; Rumsey, C; Perrott, Y; Titterington, D; Grainge, K; Russell, T D; Carey, S H; Hickish, J; Razavi-Ghods, N; Scaife, A; Scott, P; Waagen, E O


    The connection between accretion and jet production in accreting white dwarf binary systems, especially dwarf novae, is not well understood. Radio wavelengths provide key insights into the mechanisms responsible for accelerating electrons, including jets and outflows. Here we present densely-sampled radio coverage, obtained with the Arcminute MicroKelvin Imager Large Array, of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its February 2016 anomalous outburst. The outburst displayed a slower rise (3 days per mag) in the optical than typical ones, and lasted for more than 3 weeks. Rapid radio flaring on timescales <1 hour was seen throughout the outburst. The most intriguing behavior in the radio was towards the end of the outburst where a fast, luminous ("giant"), flare peaking at ~20 mJy and lasting for 15 minutes was observed. This is the first time that such a flare has been observed in SS Cyg, and insufficient coverage could explain its non-detection in previous outbursts. These data, together with past radio observatio...

  12. Cardiac involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and correlation of valvular lesions with anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B antibody levels.

    Shahin, Amira A; Shahin, Hesham A; Hamid, Magdy A; Amin, Mona A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to correlate the findings with levels of anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL). Sixty-two patients with SLE were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent complete history taking, clinical assessment, and standard two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, and aCL levels were measured using a standardized ELISA test. The patients were subdivided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of valvular involvement. The two subgroups were then compared. Valvular involvement was present in 19 patients (30.6%), pericardial effusion in 12 patients (19.4%), impaired left ventricular relaxation abnormalities in 2 patients (3.2%), and pulmonary hypertension in 3 patients (4.8%). More patients in the valvular involvement group had positive anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies than in the valvular noninvolvement group (7/19 vs. 4/43). The difference was significant, with P anti-Ro/SS-A levels were significantly higher in the valvular involvement group (33.7 +/- 36.0 vs. 13.7 +/- 25.1; P anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B antibodies and the pathogenesis of the valvular lesions in SLE patients.

  13. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    Dong K


    Full Text Available Kai Dong,1 Yan Yan,2 Pengchong Wang,2 Xianpeng Shi,2 Lu Zhang,2 Ke Wang,2 Jianfeng Xing,2 Yalin Dong1 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 2School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA and a multidrug resistance (MDR reversal agent (D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS. The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG and stearic acid (SA. The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE. Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in

  14. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.


    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Reversibly shielded DNA polyplexes based on bioreducible PDMAEMA-SS-PEG-SS-PDMAEMA triblock copolymers mediate markedly enhanced nonviral gene transfection.

    Zhu, Caihong; Zheng, Meng; Meng, Fenghua; Mickler, Frauke Martina; Ruthardt, Nadia; Zhu, Xiulin; Zhong, Zhiyuan


    Reversibly shielded DNA polyplexes based on bioreducible poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-SS-poly(ethylene glycol)-SS-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA-SS-PEG-SS-PDMAEMA) triblock copolymers were designed, prepared and investigated for in vitro gene transfection. Two PDMAEMA-SS-PEG-SS-PDMAEMA copolymers with controlled compositions, 6.6-6-6.6 and 13-6-13 kDa, were obtained by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) using CPADN-SS-PEG-SS-CPADN (CPADN: 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithionaphthalenoate; PEG: 6 kDa) as a macro-RAFT agent. Like their nonreducible PDMAEMA-PEG-PDMAEMA analogues, PDMAEMA-SS-PEG-SS-PDMAEMA triblock copolymers could effectively condense DNA into small particles with average diameters less than 120 nm and close to neutral zeta potentials (0 ∼ +6 mV) at and above an N/P ratio of 3/1. The resulting polyplexes showed excellent colloidal stability against 150 mM NaCl, which contrasts with polyplexes of 20 kDa PDMAEMA homopolymer. In the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), however, polyplexes of PDMAEMA-SS-PEG-SS-PDMAEMA were rapidly deshielded and unpacked, as revealed by significant increase of positive surface charges as well as increase of particle sizes to over 1000 nm. Release of DNA in response to 10 mM DTT was further confirmed by gel retardation assays. These polyplexes, either stably or reversibly shielded, revealed a low cytotoxicity (over 80% cell viability) at and below an N/P ratio of 12/1. Notably, in vitro transfection studies showed that reversibly shielded polyplexes afforded up to 28 times higher transfection efficacy as compared to stably shielded control under otherwise the same conditions. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) studies revealed that reversibly shielded polyplexes efficiently delivered and released pDNA into the perinuclei region as well as nuclei of COS-7 cells. Hence, reduction-sensitive reversibly shielded DNA

  16. Discussion on Security Enhancement of SS7 in Mobile Network%移动网络SS7漏洞的安全增强方案探讨



    七号信令协议SS7是基于信任的移动网络的通信协议,故移动网络收到的任何请求都被认为是合法的。任何能登入SS7网络服务器或网关的人,都可以向电信网络发送位置漫游和重定向请求,从而获取用户个人信息。为研究黑客或者不法分子利用这一漏洞窃听用户的语音通话和短消息内容所造成的信息安全问题,分析了通过对移动用户归属位置寄存器HLR的信令增强改造,从而有效防范这一漏洞的方法,旨在更好地保护用户信息安全。%SS7 is a trusted mobile network communication protocol in which any request received by mobile network is considered to be legal. Anyone who logs into an SS7 network server or gateway can send location roaming and redirection requests to telecom network to obtain personal information about the user. In order to tackle the information security problem that hackers or criminals use the hole to listen to tap phone calls and short message contents, a method of reinforcing and transforming HLR to prevent the hole was analyzed to better guarantee user information security.

  17. Effects of C/N and solid content of raw materials on electricity generation of cattle manure fermentation%C/N比和含固率对牛粪发酵产电性能的影响

    王成显; 沈建国; 张小梅; 潘月庆; 林童; 张艺臻; 辛言君


    waste and promote the development of agricultural modernization, an electricity production device with double chambers based on MFC was built and investigated to generate electricity from cow dung and wheat straw. Two ratios of carbon-nitrogen (C/N) (20 and 30) and 3 levels of solid content (1%, 5% and 10%) were selected respectively to study their impacts on the electricity generation efficiency. The variations of many factors were monitored during this process, including voltage, current, power density, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and pH value. The process of electricity production was finished when the voltage reduced to a very low level that was similar to the initial voltage. The results showed that when the solid content was 1%, the electricity generation performance was better than others. When the C/N was 20, the highest voltage, current and power density were 0.57 V, 1.12 mA and 464 mW/m2, respectively. When the C/N was 30, the highest voltage, current and power density were 0.80 V, 0.76 mA and 422 mW/m2, respectively. After the fermentation, VFA concentration and pH value changed obviously under different C/N and solid content. When the C/N was 20, and the solid content was 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively, compared with the initial value, the VFA concentration was increased by 270%, 255% and 313%, respectively, and the pH value was reduced by 0.45, 1.11 and 0.92, respectively; when the C/N was 30, and the solid content was 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively, compared with the initial value, the VFA concentration was increased by 281%, 243% and 395%, respectively, and the pH value was reduced by 0.88, 0.90 and 1.13, respectively. Additionally, the organic matter, total nutrient content and pH value in the solid-state remainder after fermentation met the standards for organic fertilizers of agricultural industry standard (NY525-2012). Therefore, the remainders in solid state after fermentation could be used as organic fertilizers or raw materials of organic

  18. Determination of Soluble Solid Content in Winter Shoot by Millipore Filter-Refractometry%微孔滤膜--折光法测定冬笋中可溶性固形物含量

    杨柳; 朱杰丽; 郑俊旦; 尚素微; 吴翠蓉; 蒋步云; 柴振林


    Soluble solid content in winter shoot ofPhyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens was determined by millipore filter-refractometry. At the same time, continuous determinations were conducted on aqueous solution of 10% sucrose, oxalic acid and citric acid for 6 times each. The result demonstrated that the average values of different solutions were 9.83%, 9.79%, 9.71% respectively and standard deviation of 6 tests was 1.31%, 1.04% and 1.05% respectively. Soluble solid content in winter shoot was 6.9% -8.2% and the average content was 7.5%.%采作微孔滤膜--折光法对冬笋可溶性固形物含量进行测定,同时分别连续测定含量为10%的蔗糖、草酸和柠檬酸水溶液各6次,以验证该方法测定可溶性固形物含量的可行性,结果表明:以该方法测得的蔗糖、草酸、柠檬酸水溶液的平均值分别为9.83%、9.79%、9.71%,其相对标准偏差分别为1.31%、1.04%、1.05%;冬笋中可溶性固形物为6.9%~8.2%,平均含量为7.5%。

  19. Measurement of outgassing rate for GTAW welded SS304 materials

    Bukhari, Mohsin; Mukherjee, Samiran; Panchal, Paresh; Gangradey, Ranjana; Shukla, Ajit Kumar


    Outgassing plays an important role to achieve Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) and to maintaining the required vacuum level of the vessel. For a large size machines like Tokamak, accelerators, space simulation chambers, outgassing from the structural materials and their welding sections need to be checked during the design. Hence studies were carried out for the measurement of outgassing rate for the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) welded SS304 materials at OutGassing Measurement System (OGMS) at IPR Extension Lab. The system consists of two chambers, pumping chamber and sample chamber, made up of 304 grades Stainless Steel pre-air baked at 400 °C. The pumping chamber connected to a turbo molecular pump having pumping speed 240 l/s, backed by a rotary vacuum pump having pumping speed 5m3/hour. Pumping chamber and sample chamber connected through a 100 CF flange having a circular aperture of 5.2 mm diameter. The conductance of aperture is 2.47 l/s. Bare SS304 sample & GTAW welded SS304 samples are prepared with 100mmX50mmX5mm and 95mmX55mmX5mm dimensions respectively. The base outgassing rate of the blank system is 2.34×10-11 mbar l/s-cm2. The calculated outgassing rate is 3.66×10-10 & 4.37×10-10 mbar l/s-cm2 for bare sample & welded sample. From the partial pressure analysis it has been found that hydrogen and nitrogen are in the partial level of 3.35×10-9 & 2.36×10-9 for bare sample and 3.14×10-9 mbar & 2.33×10-9 mbar for welded sample. It has been observed that, the GTAW doesn't have major effect on outgassing rate and one can use welded joint for designing a large vessel welding sections.

  20. Jets of SS 433 on scales of dozens of parsecs

    Panferov, Alexander A.


    Context. The radio nebula W 50 harbours the relativistic binary system SS 433, which is a source of powerful wind and jets. The origin of W 50 is wrapped in the interplay of the wind, supernova remnant, and jets. The evolution of the jets of SS 433 on the scale of the nebula W 50 is a Rosetta stone for its origin. Aims: To disentangle the roles of these components, we study the physical conditions of the propagation of the jets of SS 433 inside W 50 and determine the deceleration of the jets. Methods: We analysed the morphology and parameters of the interior of W 50 using the available observations of the eastern X-ray lobe, which trace the jet. In order to estimate deceleration of this jet, we devised a simplistic model of the viscous interaction of a jet, via turbulence, with the ambient medium. This model fits mass entrainment from the ambient medium into the jets of the radio galaxy 3C 31, the well-studied case of continuously decelerating jets. Results: X-ray observations suggest that the eastern jet is hollow, persists through W50, and is recollimated to the opening angle of 30°. From the thermal emission of the eastern X-ray lobe, we determine a pressure of P 3 × 10-11 erg/cm3 inside W 50. In the frame of a theory of the dynamics of radiative supernova remnants and stellar wind bubbles, in combination with other known parameters this pressure restricts the origin of W 50 to a supernova occuring 100 000 yr ago. Also, this pressure in our entrainment model gives a deceleration of the jet by 60% in the bounds of the spherical component of W 50, of radius 40 pc. In this case, the age of the jet should be ≪27 000 yr so as to satisfy the sphericity of W 50. The entrainment model comes to the viscous stress in a jet of a form σ = αP, where the viscosity parameter α is predefined by the model.

  1. Influência de diferentes teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados Influence of different contents of insoluble suspended solidS on rheological characteristics of natural and despectinized pineapple juice

    Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz


    Full Text Available Estudou-se, neste trabalho, a influência dos sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi in natura e sucos tratados com enzima pectinolítica. Cada um dos dois tipos de suco foi estudado através de seis frações, divididas em quatro peneiradas, uma centrifugada e uma integral, representando seis teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos. Os dados reométricos foram coletados através de um reômetro Haake rotovisco e os dados experimentais ajustados pelo modelo de Mizrahi-Berk. Das seis frações in natura, quatro apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana e outra como dilatante enquanto das seis frações tratadas enzimaticamente cinco apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana. O teor de sólidos insolúveis suspensos mostrou-se o principal fator responsável pelo comportamento reológico dos sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados.The influence of insoluble suspended solid contents in rheological characteristics of pineapple juice, both natural and treated with pectinolytic enzymes, was studied. Each type of juice was examined by six fractions, divided into four sievings, one centrifuged and the others whole, representing six contents of insoluble suspended solids. The rheometric data were collected by means of Haake rotovisco rheometer and the experimental data were adjusted by the Mizrahi-Berk model. In the natural material four fractions showed pseudoplastic behaviour, one characterized as newtonian and the others as dilatant, whereas in the enzyme treated material, five fractions presented pseudoplastic behaviour and one was characterized as newtonian. The insoluble suspended solid content was found to be the principal factor responsible for this rheological behaviour of natural and despectinized pineapple juices.

  2. Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Qinlong Zhu

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regulator SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides, to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS. In yeast two-hybrid assays, SsMYB3 interacted with the Arabidopsis AtTT8 and AtTTG1 to reform the ternary transcriptional complex, and also interacted with two tobacco bHLH proteins (NtAn1a and NtJAF13-1 and a WD40 protein, NtAn11-1. Ectopic overexpression of SsMYB3 in transgenic tobacco led to almost-white flowers by greatly reducing anthocyanin levels and enhancing accumulation of condensed tannins. This overexpression of SsMYB3 upregulated the key PA genes (NtLAR and NtANR and late anthocyanin structural genes (NtDFR and NtANS, but downregulated the expression of the final anthocyanin gene NtUFGT. The formative SsMYB3-complex represses anthocyanin accumulation by directly suppressing the expression of the final anthocyanin structural gene NtUFGT, through competitive inhibition or destabilization of the endogenous NtAn2-complex formation. These results suggested that SsMYB3 may form a transcription activation complex to regulate PA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant and transgenic tobacco. Our findings suggest that SsMYB3 is involved in the regulation of PA biosynthesis in coleus and has the potential as a molecular tool for manipulating biosynthesis of PAs in fruits and other crops using metabolic engineering.

  3. First results from solid state neutral particle analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Zhang, J. Z.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Heidbrink, W. W.


    Full function integrated, compact solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) based on absolute extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiode have been successfully implemented on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak to measure energetic particle. The ssNPA system has been operated in advanced current mode with fast temporal and spatial resolution capabilities, with both active and passive charge exchange measurements. It is found that the ssNPA flux signals are increased substantially with neutral beam injection (NBI). The horizontal active array responds to modulated NBI beam promptly, while weaker change is presented on passive array. Compared to near-perpendicular beam, near-tangential beam brings more passive ssNPA flux and a broader profile, while no clear difference is observed on active ssNPA flux and its profile. Significantly enhanced intensities on some ssNPA channels have been observed during ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  4. In memory of S.S. Aydarov (1928–2014

    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.


    Full Text Available The obituary is dedicated to Sayar Sitdikovich Aidarov (1928-2014, an eminent scholar, founder of the Kazan architectural school of scientific restoration. He was the first to use scientific historical and theoretical methods of study and conservation of the ruined architectural remains on the Bolghar settlement site, laid the scientific foundations of the restoration and reconstruction of the Bolghar reserve and other monuments of the Middle Ages. Subsequently, S. S. Aidarov developed projects of restoration of the Kazan Kremlin, Sviyazhsk and scientific reconstruction of the Bilyar mosque. He also sought to reflect the traditions of the Bulgar-Tatar architecture in modern architecture of Tatarstan and participated in the design work on Tatarstan National Library, the Ramadan Mosque, the Kul Sharif mosque and other projects. In the field of education, S.S. Aidarov founded the Department of theory, history and ethnic problems of architecture.


    Evy Herawati


    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate and determine how far the application of information system inventories that are running (including management controls and application controls have been able to provide reliable information and where time and reduce risk to an acceptable level by the company also provides recommendations for companies in order to minimize the risk that existed at the moment. The research method used “around the computer” is testing and evaluating audit through management control, in performing input and output controls for application systems based on the quality of input supply and output that will produce a report. The results of this study was to determine the inventory of information system applications that use the SS company can provide adequate and reliable information and timely, thus simplifying the management to make sound decisions related to inventory policy.Keywords: audit, information systems inventory, control, corporate

  6. Automaatioteknologia hyvinvointia edistämässä

    Tommiska, Janika


    Automaatioteknologia hyvinvointialalla saa koko ajan lisää tilaa. Sovellusten ja laitteiden käyttö on tullut ihmisille tutummaksi ja uusia ideoita syntyy jatkuvasta. Automaatioteknologian tarkoituksena ei ole vähentää työntekijöiden määrää vaan vapauttaa heidän aikaansa, jotta he voisivat käyttää sitä yhä enemmän potilaiden henkilökohtaiseen ohjaamiseen ja auttamiseen. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on pohtia automaatioteknologioita hyvinvoinnin edistämisen näkökulmasta. Työssä määritellään...

  7. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    Aboul-Magd Mohammed O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI, a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input

  8. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny


    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give for BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.

  9. [Laboratory-based evaluation of "INOVA/QUANTA Lite" to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA, SS-A and SS-B].

    Yamauchi, Megumi S; Shingaki, Naohiko; Yamane, Nobuhisa


    We evaluated QUANTA Lite reagent series (INOVA Diagnostics, CA, USA) to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA, SS-A and SS-B, in parallel with MESACUP (Medical & Biological Laboratories, Nagoya). Overall agreements between two reagents for qualitative interpretation ranged from 77.5% (ANA) to 99.0%(anti-SS-B antibodies). When we compared to the results by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test on HEp-2 cells, QUANTA Lite ANA demonstrated better sensitivity and specificity; 92.2% versus 76.5% in sensitivity and 92.1% versus 86.8% in specificity. Also, determining anti-chromatin antibodies and IFA test onto Chrithidia luciliae demonstrated greater interpretive correlation to detect anti-ds DNA by QUANTA Lite than by MESACUP. All the discrepant sera to which QUANTA Lite SS-A gave positive interpretations were confirmed to contain the antibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, which is supplemented to QUANTA Lite capture-probes. With these results, we can conclude that QUANTA Lite has superiorities over MESACUP; (1) to detect a variety of autoantibodies consisting of ANA, (2) to have a better correlation with confirmatory tests to detect anti-ds DNA antibodies, (3)to detect additional autoantibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, and (4) to have an enough compatibility in determining anti-SS-B antibodies.

  10. Influence of total solid content on anaerobic digestion of swine manure and kinetic analysis%猪粪固体含量对厌氧消化产气性能影响及动力学分析

    杜连柱; 梁军锋; 杨鹏; 高文萱; 张克强


    contents on anaerobic digestion at TS of 3.0%, 7.5%, 12.0%and 15.0%under mesophilic conditions (35℃). In the period of 62 d, the accumulative biogas production, volume percentage of CH4 in biogas, TS and VS, pH value before and after digestion were monitored. The biogas production and methane yields were key indicators which were used to evaluate the anaerobic digestion, and the first-order kinetic was used to model the anaerobic digestion process. The results showed that the biogas yields basing on VS decreased with total solids fraction increasing from 3.0%to 15.0%and the biogas yields were 579, 527, 356 and 237 mL/g. The CH4 yields at different solids fraction were 317, 326, 222 and 140 mL/g, respectively. The CH4 yields of 3.0% and 7.5% accounted for 66.9% and 68.8% of the theoretical methane productivity (474 mL/g) which was calculated by the protein, fat and carbohydrate content in swine manure. The maximum CH4 production rate of different TS appeared at 2 d, the values were 37.0, 24.4, 10.4 and 4.7 mL/(g·d), respectively and the CH4 production rate during the experiment decreased with the increasing of TS generally. The volume percentage of CH4 in biogas was between 67%and 74%after 22 d, the value of solids fraction at 15.0%was the lowest. TS and VS degradation efficiency of anaerobic digestion decreased with the increasing of solids fraction from 7.5%to 15.0%, TS and VS degradation efficiency at TS of 7.5%were 49.2%and 65.5%, but that of TS at 15.0% were 37.4% and 46.9%. The VS degradation efficiency at TS of 3.0% was lower than that of the others mainly attributed to the TS content in inoculum. The first-order kinetic was used to simulate the anaerobic digestion process of swine manure at different TS contents, the results indicated that it was suitable for modeling the digestion when the solids fraction were 3.0% and 7.5%, and the degradation rate constants were 0.126 and 0.063 d-1. The first-order kinetic was not fitting well for the TS content of 12.0%and 15

  11. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS.

  12. Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content.

    Mockaitis, G; Pantoja, J L R; Rodrigues, J A D; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M


    This paper describes a new type of anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) in which the support for the biomass consists of polyurethane foam strips placed along the length of the bioreactor. This configuration prevents the accumulation of biomass or solids in the bed as well as clogging and channeling effects. In this study, complex synthetic wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand of 404.4 mg O(2) L(-1) is treated by the reactor. The ABFSB, which has a working volume of 4.77 L, was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. A removal efficiency of 78 % for organic matter and an effluent pH of 6.97 were achieved. An analysis of the organic volatile acids produced by the ABFSB indicated that it operated under stable conditions during an experimental run of 36 days. The stable and efficient operation of the bioreactor was compared with the configurations of other anaerobic bioreactors used for complex wastewater treatment. The results of the study indicate that the ABFSB is a technological alternative to packed-bed bioreactors.

  13. Turvallisuuskulttuuri säteilyn lääketieteellisessä käytössä ja hoitotyössä : kirjallisuuskatsaus

    Hallila, Mikko; HEinÄNen, Mikko; Suopanki, Sari


    Opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa systemaattisen kirjallisuushaun avulla, mitä on turvallisuuskulttuuri säteilyn lääketieteellisessä käytössä ja hoitotyössä. Teimme kirjallisuushaun käyttämällä eri tietokantoja ennalta määriteltyjen hakusanojen pohjalta. Työmme eteni systemaattisen kirjallisuuskatsauksen rakenteen mukaisesti. Kirjallisuushaussa löytyi lopulta kolme kriteerimme täyttävää artikkelia, jotka käsittelivät turvallisuuskulttuuria säteilyn lääketieteellisessä käytössä....

  14. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian


    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  15. Multi-residue methods for the determination of over four hundred pesticides in solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with gas and liquid chromatograph.

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Ilyasova, Gulzhakhan; Kaczynski, Piotr; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Mojsak, Patrycja; Szabunko, Julia


    For the first time three methods: matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD), original and modified QuEChERS, with and without clean up step were studied in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of various classes of pesticides from solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices. Determinations over four hundred pesticides were performed by gas and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/LC/MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring. The proposed methods were validated on sugar beets and their technological product beet molasses. In general, the recoveries obtained for the original QuEChERS and MSPD method were lower (gas and liquid chromatography. The most compounds showed signal enhancement and it was compensated by using matrix-matched calibration and modified QuEChERS characterized lower matrix effects. The confirmation of suitability citrate QuEChERS optimized method was to use for routine testing of several dozen samples determination and residue of epoxiconazole and tebuconazole (both at 0.01mgkg(-1)) in the samples of beet molasses and cyfluthrin (0.06mgkg(-1)) in sugar beet were found.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles

    Yu, L. L.; Yang, K.; Mu, R. H.; Zhang, N.; Su, L.


    The PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles were obtained using disulfide containing dimethacrylate (SS) as cross-linking agent, using polyethylene glycol methyl acrylate (PEGMA), N-Vinyl-ε-caprolactam (VCL), and methacrylic acid (MAA) as monomers via homogeneous polymerization in aqueous. The PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR and TGA. The particle size and morphology variation in different environments were detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is the very method that PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles can be obtained in this study.

  17. On the {\\ss}- decay in the Li-8 and Li-9 atoms

    Frolov, Alexei M


    The nuclear {\\ss}- decay from the ground and some excited states of the three-electron Li-8 and Li-9 atoms is considered. The final state probabilities for the arising Be+ ion are determined numerically with the use of highly accurate bound state wave functions of the Li atom and Be+ ion. The probability of electron ionization during the nuclear {\\ss}- decay of the Li atom is evaluated numerically. We also discuss a possibility to observe the double {\\ss}- decay by using the known values of the final state probabilities for the regular nuclear {\\ss}- decay.

  18. A combination of novel solid-state NMR methods and related software to study molecular assemblies and biomolecules

    Gradmann, S.H.E.


    Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) is a versatile spectroscopic method that can be applied to various samples relevant in life and material science and provides atomic insight into molecular structure, dynamics and assembly. The present thesis describes the diversity and utility of ssNMR

  19. Operational strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in continuously stirred tank reactors

    Angelidaki, Irini; Cui, J.; Chen, X.;


    Three operational strategies to reduce inhibition due to ammonia during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) rich in proteins were investigated. Feed was prepared by diluting SS-OFMSW (ratio of 1:4) with tap water or reactor proces...

  20. Effects of crystallization in the presence of the diastereomer on the crystal properties of (SS)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.

    Gu, C H; Grant, D J


    The formation and separation of diastereomers is widely used to resolve enantiomers. However, during crystallization of a chiral compound from a solution containing its diastereomer, the diastereomer may be incorporated as an impurity into the host crystal lattice, leading to changes in the thermodynamic properties and intrinsic dissolution rate of the host crystals. This hypothesis was tested by growing crystals of (SS)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (+PC) from aqueous solution containing various amounts of (RS)-(-)-ephedrine hydrochloride (-EC). Although the melting phase diagram of these two solid compounds, determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), shows eutectic behavior, 0.034-2.4 mol% of -EC was incorporated into the crystal lattice of +PC during crystallization to form terminal solid solutions with a segregation coefficient of 0.31. In a single batch, the larger crystals contain more incorporated impurities than smaller crystals. The enthalpy and entropy of fusion measured by DSC decrease with increasing incorporation of the guest molecules into the host, indicating increases in the enthalpy and entropy of the solid. The disruption index, which indicates the disruptive effect of guest molecules in the host crystal lattice, is 60 at lattice. The average intrinsic dissolution rate of impure crystals in 2-propanol is 15.8% lower than that of pure host crystals, suggesting the formation of stable solid solutions.

  1. Effect of iron content on the structure and disorder of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses: A high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    Kim, Hyo-Im; Sur, Jung Chul; Lee, Sung Keun


    Despite its geochemical importance and implications for the properties of natural magmatic melts, understanding the detailed structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses remains among the outstanding problems in geochemistry. This is mainly because solid-state NMR techniques, one of the most versatile experimental methods to probe the structure of oxide glasses, cannot be fully utilized for exploring the structural details of iron-bearing glasses as the unpaired electrons in Fe induce strong local magnetic fields that mask the original spectroscopic features (i.e., paramagnetic effect). Here, we report high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR spectra of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses (Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2, Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.89 ± 0.04, thus containing both ferric and ferrous iron) with varying XFe2O3 [=Fe2O3/(Na2O + Fe2O3)], containing up to 22.9 wt% Fe2O3. This compositional series involves Fe-Na substitution at constant SiO2 contents of 66.7 mol% in the glasses. For both nuclides, the NMR spectra exhibit a decrease in the signal intensities and an increase in the peak widths with increasing iron concentration partly because of the paramagnetic effect. Despite the intrinsic difficulties that result from the pronounced paramagnetic effect, the 29Si and 17O NMR results yield structural details regarding the effect of iron content on Q speciation, spatial distribution of iron, and the extent of polymerization in the iron-bearing silicate glasses. The 29Si NMR spectra show an apparent increase in highly polymerized Q species with increasing XFe2O3 , suggesting an increase in the degree of melt polymerization. The 17O 3QMAS NMR spectra exhibit well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) peaks with varying iron concentration. By replacing Na2O with Fe2O3 (and thus with increasing iron content), the fraction of Na-O-Si decreases. Quantitative consideration of this effect confirms that the degree of polymerization is likely to

  2. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of HVOF spray coated SS 410 steel

    Amarendra, H. J.; Prathap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Abhishek, A. M.; Madhu surya, K. C.; Gujjar gowda, S.; Anilkumar, T.


    The hydro turbine materials surface is degraded due to the slurry erosion and cavitation. The solid particles carried by water impacting the material results in slurry erosion. The damage occurred due to slurry erosion is the concern, when considered individually. The erosion damage is observed to be severe when slurry erosion and cavitation are combined. The hydro turbine material, martensitic stainless (SS 410) is surface modified with 80Ni-Cr by High Velocity Oxy Fuel spray process. The coated material subjected to post thermal treatment at a temperature of 950 ° C, soaked at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h are subjected to combined slurry and cavitation erosion test. The cavitation is created by using Cavitation Inducers. The tests are conducted by using silica sand as the erodent with three different sizes of 150, 200 and 300 μm. The results are compared with the as-received specimen. The results confirmed the effect of heat treatment on the end results, as the coated thermal treated specimens showed better erosion resistance against the as-received specimen. The eroded specimens are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope. The thermal treated HVOF coated specimens shown the better erosion resistance.

  3. 近红外法测定豆浆蛋白质、脂肪和可溶性固形物含量%Determination of Protein,Fat and Soluble Solids Content of Soy Milk by Near -Infrared Spectroscopy

    邱燕燕; 孙娟娟; 魏肖鹏; 栾广忠; 张玉静; 胡亚云; 辰巳英三


    利用傅里叶变换近红外光谱仪采用积分球漫反射方式对60个豆浆样品进行光谱的采集,结合常规分析结果分别建立了3种成分的近红外校正模型。结果表明:豆浆蛋白质、脂肪及可溶性固形物光谱分别经过消除常数偏移量、一阶导数和矢量归一化(SNV)预处理后建模效果最好。蛋白质、脂肪和可溶性固形物含量的校正模型决定系数(R2)分别为:0.9664、0.9500和0.9507,交叉验证均方根差(RMSECV)依次为0.0769、0.0874和0.316;对模型进行外部验证,验证集化学值和模型预测值之间差异不显著,说明模型可以用于豆浆中蛋白质、脂肪和可溶性固形物含量的检测。%With the mode of integrating sphere diffuse,the spectra of 60 soy milk samples were obtained by the Fourier transform near -infrared spectrometer (FT -NIRS)in this research.Combined with the results of chemical analysis,the calibration models of the three components were established separately.The calibration models had a best prediction performance when the spectra of the protein,fat and soluble solids were preprocessed by constant off-set elimination,first derivative and standard normal variate transformation (SNV)respectively.The determination co-efficients (R2 )for the protein,fat and soluble solids content were 0.966 4,0.950 0 and 0.950 7 respectively,and the root mean square errors of cross -validation (RMSECV)were 0.076 9,0.087 4 and 0.316 respectively.Exter-nal validation of the model showed there was no significant difference between chemical values and model predictions, which indicated that the calibration models could be used to detect protein,fat and soluble solids content of soy milk.

  4. Co-delivery of docetaxel and verapamil by reduction-sensitive PEG-PLGA-SS-DTX conjugate micelles to reverse the multi-drug resistance of breast cancer.

    Guo, Yuanyuan; He, Wenxiu; Yang, Shengfeng; Zhao, Dujuan; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia


    The clinical usage of docetaxel (DTX) has been blocked in the clinic because of its poor solubility and tumour multi-drug resistance (MDR). The dominating mechanism of MDR is the over-expression of p-gp on tumour cells. Traditional nano-medicines, such as nanoparticles and micelles, have been used to physically entrap DTX to improve their solubility, while the drug loading content was very low and the tumour resistance was neglected. In this study, the synthesized reduction-sensitive mPEG-PLGA-SS-DTX conjugate was utilized to load the p-gp inhibitor veraparmil (VRP) to prepare DTX and VRP co-delivered mPEG-PLGA-SS-DTX/VRP (PP-SS-DTX/VRP) multi-functional micelles to reverse MDR and enhance the anti-tumour effect of DTX. The micelles had a high drug loading content and showed an obvious reduction-sensitive release property for both DTX and VRP. In addition, an in vitro anti-tumour assay revealed that the micelles markedly inhibited the efflux activity of p-gp and accelerated cell apoptosis, resulting in the improvement of anti-tumour activity and reversal of MDR. The PP-SS-DTX micelles markedly enhanced the in vivo circulation time and increased the drug accumulation in tumour tissues. Therefore, the PP-SS-DTX/VRP micelle is a desirable drug delivery system for multi-drug resistance therapy of DTX and is very promising for clinical usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Test plan for composting studies involving weight and volume reduction of leaf and stalk biomass: DOE/OTD TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 {ampersand} TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41

    Wilde, E.W.; Kastner, J.; Murphy, C.; Santo Domingo, J.


    SRTC and a panel of experts from off-site previously determined that composting was the most attractive alternative for reducing the volume and weight of biomass that was slightly radioactive. The SRTC proposed scope of work for Subtask 2 of TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 and TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41 involves bench scale studies to assess the rates and efficiencies of various composting schemes for volume and weight reduction of leaf and stalk biomass (SB). Ultimately, the data will be used to design a composting process for biomass proposed by MSE for phytoremediation studies at SRS. This could drastically reduce costs for transporting and disposing of contaminated biomass resulting from a future major phytoremediation effort for soil clean-up at the site. The composting studies at SRTC includes collaboration with personnel from the University of Georgia, who will conduct chemical analyses of the plant material after harvest, pre-treatment, and composting for specific time periods. Parameters to be measured will include: lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose, carbon and nitrogen. The overall objective of this project is to identify or develop: (1) an inexpensive source of inoculum (consisting of nutrients and/or microorganisms) capable of significantly enhancing biomass degradation, (2) an optimum range of operating parameters for the composting process, and (3) a process design for the solid state degradation of lignocellulosic biomass contaminated with radionuclides that is superior to existing alternatives for dealing with such waste.

  6. Understanding the influence of suspended solids on water quality and aquatic biota.

    Bilotta, G S; Brazier, R E


    Over the last 50 years the effects of suspended solids (SS) on fish and aquatic life have been studied intensively throughout the world. It is now accepted that SS are an extremely important cause of water quality deterioration leading to aesthetic issues, higher costs of water treatment, a decline in the fisheries resource, and serious ecological degradation of aquatic environments. As such, government-led environmental bodies have set recommended water quality guidelines for concentrations of SS in freshwater systems. However, these reference values are often spurious or based on the concept of turbidity as a surrogate measure of the concentration of SS. The appropriateness of these recommended water quality values is evaluated given: (1) the large variability and uncertainty in data available from research describing the effects of SS on aquatic environments, (2) the diversity of environments that these values are expected to relate to, and (3) the range of conditions experienced within these environments. Furthermore, we suggest that reliance solely upon turbidity data as a surrogate for SS must be treated with caution, as turbidity readings respond to factors other than just concentrations of SS, as well as being influenced by the particle-size distribution and shape of SS particles. In addition, turbidity is a measure of only one of the many detrimental effects, reviewed in this paper, which high levels of SS can have in waterbodies. In order to improve the understanding of the effects of SS on aquatic organisms, this review suggests that: First, high-resolution turbidity monitoring should be supplemented with direct, measurements of SS (albeit at lower resolution due to resource issues). This would allow the turbidity record to be checked and calibrated against SS, effectively building a rating-relationship between SS and turbidity, which would in-turn provide a clearer picture of the exact magnitude of the SS problem. Second, SS should also be characterised

  7. Inversion Models of Suspended Solids Content Based on TM Data in Dalangdian Reservoir%基于TM影像的大浪淀水库悬浮物含量的模型反演

    郝海森; 曹志勇; 高永芹


    With Cangzhou Dalangdian Reservoir as the research object, the measured suspended solids content and remote sensing data were analyzed, the multi-spectral model of suspended substance content and TM2 + TM3 was constructed, and the inversion for model was carried out, the result was correlated with actual water quality distribution, which indicated the model could be applied in monitoring of water body suspended substance.%以沧州大浪淀水库为研究时象,将实测的悬浮物含量和遥感数据进行分析处理,构建了悬浮物含量与TM2+TM3多光谱模型,并对模型进行了反演,其结果符合水体实际水质分布情况,表明所建模型可应用于该水体悬浮物含量的监测需要.

  8. On the bizarre gamma-ray spectrum of SS 433

    Helfer, H. L.; Savedoff, M. P.


    Lamb et al. (1983) have announced the discovery of a pair of gamma-ray lines interpretable as emission of the 1.368 MeV line of Mg-24 in the two oppositely directed relativistic jets of SS 433. The mass loss rate related to the Mg-24 and the kinetic energy flux of the Mg-24 are considered. In the present investigation, it is shown that the mass loss flux must be well in excess of 0.00001 solar mass per yr, while the abundance of the gamma-emitting nucleus is extremely high. Attention is given to the calculation of the gamma-ray production efficiency factor, the size of the emitting region, reaction processes, and X-ray luminosity. It is concluded that for plasma beam models, there must be a substantial overabundance, by a factor of 100 to approximately 1000, of the gamma-line producing nucleus. The association of the gamma-ray lines with Mg-24 is reasonable but not secure.

  9. Laser Welding of Ultra-Fine Grained Steel SS400

    PENG Yun; TIAN Zhi-ling; CHEN Wu-zhu; WANG Cheng; BAO Gang


    The effects of laser welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained steel SS400 were studied. The plasma arc welding and MAG welding were conducted to make a comparison between these weldings and laser welding. The coarse grain heat-affected zone (HAZ) of laser welding was simulated using thermomechanical simulation machine, and the impact toughness was tested. The deep penetration laser welding produces weld of large depth and narrow width. The weld metal and HAZ of laser welding was heated and then cooled rapidly. The prior austenite grain size of coarse grain HAZ is 1/10 of that for arc welding. For laser welding, the toughness of weld metal is higher than that of base metal, and the toughness of the coarse grain HAZ of laser welding is on a level with that of base metal. Matching lower laser power with lower welding speed, the hardening tendency of the weld metal and the coarse grain HAZ can be decreased. There is no softened zone. The tensile strength of welded joint formed by laser is higher than that of base metal. The joint has good bending ductility.

  10. The Nuraghe S. Pietro of Sorres, Borutta (SS.

    Pier Paolo Soro


    Full Text Available The nuraghe of S. Pietro di Sorres, located on the commune of Borutta (SS, is the largest of a series of buildings ready to crown the slopes of the plateau of limestone of Mura. The location - at the top of the hill of Sorres (524 m above se level - near the romanesque cathedral of S. Peter, suggests a military use that began during the Late Bronze Age and maintained in the subsequent history (Punic, Roman, Vandalic, Byzantine, Judicial. From an architectural point of view it falls within the type tholos polilobato. The remains of local limestone give an impressive testimony of the building. Numerous materials of ceramic and bronze found inside and around, during the excavation work in the 50s of last century, are a confirmation of its importance in the Mejlogu area. We can’t not exclude a certain type of ritual/ funerary connection with the nearby karst cave of Sa Rocca 'e Ulari and an hierarchical connection with the nuraghe Santu Antine of Torralba.

  11. SS 433: Results of a Recent Multi-wavelength Campaign

    Chakrabarti, S K; Pal, S; Mondal, S A; Nandi, A; Bhattacharya, A; Mandal, S; Sagar, R; Pandey, J C; Pati, A; Saha, S K; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, Soumen; Mandal, Samir; Sagar, Ram


    We conducted a multi-wavelength campaign in September-October, 2002, to observe SS 433. We used 45 meter sized 30 dishes of Giant Meter Radio Telescope (GMRT) for radio observation, 1.2 meter Physical Research Laboratory Infra-red telescope at Mt Abu for IR, 1 meter Telescope at the State Observatory, Nainital for Optical photometry, 2.3 meter optical telescope at the Vainu Bappu observatory for spectrum and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Target of Opportunity (TOO) observation for X-ray observations. We find sharp variations in intensity in time-scales of a few minutes in X-rays, IR and radio wavelengths. Differential photometry at the IR observation clearly indicated significant intrinsic variations in short time scales of minutes throughout the campaign. Combining results of these wavelengths, we find a signature of delay of about two days between IR and Radio. The X-ray spectrum yielded double Fe line profiles which corresponded to red and blue components of the relativistic jet. We also present the b...

  12. S-S bond reactivity in metal-perthiocarboxylato compounds.

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Guijarro, Alejandro; González-Prieto, Rodrigo; Castillo, Oscar; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Zamora, Félix


    While M-percarboxylato species are elusive intermediates, their sulfur containing analogues are known in some cases. The feasibility of isolation of M-perthioacetato compounds allowed, in this work, to obtain new insights into the pathways that follow the reactivity of M-E-ER (E = O, S) fragments. Herein we report on the isolation of two new M-perthioacetato compounds: trans-[Pt(CH(3)CS(2)S)(2)] () and [Ni(CH(3)CSS)(CH(3)CS(2)S)] (), which have been fully characterized, including X-ray structures. Reactivity of these compounds towards PPh(3) has been studied combining UV-vis monitorization and NMR measurements. Overall the accumulated data suggest that the evolution of the perthioacetato ligand in complexes and by reaction with PPh(3) consists of a complex multistep pathway in which the sulfur transfer is preceded by electron transfer. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that the transference of two electrons from the phosphorus to the sulfur atom is not concerted, suggesting that the first step of the reaction with PPh(3) is the monoelectronic electron transfer followed by P-S bond formation. The results presented here show a novel pathway in the field of S-S bond reactivity processes relevant in biological, synthetic systems and in hydrocarbon desulfurization processes.

  13. Jets of SS433 on scales of dozens parsecs

    Panferov, Alexander A


    The radio nebula W50 harbours the relativistic binary system SS433, which is a source of the powerful wind and jets. The origin of W50 is wrapped in the interplay of the wind, supernova remnant and jets. The evolution of the jets on the scales of the nebula is a Rosetta stone for its origin. To disentangle the roles of these components, we study physical conditions of the jets propagation inside W50, and determine deceleration of the jets. The morphology and parameters of the interior of W50 are analyzed using the available observations of the eastern X-ray lobe, which traces the jet. In order to estimate deceleration of this jet, we devised a simplistic model of the viscous interaction, via turbulence, of a jet with the ambient medium, which would fit mass entrainment from the ambient medium into the jets of the radio galaxy 3C31, the well studied case of continuously decelerating jets. X-ray observations suggest that the eastern jet persists through W50 as hollow one, and is recollimated to the opening $\\si...

  14. Identification of the Mass Donor Star's Spectrum in SS 433

    Hillwig, T C; Huang, W; McSwain, M V; Stark, M A; Van der Meer, Alex F G; Kaper, L


    We present spectroscopy of the microquasar SS 433 obtained near primary eclipse and disk precessional phase Psi = 0.0, when the accretion disk is expected to be most ``face-on''. The likelihood of observing the spectrum of the mass donor is maximized at this combination of orbital and precessional phases since the donor is in the foreground and above the extended disk believed to be present in the system. The spectra were obtained over four different runs centered on these special phases. The blue spectra show clear evidence of absorption features consistent with a classification of A3-7 I. The behavior of the observed lines indicates an origin in the mass donor. The observed radial velocity variations are in anti-phase to the disk, the absorption lines strengthen at mid-eclipse when the donor star is expected to contribute its maximum percentage of the total flux, and the line widths are consistent with lines created in an A supergiant photosphere. We discuss and cast doubt on the possibility that these line...

  15. ABySS-Explorer: visualizing genome sequence assemblies.

    Nielsen, Cydney B; Jackman, Shaun D; Birol, Inanç; Jones, Steven J M


    One bottleneck in large-scale genome sequencing projects is reconstructing the full genome sequence from the short subsequences produced by current technologies. The final stages of the genome assembly process inevitably require manual inspection of data inconsistencies and could be greatly aided by visualization. This paper presents our design decisions in translating key data features identified through discussions with analysts into a concise visual encoding. Current visualization tools in this domain focus on local sequence errors making high-level inspection of the assembly difficult if not impossible. We present a novel interactive graph display, ABySS-Explorer, that emphasizes the global assembly structure while also integrating salient data features such as sequence length. Our tool replaces manual and in some cases pen-and-paper based analysis tasks, and we discuss how user feedback was incorporated into iterative design refinements. Finally, we touch on applications of this representation not initially considered in our design phase, suggesting the generality of this encoding for DNA sequence data.

  16. Improved detection of low vapor pressure compounds in air by serial combination of single-sided membrane introduction with fiber introduction mass spectrometry (SS-MIMS-FIMS).

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Handberg, Eric; Noll, Robert J; Kilgour, David P A; Cooks, R Graham


    The use of two methods in tandem, single-sided membrane introduction mass spectrometry (SS-MIMS) and fiber introduction mass spectrometry (FIMS), is presented as a technique for field analysis. The combined SS-MIMS-FIMS technique was employed in both a modified commercial mass spectrometer and a miniature mass spectrometer for the selective preconcentration of the explosive simulant o-nitrotoluene (ONT) and the chemical warfare agent simulant, methyl salicylate (MeS), in air. A home-built FIMS inlet was fabricated to allow introduction of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber into the mass spectrometer chamber and subsequent desorption of the trapped compounds using resistive heating. The SS-MIMS preconcentration system was also home-built from commercial vacuum parts. Optimization experiments were done separately for each preconcentration system to achieve the best extraction conditions prior to use of the two techniques in combination. Improved limits of detection, in the low ppb range, were observed for the combination compared to FIMS alone, using several SS-MIMS preconcentration cycles. The SS-MIMS-FIMS response for both instruments was found to be linear over the range 50 to 800 ppb. Other parameters studied were absorption time profiles, effects of sample flow rate, desorption temperature, fiber background, memory effects, and membrane fatigue. This simple, sensitive, accurate, robust, selective, and rapid sample preconcentration and introduction technique shows promise for field analysis of low vapor pressure compounds, where analyte concentrations will be extremely low and the compounds are difficult to extract from a matrix like air.

  17. Development and validation of an UPLC method for determination of content uniformity in low-dose solid drugs products using the design space approach.

    Oliva, Alexis; Fariña, José B; Llabrés, Matías


    A simple and reproducible UPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of finasteride in low-dose drug products. Method validation demonstrated the reliability and consistency of analytical results. Due to the regulatory requirements of pharmaceutical analysis in particular, evaluation of robustness is vital to predict how small variations in operating conditions affect the responses. Response surface methodology as an optimization technique was used to evaluate the robustness. For this, a central composite design was implemented around the nominal conditions. Statistical treatment of the responses (retention factor and drug concentrations expressed as percentage of label claim) showed that methanol content in mobile-phase and flow rate were the most influential factors. In the optimization process, the compromise decision support problem (cDSP) strategy was used. Construction of the robust domain from response-surfaces provided tolerance windows for the factors affecting the effectiveness of the method. The specified limits for the USP uniformity of dosage units assay (98.5-101.5%) and the purely experimental variations based on the repeatability test for center points (nominal conditions repetitions) were used as criteria to establish the tolerance windows, which allowed definition design space (DS) of analytical method. Thus, the acceptance criteria values (AV) proposed by the USP-uniformity of assay only depend on the sampling error. If the variation in the responses corresponded to approximately twice the repeatability standard deviation, individual values for percentage label claim (%LC) response may lie outside the specified limits; this implies the data are not centered between the specified limits, and that this term plus the sampling error affects the AV value. To avoid this fact, the limits specified by the Uniformity of Dosage Form assay (i.e., 98.5-101.5%) must be taken into consideration to fix the tolerance windows for each

  18. Analysis on Changes of Amino Acid and Soluble Solid Content during Fresh -keeping of Fruit Sugarcane%果蔗保鲜过程中可溶性固形物和氨基酸变化分析

    李瑞美; 李海明; 潘世明


    采用鱼腥草、丁香、高良姜、藿香、白藓皮和EM茵等制剂对果蔗进行冷藏(0 ~4℃)保鲜处理,结果表明:不同处理出汁率不同,真空包装的出汁率高于未包装的;处理40d后,各处理pH急剧下降,品质劣化加剧;果蔗保鲜过程中所有处理的可溶性固形物均呈现出由下降转为上升再下降的趋势,丁香、高良姜、藿香处理能保持较高的pH,其鲜味氨基酸含量、17种氨基酸总量较高,保鲜效果较好.%The fruit sugarcanes were dipped in the antibacterial solution which contained Houltuynia or Cloves or Galangal or Agastache or Dictamnus albus or EM microorganism, and then they were preserved at 0 ~4 ℃. The results showed that there was different juice yield in different treatments, and the juice yield of vacuum - packed fruit sugarcane was higher than that of unpacked one. The pH - value of fruit sugarcanes in all treatments decreased sharply and their quality depredated greatly after 40 days' treatment. The soluble solid content of fruit sugarcanes in all treatments showed the trend of fall - rising - decline during fresh - keeping. The pH -value, delicious amino acids content and 17 kinds of amino acids content maintained high level in the treatment of Cloves, Galangal and Agastache, and these treatments had good fresh - keeping effect.

  19. 27 CFR 40.171 - Execution and filing of Form SS-4.


    ... applications may be filed with the district director of any such district as provided for in 26 CFR 301.6091-1... Form SS-4. 40.171 Section 40.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Payment of Taxes on Tobacco Products § 40.171 Execution and filing of Form SS-4. The application on...

  20. 20 CFR 225.24 - SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable § 225.24 SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities. The...

  1. Unexpected solvent impact in the crystallinity of praziquantel/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) formulations. A solubility, DSC and solid-state NMR study.

    Costa, Emanuel D; Priotti, Josefina; Orlandi, Silvina; Leonardi, Darío; Lamas, María C; Nunes, Teresa G; Diogo, Hermínio P; Salomon, Claudio J; Ferreira, M João


    The saturation solubility of PVP:PZQ physical mixtures (PMs) and solid dispersions (SDs) prepared from ethanol (E/E) or ethanol/water (E/W) by the solvent evaporation method at 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 ratio (w/w) was determined. The presence of PVP improves the solubility of PZQ (0.31±0.01mg/mL). A maximum of 1.29±0.03mg/mL of PZQ in solution was achieved for the 3:1 SD (E/E). The amount of PZQ in solution depends on the amount of polymer and on the preparation method. Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) and DSC were used to understand this behavior. Results show that PMs are a mixture of crystalline PZQ with the polymer, while SDs show different degrees of drug amorphization depending on the solvent used. For E/W SDs, PZQ exists in amorphous and crystalline states, with no clear correlation between the amount of crystalline PZQ and the amount of PVP. For E/E SDs, formulations with a higher percentage of PZQ are amorphous with the components miscible in domains larger than 3nm ((1)H ssNMR relaxation measurements). Albeit its higher saturation solubility, the 3:1 E/E PVP:PZQ sample has a significant crystalline content, probably due to the water introduced by the polymer. High PVP content and small crystal size account for this result.

  2. Asymmetric PCR for good quality ssDNA generation towards DNA aptamer production

    Junji Tominaga4


    Full Text Available Aptamers are ssDNA or RNA that binds to wide variety of target molecules with high affinity and specificity producedby systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Compared to RNA aptamer, DNA aptamer is muchmore stable, favourable to be used in many applications. The most critical step in DNA SELEX experiment is the conversion ofdsDNA to ssDNA. The purpose of this study was to develop an economic and efficient approach of generating ssDNA byusing asymmetric PCR. Our results showed that primer ratio (sense primer:antisense primer of 20:1 and sense primer amountof 10 to 100 pmol, up to 20 PCR cycles using 20 ng of initial template, in combination with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,were the optimal conditions for generating good quality and quantity of ssDNA. The generation of ssDNA via this approachcan greatly enhance the success rate of DNA aptamer generation.

  3. Selection and Application of ssDNA Aptamers against Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Based on ssDNA Library Immobilized SELEX.

    Duan, Nuo; Gong, Wenhui; Wu, Shijia; Wang, Zhouping


    Clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB) is often abused as additive feed for livestock to decrease adipose tissue deposition and to increase growth rate. It raises a potential risk to human health through the consumption of animal product. In this study, aptamers with higher affinity and specificity were screened through 16 selection rounds based on the ssDNA library immobilized systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. After cloning and sequencing, five aptamer candidates were picked out for affinity and specificity assays based on a graphene oxide (GO) adsorption method. The results showed that the aptamer CLB-2 binds specifically against CLB with a dissociation constant, Kd, value of 76.61 ± 12.70 nM. In addition, an aptamer-based fluorescence bioassay was established for CLB analysis. The correlation between the CLB concentration and fluorescent signal was found to be linear within the range of 0.10 to 50 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.07 ng/mL. It has been further applied for the determination of CLB in pork samples, showing its great potential for sensitive analysis in food safety control.

  4. Mitochondria-targeted peptide SS-31 attenuates renal injury via an antioxidant effect in diabetic nephropathy.

    Hou, Yanjuan; Li, Shuangcheng; Wu, Ming; Wei, Jinying; Ren, Yunzhuo; Du, Chunyang; Wu, Haijiang; Han, Caili; Duan, Huijun; Shi, Yonghong


    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney injury. SS-31 is a mitochondria-targeted tetrapeptide that can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effect and molecular mechanism of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide SS-31 on injuries in diabetic kidneys and mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) exposed to high-glucose (HG) ambience. CD-1 mice underwent uninephrectomy and streptozotocin treatment prior to receiving daily intraperitoneal injection of SS-31 for 8 wk. The diabetic mice treated with SS-31 had alleviated proteinuria, urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine level, glomerular hypertrophy, and accumulation of renal fibronectin and collagen IV. SS-31 attenuated renal cell apoptosis and expression of Bax and reversed the expression of Bcl-2 in diabetic mice kidneys. Furthermore, SS-31 inhibited expression of transforming-growth factor (TGF)-β1, Nox4, and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), as well as activation of p38 MAPK and CREB and NADPH oxidase activity in diabetic kidneys. In vitro experiments using MMCs revealed that SS-31 inhibited HG-mediated ROS generation, apoptosis, expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria. SS-31 normalized mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) and ATP alterations, and inhibited the expression of TGF-β1, Nox4, and TXNIP, as well as activation of p38 MAPK and CREB and NADPH oxidase activity in MMCs under HG conditions. SS-31 treatment also could reverse the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX) biologic activity and upregulate expression of thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) in MMCs under HG conditions. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a protective effect of SS-31 against HG-induced renal injury via an antioxidant mechanism in diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Mitochondrion-Targeted Peptide SS-31 Inhibited Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins-Induced Foam Cell Formation through both ROS Scavenging and Inhibition of Cholesterol Influx in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Hao, Shuangying; Ji, Jiajie; Zhao, Hongting; Shang, Longcheng; Wu, Jing; Li, Huihui; Qiao, Tong; Li, Kuanyu


    Foam cell formation as a result of imbalance of modified cholesterol influx and efflux by macrophages is a key to the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. SS-31 is a member of the Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides shown to specifically target the inner mitochondrial membrane to scavenge reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated whether SS-31 may provide protective effect on macrophage from foam cell formation in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that SS-31 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and cholesterol accumulation, demonstrated by intracellular oil red O staining and measurement of cholesterol content. The mechanism was revealed that SS-31 did not only significantly attenuated ox-LDL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the activities of superoxide dismutases, but also dose-dependently inhibited the expression of CD36 and LOX-1, two scavenger receptors of ox-LDL, while the expression of ATP-binding cassette A1 and G1, playing a pivotal role in cholesterol efflux, was not affected. As a result, SS-31 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, suggesting the prevention of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SS-31 provides a beneficial effect on macrophages from foam cell formation, likely, through both ROS scavenging and inhibition of cholesterol influx. Therefore, SS-31 may potentially be of therapeutic relevance in prevention of human atherogenesis.

  6. Supercritical Accretion Discs in Ultraluminous X-ray Sources and SS 433

    Fabrika, Sergei; Vinokurov, Alexander; Sholukhova, Olga; Shidatsu, Megumi


    The black hole mass and accretion rate in Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies, whose X-ray luminosities exceed those of the brightest black holes in our Galaxy by hundreds and thousands of times$^{1,2}$, is an unsolved problem. Here we report that all ULXs ever spectroscopically observed have about the same optical spectra apparently of WNL type (late nitrogen Wolf-Rayet stars) or LBV (luminous blue variables) in their hot state, which are very scarce stellar objects. We show that the spectra do not originate from WNL/LBV type donors but from very hot winds from the accretion discs with nearly normal hydrogen content, which have similar physical conditions as the stellar winds from these stars. The optical spectra are similar to that of SS 433, the only known supercritical accretor in our Galaxy$^{3}$, although the ULX spectra indicate a higher wind temperature. Our results suggest that ULXs with X-ray luminosities of $\\sim 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$ must constitute a homogeneous class of objec...

  7. AtlasT4SS: A curated database for type IV secretion systems

    Souza Rangel C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type IV secretion system (T4SS can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. Description The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive, one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. Conclusions In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and

  8. 聚苯醚改性高固含量热塑性PF的制备与性能研究%Study on preparation and properties of thermoplastic PF with high solid content modified by PPO

    理莎莎; 齐暑华; 刘乃亮; 曹鹏


    A thermoplastic PF(phenol formaldehyde resin) with high solid content(>85%) and thermoplastic PF with high solid content modified by PPO(polyphenylene oxide) were synthesized. The structure,curing reaction and thermal degradation process of thermoplastic PF unmodified and modified by PPO were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetry(TGA). And both mechanics properties of composites reinforced by glass fiber were investigated. The results showed that the PPO's introduction,not only increases the curing reaction activity of PF,but also improves the heat resistance of PF. The PPO modified thermoplastic PF-based composite reinforced by glass fiber could effectively improve mechanics properties because its tensile strength,shear strength and bend strength were increased by 17.8% , 73.0% and 21.4%,respectively.%合成了高固含量(>85%)的线性PF(酚醛树脂)和聚苯醚(PPO)改性高固含量线性PF.采用红外光谱(FT-IR)法、差示扫描量热(DSC)法和热重分析(TGA)法等,分析了PPO改性前后线性PF的结构、固化反应和热降解过程,并对两者的玻璃纤维增强复合材料的力学性能进行了研究.结果表明:PPO的引入,既增强了PF的固化反应活性,又提高了PF的耐热性能;PPO改性线性PF基玻璃纤维增强复合材料的力学性能得到了有效提升,其拉伸强度、剪切强度和弯曲强度分别提高了17.8%、73.0%和21.4%.

  9. Genomic analysis of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp with evidence of T3SS and T6SS gene expression on plant roots.

    Marchi, Muriel; Boutin, Morgane; Gazengel, Kévin; Rispe, Claude; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Lebreton, Lionel; Barret, Matthieu; Daval, Stéphanie; Sarniguet, Alain


    Several bacterial strains of the Pseudomonas genus provide plant growth stimulation, plant protection against pests or bioremediation. Among these bacteria, P. fluorescens Pf29Arp reduces the severity of take-all, a disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) on wheat roots. In this study, we obtained a draft genome of Pf29Arp and subsequent comparative genomic analyses have revealed that this bacterial strain is closely related to strains of the 'P. brassicacearum-like' subgroup including P. brassicacearum ssp. brassicacearum NFM421 and P. fluorescens F113. Despite an overall chromosomal organization similar to these strains, a number of features including antibiotic synthesis gene clusters from secondary metabolism are not found in the Pf29Arp genome. But Pf29Arp possesses different protein secretion systems including type III (T3SS) and type VI (T6SS) secretion systems. Pf29Arp is the first Pseudomonas sp. strain described with four T6SS clusters (cluster I, II, III and IV). In addition, some protein-coding genes involved in the assembly of these secretion systems are basally expressed during Pf29Arp colonization of healthy wheat roots and display different expression patterns on necrotized roots caused by Ggt. These data suggest a role of T3SS and T6SS in the Pf29Arp adaptation to different root environments.

  10. SS400含硼钢板坯边裂研究%Research on edge cracking of SS4 0 0 boron-bearing steel slab

    龙小东; 刘小卿; 张亮


    In this paper,high temperature brittle zone of SS400 boron-bearing steel were determined among experiment temperature range of 650~1 150 ℃ through the thermal simulation experiment of slab.Then the main reasons of forming edge cracks were re-vealed through high temperature strength and thermoplastic analysis of the slab,which involved the components of SS400 boron-bearing steel,which is in the range of peritectic steels,and the BN precipitation on grain boundary.During the practical production process of SS400 boron-bearing steel,the proposed measure can significantly reduce the edge cracks on slab surface.%经过高温力学性能实验,在650~1150℃的实验温度范围内明确了 SS400含硼钢的高温脆性区;并通过对铸坯的高温强度和热塑性分析,揭示了铸坯边裂产生的主要原因是钢种成分处于包晶钢的范围和钢中BN的析出。在 SS400含硼钢实际生产中,运用本文提出的措施可显著减少铸坯边裂的发生。

  11. 挤出处理对碎米粉中可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量的影响%Effect of Extrusion on Contents of Soluble Solids and Soluble Sugar in Rice Flour

    王大为; 孙丽琴; 吴丽娟; 徐旭


    将精白米加工过程中产生的碎米粉进行挤出处理,通过正交试验对影响碎米粉中可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量的主要因素进行研究和分析。结果表明:各因素对可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量影响强弱次序为水分含量〉螺杆转速〉挤出温度;碎米粉双螺杆挤出的最佳条件为含水量25%、挤出温度140℃、螺杆转速240r/min,在此条件下,碎米粉挤出物中可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量分别为39.88%、7.90%,分别是未挤出处理样的1.53倍、3.64倍。采用高效液相色谱法,对最佳挤出条件处理的碎米粉中可溶性糖进行检测,其中果糖275.124mg/100g、葡萄糖891.632mg/100g、蔗糖853.144mg/100g、麦芽糖516.576mg/100g、麦芽三糖353.266mg/100g。%Broken rice and flour from the whitening and polishing of brown rice was extruded,and main factors that affect the contents of soluble solids and soluble sugar in extruded rice flour were investigated.The results indicated that moisture content was the most significant affecting factor,followed by screw speed and extrusion temperature.The optimal moisture content,screw speed and extrusion temperature were determined as 25%,240 r/min and 140 ℃,respectively.Under the optimal extrusion conditions,the contents of soluble solids and soluble sugar in extruded rice flour were 39.88% and 7.90%,respectively,revealing a 1.53-and 3.64-fold increase compared with those of non-extruded samples.HPLC analysis of soluble sugars in extruded rice flour obtained under the optimal conditions showed that 100 g of samples contained 275.124 mg of fructose,891.632 mg of glucose,853.144 mg of sucrose,516.576 mg of maltose and 353.266 mg of maltotriose.

  12. Species differences in distribution and prediction of human V(ss) from preclinical data.

    Berry, Loren M; Li, Chao; Zhao, Zhiyang


    Prediction of human volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) before first administration of a new drug candidate to humans has become an important part of the drug development process. This study examines the assumptions behind interspecies scaling techniques used to predict human V(ss) from preclinical data, namely the equivalency of V(ss,u) and/or f(ut) across species. In addition, several interspecies scaling techniques are evaluated side by side using a set of 67 reference compounds where observed V(ss) from rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans were compiled from the literature and where plasma protein binding was determined across species using an ultracentrifugation technique. Species similarity in V(ss,u) or f(ut) does not appear to be the norm among rats, dogs, monkeys, or humans. Despite this, interspecies scaling from rats, dogs, and monkeys is useful and can provide reasonably accurate predictions of human V(ss), although some interspecies scaling approaches were better than others. For example, the performance of the common V(ss,u) or f(ut) equivalency approaches using average V(ss,u) or f(ut) across three preclinical species was superior to allometric scaling techniques. In addition, considering data from several preclinical species, using the equivalency approach, was superior to scaling from any single species. Although the mechanistic tissue composition equations available in the Simcyp population-based pharmacokinetic simulator did not necessarily provide the most accurate predictions, and the equations used likely need refinement, they still provide the best opportunity for a mechanistic understanding and prediction of human V(ss).

  13. Monitoring and analyzing system based on SS7 network%基于SS7信令网的监测分析系统

    杨安萍; 张宇; 郭炜强



  14. In vitro corrosion investigations of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite–calcium phosphate coatings on 316L SS

    Gurpreet Singh; Hazoor Singh; Buta Singh Sidhu


    The present paper discusses various issues associated with biological corrosion of uncoated and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated 316L SS and studies the effect of contents of calcium phosphate (CaP) on corrosion behaviour of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings in simulated body fluid (Ringer’s solution). Three types of coatings, i.e. HA + 20 wt% CaP (type 1), HA + 10 wt% CaP (type 2), HA (type 3), were laid on 316L SS using plasma-spraying technique. Structural characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to investigate the crystallinity, microstructure and morphology of the coatings. Electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of uncoated and all the three coatings. After the electrochemical corrosion testing, the samples were examined by XRD, SEM and EDX. The electrochemical study showed a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance after HA coating and corrosion resistance of type 3 coating was found maximum.

  15. Assessment of the Halogen Content of Brazilian Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10) Using High Resolution Molecular Absorption Spectrometry and Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with Direct Solid Sample Analysis.

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Almeida, Tarcisio S; Alves, Jeferson C; Araujo, Rennan G O; Borges, Daniel L G


    Halogens in the atmosphere play an important role in climate change and also represent a potential health hazard. However, quantification of halogens is not a trivial task, and methods that require minimum sample preparation are interesting alternatives. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of direct solid sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS MAS) for F determination and electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for simultaneous Cl, Br, and I determination in airborne inhalable particulate matter (PM10) collected in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Analysis using HR-CS MAS was accomplished by monitoring the CaF molecule, which was generated at high temperatures in the graphite furnace after the addition of Ca. Analysis using ETV-ICP-MS was carried out using Ca as chemical modifier/aerosol carrier in order to avoid losses of Cl, Br, and I during the pyrolysis step, with concomitant use of Pd as a permanent modifier. The direct analysis approach resulted in LODs that were proven adequate for halogen determination in PM10, using either standard addition calibration or calibration against a certified reference material. The method allowed the quantification of the halogens in 14 PM10 samples collected in a northeastern coastal city in Brazil. The results demonstrated variations of halogen content according to meteorological conditions, particularly related to rainfall, humidity, and sunlight irradiation.

  16. Thermal expansion in the garnet-type solid electrolyte (Li{sub 7−x}Al{sub x/3})La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} as a function of Al content

    Hubaud, Aude A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Schroeder, David J. [Department of Engineering Technology, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Ingram, Brian J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Okasinski, John S. [Advanced Photon Source, X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Vaughey, John T., E-mail: [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)


    Highlights: • Thermal expansion (TE) coefficients of LLZ found up to 700°. • The aluminum content of LLZ has a small impact on the thermal expansion. • Typical thermal expansion values were around, 16 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1}. • The TE is approximately double other garnet-type structures. - Abstract: The thermal expansion (TE) coefficients of the lithium-stable lithium-ion conducting garnet lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (LLZ) and the effect of aluminum substitution were measured from room temperature up to 700 °C by a synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. The typical TE value measured for the most reported composition (LLZ doped with 0.3 wt.% or 0.093 mol% aluminum) was 15.498 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1}, which is approximately twice the value reported for other garnet-type structures. As the Al(III) concentration has been observed to strongly affect the structure observed and the ionic conductivity, we also assessed its role on thermal expansion and noted only a small variation with increasing dopant concentration. The materials implications for using LLZ in a solid state battery are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of a pilot-scale sewage biogas powered 2.8 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Assessment of heat-to-power ratio and influence of oxygen content

    de Arespacochaga, N.; Valderrama, C.; Peregrina, C.; Mesa, C.; Bouchy, L.; Cortina, J. L.


    Biogas from anaerobic digestion of organic matter is a promising renewable energy source and fuel cells appear as a breakthrough technology to improve the performance of the biogas-to-energy valorisation chain. The vast majority of studies addressing biogas energy recovery through Solid Oxide Fuel Cells published in recent years correspond to simulations and lab-scale performance with synthetic biogas. This paper assesses the pilot performance of a 2.8 kWe SOFC unit powered with cleaned sewage biogas for around 700 h in a Wastewater Treatment Plant. The biogas thorough treatment consisting of a biological desulphurisation with a biotrickling filter followed by a deep cleaning step based on adsorption is successful for removing sulphur compounds, siloxanes and hydrocarbons. The influence of the heat-to-power ratio on fuel cell performance is investigated operating the system at O/C ratio of 2, reforming temperature of 550 °C, stack temperature of 800 °C and at a constant voltage of 43 V. At optimized conditions for electrical production satisfying heat demand in the WWTP, system electrical and thermal efficiencies account for 34% and 28%. Cogeneration efficiency remains constant at around 59-62% for all the heat-to-power ratios tested. Furthermore, the impact of the oxygen content in the biogas is also studied.

  18. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H, E-mail: vib@sai.msu.r [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Athens University, Zagrafos 15784, Athens (Greece)


    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  19. Corrosion Resistance of 304L SS Spray Coated with Zirconia Nanoparticles

    Maheswari, A. Uma; Sivakumar, M.; Indhumathi, N.; Mohan, Sreedevi R.


    Influence of substrate temperature on corrosion (in 3.5% NaCl) and wear resistance of nanostructured zirconia thin film coated 304L SS substrates are studied by electrochemical and nano-indentation methods. This analysis shows 304L SS substrate spray coated with nanostructured zirconia at substrate temperature closer to the boiling point of the spray solvent ethanol exhibited good corrosion and wear resistance behaviour. This is because of the compressive stress developed during film fabrication at lower substrate temperature (∼50 °C) and hence constrains the indentation plasticity, which leads to higher indentation load than the bare 304L SS.

  20. The Testing Apparatus for SS7 Electric Locomotive double-heading%SS7型电力机车重联试验装置




  1. The B.A.P. PACOCHA (SS-48) Collision: The Escape and Medical Recompression Treatment of Survivors


    conducted 31 January - 2 February 1989, with numerous parties, including Rear Admiral Guillermo Tirado, Commander of the Submarine Flotilla, five...Peruvian Medical Officer, LT Guillermo "Willie" Alexander Smith, who was highly fluent in English. Although he was not trained in Diving or Submarine...Pona 6. OMl.Ele.(SS) Alberto GOMEZ Contreras 7. OM3.,Iot.(SS) Nicolas TELLO Cacha TERCER GRUPO 8. T3.Ele. (SS) Virgillo MICHUY Suyo 9. OMl.Ele.(SS) Jorge

  2. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Wojda Marta


    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  3. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Glowinski, Frithjof; Holland, Carsten; Thiede, Bernd; Jungblut, Peter R; Meyer, Thomas F


    .... A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS), which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events...

  4. Bee Wax Propolis Extract as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors for 304SS in Sulfuric Acid

    Femiana Gapsari


    Full Text Available The inhibition properties of bee wax propolis (BWP extract on the 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid were conducted using potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and XRD. Quercetin (2-(3.4-dihydroxy phenyl-3.5.7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one was identified as the main compound in the BWP extract based on FTIR and HPLC analysis. The results showed that the inhibitor could retard the corrosion rate of 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid which reached 97.29% and 91.42% at 2000 ppm based on potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurement, respectively. The inhibition efficiency decreased with increasing temperature. The inhibition mechanism of BWP extract on the 304SS was physisorption and obeyed Temkin adsorption isotherm equation. The thin protective layer on the 304SS surface was confirmed by XRD.

  5. Computer prediction system on solid/solid reaction kinetics


    A computer software system of kinetic predication of solid/solid reaction, KinPreSSR, was developed using Visual C++ and FoxPro. It includes two main modules, REACTION and DIFFUSION. KinPreSSR deals with the kinetics on the diffusion in solids as well as solid/solid reactions. The REACTION module in KinPreSSR was mainly described, which has organized the commonly recognized kinetic models, parameters, and employed both numerical and graphical methods for data analyses. The proper combination between the kinetic contents and the analytical methods enables users to use KinPreSSR for the evaluation and prediction of solid/solid reactions interested. As an example to show some of functions of KinPreSSR, the kinetics analysis for the reaction between SrCO3 and TiO2 powders to form SrTiO3 with a series of kinetic data from isothermal measurements was demonstrated.

  6. Determination of soluble solids content of blueberries with near infrared spectroscopy%基于近红外光谱技术检测蓝莓可溶性固形物含量

    王姗姗; 孙红男; 陈健; 孙爱东


    An analytical procedure has been developed for the rapid and non-destructive measurement of soluble solids content in blueberry samples using near infrared diffuse reflection spectrum.Six varieties of blueberries("Elliott","Darrow","Patriot","Duke","Northblue" and "Bluecrop")were selected,which collected from Liaoning.The original spectrum averaged was preprocessed by the 1st derivative.By means of principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares(PLS),the calibration mathematics model for total soluble solids was established.The relative coefficient was 0.91518,the calibration standard deviation was 0.801,and the prediction standard deviation was 1.06.The method was rapid accurate and non-destructive,which was available for rapid accurate determination of SSC in blueberries.%采用近红外漫反射光谱技术对辽宁丹东蓝莓基地的六个蓝莓品种(埃利奥特、达柔、爱国者、北蓝、杜克、蓝丰)进行光谱分析,快速无损测定蓝莓可溶性固形物含量,利用一阶导数进行光谱预处理,主成分分析(PCA)和偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立蓝莓可溶性固形物预测模型。结果表明,所建模型的相关系数(Corr.Coeff.)为0.91518、校正集标准偏差(RMSEC)为0.801、预测集标准偏差(RMSEP)为1.06。该方法快速、准确、无损,能准确地预测蓝莓中可溶性固形物含量。

  7. True logarithmic amplification of frequency clock in SS-OCT for calibration


    With swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), imprecise signal calibration prevents optimal imaging of biological tissues such as coronary artery. This work demonstrates an approach using a true logarithmic amplifier to precondition the clock signal, with the effort to minimize the noises and phase errors for optimal calibration. This method was validated and tested with a high-speed SS-OCT. The experimental results manifest its superior ability on optimization of the calibration a...

  8. 浅谈SS7型机车再生制动




  9. Nuorten osallisuuden kehittäminen Paavalin seurakunnan nuorisotyössä

    Ahlsten, Ann-Marie


    Ahlsten, Ann-Marie. Osallisuuden tikapuita pitkin. Nuoren osallisuuden kehit-täminen Paavalin seurakunnan nuorisotyössä. Diak Helsinki, syksy 2016, 42 s. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, diakonian ja kristillisen kasvatuksen suuntautumisvaihtoehto, sosionomi (YAMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli löytää osallisuutta tukevia toimintatapoja sekä lisätä nuorten osallisuutta Paavalin seurakunnan nuorisotyössä. Tarkemmat tavoitteet olivat 1) nuorten kuulemiseen lii...

  10. Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) Concept for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    Kellas, Sotiris


    Results from the design, manufacturing, and testing of a lightweight Integrated Composite Stiffened Structure (ICoSS) concept, intended for multi-mission planetary entry vehicles are presented. Tests from both component and full-scale tests for a typical Earth Entry Vehicle forward shell manufactured using the ICoSS concept are presented and advantages of the concept for the particular application of passive Earth Entry Vehicles over other structural concepts are discussed.

  11. Motivaatio vapaaehtoistyöhön : Tamperelaisessa englanninkielisessä jumalanpalvelusuhteisössä

    Westman, Katariina


    TIIVISTELMÄ Westman, Katariina. Motivaatio vapaaehtoistyöhön Tamperelaisessa englanninkielisessä jumalanpalvelusyhteisössä. Pori, syksy 2010, 40 s., 2 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Diak Länsi, Pori. Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, Diakonisen sosiaalityön suuntautumisvaihtoehto, sosionomi (AMK) + diakonin virkakelpoisuus. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia motiivia vapaaehtoistyöhön tamperelaisessa englanninkielisessä jumalanpalvelusyhteisössä. Aineisto kerättiin haastattel...

  12. Solid propellants.

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.


    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  13. Basic research needs and opportunities at the solid-solid interface - Diffusion

    Balluffi, R. W.; Duke, C. B.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Mitchell, K. W.; Reifenberger, R.; Wood, R. F.


    The generic problems associated with solar materials solid-solid (S-S) interfaces are reviewed, and goals and techniques for ameliorating the deficiencies are outlined. Photovoltaic, photothermal, and photochemical devices considered are flat plate collectors, thin film Si cells, concentrator systems and compound cells, and polycrystalline systems. Exposure to thermal stresses, electric and radiation fields, chemicals and abrasives during the lifetime of solar cells is expected to create electric, optical, and thermal property changes in the material. Diffusion may also occur in S-S interfacial areas, and determination of the effects on the cells can presently be done using electron microscopy for examining the fine structure, diffraction pattern analysis for the interface structure, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to trace the chemical composition. Additional studies are needed to define the atomic and chemical exchange rates to establish the economic feasibility of low cost cells.

  14. DNA nanotubes and helical nanotapes via self-assembly of ssDNA-amphiphiles.

    Pearce, Timothy R; Kokkoli, Efrosini


    DNA nanotubes were created using molecular self-assembly of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-amphiphiles composed of a hydrophobic dialkyl tail and polycarbon spacer and a hydrophilic ssDNA headgroup. The nanotube structures were formed by bilayers of amphiphiles, with the hydrophobic components forming an inner layer that was shielded from the aqueous solvent by an outer layer of ssDNA. The nanotubes appeared to form via an assembly process that included transitions from twisted nanotapes to helical nanotapes to nanotubes. Amphiphiles that contained different ssDNA headgroups were created to explore the effect of the length and secondary structure of the ssDNA headgroup on the self-assembly behavior of the amphiphiles in the presence and absence of the polycarbon spacer. It was found that nanotubes could be formed using a variety of headgroup lengths and sequences. The ability to create nanotubes via ssDNA-amphiphile self-assembly offers an alternative to the other purely DNA-based approaches like DNA origami and DNA tile assembly for constructing these structures and may be useful for applications in drug delivery, biosensing, and electronics.

  15. Radionuclide contents and physicochemical characterization of solid waste and effluent samples of some selected industries in the city of Lagos, Nigeria; Teneurs en radionucleides et caracterisation physico-chimique d'echantillons de dechets solides et d'effluent venant de quelques industries, selectionnees dans la ville de Lagos, Nigeria

    Jibiri, N.N. [Ibadan Univ., Radiation and Health Physics Research Lab., Dept. of Physics (Nigeria); Adewuyi, G.O. [Ibadan Univ., Dept of Chemistry (Nigeria)


    The radionuclide contents in waste products and physico-chemical characterization of effluent samples from some selected industries in the city of Lagos were carried out. The radioactivity concentration levels due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th in the solid wastes were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry while physico-chemical determination of parameters were based on standard methods of measurements. The average radioactivity levels obtained was between 104 {+-} 14 Bq kg-1 and 1276 {+-} 31 Bq kg-1 for {sup 40}K, 86 {+-} 18 Bq kg-1 and 122 {+-} 23 Bq kg-1 for {sup 226}Ra and while for {sup 228}Th it ranged between 14 {+-} 2 Bq kg-1 and 73 {+-} 10 Bq kg-1. No artificial radioactive elements were detected in any of the samples. The average outdoor effective dose rate due to gamma exposure from these waste materials in the city was calculated as 0.12 mSv y{sup -1}. This is far less than 1 mSv y{sup -1} recommended limit for the member of the public by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The pH of the effluent samples was slightly alkaline, while the electrical conductivity ranged between 275 and 455 {mu}S cm{sup -1} and total suspended solids ranged from 104 to 5616 mg l{sup -1}. All these ranges and those of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand values were all higher than the prescribed limits. Presence of heavy metals in the effluent samples was however lower than prescribed with the exception of iron. (authors)

  16. 高含固率秸秆和牛粪混合物料发酵产甲烷工艺%Fermentation technology for methane production using high solid content materials with straw and dairy manure

    马旭光; 李传友; 袁旭峰; 朱万斌; 王小芬; 程序; 崔宗均


    technology. The continuous feeding and discharge of lignocellulosic feedstock with high solids is difficult to complete. Methane production from the feedstock is low in practice. Thus, it is important to develop a new reactor with efficient feeding and discharge feedstock equipments and improve methane production by an optimized operation process. Based on synthesizing the merits of a number of techniques home and abroad, a novel anaerobic reactor was designed in this study. The reactor had two spiral equipments to implement continuous feeding and discharge feedstock with high solid content and had a high bearing capability of organic loading rate (OLR) to improve methane production. In order to provide a technology and some reliable operating parameters to efficiently produce methane from lignocellulosic feedstock, the continuous anaerobic co-digestion tests were conducted at three total solid contents of 10%, 15% and 20%using corn stalk and dairy manure as feedstock. An integrated two-phase division digestion system was constructed by controlling stirring intensity (h/d) and feeding intensity (d). The methane volumetric production rate (MVPR) of different OLRs was compared. Effects of the total solid (TS) of feedstock, stirring, feeding intensity on height, pH of function divisions, and MVPR were discussed in detail. The results showed that function divisions, including the acidification division of upside and methanogenic division of underpart in the vertical reactor, were obviously formed when TS were 10% and 15%, MVPR gradually increased, and methane content stabilized around 52% with OLR increasing. The highest MVPR reached 1.62 and 1.66 m3/(m3·d) respectively when OLR was 13.44 kg/(m3·d) at 10%TS and 20.17 kg/(m3·d) at 15% TS. MVPR significantly decreased when OLR was 20.17 kg/(m3·d) and 30.0 kg/(m3·d), respectively, which might be caused by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids. MVPR stabilized around 0.98 m3/(m3·d) with OLR increasing, then it dramatically

  17. Study on preparing high-solid content polyurethane adhesive modified by acrylate%高固含量丙烯酸酯改性聚氨酯胶粘剂的研制

    胡孝勇; 朱文强; 张泽民; 陈锦凡


    以聚醚多元醇、聚酯多元醇和蓖麻油为混合多元醇,以改性MDI(4,4'-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯)及PAPI(多亚甲基多苯基多异氰酸酯)为混合异氰酸酯,合成了聚氨酯(PU)胶粘剂预聚体;然后以PA(羟基丙烯酸酯树脂)作为PU预聚体的改性剂,制得高固含量的PUA(聚丙烯酸酯改性聚氨酯)胶粘剂.结果表明:当m(改性MDI):m(PAPI)=1:1、n(-NCO):n(-OH)=2.2:1、ω(PA)=8%(相对于PU质量而言)和ω(丙烯酸羟乙酯)=3%(相对于PU质量而言)时,PuA胶粘剂的综合性能较好.%With polyester polyol, polyether polyol and castor oil as mix polyols, modified MDI(4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) and PAPI (multimethylene multiphenyl multiisocyanate) as mix isocyanate, so a polyurethane(PU) adhesive prepolymer was prepared. Then a PUA (PU modified by polyacrylate) adhesive with high solid content was prepared when PA(hydroxyl acrylate resin) was used as modifier of PU prepolymer. The results showed that the PUA adhesive had well combination property when mass ratio of m(modified MDI):m(PAPI) was 1:1,molar ratio of n(-NCO):n(-OH) was 2.2:1, mass fractions of PA and hydroxy ethyl acrylate were 8% and 3% in PU respectively.

  18. Solid lubricants

    Sliney, Harold E.


    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  19. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  20. [Study and development of a new automatic suction system (SS) of intratracheal sputum in order to improve QOL of many patients with tracheostomy mechanical ventilation (TMV) and their family members by this new autonomic SS].

    Hokezu, Youichi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tokunaga, Syuichi; Niikura, Makoto; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Kira, Jun-ichi; Fukunaga, Toshihide; Shima, Kouji; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kimura, Itaru; Kondo, Kiyohiko; Mori, Teruhiko; Goto, Katumasa; Takigami, Shigeru; Shioya, Keiichi; Uehara, Minako


    In Japan, many patients equipped with TMV are under medical treatment at home after 1990. These patients can't put out sputa in trachea, so that these patient's family members must suck these patient's intratracheal sputa all days. Mr Yamamoto and Mr Tokunaga, main researchers of this study, began the study on the automatic SS of itratracheal sputa from 1999. In first stage, They developed the intermittent SS in detaining the suction tube within tracheal cannula, monitering the intratracheal pressure, but this system takes the ventilation away from the patient. Hypoventilation caused by this SS may cause the serious accident in patient. Therefore, we remodel the SS from intermittent SS to rollerpomp-type SS continuing to suck the itratracheal sputa with low volume from 2004, and thereafter we made up the SS of piston pomp type-SS finally at 2007. We developed the tracheal cannula with double suction holes of inner and lower hole in the lower part of its cannula together with the suction machine. We think that the practical use of this automatic SS will bring these patients with TMV and their family members great benefits. We desire that the practical use of this SS will be realized as soon as possible.

  1. A Feasibility Study of Applying SS 307Si Buffer Layer for Mitigating the Hot Cracking of Ni-Based Weld Overlay

    Tsai, Kun-Chao; Jeng, Sheng-Long


    The hot cracking behavior of Ni-based Alloy 52M weld overlay with respective SS 307Si and SS 308L buffer layers was investigated. The dilution level of SS 307Si buffer layer is a little higher than that of SS 308L. However, the hot crack length of overlay with SS 307Si buffer layer is shorter and the SS 307Si layer has higher mechanical properties than that of SS 308L layer. As observed by SEM and EBSD, ferrites precipitated in SS 307Si buffer layer are in vermicular skeletons dotted with lathy precipitates, which have a little higher local stain than that of SS 308L weld. However, Alloy 52M weld around SS 307Si fusion boundary has a lower degree of local distortion. The results generalize that the SS 307Si buffer layer is marginally better for reducing hot cracking susceptibility, owing to its lower local stain and slightly higher mechanical strength.

  2. Hybrid De Novo Genome Assembly Using MiSeq and SOLiD Short Read Data.

    Ikegami, Tsutomu; Inatsugi, Toyohiro; Kojima, Isao; Umemura, Myco; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Machida, Masayuki; Asai, Kiyoshi


    A hybrid de novo assembly pipeline was constructed to utilize both MiSeq and SOLiD short read data in combination in the assembly. The short read data were converted to a standard format of the pipeline, and were supplied to the pipeline components such as ABySS and SOAPdenovo. The assembly pipeline proceeded through several stages, and either MiSeq paired-end data, SOLiD mate-paired data, or both of them could be specified as input data at each stage separately. The pipeline was examined on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, by aligning the assembly results against the reference sequences. Using both the MiSeq and the SOLiD data in the hybrid assembly, the alignment length was improved by a factor of 3 to 8, compared with the assemblies using either one of the data types. The number of the reproduced gene cluster regions encoding secondary metabolite biosyntheses (SMB) was also improved by the hybrid assemblies. These results imply that the MiSeq data with long read length are essential to construct accurate nucleotide sequences, while the SOLiD mate-paired reads with long insertion length enhance long-range arrangements of the sequences. The pipeline was also tested on the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680, whose gene is known to have high-GC content. Although the quality of the SOLiD reads was too low to perform any meaningful assemblies by themselves, the alignment length to the reference was improved by a factor of 2, compared with the assembly using only the MiSeq data.

  3. Hybrid De Novo Genome Assembly Using MiSeq and SOLiD Short Read Data.

    Tsutomu Ikegami

    Full Text Available A hybrid de novo assembly pipeline was constructed to utilize both MiSeq and SOLiD short read data in combination in the assembly. The short read data were converted to a standard format of the pipeline, and were supplied to the pipeline components such as ABySS and SOAPdenovo. The assembly pipeline proceeded through several stages, and either MiSeq paired-end data, SOLiD mate-paired data, or both of them could be specified as input data at each stage separately. The pipeline was examined on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, by aligning the assembly results against the reference sequences. Using both the MiSeq and the SOLiD data in the hybrid assembly, the alignment length was improved by a factor of 3 to 8, compared with the assemblies using either one of the data types. The number of the reproduced gene cluster regions encoding secondary metabolite biosyntheses (SMB was also improved by the hybrid assemblies. These results imply that the MiSeq data with long read length are essential to construct accurate nucleotide sequences, while the SOLiD mate-paired reads with long insertion length enhance long-range arrangements of the sequences. The pipeline was also tested on the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680, whose gene is known to have high-GC content. Although the quality of the SOLiD reads was too low to perform any meaningful assemblies by themselves, the alignment length to the reference was improved by a factor of 2, compared with the assembly using only the MiSeq data.

  4. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence.

    Guillermo D Repizo

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978, a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011 and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825, revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner.

  5. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve


    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  6. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Frithjof eGlowinski


    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  7. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.

    Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A


    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  8. Diffractional Imaging of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Using SdS-SS Traveltimes

    Guo, Z.; Zhou, Y.


    The mantle transition zone is characterized by two discontinuities at depths of about 410 and 660 km. Mineral physics studies suggest that wavespeed and density jumps across the discontinuities are associated with olivine phase transformations and the depths at which the phase transformations occur are strongly dependent on temperature. Imaging lateral variations of the discontinuity depths is important for constraining thermal structure in the mid mantle. SS precursors (SdS) are waves reflected at the underside of the discontinuities and arrive beforethe SS phase. Their traveltime measurements at teleseismic distances can be used to map the discontinuities at a global scale. In this study, we measure frequency-dependent SS precursors traveltimes using seismograms recorded at GSN stations for earthquakes occurred between 2000 and 2015. The measurements were made using cosine tapers and multitapers and the traveltimes show significant dispersion. We calculate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels for SdS-SS differential measurements based on traveling-wave mode summation, which account for complete wave interactions within the measurement window. We will discuss preliminary results from finite-frequency imaging using SdS-SS dispersion measurements and the effects of 3-D crustal structure and mantle wavespeed structure.

  9. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia


    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  10. Excessive Counterion Condensation on Immobilized ssDNA in Solutions of High Ionic Strength

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Shozo; Tornow, Marc; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard


    We present experiments on the bias-induced release of immobilized, single-stranded (ss) 24-mer oligonucleotides from Au-surfaces into electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength. Desorption is evidenced by fluorescence measurements of dye-labeled ssDNA. Electrostatic interactions between adsorbed ssDNA and the Au-surface are investigated with respect to 1), a variation of the bias potential applied to the Au-electrode; and 2), the screening effect of the electrolyte solution. For the latter, the concentration of monovalent salt in solution is varied from 3 to 1600 mM. We find that the strength of electric interaction is predominantly determined by the effective charge of the ssDNA itself and that the release of DNA mainly occurs before the electrochemical double layer has been established at the electrolyte/Au interface. In agreement with Manning's condensation theory, the measured desorption efficiency (ηrel) stays constant over a wide range of salt concentrations; however, as the Debye length is reduced below a value comparable to the axial charge spacing of the DNA, ηrel decreases substantially. We assign this effect to excessive counterion condensation on the DNA in solutions of high ionic strength. In addition, the relative translational diffusion coefficient of ssDNA in solution is evaluated for different salt concentrations. PMID:14645075

  11. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence

    Foucault-Grunenwald, Marie-Laure; Borges, Vitor; Charpentier, Xavier; Limansky, Adriana S.; Gomes, João Paulo; Viale, Alejandro M.; Salcedo, Suzana P.


    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978), a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011) and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825), revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS) functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner. PMID:26401654

  12. Propriedades termofísicas da polpa do cupuaçu com diferentes teores de sólidos Termophysical properties of cupuaçu pulp at different solids contents

    Josalice de Lima Araújo


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar as propriedades termofísicas difusividade térmica, calor específico e condutividade térmica da polpa do cupuaçu em três condições de teor de sólidos: integral (12ºBrix, 9ºBrix e com eliminação parcial dos sólidos insolúveis (peneirado. A difusividade térmica foi determinada por meio do aparato de Dickerson (1965; para o calor específico, utilizou-se a metodologia do calorímetro de mistura, e a condutividade térmica foi determinada considerando-se a relação entre a difusividade térmica, o calor específico e a massa específica. Foram utilizadas equações para o cálculo teórico dessas propriedades e os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais. Os resultados experimentais médios, obtidos para as difusividades térmicas, calores específicos e condutividades térmicas das amostras integral, 9ºBrix e peneiradas foram, respectivamente: 1,31x10-7, 1,32x10-7 e 1,27x10-7 m²/s; 3,24, 3,71 e 3,18 kJ/kgºC; e 0,44 W/mºC, 0,50 W/mºC e 0,42 W/mºC.This work was accomplished with the aim of determining the termophysical properties, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of cupuaçu pulp in three conditions of solids contents: 12ºBrix, 9ºBrix, and partial elimination of the insoluble solids (sieving. The thermal diffusivity was determined by means of Dickerson’s (1965 apparatus, for the specific heat the method of mixtures was used and the thermal conductivity was determined starting from the relationship among thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density. Equations were used for the theoretical calculation of those properties and the results were compared with the experimental values. The average results, obtained for the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of the 12ºBrix, 9ºBrix and sieved samples were, respectively: 1.31x10-7, 1.32x10-7 and 1.27x10-7 m²/s; 3.24, 3.71 and 3.18 kJ/kgºC; and 0.44 W

  13. Detection of Onion Soluble Solids Content Based on the Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectra%基于近红外反射光谱的洋葱可溶性固体物检测

    王海华; 李长缨; 李民赞


    Onion soluble solids content (SSC) was detected using near-infrared (924~1 720 nm) reflectance spectra.Three cultivars of onions,harvested at different period,were selected for experiment and the total number of samples is 268.SSC reference value of onion juice was determined using the temperature compensated refractometer.Some pre-processing methods,such as S-G smoothing,scatter correction,and derivation,were compared to establish a statistical model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) method.The results show that the avitzky-Golay smoothing with window 32 and span 10 is more efficient.The determination correlation coefficient of prediction R2 is 0.87 and root mean square error (RMSEP) is 2.42 ° Brix.Compared to the 2nd derivation,the 1st derivation got better prediction result,but the spectra scatter correction is the best (R2 =0.88,RMSEP of=2.31 ° Brix).The optimal prediction (R2 =0.90,RMSEP=1.84 Brix and RPD=3) was built based on crossing validation modeling,which shows that infrared reflectance spectroscopy with scatter correction pre-processing is feasible for onions soluble solids detection.%研究利用近红外(924~1 720 nm)反射光谱预测了洋葱的可溶性固体物含量.实验选取了三种不同产地和不同采收期的洋葱为样本(268).在重复采集光谱数据之后,榨取对应光谱采集处洋葱块汁,测定可溶性固体物参考值.研究对比了Savitzky-Golay平滑、散射校正和微分处理等预处理方法,同时基于偏最小二乘回归方法建立了统计模型.结果表明,带S-G平滑的微分处理在平滑窗口为32,跨度为10时效果最佳.一阶微分比二阶微分的预处理效果要好,预测复相关系数R2为0.87,均方根误差RMSEP为2.42°Brix.对比显示,无平滑处理光谱数据散射校正预处理得到的结果最好,预测复相关系数R2为0.88(RMSEP=2.31°Brix).采用交叉验证得到的PLSR模型预测复相关系数R2为0.90,RMSEP为1.84°Brix

  14. Prognostic role of KiSS-1 and possibility of therapeutic modality of metastin, the final peptide of the KiSS-1 gene, in urothelial carcinoma.

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Kikuchi, Eiji; Mikami, Shuji; Suzuki, Eriko; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyajima, Akira; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu


    The KiSS-1 gene has been reported to be a metastasis suppressor gene in human melanoma. The gene product was isolated from human placenta as the ligand of GPR54, a G protein-coupled receptor, and the C-terminally amidated peptide of 54 amino acids is called metastin. The binding of metastin to GPR54 has been shown to inhibit tumor metastasis in some tumor cells; however, its function remains unclear in urothelial carcinoma. We first evaluated KiSS-1 expression and GPR54 expression in 151 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma to determine their prognostic significance. Next, we examined the role of metastin in the invasiveness and lung metastasis of MBT-2 variant (MBT-2V), which is a highly metastatic murine bladder cancer cell. Multivariate analysis revealed that KiSS-1 expression was an independent predictor of metastasis and overall survival. However, GPR54 expression was not selected. Hematogeneous metastasis had a significantly lower level of KiSS-1 expression compared with lymph node metastasis. Metastin treatment significantly reduced the invasiveness of MBT-2V cells and inhibited the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by blocking its nuclear translocation, leading to a reduction in the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Metastin treatment dramatically prevented the occurrence of lung metastatic nodules (6.3 ± 2.3, n = 15) compared with controls (30.4 ± 5.1, n = 15; P metastin may be an effective inhibitor of metastasis in urothelial carcinoma through its blockade of NF-κB function.

  15. Pilot study of a fluidized-pellet-bed technique for simultaneous solid/liquid separation and sludge thickening in a sewage treatment plant

    Wang, X.C.; Jin, P.K.; Yuan, H.L.; Wan, E.R.; Tambo, N.


    A fluidized-pellet-bed separator with movable sludge hoppers was applied in pilot scale for the separation and thickening of activated sludge mixture liquid. Under the condition of suspension SS around 4000 mg/L, polymer (CJX103, cationic, MW 5x10{sup 6}) dose at a dry solid ratio of 0.003 and upward flow rate at 5.4 m/hr, the fluidized pellet bed performed solid/liquid separation and sludge thickening well. The SS concentration of the treated water was about 5 mg/L on average and the moisture content of the sludge after screening for 5 mm was less than 94% which is much lower than that after conventional settling and thickening and easy to be finally disposed. At higher upward flow rate of 7.2 m/hr. similar result could also be obtained but higher polymer dose (solid ratio of 0.004) was required. The morphological characteristics and density-size relationship of the granular particles formed in the fluidized pellet bed were also investigated by image analysis and settling velocity measurement of individual particles. The two-dimensional fractal dimension was evaluated to be 1.6-1.8, showing a good quasi-spherical morphology of the granular particles with their density much higher than the conventional flocs. The results of the pilot study indicate a possible way to innovate the conventional secondary settling and gravitational thickening processes for solid/liquid separation and sludge handling, especially for small scale wastewater treatment plants to reach the goal of space saving and higher treatment efficiency. (author)

  16. 考虑粒径分布的深水环空岩屑浓度研究及应用%Research and Application of Annulus Solid Content Considering the Cuttings Size Distribution during Deep-water Drilling

    夏环宇; 翟应虎; 王磊; 陈静; 张毅


    深水低温对钻井液性能影响显著,其黏度和切力的改变使深水携岩与常规陆上钻井不同.由于温度降低带来钻井液性能的改变对不同粒径岩屑上返速度的影响程度不同,因此在深水携岩研究中,考虑岩屑粒径分布是必要的.分析了温度变化对钻井液影响,建立了考虑岩屑粒径大小及粒径分布、机械钻速及钻井循环时间等影响因素的深水钻井分岩屑粒径的环空浓度计算新模型,从而获得了深水钻井中全井及井眼各段环空内岩屑浓度大小及其浓度随循环时间变化的分布与变化规律;并在现场深水钻井岩屑浓度的分析计算中,取得了良好的应用效果.%Drilling fluid performance can be influenced significantly under low temperature in deep-water drilling. The change of viscosity and shear force make cutting transport in deep-water drilling different from onshore drilling. Due to the different influence on sinking speed of different size cuttings with temperature changed, it is necessary to consider the particle size distribution for the cutting carry in deepwater drilling. The factor of rheological behavior varied with temperature changing, drilling cuttings size and its distribution, rate of penetration (ROP) and circulation time in drilling are considered, the new model of cuttings proportion calculation in wellbore annular is established, which can calculate the proportion in each hole and the full well sections and indicate the rule of proportion changed with time-varying. The model is applied in the calculation of solid content in the oil field and a good effect has been achieved.

  17. Development of a new sample preparation method based on liquid-liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and its application on unfiltered samples containing high content of solids.

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Abbaspour, Maryam


    A new sample preparation method based on liquid-liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection has been reported for the extraction/preconcentration and determination of trace levels of twelve pesticide residues from different samples with high content of solids without filtration. This method consists of a three-phase system including an aqueous phase (sample solution), acetonitrile, and hexane. The extraction mechanism is based on different affinities of the substances from the sample matrices towards each of the involved phase, which provides a high selectivity to the process. In other words, interfering hydrophobic compounds are transferred into hexane and will not be present in the final extract. Furthermore, ionic and polar compounds are retained in the aqueous phase. Therefore, only semi-polar compounds such as the studied pesticides are extracted into acetonitrile. In this method, a homogeneous solution of the aqueous phase and acetonitrile (a water-soluble extraction solvent) forms two clearly separated phases in the presence of sodium sulfate (as a phase separation agent) and simultaneously the analytes are extracted into the fine droplets of the acetonitrile collected on the surface of the aqueous phase. To achieve high enrichment factors, the acetonitrile phase is mixed with 1,2-dibromoethane (as a preconcentration solvent) at µL-level to perform the following dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. Several parameters that can affect extraction efficiency including kind and volume of extraction solvent, type and concentration of phase separation agent, hexane volume, kind of preconcentration solvent, and ionic strength were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, extraction recoveries were obtained in the range of 53-93% and the calibration curves were linear in wide ranges with correlation coefficients ≥ 0.9983. Intra- (n = 6) and

  18. Emissions due to the natural gas storage well-casing blowout at Aliso Canyon/SS-25

    Herndon, Scott; Daube, Conner; Jervis, Dylan; Yacovitch, Tara; Roscioli, Joseph; Curry, Jason; Nelson, David; Knighton, Berk


    The pronounced increase in unconventional gas production in North America over the last fifteen years has intensified interest in understanding emissions and leaks in the supply chain from well pad to end use. Los Angeles, California is home 19 million consumers of natural gas in both industry and domestic end use. The well blowout at Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Storage Facility in the greater Los Angeles area was quantified using the tracer flux ratio method (TFR). Over 400 tracer plume transects were collected, each lasting 15-300 seconds, using instrumentation aboard a mobile platform on 25 days between December 21, 2015 and March 9, 2016. The leak rate from October 23rd to February 11th has been estimated here using a combination of this work (TFR) and the flight mass balance (FMB) data [Conley et al., 2016]. This estimate relies on the TFR data as the most specific SS-25 emission dataset. Scaling the FMB dataset, the leak rate is projected from Oct 23rd to December 21th. Adding up the emissions inferred and measured suggests a total leak burden of 86,022 ± 8,393 metric tons of methane. This work quantified the emissions during the "bottom kill" procedure which halted the primary emission leak. The ethane to methane enhancement ratio observed downwind of the leak site is consistent with the content of ethane in the natural gas at this site and provides definitive evidence that the methane emission rate quantified via tracer flux ratio is not due to a nearby landfill or other potential biogenic sources. Additionally, the TFR approach employed here is assessing only the leaks due to the SS-25 well blowout and excludes other possible emissions at the facility.

  19. Detection of persistent gamma-ray emission from SS433/W50

    Bordas, Pol; Kafexhiu, Ervin; Aharonian, Felix


    The microquasar SS433 features the most energetic jets known in our Galaxy. A large fraction of the jet kinetic power is delivered to the surrounding W50 nebula at the jet termination shock, from which high-energy emission and cosmic-ray production have been anticipated. Here we report on the detection of a persistent gamma-ray signal from the direction of SS433/W50 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The steady flux and a narrow spectral energy distribution with a maximum around 250 MeV suggest that gamma-rays are rendered by the bulk jet kinetic power through proton-proton collisions at the SS433/W50 interaction regions. If the same mechanism is operating in other baryon-loaded microquasar jets, their collective contribution may represent a significant fraction of the total galactic cosmic-ray flux at GeV energies.

  20. Nucleation and growth microstructural study of ti films on 304 SS substrates

    Rogério de Almeida Vieira


    Full Text Available Coating of steel surfaces with titanium films has been studied with the objective to protect them against corrosion, and to create an intermediate film for CVD diamond and TiN film deposition. In this work, the nucleation, growth mechanisms and microstructural formation of the titanium films deposited on 304 stainless steel (304 SS substrate are presented and discussed. The titanium films of variable thickness were obtained by vapour phase deposition produced by electron beam. The surfaces of these samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The cross sections of these samples were observed by using an atomic force microscope. The Ti film-304 SS interfaces were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that titanium films have a columnar growth. The Ti film-304 SS interface had a residual compression stress at room temperature due to the inter-diffusion process.

  1. Stability of strange stars (SS) derived from a realistic equation of state

    Sinha, M N; Dey, M; Ray, S; Bhowmick, S; Sinha, Monika; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira; Ray, Subharthi; Bhowmick, Siddhartha


    A realistic equation of state (EOS) leads to realistic strange stars (ReSS) which are compact in the mass radius plot, close to the Schwarzchild limiting line (Dey et al 1998). Many of the observed stars fit in with this kind of compactness, irrespective of whether they are X-ray pulsars, bursters or soft $\\gamma$ repeaters or even radio pulsars. We point out that a change in the radius of a star can be small or large, when its mass is increasing and this depends on the position of a particular star on the mass radius curve. We carry out a stability analysis against radial oscillations and compare with the EOS of other strange star (SS) models. We find that the ReSS is stable and an M-R region can be identified to that effect.

  2. Combinatorial gene editing in mammalian cells using ssODNs and TALENs

    Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Niamat, Rohina A.; Rivera-Torres, Natalia; Kmiec, Eric B.


    The regulation of gene editing is being elucidated in mammalian cells and its potential as well as its limitations are becoming evident. ssODNs carry out gene editing by annealing to their complimentary sequence at the target site and acting as primers for replication fork extension. To effect a genetic change, a large amount of ssODN molecules must be introduced into cells and as such induce a Reduced Proliferation Phenotype (RPP), a phenomenon in which corrected cells do not proliferate. To overcome this limitation, we have used TAL-Effector Nucleases (TALENs) to increase the frequency, while reducing the amount of ssODN required to direct gene correction. This strategy resolves the problem and averts the serious effects of RPP. The efficiency of gene editing can be increased significantly if cells are targeted while they progress through S phase. Our studies define new reaction parameters that will help guide experimental strategies of gene editing.

  3. Asymmetric PCR method in generation of HBV ssDNA for pyrosequencing

    Nian-cai Peng; Chun-lin Wang; Li-li Zhang; Mao-li Lu; Zhen-xi Zhang


    Objective To explore the optimal primer ratio and concentration of asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) in producing hepatitis B virus (HBV) single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for pyrosequencing. Methods A-PCR was carried out to generate HBV ssDNA with forward to reverse primers of different ratios (50 : 1, 100 : 1) and concentrations (13. 0 pmol/25μL and 0.14 pmol/25μL, 19. 5 pmol/25μL and 0. 21 pmol/25μL), and the product yield and quality were compared respectively. Results The forward to reverse primer ratio of 50 : 1 provided better yield and concentration of 19. 5 pmol/25μL and 0. 21 pmol//25μL generated a clearer band. Conclusion A simple and feasible method to produce HBV ssDNA for pyrosequencing in batch is established.

  4. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A


    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  5. Development of Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen based assays for immunodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis.

    Rascoe, Lisa N; Price, Courtney; Shin, Sun Hee; McAuliffe, Isabel; Priest, Jeffrey W; Handali, Sukwan


    Strongyloides stercoralis is a widely distributed parasite that infects 30 to 100 million people worldwide. In the United States strongyloidiasis is recognized as an important infection in immigrants and refugees. Public health and commercial reference laboratories need a simple and reliable method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis to identify and treat cases and to prevent transmission. The recognized laboratory test of choice for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is detection of disease specific antibodies, most commonly using a crude parasite extract for detection of IgG antibodies. Recently, a luciferase tagged recombinant protein of S. stercoralis, Ss-NIE-1, has been used in a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) to detect IgG and IgG4 specific antibodies. To promote wider adoption of immunoassays for strongyloidiasis, we used the Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen without the luciferase tag and developed ELISA and fluorescent bead (Luminex) assays to detect S. stercoralis specific IgG4. We evaluated the assays using well-characterized sera from persons with or without presumed strongyloidiasis. The sensitivity and specificity of Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA were 95% and 93%, respectively. For the IgG4 Luminex assay, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 95%, respectively. Specific IgG4 antibody decreased after treatment in a manner that was similar to the decrease of specific IgG measured in the crude IgG ELISA. The sensitivities of the Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA and Luminex assays were comparable to the crude IgG ELISA but with improved specificities. However, the Ss-NIE-1 based assays are not dependent on native parasite materials and can be performed using widely available laboratory equipment. In conclusion, these newly developed Ss-NIE-1 based immunoassays can be readily adopted by public health and commercial reference laboratories for routine screening and clinical diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in refugees and immigrants in the United States.

  6. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating.

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata


    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary.

  7. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Adediran Adewumi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am &, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  8. A theoretical investigation on anomalous switching of single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) monolayers by water vapor

    赵新军; 高志福; 蒋中英


    In this paper, we use a molecular theory to study the anomalous switching of ssDNA monolayers. Here, both ssDNA–water and water–water hydrogen bonds and their explicit coupling to the ssDNA conformations are considered. We find that hydrogen bonding becomes a key element in inducing the anomalous switching of ssDNA monolayers. This finding accords well with the experimental observations. Based on our theoretical model, we predict that the anomalous switching induced by water vapor will be applicable to a wide range of hydrogen bonds polymers, and ssDNA–water hydrogen bonds and water–water hydrogen bonds hybridization will lead to the hydrogen-bond network formation of 3D ssDNA monolayers.

  9. Suklaajälkiruoat ja niiden valmistamisen haasteet ammattikeittiössä

    Lappalainen, Arto


    Tämä opinnäytetyö on osa palvelujen tuottamisen ja johtamisen koulutusohjelmaa. Opinnäytetyön aiheena on suklaajälkiruuat ja niiden valmistamisen haasteet ammattikeittiössä. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa käsitellään suklaan historiaa, lajikkeita, tuottajamaita, valmistusmenetelmiä, suklaan laatuja, tärkeimpiä valmistajia sekä suklaan käyttöä ja tekniikoita ammattikeittiössä. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin yleisimpiä suklaajälkiruokia ja niiden valmistuksessa olevia haasteita ammattikeitti...

  10. All-digital Carrier Frequency Tracking Method in LEO DS/SS Communication

    XING Ke-fei; YANG Jun; ZHANG Chuan-sheng; WANG Yue-ke


    An efficient method to track the carrier frequency which is recommended to use in low earth orbit(LEO) direct-sequence spread-spectrum(DS/SS) communication system is given. The carrier frequency drifts quicker in LEO DS/SS communication system, its tracking problem becomes much more important especially in digital receiver with the limits of physical shape and power. Under the condition of coarse carrier frequency synchronization, a digital tracking method based on least square method(LSM) is proved to be a quick, simple and efficient method. Numerical results and charts are given.

  11. True logarithmic amplification of frequency clock in SS-OCT for calibration.

    Liu, Bin; Azimi, Ehsan; Brezinski, Mark E


    With swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), imprecise signal calibration prevents optimal imaging of biological tissues such as coronary artery. This work demonstrates an approach using a true logarithmic amplifier to precondition the clock signal, with the effort to minimize the noises and phase errors for optimal calibration. This method was validated and tested with a high-speed SS-OCT. The experimental results manifest its superior ability on optimization of the calibration and improvement of the imaging performance. Particularly, this hardware-based approach is suitable for real-time calibration in a high-speed system where computation time is constrained.

  12. Bee Wax Propolis Extract as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors for 304SS in Sulfuric Acid

    Femiana Gapsari; Rudy Soenoko; Agus Suprapto; Wahyono Suprapto


    The inhibition properties of bee wax propolis (BWP) extract on the 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid were conducted using potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and XRD. Quercetin (2-(3.4-dihydroxy phenyl)-3.5.7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one) was identified as the main compound in the BWP extract based on FTIR and HPLC analysis. The results showed that the inhibitor could retard the corrosion rate of 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid which reached 97.29% and 91.42% at 2000 ppm based on potentiodynamic polari...

  13. Wideband, high speed switch matrix development for SS-TDMA applications

    Prather, W. H.; Cory, B. J.; Wade, R. F.; Taft, W. J.; Buzinski, R. E.


    The paper describes the design of an SS-TDMA microwave switch matrix being developed as part of the NASA 30/20 GHz Communications Satellite Program. A critical element in the systems development is the high-speed wideband switching capability necessary for 30/20 GHz SS-TDMA trunking service interconnections. A proof-of-concept model of a 20-by-20 microwave switch matrix with a 2.5 GHz bandwidth and 10-nanosecond switching speeds is being developed to realize this capability.

  14. Kehitysvammaisuus suomalaisessa elokuvataiteessa 1920-luvulta vuoteen 2010 : Yhteiskunnallisia merkityksiä etsimässä

    Markus, Helena


    Tutkimustyöni lähtökohtana on sosionomin tehtäväkentässä kulttuurillisuuden vahvistaminen. Kehitysvammaisuus suomalaisessa elokuvataiteessa – yhteiskunnallisia merkityksiä etsimässä, on lyhyt katsaus kotimaisesta elokuvasta 1920-luvulta nykypäivään. Tavoitteenani on etsiä vuosikymmenittäin elokuvia, joissa on kehitysvammaiseksi henkilöksi luonnehdittava hahmo roolisuorituksena. Löytämistäni elokuvista olen analysoinut sosiaalipoliittisten tavoitteiden, asenteiden ja arvojen näkymistä kullakin...

  15. TIMES-SS - A mechanistic evaluation of an external validation study using reaction chemistry principles

    Roberts, David W.; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.


    -skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships. Here, we describe an external validation exercise that was recently carried out. As part of this exercise, data were generated for 40 new...... for sensitization. Additional testing on a further four chemicals was carried out to explore some of the specific reaction chemistry findings in more detail. Improvements for TIMES-SS, where appropriate, were put forward together with proposals for further research work. TIMES-SS is a promising tool to aid...

  16. Asymmetric PCR method in generation of HBV ssDNA for pyrosequencing


    Objective To explore the optimal primer ratio and concentration of asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) in producing hepatitis B virus (HBV) single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for pyrosequencing. Methods A-PCR was carried out to generate HBV ssDNA with forward to reverse primers of different ratios (50∶1, 100∶1) and concentrations (13.0 pmol/25μL and 0.14 pmol/25μL, 19.5 pmol/25μL and 0.21 pmol/25μL), and the product yield and quality were compared respectively. Results The forward to reverse primer ratio ...

  17. Abortti ja seksuaalisuus : Kokonaisvaltaisen neuvonnan kehittäminen Itu-työssä


    Abortin vaikutuksia naisen terveyteen on tutkittu laajasti. Sitä vastoin tutkimustietoa abortin vaikutuksista naisen seksuaalisuuteen on niukasti. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin yhteistyössä Tampe-reen Nuorten Naisten Kristillisen Yhdistyksen Itu-työn kanssa ja heidän toimeksi antamanaan. Itu-työ tukee naisia yllätysraskaustilanteissa ja antaa abortin jälkihoitoa ympäri Suomea. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin Itu-työn vertaistukiryhmissä käyneiden naisten kokemuksia abortin vaikutuksista heidän seksuaali...

  18. Characterization of systemic disease in primary Sjogren's syndrome : EULAR-SS Task Force recommendations for articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal involvements

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Seror, Raphaele; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J.; Doerner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Theander, Elke; Bombardieri, Stefano; De Vita, Salvatore; Mandl, Thomas; Ng, Wan-Fai; Kruize, Aike; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio


    Objective. To reach a European consensus on the definition and characterization of the main organspecific extraglandular manifestations in primary SS. Methods. The EULAR-SS Task Force Group steering committee agreed to approach SS-related systemic involvement according to the EULAR SS Disease Activi

  19. Solid consistency

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge


    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  20. Truncated SSX protein suppresses synovial sarcoma cell proliferation by inhibiting the localization of SS18-SSX fusion protein.

    Yasushi Yoneda

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma is a relatively rare high-grade soft tissue sarcoma that often develops in the limbs of young people and induces the lung and the lymph node metastasis resulting in poor prognosis. In patients with synovial sarcoma, specific chromosomal translocation of t(X; 18 (p11.2;q11.2 is observed, and SS18-SSX fusion protein expressed by this translocation is reported to be associated with pathogenesis. However, role of the fusion protein in the pathogenesis of synovial sarcoma has not yet been completely clarified. In this study, we focused on the localization patterns of SS18-SSX fusion protein. We constructed expression plasmids coding for the full length SS18-SSX, the truncated SS18 moiety (tSS18 and the truncated SSX moiety (tSSX of SS18-SSX, tagged with fluorescent proteins. These plasmids were transfected in synovial sarcoma SYO-1 cells and we observed the expression of these proteins using a fluorescence microscope. The SS18-SSX fusion protein showed a characteristic speckle pattern in the nucleus. However, when SS18-SSX was co-expressed with tSSX, localization of SS18-SSX changed from speckle patterns to the diffused pattern similar to the localization pattern of tSSX and SSX. Furthermore, cell proliferation and colony formation of synovial sarcoma SYO-1 and YaFuSS cells were suppressed by exogenous tSSX expression. Our results suggest that the characteristic speckle localization pattern of SS18-SSX is strongly involved in the tumorigenesis through the SSX moiety of the SS18-SSX fusion protein. These findings could be applied to further understand the pathogenic mechanisms, and towards the development of molecular targeting approach for synovial sarcoma.

  1. Yksinyrittäjän työssäjaksaminen työurien pidentyessä

    Koskinen, Kaisa


    ssä opinnäytetyössä on selvitetty yksinyrittäjien työhyvinvointia, työssä jaksamista ja muutoksen tarvetta. Selvitys perustuu kyselyyn, joka kohdistui Freelancer toimittajiin. Kyselyyn vastanneet olivat pääosin moniammattilaisia, mikä kuvaa media-alan tämänhetkistä tilannetta. Työn tilaaja on työnohjausyhteisö, jonka tavoitteena on viedä työnohjausta yrityssektorille. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin, onko yksin yrittäjillä tarvetta ja kiinnostusta työnohjaukselliseen työhyvinvointipalveluu...

  2. New insight into the Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Pacific Ocean Using PP and SS Precursors

    Gurrola, H.; Rogers, K. D.


    The passing of the EarthScope Transportable array has provided a dense data set that enabled beam forming of SS and PP data that resultes in improved frequency content to as much a 1 Hz in the imaging of upper mantle structure. This combined with the application of simultaneous iterative deconvolution has resulted in images to as much as 4 Hz. The processing however results in structure being averaged over regions of 60 to 100 km in radius. This is becomes a powerful new tool to image the upper mantle beneath Oceanic regions where locating stations is expensive and difficult. This presentation will summarize work from a number of regions as to new observations of the upper mantle beneath the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Images from a region of the Pacific Ocean furthest from hot spots or subduction zones (we will refer to this as the 'reference region'). show considerable layering in the upper mantle. The 410 km discontinuity is always imaged using these tools and appears to be a very sharp boundary. It does usually appear as an isolated positive phase. There appears to be a LAB at ~100 km as expected but there is a strong negative phase at ~ 200 km with a positive phase 15 km deeper. This is best explained as a lens of partial melt as expected for this depth based on the geothermal gradient. If so this should be a low friction point and so we would expect it to accommodate plate motion. Imaging of the Aleutian subduction zone does show the 100 km deep LAB as it descends but this 200 km deep horizon appears as a week descending positive anomaly without the shallower negative pulse. In addition to the 410, 100 and 200 km discontinuities there are a number of paired anomalies, between the 200 and 400 km depths, with a negative pulse 15 to 20 km shallower then the positive pulse. We do not believe these are side lobes or we would see side lobes on the 100 km and 410 km discontinuities. We believe these to be the result of friction induced partial melt along zones of

  3. Direct determination of potentially toxic elements in rice by SS-GF AAS: development of methods and applications.

    Silvestre, Daniel Menezes; Nomura, Cassiana Seimi


    The development of methods for direct determinations of Al, Cd, and Pb in rice by SS-GF AAS is presented. Heating program optimization associated with the use of an adequate chemical modifier containing Pd + Mg allowed direct analysis against aqueous calibrations. The obtained LOD values were 114.0, 3.0, and 16.0 μg kg⁻¹ for Al, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Important parameters associated with a solid sampling analysis were investigated, such as minimum and maximum sample mass size and analyte segregation. Seventeen rice samples available in São Paulo City were analyzed, and all of them presented analyte mass fractions less than the maximum allowed by legislation. The influences of rice washing and the cooking procedure were also investigated. The washing procedure diminished the Al and Pb total mass fractions, indicating an exogenous grain contamination. The cooking procedure diminished the Cd total mass fraction. Rice cooking using an aluminum container did not cause a significant increase in the Al mass fraction in the rice, indicating no translocation of this element from container to food. In general, coarse rice presented higher levels of Al when compared to polished or parabolized rice.

  4. Effect of heavy metals and water content on the strength of magnesium phosphate cements.

    Buj, Irene; Torras, Josep; Casellas, Daniel; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan


    In this paper the mechanical properties of magnesium potassium phosphate cements used for the Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) of galvanic wastes were investigated. Surrogate wastes (metal nitrate dissolutions) were employed containing Cd, Cr(III), Cu, Ni, Pb or Zn at a concentration of 25 g dm(-3) and different water-to-solid (W/S) ratios (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 dm(3)kg(-1)) have been employed. Cements were prepared by mixing hard burned magnesia of about 70% purity with potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Compressive strength and tensile strength of specimens were determined. In addition the volume of permeable voids was measured. It was found that when comparing pastes that the volume of permeable voids increases and mechanical strength decreases with the increase of water-to-solid ratio (W/S). Nevertheless pastes with the same material proportions containing different metals show different mechanical strength values. The hydration products were analyzed by XRD. With the increase of water content not previously reported hydration compound was detected: bobierrite.

  5. Optimal continuous order quantity (s,S) policies; the 45-degrees algorithm

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger


    textabstractThe most recent optimization algorithm for (s,S) order policies with continuous demand was developed by Federgruen and Zipkin (1985). This was also the first efficient algorithm, which uses policy iteration instead of discretization. Zheng and Federgruen (1991) developed an even more eff

  6. SS 433 Radio\\/X-ray anti-correlation and fast-time variability

    Safi-Harb, S; Safi-Harb, Samar; Kotani, Taro


    We briefly review the Galactic microquasar SS 433/W50 and present a new RXTE spectral and timing study. We show that the X-ray flux decreases during radio flares, a behavior seen in other microquasars. We also find short time-scale variability unveiling emission regions from within the binary system.

  7. Relva-SS veteranid said kokku Sinimägedes / Rita Loel

    Loel, Rita, 1966-2012


    Relva-SS veteranid kogunesid Sinimägedes, et meenutada 64 aastat tagasi toimunud lahinguid. Riigikogu liige Trivimi Velliste lubas, et juba sügisel esitab IRL Riigikogus eelnõu, mis tunnustaks ka Saksa poolel sõdinud eesti mehi

  8. Agilent acceSS7网络监测的卫兵


    @@ 网络监测系统的研发是安捷伦科技业务构成中的一个重要组成部分.近年来,以其骄人的成果在业界树立了良好的形象.位于北京的安捷伦科技软件设计中心成立于1997年,是安捷伦科技软件研究核心机构,中心研制的SS7监控系统acceSS7是专为电信运营商量身定做的应用方案,已经被业界广泛认可并归纳为基于SS7的电信网络监控和数据采集的标准.该方案在大小网络、无线和有线应用等领域占有主导地位,目前在全球范围内,安装Agilent acceSS7的客户已经超过70家.

  9. The Phage Lysin PlySs2 Decolonizes Streptococcus suis from Murine Intranasal Mucosa

    Gilmer, Daniel B.; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Thandar, Mya; Euler, Chad W.; Fischetti, Vincent A.


    Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9. At 64 μg/ml, PlySs2 reduced multiple serotypes of S. suis by 5 to 6-logs within 1 hour in vitro and exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml for a S. suis serotype 2 strain and 64 μg/ml for a serotype 9 strain. Using a single 0.1-mg dose, the colonizing S. suis serotype 9 strain was reduced from the murine intranasal mucosa by >4 logs; a 0.1-mg dose of gentamicin reduced S. suis by 5-logs. While resistance to gentamicin was induced after systematically increasing levels of gentamicin in an S. suis culture, the same protocol resulted in no observable resistance to PlySs2. Thus, PlySs2 has both broad and high killing activity against multiple serotypes and strains of S. suis, making it a possible tool in the control and prevention of S. suis infections in pigs and humans. PMID:28046082

  10. Iron Store of Pregnant Women with Hemoglobin SS and SC in Benin ...

    The mean age, educational status, and the social class of both the test group and the control group were comparable. There was a ... Conclusion: This study demonstrated higher serum iron levels in Hb SS / SC pregnant women than in the ...

  11. Validity of automated choroidal segmentation in SS-OCT and SD-OCT

    L. Zhang (Li); G.H.S. Buitendijk (Gabrielle); K. Lee (Kyungmoo); M. Sonka (Milan); H. Springelkamp (Henriët); A. Hofman (Albert); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); R.F. Mullins (Robert F.); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); M.D. Abràmoff (Michael)


    textabstractPURPOSE. To evaluate the validity of a novel fully automated three-dimensional (3D) method capable of segmenting the choroid from two different optical coherence tomography scanners: swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). METHODS. One hundred eight subjects were

  12. Curious Variables Experiment (CURVE). Variable properties of the dwarf nova SS UMi

    Olech, A; Kedzierski, P; Zloczewski, K; Wisniewski, M; Szaruga, K


    We report on extensive photometry of the dwarf nova SS Ursae Minoris throughout nine months of 2004. In total, we recorded two superoutbursts and 11 normal outbursts of the star. SS UMi has been known to show frequent superoutbursts with a mean interval of 84.7 days. Our data suggest that the interval between successive superoutbursts lengthened to 197 days, indicating that SS UMi entered a period of untypical behavior manifested by a growth in the quiescent magnitude of the star and a series of frequent, low-amplitude, normal outbursts observed from July to September 2004. The mean superhump period derived for the April 2004 superoutburst of SS UMi is 0.070149(16) days (101.015 min). Combining this value with an earlier orbital period determination, we were able to derive the period excess, which is equal to 3.5 +/- 1.6%, and estimate the mass ratio of the binary system as equal to q=0.16 +/- 0.07. During the entire superoutburst, the period decreased at a rate of $\\dot P/P_{\\rm sh} = -6.3(1.4) \\times 10^{-5...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors


    ... continuity. They shall be the best qualified personnel available in business-related disciplines. Members... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App..., and recommend guidance to its Commander-in-Chief (CINC) on all business operations. Attendance is...

  14. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    Dawn McGee


    Full Text Available Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS and 29 matched control participants (PiMM were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. Finally, a comprehensive literature review was performed by two investigators. Results. 12/19 (63.2% study participants reported the presence of lung and/or liver disease compared to 12/29 (41.4% control participants. There trended toward having a higher frequency of medication allergies in the study population (42.11% versus 20.69%. Conclusions. The PiSS genotype was associated with a similar incidence of obstructive lung disease to controls. Selective bias intrinsic in testing for AAT deficiency and the rarity of the PiSS genotype will make future study of this association dependent on population-based tests.

  15. ExsE Is a Negative Regulator for T3SS Gene Expression in Vibrio alginolyticus

    Liu, Jinxin; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Orfe, Lisa H.; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Call, Douglas R.; Avillan, Johannetsy J.; Zhao, Zhe


    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) contribute to microbial pathogenesis of Vibrio species, but the regulatory mechanisms are complex. We determined if the classic ExsACDE protein-protein regulatory model from Pseudomonas aeruginosa applies to Vibrio alginolyticus. Deletion mutants in V. alginolyticus demonstrated that, as expected, the T3SS is positively regulated by ExsA and ExsC and negatively regulated by ExsD and ExsE. Interestingly, deletion of exsE enhanced the ability of V. alginolyticus to induce host-cell death while cytotoxicity was inhibited by in trans complementation of this gene in a wild-type strain, a result that differs from a similar experiment with Vibrio parahaemolyticus ExsE. We further showed that ExsE is a secreted protein that does not contribute to adhesion to Fathead minnow epithelial cells. An in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that ExsE binds to ExsC to exert negative regulatory effect on T3SS genes. T3SS in V. alginolyticus can be activated in the absence of physical contact with host cells and a separate regulatory pathway appears to contribute to the regulation of ExsA. Consequently, like ExsE from P. aeruginosa, ExsE is a negative regulator for T3SS gene expression in V. alginolyticus. Unlike the V. parahaemolyticus orthologue, however, deletion of exsE from V. alginolyticus enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:27999769

  16. A Bio-Electro-Fenton System Employing the Composite FePc/CNT/SS316 Cathode

    Yi-Ta Wang


    Full Text Available Bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells generate energy through the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms. The generated electricity drives a Fenton reaction in a cathode chamber, which can be used for the decolorization of dye wastewater. Most of the previous works added expensive platinum catalyst to improve the electrical property of the system. In this research, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs were generated on the surface of SS316 stainless steel by chemical vapor deposition, and an iron phthalocyanine (FePc catalyst was added to fabricate a compound (FePc/CNT/SS316 that was applied to the cathode electrode of the fuel cell system. This was expected to improve the overall electricity generation efficiency and extent of decolorization of the system. The results showed that the maximum current density of the system with the modified electrode was 3206.30 mA/m2, and the maximum power was 726.55 mW/m2, which were increased by 937 and 2594 times, respectively, compared to the current and power densities of a system where only the SS316 stainless steel electrode was used. In addition, the decolorization of RB5 dye reached 84.6% within 12 h. Measurements of the electrical properties of bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells and dye decolorization experiments with the FePc/CNT/SS316 electrode showed good results.

  17. Possibility of Inducing Compressive Residual Stresses in Welded Joints of SS400 Steels


    Since the welded constructions produce easily stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or fatigue disruption in corrosive medium or under ripple load, two methods inducing compressive stress on structural surfaces by anti-welding-heating treatment (AWHT) and explosion treatment (ET) are presented. The results show that they are good ways to resisting SCC on the welded SS400 steel or other components.

  18. Have we observed the skin vibration of realistic strange stars (ReSS) ?

    Sinha, M N; Dey, M; Ray, S; Bhowmick, S; Sinha, Monika; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira; Ray, Subharthi; Bhowmick, Siddhartha


    Skin vibration of ReSS and consequent resonance absorption can account for the absorption lines in the spectrum of X-ray emission from many compact stellar objects and in particular, the stars J1210$-$5226 and RXJ1856$-$3754. Observations of the X-ray spectrum of these stars is difficult to explain, if they are neutron stars.

  19. Screening and Identification of ssDNA Aptamer for Human GP73

    Jingchun Du


    Full Text Available As one tumor marker of HCC, Golgi Protein 73 (GP73 is given more promise in the early diagnosis of HCC, and aptamers have been developed to compete with antibodies as biorecognition probes in different detection system. In this study, we utilized GP73 to screen specific ssDNA aptamers by SELEX technique. First, GP73 proteins were expressed and purified by prokaryotic expression system and Nickle ion affinity chromatography, respectively. At the same time, the immunogenicity of purified GP73 was confirmed by Western blotting. The enriched ssDNA library with high binding capacity for GP73 was obtained after ten rounds of SELEX. Then, thirty ssDNA aptamers were sequenced, in which two ssDNA aptamers with identical DNA sequence were confirmed, based on the alignment results, and designated as A10-2. Furthermore, the specific antibody could block the binding of A10-2 to GP73, and the specific binding of A10-2 to GP73 was also supported by the observation that several tumor cell lines exhibited variable expression level of GP73. Significantly, the identified aptamer A10-2 could distinguish normal and cancerous liver tissues. So, our results indicate that the aptamer A10-2 might be developed into one molecular probe to detect HCC from normal liver specimens.

  20. The role of SH and S-S groups in Bacillus cereus beta-amylase.

    Nomura, K; Yoneda, I; Nanmori, T; Shinke, R; Morita, Y; Mikami, B


    The properties of sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide (S-S) groups in Bacillus cereus BQ10-S1 Spo III beta-amylase have been investigated to clarify their roles in the enzyme action. Two out of three cysteine residues in B. cereus beta-amylase were found to form an S-S bond, which was found to be located between Cys91 and Cys99 by the analysis of an S-S containing peptide. The replacement of the soybean beta-amylase model around L3 loop 1 revealed that the S-S bond is located at the root of this flexible loop that moves between open and closed forms during catalysis. The analysis of fluorescence labeled peptides revealed that the remaining free SH group was Cys331. Modification of Cys331 with N-ethylmaleimide or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB) caused inactivation of the enzyme. The rate constants for the reactions were consistent with those of Cys343 in soybean enzyme. The binding affinity of the PCMB-modified enzyme to maltose was also decreased. These results indicate that the modification of Cys331, which exists as a free SH group in B. cereus beta-amylase caused inactivation by a similar mechanism to that in the case of Cys343 in soybean beta-amylase as assumed from the sequence homology. This cysteine residue has a common role in beta-amylases irrespective their origin.

  1. Structural and dynamic properties of amorphous solid dispersions: the role of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and relaxometry.

    Paudel, Amrit; Geppi, Marco; Van den Mooter, Guy


    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are one of the frontier strategies to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs and hence tackling the growing challenges in oral bioavailability. Pharmaceutical performance, physicochemical stability, and downstream processability of ASD largely rely on the physical structure of the product. This necessitates in-depth characterization of ASD microstructure. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) techniques bear the ultimate analytical capabilities to provide the molecular level information on the dynamics and phase compositions of amorphous dispersions. SS-NMR spectroscopy/relaxometry, as a single and nondestructive technique, can reveal diverse and critical structural information of complex ASD formulations that are barely amenable from any other existing technique. The purpose of the current article is to review the recent most important studies on various sophisticated and information-rich one-dimensional and two-dimensional SS-NMR spectroscopy/relaxometry for the analysis of molecular mobility, miscibility, drug-carrier interactions, crystallinity, and crystallization in ASD. Some specific examples on microstructural elucidations of challenging ASD using multidimensional and multinuclear SS-NMR are presented. Additionally, some relevant examples on the utility of solution-NMR and NMR-imaging techniques for the investigation of the dissolution behavior of ASD are gathered.

  2. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano


    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region.

  3. Design and Hardware Implementation of QoSS - AES Processor for Multimedia applications

    Zeghid Medien


    Full Text Available For real-time applications, there are several factors (time, cost, power that are moving security considerations from a function centric perspective into a system architecture (hardware/software design issue. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES is used nowadays extensively in many network and multimedia applications to address security issues. The AES algorithm specifies three key sizes: 128, 192 and 256 bits offering different levels of security. To deal with the amount of application and intensive computation given by security mechanisms, we define and develop a QoSS (Quality of Security Service model for reconfigurable AES processor. QoSS has been designed and implemented to achieve a flexible trade-off between overheads caused by security services and system performance. The proposed architecture can provide up to 12 AES block cipher schemes within a reasonable hardware cost. We envisage a security vector in a fully functional QoSS request to include levels of service for the range of security service and mechanisms. Our unified hardware can run both the original AES algorithm and the extended AES algorithm (QoSS-AES. A novel on-the-fly AES encryption/ decryption design is also proposed for 128- , 192- , and 256-bit keys. The performance of the proposed processor has been analyzed in an MPEG4 video compression standard. The results revealed that the QoSS-AES processor is well suited to provide high security communication with low latencies. In our implementation based on Xilinx Virtex FPGAs, speed/area/power results from these processors are analyzed and shown to compare favorably with other well known FPGA based implementations.

  4. Fatigue Crack Propagation from Notched Specimens of 304 SS in elevated Temperature Aqueous Environment

    Wire, G. L.; Mills, W. J.


    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates for 304 stainless steel (304SS) were determined in 24 degree C and 288 degree C air and 288 degree C water using double-edged notch (DEN) specimens of 304 stainless steel (304 SS). Test performed at matched loading conditions in air and water at 288 degree C with 20-6- cc h[sub]2/kg h[sub]2O provided a direct comparison of the relative crack growth rates in air and water over a wide range of crack growth rates. The DEN crack extension ranged from short cracks (0.03-0.25 mm) to long cracks up to 4.06 mm, which are consistent with conventional deep crack tests. Crack growth rates of 304 SS in water were about 12 times the air rate. This 12X environmental enhancement persisted to crack extensions up to 4.06 mm, far outside the range associated with short crack effects. The large environmental degradation for 304 SS crack growth is consistent with the strong reduction of fatigue life in high hydrogen water. Further, very similar environmental effects w ere reported in fatigue crack growth tests in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Most literature data in high hydrogen water show only a mild environmental effect for 304 SS, of order 2.5 times air or less, but the tests were predominantly performed at high cyclic stress intensity or equivalently, high air rates. The environmental effect in low oxygen environments at low stress intensity depends strongly on both the stress ratio, R, and the load rise time, T[sub]r, as recently reported for austenitic stainless steel in BWR water. Fractography was performed for both tests in air and water. At 288 degree C in water, the fracture surfaces were crisply faceted with a crystallographic appearance, and showed striations under high magnification. The cleavage-like facets on the fracture surfaces suggest that hydrogen embrittlement is the primary cause of accelerated cracking.

  5. On Strength Analyzing of Strctures for SS7 Canon Box%SS7抱轴箱体的结构强度分析

    郭同生; 杨俊杰



  6. D. Larsen: Fortrængt Grusomhed (Dänische SS-Wächter 1941-45)

    Hansen, Jens-Christian


    Anmeldelse af Dennis Larsens bog "Fortrængt grusomhed. Danske SS-vagter 1941-45" for H-Soz-u-Kult......Anmeldelse af Dennis Larsens bog "Fortrængt grusomhed. Danske SS-vagter 1941-45" for H-Soz-u-Kult...

  7. ss-siRNAs allele selectively inhibit ataxin-3 expression: multiple mechanisms for an alternative gene silencing strategy.

    Liu, Jing; Yu, Dongbo; Aiba, Yuichiro; Pendergraff, Hannah; Swayze, Eric E; Lima, Walt F; Hu, Jiaxin; Prakash, Thazha P; Corey, David R


    Single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss-siRNAs) provide an alternative approach to gene silencing. ss-siRNAs combine the simplicity and favorable biodistribution of antisense oligonucleotides with robust silencing through RNA interference (RNAi). Previous studies reported potent and allele-selective inhibition of human huntingtin expression by ss-siRNAs that target the expanded CAG repeats within the mutant allele. Mutant ataxin-3, the genetic cause of Machado-Joseph Disease, also contains an expanded CAG repeat. We demonstrate here that ss-siRNAs are allele-selective inhibitors of ataxin-3 expression and then redesign ss-siRNAs to optimize their selectivity. We find that both RNAi-related and non-RNAi-related mechanisms affect gene expression by either blocking translation or affecting alternative splicing. These results have four broad implications: (i) ss-siRNAs will not always behave similarly to analogous RNA duplexes; (ii) the sequences surrounding CAG repeats affect allele-selectivity of anti-CAG oligonucleotides; (iii) ss-siRNAs can function through multiple mechanisms and; and (iv) it is possible to use chemical modification to optimize ss-siRNA properties and improve their potential for drug discovery.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and differential expression of a Sporothrix schenckii STE20-like protein kinase SsSte20.

    Zhang, Zhenying; Hou, Binbin; Zheng, Fangliang; Yu, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiaoming


    Dimorphic switching requires fungal cells to undergo changes in polarized growth in response to environmental stimuli. The Ste20-related kinases are involved in signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and in morphogenesis through the regulation of cytokinesis and actin-dependent polarized growth. In this report, we isolated and characterized an Ste20 homologue gene, designated SsSte20, from yeast-form Sporothrix schenckii (S. schenckii). The full length SsSte20 cDNA sequence is 2846 bp in size, and contains an open reading frame of 2505 bp encoding 835 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass of SsSte20 is 91.31 kDa with an estimated theoretical isoelectric point of 5.76. SsSte20 kinase domain shows 63% identity with that of Don3, a germinal centre kinase (GCK) from Ustilago maydis. Two exons and one intron are identified within the 2578 bp SsSte20 genomic DNA sequence of S. schenckii. Differential expression of the SsSte20 was demonstrated by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of SsSte20 was much higher in the yeast stage compared with that in the mycelial stage, which indicated that the SsSte20 may be involved in the pathogenesis of the yeast phase of S. schenckii.

  9. Content Analysis

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento


    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  10. Content Marketing

    LE, DUC


    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  11. One-step synthesis of vertically aligned anatase thornbush-like TiO2 nanowire arrays on transparent conducting oxides for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Roh, Dong Kyu; Chi, Won Seok; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak


    Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-density anatase-phase vertically aligned thornbush-like TiO2 nanowires (TBWs) on transparent conducting oxide glasses. Morphologically controllable TBW arrays of 9 μm in length are generated through a one-step hydrothermal reaction at 200 °C over 11 h using potassium titanium oxide oxalate dehydrate, diethylene glycol (DEG), and water. The TBWs consist of a large number of nanoplates or nanorods, as confirmed by SEM and TEM imaging. The morphologies of TBWs are controllable by adjusting DEG/water ratios. TBW diameters gradually decrease from 600 (TBW600) to 400 (TBW400) to 200 nm (TBW200) and morphologies change from nanoplates to nanorods with an increase in DEG content. TBWs are utilized as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs) and solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs). The energy-conversion efficiency of qssDSSCs is in the order: TBW200 (5.2%)>TBW400 (4.5%)>TBW600 (3.4%). These results can be attributed to the different surface areas, light-scattering effects, and charge transport rates, as confirmed by dye-loading measurements, reflectance spectroscopy, and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy analyses. TBW200 is further treated with a graft-copolymer-directed organized mesoporous TiO2 to increase the surface area and interconnectivity of TBWs. As a result, the energy-conversion efficiency of the ssDSSC increases to 6.7% at 100 mW cm(-2) , which is among the highest values for N719-dye-based ssDSSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. PET quantification of the norepinephrine transporter in human brain with (S,S)-18F-FMeNER-D2.

    Moriguchi, Sho; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Takano, Harumasa; Seki, Chie; Ikoma, Yoko; Takahata, Keisuke; Nagashima, Tomohisa; Yamada, Makiko; Mimura, Masaru; Suhara, Tetsuya


    Norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain plays important roles in human cognition and the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Two radioligands, (S,S)-(11)C-MRB and (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2, have been used for imaging NETs in the thalamus and midbrain (including locus coeruleus) using positron emission topography (PET) in humans. However, NET density in the equally important cerebral cortex has not been well quantified because of unfavorable kinetics with (S,S)-(11)C-MRB and defluorination with (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2, which can complicate NET quantification in the cerebral cortex adjacent to the skull containing defluorinated (18)F radioactivity. In this study, we have established analysis methods of quantification of NET density in the brain including cerebral cortex using (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2 PET.


    高鸣; 蔡体敏


    通过对固体推进剂药柱进行初始气孔率热老化试验研究,探讨了用累积损伤方法来预测药柱贮存寿命,提出了一种准确、经济、方便地提前预测药柱贮存寿命的新方法和新技术.%A method for predicting the storage life of solid propellant grain by cumulative damage was developed based on heat ageing experiment on initial void content rate of propellant grain,and its application was discussed.A new method which can accurately,economically and conveniently predict the storage life of solid propillant grain was prosoed.

  14. Self-assembly of ssDNA-amphiphiles into micelles, nanotapes and nanotubes

    Pearce, Timothy R.

    The field of DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA as a construction material to create functional supramolecular and multi-dimensional structures like two-dimensional periodic lattices and three-dimensional polyhedrons with order on the nanometer scale for many nanotechnology applications including molecular templating, nanosensors, and drug delivery. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is often used to create these nanostructures as the DNA bases provide an intrinsic molecular code that can be exploited to allow for the programmed assembly of structures based upon Watson-Crick base-pairing. However, engineering these complex structures from biopolymers alone requires careful design to ensure that the intrinsic forces responsible for organizing the materials can produce the desired structures. Additional control over supramolecular assembly can be achieved by chemically modifying the ssDNA with hydrophobic moieties to create amphiphilic molecules, which adds the hydrophobic interaction to the list of contributing forces that drive the self-assembly process. We first explored the self-assembly behavior of a set of ssDNA aptamer-amphiphiles composed of the same hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic ssDNA aptamer headgroup but with different spacer molecules linking these groups together. Through the use of cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and circular dichroism (CD) we show that the aptamer-amphiphiles can assemble into a variety of structures depending on the spacer used. We demonstrated, for the first time, the creation of self-assembled aptamer-amphiphile nanotape structures and show that the choice of the spacer used in the design of aptamer-amphiphiles can influence their supramolecular self-assembly as well as the secondary structure of the aptamer headgroup. We next explored the role of the ssDNA headgroup on the amphiphile self-assembly behavior by designing amphiphiles with headgroups of multiple lengths and nucleotides

  15. Excess of leptin inhibits hypothalamic KiSS-1 expression in pubertal mice

    Sung Yeon Ahn


    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Leptin has been considered a link between metabolic state and reproductive activity. Defective reproductive function can occur in leptin-deficient and leptin-excessive conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of centrally injected leptin on the hypothalamic &lt;I&gt;KiSS-1&lt;/I&gt; system in relation to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH action in the initial stage of puberty. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Leptin (1 μg was injected directly into the ventricle of pubertal female mice. The resultant gene expressions of hypothalamic &lt;I&gt;GnRH&lt;/I&gt; and &lt;I&gt;KiSS-1&lt;/I&gt; and pituitary LH, 2 and 4 hours after injection, were compared with those of saline-injected control mice. The changes in the gene expressions after blocking the GnRH action were also analyzed. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The basal expression levels of &lt;I&gt;KiSS-1&lt;/I&gt;, GnRH, and LH were significantly higher in the pubertal mice than in the prepubertal mice. The 1-μg leptin dose significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of &lt;I&gt;KiSS-1&lt;/I&gt;, GnRH, and LH in the pubertal mice. A &lt;I&gt;GnRH&lt;/I&gt; antagonist significantly increased the &lt;I&gt;KiSS-1&lt;/I&gt; and GnRH mRNA expression levels, and the additional leptin injection decreased the gene expression levels compared with those in the control group. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The excess leptin might have suppressed the central reproductive axis in the pubertal mice by inhibiting the &lt;I&gt;KiSS-1&lt;/I&gt; expression, and this mechanism is independent of the GnRH-LHestradiol feedback loop.

  16. Solid-State Spectroscopic Investigation of Molecular Interactions between Clofazimine and Hypromellose Phthalate in Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

    Nie, Haichen; Su, Yongchao; Zhang, Mingtao; Song, Yang; Leone, Anthony; Taylor, Lynne S; Marsac, Patrick J; Li, Tonglei; Byrn, Stephen R


    It has been technically challenging to specify the detailed molecular interactions and binding motif between drugs and polymeric inhibitors in the solid state. To further investigate drug-polymer interactions from a molecular perspective, a solid dispersion of clofazimine (CLF) and hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP), with reported superior amorphous drug loading capacity and physical stability, was selected as a model system. The CLF-HPMCP interactions in solid dispersions were investigated by various solid state spectroscopic methods including ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), infrared (IR), and solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy. Significant spectral changes suggest that protonated CLF is ionically bonded to the carboxylate from the phthalyl substituents of HPMCP. In addition, multivariate analysis of spectra was applied to optimize the concentration of polymeric inhibitor used to formulate the amorphous solid dispersions. Most interestingly, proton transfer between CLF and carboxylic acid was experimentally investigated from 2D (1)H-(1)H homonuclear double quantum NMR spectra by utilizing the ultrafast magic-angle spinning (MAS) technique. The molecular interaction pattern and the critical bonding structure in CLF-HPMCP dispersions were further delineated by successfully correlating ssNMR findings with quantum chemistry calculations. These high-resolution investigations provide critical structural information on active pharmaceutical ingredient-polymer interaction, which can be useful for rational selection of appropriate polymeric carriers, which are effective crystallization inhibitors for amorphous drugs.

  17. Effect of solid/solution ratio on apatite formation from CaSiO3 ceramics in simulated body fluid.

    Iimori, Yusuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Yasumori, Atsuo; Okada, Kiyoshi


    The effect of the solid/solution (S/S) ratio on apatite formation from CaSiO3 ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. CaSiO3 ceramics with a Ca/Si ratio of 0.91 were prepared by sintering CaSiO3 powder coprecipitated from ethanol solutions of Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O and Si(OC2H5)4 using NH4OH as the precipitant. These ceramics were reacted with SBF at S/S ratios of 1.0, 2.5 and 8.3 mg/ml at 36.5 degrees C for various times. Formation of apatite was observed at all the S/S ratios after soaking for 1 day. The amount and microstructure of the apatite obtained at a S/S ratio of 8.3 mg/ml, however, differed largely from the product formed at the other two S/S ratios. The apatite formed at S/S = 8.3 mg/ml was of smaller particle size, formed in smaller amount and with less preferred orientation of the (001) of apatite crystals compared with those formed at S/S = 1.0 and 2.5 mg/ml. An increase of Ca and decrease of the P components occurred in the soaked SBF at S/S = 8.3 mg/ml, the changes being much more marked than with the other two S/S ratios. These differences in the concentration changes in SBF at different S/S ratios are attributed to the difference in the apatite formation from the CaSiO3 ceramics.

  18. Expanding the scope of CE reactor to ssDNA-binding protein-ssDNA complexes as exemplified for a tool for direct measurement of dissociation kinetics of biomolecular complexes.

    Takahashi, Toru; Ohtsuka, Kei-Ichirou; Tomiya, Yoriyuki; Iki, Nobuhiko; Hoshino, Hitoshi


    CE reactor (CER), which was developed as a tool for direct measurement of the dissociation kinetics of metal complexes, was successfully applied to the complexes of Escherichia coli ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) with ssDNA. The basic concept of CER is the application of CE separation process as a dissociation kinetic reactor for the complex, and the observation of the on-capillary dissociation reaction profile of the complex as the decrease of the peak height of the complex with increase of the migration time. The peak height of [SSB-ssDNA] decreases as the migration time increases since the degree of the decrease of [SSB-ssDNA] through the on-capillary dissociation reaction is proportional to the degree of the decrease of the peak height of [SSB-ssDNA]. The dissociation degree-time profiles for the complexes are quantitatively described by analyzing a set of electropherograms with different migration times. Dissociation rate constants of [SSB-ssDNA] consisting of 20-mer, 25-mer and 31-mer ssDNA were directly determined to be 3.99x10(-4), 4.82x10(-4) and 1.50x10(-3)/s, respectively. CER is a concise and effective tool for dissociation kinetic analysis of biomolecular complexes.

  19. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Jin Wang


    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  20. Determination of Glucose by Affinity Adsorption Solid Substrate-room Temperature Phosphorimetry Based on Triticum Vulgare Lectin Labeled with Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticle Containing Fiuorescein Isothiocyanate

    LIU Jia-Ming; LIU Zhen-Bo; LI Zhi-Ming; HE Hang-Xia; LIN Wei-Nü; HUANG Ya-Hong; WANG Fang-Mei


    In the presence of heavy atom perturber Pb2+,silicon dioxide nanoparticle containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-SiO2) could emit a strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) signal on the surface of acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM).It was found in the research that a quantitative specific affinity adsorption (AA) reaction between triticum vulgare lectin (WGA) labeled with luminescent nanoparticle and glucose (g)could be carried on the surface of ACM.The product (WGA-G-WGA-FITC-SiO2) of the reaction could emit a stronger RTP signal,and the △Ip had linear correlation to the content of G.According to the facts above,a new method to determine G by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) was established,based on WGA labeled with FITC-SiO2.The detection limit (LD) of this method calculated by 3Sb/k was 0.47 pg·spot-1 (corresponding to a concentration value 1.2 × 10-9 g·mL-1,namely 5.3 × 10-9 mol·L-1),the sensitivity was high.Meanwhile,the mechanism for the determination of G by AA-SS-RTP was discussed.

  1. A photometric study of the southern Blazhko star SS For Unambiguous detection of quintuplet components

    Kolenberg, Katrien; Medupe, Thebe; Lenz, Patrick; Schmitzberger, Lukas; Shobbrook, Robert; Beck, Paul; Ngwato, Boitumelo; Lub, Jan


    We present our analysis of photometric data in the Johnson B and V filter of the southern Blazhko star SS For. In parallel, we analyzed the V observations obtained with the ASAS-3 photometry of the star gathered between 2000 and 2008. In the frequency spectra resulting from a Fourier analysis of our data, the triplet structure is detectable up to high order, both in the B and V data. Moreover, we find evidence for quintuplet components. We confirm from our data that the modulation components decrease less steeply than the harmonics of the main frequency. We derived the variations of the Fourier parameters quantifying the light curve shape over the Blazhko cycle. There is good agreement between the spectroscopic abundance and the metallicity determined from the Fourier parameters of the average light curve. SS For is peculiar as a Blazhko star because of its strong variations around minimum light.

  2. Pairing Mismatched ssDNA to dsDNA Studied with Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy Sensor

    Qing-Qing Wu; Kai-Ge Wang; Dan Sun; Shuang Wang; Chen Zhang; Wei Zhao


    The interaction between two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules as pairing to a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule is studied by the reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIFS) technology.A nano-porous anode alumina membrane coated an Au layer is employed as the sensor substrate.The results indicate that when there are mismatched nucleotide bases,the effective optical thicknesses (OTeff) have obvious difference,and the changes of OTeff are connected with the sensor layer thickness and the effective refractive index.It is also demonstrated that the RIFS technique can be used to precisely detect the ssDNA molecules with individual base mismatched as pairing to dsDNA.

  3. CLaSS Computer Literacy Software: From Design to Implementation - A Three Year Student Evaluation

    Ian Cole


    Full Text Available Both computer literacy and information retrieval techniques are required to undertake studies in higher education in the United Kingdom. This paper considers the research, development and the 3-year student evaluation of a piece of learning technology in computer and information literacy (CLaSS software. Students completed a questionnaire to examine their own assessment of knowledge and competence in computer and information literacy and based on this assessment CLaSS software was created to assist nursing students with computer and information literacy. This paper draws on existing literature and applies a specific learning model to the software while considering software engineering and user-centered design methodologies. The technical processes involved in designing and creating the software are briefly considered with software development data analysis discussed. A 3-year student evaluation of the software after it's release was undertaken to consider the long-term validity and usefulness of this software with the results analysed and discussed.

  4. Quantifying the Carbon Abundances in the Secondary Stars of SS Cygni, RU Pegasi, and GK Persei

    Harrison, Thomas E


    We use a modified version of MOOG to generate large grids of synthetic spectra in an attempt to derive quantitative abundances for three CVs (GK Per, RU Peg, and SS Cyg) by comparing the models to moderate resolution (R $\\sim$ 25,000) $K$-band spectra obtained with NIRSPEC on Keck. For each of the three systems we find solar, or slightly sub-solar values for [Fe/H], but significant deficits of carbon: for SS Cyg we find [C/Fe] = $-$0.50, for RU Peg [C/Fe] = $-$0.75, and for GK Per [C/Fe] = $-$1.00. We show that it is possible to use lower resolution (R $\\sim$ 2,000) spectra to quantify carbon deficits. We examine realistic veiling scenarios and find that emission from H I or CO cannot reproduce the observations.

  5. The algebra of observables in Gau{\\ss}ian normal spacetime coordinates

    Bodendorfer, Norbert; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Świeżewski, Jędrzej


    We discuss the canonical structure of a spacetime version of the radial gauge, i.e. Gau{\\ss}ian normal spacetime coordinates. While it was found for the spatial version of the radial gauge that a "local" algebra of observables can be constructed, it turns out that this is not possible for the spacetime version. The technical reason for this observation is that the new gauge condition needed to upgrade the spatial to a spacetime radial gauge does not Poisson-commute with the previous gauge conditions. It follows that the involved Dirac bracket is inherently non-local in the sense that no complete set of observables can be found which is constructed locally and at the same time has local Dirac brackets. A locally constructed observable here is defined as a finite polynomial of the canonical variables at a given physical point specified by the Gau{\\ss}ian normal spacetime coordinates.

  6. SMS Hubbing的SS7漫游体系架构解决方案




  7. Data communications with VSATs - RA/TDMA vs. SS/CDMA

    Kim, Kap S.

    Random-access TDMA and spread-spectrum CDMA, two of the most predominant hub-VSAT (very-small-aperture terminal) inbound access techniques today, are discussed in relation to the interactive data application environment where the response time is the most critical performance parameter. The system access techniques, access time, channel capacity, and performance comparison are presented. It is concluded that, in general, either RA/TDMA or SS/CDMA can provide cost/performance-effective serivce for interactive applications as compared with terrestrial service alternatives. If the user's data application consists mostly of short message transactions and its inbound aggregated data rate is low (less than 9.6 kb/s), the SS/CDMA system is recommended. The RA/TDMA system is better suited for the user applications which require a mix of interactive and batch processings.

  8. The SSES-E: a measure of sexual self-efficacy in erectile functioning.

    Libman, E; Rothenberg, I; Fichten, C S; Amsel, R


    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale (SSES-E) for erectile disorder. The subjects consisted of 15 heterosexual couples with nonproblematic sexual functioning (normal group) and a sexually dysfunctional sample consisting of nine heterosexual couples and eight heterosexual single males (dysfunctional group). Most of the males in the dysfunctional sample were diagnosed as suffering from erectile disorder. Reliability of the SSES-E, based on test-retest and split-half correlations and on item analyses, appears to be reasonable. Validity, measured in three different ways, is also acceptably high. Suggestions for the use of this instrument in clinical practice and for future research are made.

  9. Wear and Corrosion Study of Sputtered Zirconium thin films on SS316L for Windmill Application

    Arunkumar N


    Full Text Available The Aim of this study is to observe the Wear and Corrosion behavior of Zirconium coated 316L stainless steel. After polishing, SS316L was coated with Zirconium employing DC sputtering process (a technique of physical vapor deposition.Structure characterization techniques including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were utilized to investigate the microstructure and crystallinity of the coating. Salt spray test was performed by spraying Sodium chloride in order to determine corrosion resistance behavior of the coated sample. Pin on disc wear test was performed by hardened and tempered EN31 steel pin in order to determine and compare the Wear resistance behavior of Coated and uncoated samples. The Objective is to recommend the zirconium coated Stainless steel SS316L can be a choice for Off-shore wind mills where the shafts undergo Wear and corrosion problems.

  10. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi


    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  11. Hydrogen–deuterium exchange on plasma-exposed W and SS surface

    Takagi, Ikuji, E-mail:; Nomura, Shinji; Minamimoto, Toshihiro; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Taishi; Sasaki, Takayuki


    The desorption cross section for hydrogen isotopes adsorbed on stainless steel (SS) and tungsten (W) has been evaluated experimentally to provide basic information on tritium exchange. One side of a sample sheet was alternately exposed to H and D plasma, and deuterium density on the surface was repeatedly observed using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) under continuous plasma exposure. From the time dependent change in the deuterium density, the desorption cross sections for SS and W were estimated to be 6.9 ± 2.3 × 10{sup −23} m{sup 2} and 4.6 ± 1.0 × 10{sup −23} m{sup 2}, respectively. No significant differences in the cross section between H and D plasma were observed. Recombinative desorption was found to dominate the desorption process owing to the low incident energy of hydrogen atoms.

  12. Experimental investigation of machining parameter under MQL milling of SS304

    Gatade, Vivek T.; Patil, Vikas T.; Kuppan, P.; Balan, A. S. S.; Oyyaravelu, R.


    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) or near dry machining has been recognized by many researchers and industrialist in order to move one step ahead towards the green manufacturing. MQL assisted machining reduces the harmful environmental impact caused by flood coolant and machining cost. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the impact of oxygen as a carrier gas in MQL during end milling of austenitic stainless steel grade SS304. Also, the machining performance under conventional MQL with air and dry machining have been studied. The evaluation was done on tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces under two distinct cutting speeds i.e. 75 m/min and 100 m/min. Investigation brings to light that presence of oxygen is susceptible in the case of machining of SS304, it provides extra protective oxide layer near the tool chip interface. Consequently, increased tool life, reduced surface roughness and cutting forces when compared to conventional MQL assisted milling.

  13. Linuxin käynnistys sulautetussa järjestelmässä


    ssä opinnäytetyössä esitellään Linuxin käynnistys sulautetuissa järjestelmissä, siihen tarvittavat ohjelmat ja niiden muokkaus omiin tarpeisiin. Työn on tarkoitus antaa lukijalle käsitys, mitä tapahtuu sähköjen kytkemisen ja Linuxin käynnistyksen välillä. Aluksi tulee tietää tarkkaan, mitä alustaa käytetään. Esimerkiksi prosessorin arkkitehtuuri ja valmistaja, muistien tyypit ja koot ja käytettävät oheislaiteliitynnät tulee tietää. Kun käytettävä alusta tiedetään, voidaan pystyttää kehi...

  14. AFM characterization of ss-DNA probes immobilization: a sequence effect on surface organization

    Lallemand, D [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Rouillat, M H [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Dugas, V [BioTray, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Chevolot, Y [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Souteyrand, E [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Phaner-Goutorbe, M [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France)


    The biological sensitivity of a DNA chip depends on the molecular organization of the immobilized probe molecules, single stranded DNA (ss-DNA), on the substrate in terms of accessibility and non specific interactions between probes and substrate. In this article, Amplitude Modulation - Atomic Force Microscopy (AM-AFM) was used to characterize at a molecular scale, the morphological organization of different immobilized probes. In our system, three different ss-DNA were covalently grafted on a silicon substrate with the same deposit process. We studied the influence of probe length (25 bases, 12 bases) and sequence arrangement (two different 25 base oligoprobes) on the morphological organization. We showed that immobilized probes organize themselves in different structures depending on their sequence.

  15. Solid-state NMR on complex biomolecules: novel methods and applications

    Nand, D.


    Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) represents a versatile technique in providing atomic-resolution information without the need for crystals or fast molecular motion required for X-ray crystallography and solution-state NMR, respectively. Recent past has witnessed the ability of this technique in providing det

  16. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  17. High-frequency genome editing using ssDNA oligonucleotides with zinc-finger nucleases

    Chen, Fuqiang; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Huang, Yuping


    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have enabled highly efficient gene targeting in multiple cell types and organisms. Here we describe methods for using simple ssDNA oligonucleotides in tandem with ZFNs to efficiently produce human cell lines with three distinct genetic outcomes: (i) targeted point...... mutation, (ii) targeted genomic deletion of up to 100 kb and (iii) targeted insertion of small genetic elements concomitant with large genomic deletions....

  18. A Neural Network Approach to Blind Estimation of PN Spreading Sequence in DS/SS Signals

    ZHANG Tian-qi; ZHOU Zheng-zhong


    In this paper, a new approach is proposed to estimate pseudo noise(PN) sequence in the lower SNR DS/SS signals blindly. This method utilizes the characteristics of self-organization, principal components analysis and extraction of unsupervised neural networks adequately, in addition to its higher-speed operation ability, successfully solve the difficult problem about PN sequence blind estimation. The theoretic analysis and experimental results show that this approach can work very well on lower SNR input signals.

  19. Estimating the recombination frequency for the MN and the Ss loci.

    Spence, M A; Field, L L; Marazita, M L; Joseph, J; Sparkes, M; Crist, M; Crandall, B F; Anderson, C E; Bateman, J B; Rotter, J I


    Linkage analysis of 146 informative families for MN and Ss resulted in an estimate of the recombination frequency greater than previously reported. Our total is 7 recombinant children out of 467 individuals, including 1 confirmed recombinant (retested and HLA-compatible) and 6 not verified. The 95% confidence interval of our estimate of recombination is 0.0033-0.0167. Our results are compared with two earlier studies.

  20. Sickle Cell Disease: quality of life in patients with hemoglobin SS and SC disorders


    OBJECTIVE Sickle cell disease comprises chronic, genetically determined disorders, presenting significant morbidity and high prevalence in Brazil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS and SC) and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS Data was collected from clinical records and semi-structured interviews consisting of clinical questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief qu...

  1. Menu costs, (s,S) rule, imperfect information and the neutrality of money

    Franck Portier


    A dynamic macroeconomic model of monopolistic competition and imperfect information with menu costs and (s,S) pricing rule is proposed, in the lines of Caballero and Engel [1991]. The model can be seen as an imperfect competition version of Lucas [1973] with menu costs. The presence of informational imperfection destroys the neutrality result of Caplin and Spulber [1987], and the effect of a monetary shock on output is shown to be an increasing function of the degree of strategic complementar...

  2. An MC-SS Platform for Short-Range Communications in the Personal Network Context

    Bakirtzoglou Zeta


    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless personal area networks (WPANs have gained interest in the last few years, and several air interfaces have been proposed to cover WPAN applications. A multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS air interface specified to achieve 130 Mbps in typical WPAN channels is presented in this paper. It operates in the 5.2 GHz ISM band and achieves a spectral efficiency of 3.25  . Besides the robustness of the MC-SS approach, this air interface yields to reasonable implementation complexity. This paper focuses on the hardware design and prototype of this MC-SS air interface. The prototype includes RF, baseband, and IEEE802.15.3 compliant medium access control (MAC features. Implementation aspects are carefully analyzed for each part of the prototype, and key hardware design issues and solutions are presented. Hardware complexity and implementation loss are compared to theoretical expectations, as well as flexibility is discussed. Measurement results are provided for a real condition of operations.

  3. An MC-SS Platform for Short-Range Communications in the Personal Network Context

    Dominique Noguet


    Full Text Available Wireless personal area networks (WPANs have gained interest in the last few years, and several air interfaces have been proposed to cover WPAN applications. A multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS air interface specified to achieve 130 Mbps in typical WPAN channels is presented in this paper. It operates in the 5.2 GHz ISM band and achieves a spectral efficiency of 3.25 b·s−1·Hz−1. Besides the robustness of the MC-SS approach, this air interface yields to reasonable implementation complexity. This paper focuses on the hardware design and prototype of this MC-SS air interface. The prototype includes RF, baseband, and IEEE802.15.3 compliant medium access control (MAC features. Implementation aspects are carefully analyzed for each part of the prototype, and key hardware design issues and solutions are presented. Hardware complexity and implementation loss are compared to theoretical expectations, as well as flexibility is discussed. Measurement results are provided for a real condition of operations.

  4. When Microquasar Jets and Supernova Collide: Hydrodynamically Simulating the SS433-W50 Interaction

    Goodall, Paul T; Blundell, Katherine M


    We present investigations of the interaction between the relativistic, precessing jets of the microquasar SS433 with the surrounding, expanding Supernova Remnant (SNR) shell W50, and the consequent evolution in the inhomogeneous Interstellar Medium (ISM). We model their evolution using the hydrodynamic FLASH code, which uses adaptive mesh refinement. We show that the peculiar morphology of the entire nebula can be reproduced to a good approximation, due to the combined effects of: (i) the evolution of the SNR shell from the free-expansion phase through the Sedov blast wave in an exponential density profile from the Milky Way disc, and (ii) the subsequent interaction of the relativistic, precessing jets of SS 433. Our simulations reveal: (1) Independent measurement of the Galaxy scale-height and density local to SS433 (as n_0 = 0.2 cm^{-3}, Z_d = 40 pc), with this scale-height being in excellent agreement with the work of Dehnen & Binney. (2) A new mechanism for hydrodynamic refocusing of conical jets. (3)...

  5. Mechanism of homologous recombination from the RecA-ssDNA/dsDNA structures

    Chen, Zhucheng; Yang, Haijuan; Pavletich, Nikola P [HHMI


    The RecA family of ATPases mediates homologous recombination, a reaction essential for maintaining genomic integrity and for generating genetic diversity. RecA, ATP and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) form a helical filament that binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), searches for homology, and then catalyses the exchange of the complementary strand, producing a new heteroduplex. Here we have solved the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli RecA-ssDNA and RecA-heteroduplex filaments. They show that ssDNA and ATP bind to RecA-RecA interfaces cooperatively, explaining the ATP dependency of DNA binding. The ATP {gamma}-phosphate is sensed across the RecA-RecA interface by two lysine residues that also stimulate ATP hydrolysis, providing a mechanism for DNA release. The DNA is underwound and stretched globally, but locally it adopts a B-DNA-like conformation that restricts the homology search to Watson-Crick-type base pairing. The complementary strand interacts primarily through base pairing, making heteroduplex formation strictly dependent on complementarity. The underwound, stretched filament conformation probably evolved to destabilize the donor duplex, freeing the complementary strand for homology sampling.

  6. Effects of dietary sucrose option on the diabetic syndrome of the eSS rat.

    Martinez, S M; Tarrés, M C; Montenegro, S M; Varela, M; Torrano, A; D'Ottavio, A E; Naves, A; Picena, J C


    The eSS rat is a model of human spontaneous non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Male eSS rats were divided at the age of 4 months into two groups (eSSA and eSSB), both receiving the usual commercial balanced diet with sucrose also made available to eSSA. Sucrose intake did not imply a higher caloric diet, and no differences were found between groups in body weight and plasma triglyceride levels from 6 to 12 months of age. Sucrose option resulted in lower protein, lipid and carbohydrate intakes in eSSA animals. Plasma glucose values were higher in eSSA at different times of the tolerance curve. Likewise, eSSA kidneys showed significantly higher capsular and glomerular diameters and there was a discrete PAS-positive thickening of their basement membrane. We conclude that prolonged ad libitum sucrose intake, without weight gain, causes a moderate metabolic impairment and renal lesions in the eSS diabetic rat.

  7. iSS-PseDNC: identifying splicing sites using pseudo dinucleotide composition.

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Peng-Mian; Lin, Hao; Chou, Kuo-Chen


    In eukaryotic genes, exons are generally interrupted by introns. Accurately removing introns and joining exons together are essential processes in eukaryotic gene expression. With the avalanche of genome sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is highly desired to develop automated methods for rapid and effective detection of splice sites that play important roles in gene structure annotation and even in RNA splicing. Although a series of computational methods were proposed for splice site identification, most of them neglected the intrinsic local structural properties. In the present study, a predictor called "iSS-PseDNC" was developed for identifying splice sites. In the new predictor, the sequences were formulated by a novel feature-vector called "pseudo dinucleotide composition" (PseDNC) into which six DNA local structural properties were incorporated. It was observed by the rigorous cross-validation tests on two benchmark datasets that the overall success rates achieved by iSS-PseDNC in identifying splice donor site and splice acceptor site were 85.45% and 87.73%, respectively. It is anticipated that iSS-PseDNC may become a useful tool for identifying splice sites and that the six DNA local structural properties described in this paper may provide novel insights for in-depth investigations into the mechanism of RNA splicing.

  8. Dramatic improvement of anti-SS-A/Ro-associated interstitial lung disease after immunosuppressive treatment.

    Paola, Caramaschi; Giuliana, Festi; Giovanni, Orsolini; Cristian, Caimmi; Domenico, Biasi


    The aim of the study was to report three patients affected by interstitial lung disease associated with positive anti-SS-A/Ro autoantibody who showed a dramatic improvement after immunosuppressive treatment. Medical charts were reviewed to obtain clinical data, laboratory parameters, lung function tests, high-resolution computed tomography results and response to immunosuppressive treatment. The three patients showed a clinical picture of a lung-dominant connective tissue disease characterized by a sudden onset with dyspnea, cough and subtle extrathoracic features together with positive anti-SS-A/Ro antibody and weak titer antinuclear antibodies. All three patients responded favorably to immunosuppressive therapy: Two cases were treated with a combination of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide followed by mycophenolate mofetil; in the third patient, clinical benefit was obtained after rituximab was added to corticosteroid and immunosuppressant drug. In spite of an abrupt onset with significant lung function impairment, all three patients had a favorable clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy. This report may be useful in making therapeutic decisions in case of interstitial lung disease associated with anti-SS-A antibody.

  9. NTT-ME公司购买SS7产品武装自己




  10. Biomolecular detection at ssDNA-conjugated nanoparticles by nano-impact electrochemistry.

    Karimi, Anahita; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana


    We describe the use of ssDNA functionalized silver nanoparticle (AgNP) probes for quantitative investigation of biorecognition and real time detection of biomolecular targets using nano-impact electrochemistry. The method is based on measurements of the individual collision events between ssDNA aptamer-functionalized AgNPs and a carbon fiber miroelectrode (CFME). Specific binding events of target analyte induced collision frequency changes enabling ultrasensitive detection of the aptamer target in a single step. These changes are assigned to the surface coverage of the NP by the ssDNA aptamers and subsequent conformational changes of the aptamer probe which affect the electron transfer between the NP and the electrode surface. The method enables sensitive and selective detection of ochratoxin A (OTA), chosen here as a model target, with a limit of detection of 0.05nM and a relative standard deviation of 4.9%. The study provides a means of characterizing bioconjugation of AgNPs with aptamers and assessing biomolecular recognition events with high sensitivity and without the use of exogenous reagents or enzyme amplification steps. This methodology can be broadly applicable to other bioconjugated systems, biosensing and related bioanalytical applications.

  11. Interstellar Absorption Lines in the Direction of the Cataclysmic Variable SS Cygni

    Ritchey, Adam M; McKeever, Jean


    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption lines in high-resolution optical echelle spectra of SS Cyg obtained during an outburst in 2013 June and in archival Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer data. The Ca II K and Na I D lines toward SS Cyg are compared with those toward nearby B and A stars in an effort to place constraints on the distance to SS Cyg. We find that the distance constraints are not very robust from this method due to the rather slow increase in neutral gas column density with distance and the scatter in the column densities from one sight line to another. However, the optical absorption-line measurements allow us to derive a precise estimate for the line-of-sight reddening of E(B-V) = 0.020+/-0.005 mag. Furthermore, our analysis of the absorption lines of O I, Si II, P II, and Fe II seen in the UV spectra yields an estimate of the H I column density and depletion strength in this direction.

  12. Diverse circular ssDNA viruses discovered in dragonflies (Odonata: Epiprocta).

    Rosario, Karyna; Dayaram, Anisha; Marinov, Milen; Ware, Jessica; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Breitbart, Mya; Varsani, Arvind


    Viruses with circular ssDNA genomes that encode a replication initiator protein (Rep) are among the smallest viruses known to infect both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the past few years an overwhelming diversity of novel circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses has been unearthed from various hosts and environmental sources. Since there is limited information regarding CRESS-DNA viruses in invertebrates, this study explored the diversity of CRESS-DNA viruses circulating among insect populations by targeting dragonflies (Epiprocta), top insect predators that accumulate viruses from their insect prey over space and time. Using degenerate PCR and rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digestion, 17 CRESS-DNA viral genomes were recovered from eight different dragonfly species collected in tropical and temperate regions. Nine of the genomes are similar to cycloviruses and represent five species within this genus, suggesting that cycloviruses are commonly associated with insects. Three of the CRESS-DNA viruses share conserved genomic features with recently described viruses similar to the mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1, leading to the proposal of the genus Gemycircularvirus. The remaining viruses are divergent species representing four novel CRESS-DNA viral genera, including a gokushovirus-like prokaryotic virus (microphage) and three eukaryotic viruses with Reps similar to circoviruses. The novelty of CRESS-DNA viruses identified in dragonflies using simple molecular techniques indicates that there is an unprecedented diversity of ssDNA viruses among insect populations.

  13. QoSS Hierarchical NoC-Based Architecture for MPSoC Dynamic Protection

    Johanna Sepulveda


    Full Text Available As electronic systems are pervading our lives, MPSoC (multiprocessor system-on-chip security is becoming an important requirement. MPSoCs are able to support multiple applications on the same chip. The challenge is to provide MPSoC security that makes possible a trustworthy system that meets the performance and security requirements of all the applications. The network-on-chip (NoC can be used to efficiently incorporate security. Our work proposes the implementation of QoSS (quality of security service to overcome present MPSoC vulnerabilities. QoSS is a novel concept for data protection that introduces security as a dimension of QoS. QoSS takes advantage of the NoC wide system visibility and critical role in enabling system operation, exploiting the NoC components to detect and prevent a wide range of attacks. In this paper, we present the implementation of a layered dynamic security NoC architecture that integrates agile and dynamic security firewalls in order to detect attacks based on different security rules. We evaluate the effectiveness of our approach over several MPSoCs scenarios and estimate their impact on the overall performance. We show that our architecture can perform a fast detection of a wide range of attacks and a fast configuration of different security policies for several MPSoC applications.

  14. Analysis of metabolites in plasma reveals distinct metabolic features between Dahl salt-sensitive rats and consomic SS.13(BN) rats.

    Wang, Le; Hou, Entai; Wang, Zhengjun; Sun, Na; He, Liqing; Chen, Lan; Liang, Mingyu; Tian, Zhongmin


    Salt-sensitive hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Our previous proteomic study revealed substantial differences in several proteins between Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats and salt-insensitive consomic SS.13(BN) rats. Subsequent experiments indicated a role of fumarase insufficiency in the development of hypertension in SS rats. In the present study, a global metabolic profiling study was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in plasma of SS rats (n=9) and SS.13(BN) rats (n=8) on 0.4% NaCl diet, designed to gain further insights into the relationship between alterations in cellular intermediary metabolism and predisposition to hypertension. Principal component analysis of the data sets revealed a clear clustering and separation of metabolic profiles between SS rats and SS.13(BN) rats. 23 differential metabolites were identified (PSS rats. Pyruvate, which connects TCA cycle and glycolysis, was also increased in SS rats. Moreover, lower activity levels of fumarase, aconitase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA synthetase were detected in the heart, liver or skeletal muscles of SS rats. The distinct metabolic features in SS and SS.13(BN) rats indicate abnormalities of TCA cycle in SS rats, which may play a role in predisposing SS rats to developing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  15. Association of increased frequencies of HLA-DPB1*05:01 with the presence of anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B antibodies in Japanese rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Hiroshi Furukawa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Autoantibodies to ribonucleoprotein are associated with a variety of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Many studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles and RA have been reported, but few have been validated in RA subpopulations with anti-La/SS-B or anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies. Here, we investigated associations of HLA class II alleles with the presence of anti-Ro/SS-A or anti-La/SS-B antibodies in RA. METHODS: An association study was conducted for HLA-DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 in Japanese RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients that were positive or negative for anti-Ro/SS-A and/or anti-La/SS-B antibodies. RESULTS: An increased prevalence of certain class II alleles was associated with the presence of anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies as follows: DRB1*08:03 (Pc = 3.79×10(-5, odds ratio [OR] 3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98-4.73, DQB1*06:01 (Pc = 0.0106, OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.26-2.31, and DPB1*05:01 (Pc = 0.0040, OR 1.55, 95%CI 1.23-1.96. On the other hand, DRB1*15:01 (Pc = 0.0470, OR 3.14, 95%CI 1.63-6.05, DQB1*06:02 (Pc = 0.0252, OR 3.14, 95%CI 1.63-6.05, and DPB1*05:01 (Pc = 0.0069, OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.44-3.57 were associated with anti-La/SS-B antibodies. The DPB1*05:01 allele was associated with anti-Ro/SS-A (Pc = 0.0408, OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.19-2.41 and anti-La/SS-B antibodies (Pc = 2.48×10(-5, OR 3.31, 95%CI 2.02-5.43 in SLE patients. CONCLUSION: HLA-DPB1*05:01 was the only allele associated with the presence of both anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B antibodies in Japanese RA and SLE patients.

  16. Study on cracks of axle-hang box for SS7 locomotive%SS7机车抱轴箱体裂纹研究

    张运伟; 封全保; 杨俊杰



  17. Performance analysis and maintenance of SS150F type smoke machine%SS150F型烟雾机性能分析与维护保养

    李传军; 滕越; 樊伟; 孙文明



  18. KUNTOUTUSTA MONIAMMATILLISESTI TAIDOLLA : sairaanhoitaja ikäihmisten kuntoutuksen moniammatillisessa työryhmässä Rokuan Kuntoutus Oy:ssä

    Hukkanen, Pirjo; Karvonen, Raili


    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli sairaanhoitajan rooli moniammatillisen työryhmän jäsenenä ikääntyvien kuntoutuksessa. Toimeksiantajana oli Rokuan Kuntoutus Oy, jonka ikääntyvien kuntoutuksen palvelulinja II on ollut tutkittavana työryhmänä. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millainen työnjako Rokuan Kuntoutus Oy:n palvelulinja II:n moniammatillisessa työryhmässä oli, sekä selvittää ja selkeyttää sairaanhoitajan roolia kyseisen työryhmän jäsenenä. Tavoitteena oli auttaa Rokuan Kuntoutus...

  19. [Protective effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 on early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats].

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Zhengzheng; Chen, Zhenggang; Yang, Kun


    To evaluate protective effects of SS31 on early brain injury (EBI) induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats.
 Methods: A total of 96 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A sham group, an SAH group, an SAH+vehicle group (SAH+V), and an SAH+SS31 group. The SAH-induced prechiasmatic cistern rat model was established in this study. Neurological deficit scores were evaluated at 24 h after SAH. The SS31 (5 mg/kg) as well as equal volume of vehicle were administrated intraperitoneally at 2 h after SAH. The neurological scores, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, apoptosis, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoride dismutase (SOD) activity, and the expression of cytosolic cytochrome c (Cyt C) and Bax were analyzed at 24 h after SAH.
 Results: Treatment with SS31 could significantly reduce MDA levels, and restored the activities of GPx and SOD in the cortex following SAH when compared with the SAH+V group. In addition, Bax SS31 trearment increased or decreased the levels of mitochondrial Cyt C or Bax, respectively. Moreover, SS31 treatment ameliorated brain edema and Evans blue dye extravasation, improved neurological deficits, and decreased neuronal apoptosis at 24 h after SAH.
 Conclusion: SS31 could alleviate EBI after SAH through its antioxidant property and ability in inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  20. Observation of white spot lesions using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT): in vitro and in vivo study.

    Ibusuki, Takahide; Kitasako, Yuichi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji


    This study aimed to assess swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for in vitro and in vivo detection of enamel white spot lesion (WSL). WSLs without surface breakdown on 33 extracted human posterior teeth were non-invasively scanned using SSOCT. The teeth were then cross-sectioned and imaged under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and light microscopy (LM). SS-OCT cross-sectional images were compared with CLSM and LM. WSL shapes in SS-OCT images closely corresponded to those of LM. There were significant correlations (pSS-OCT and LM (r=0.92), SS-OCT and CLSM (r=0.80) and CLSM and LM (r=0.85). Six WSLs were also evaluated clinically using SS-OCT; clear in-depth images of these natural WSLs were obtained in vivo. SS-OCT appears to be an effective tool for observation of the internal structure of WSLs, enabling quantitative assessment of WSL depth. Such data can be considered in the clinical management of WSLs.


    Çağatay Neftali Tülü


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada günümüzün en popüler nıobilhaberleşme sistemi olan GSM [1 l sisteminin, kendiöğeleri aras1ndaki en temel sinyalleşme sistemi olannumara 7 (SS7 [2 sinyallerinin, günümüzün enyaygın iletim omurgast olan ve tüm dünyadakibilgisayarları birbirine bağlayan IP (3] omurgasıüzerinden taşınabilmesi için gerekli si stemin tasar11n1ve gerçeklenınesi üzerinde çahş1lmtştır. Klasil\\ SS7iletimine göre en büyüllt; faydası çok düşül{ maliyetiolan bu sistem sayesinde, dünyadaki b i r çok GSMşebekesi ara bağlanti harcanıalarıııda büyükmiktarda tasarrufa gideceklerdir. Aralarındakiklasik 64 KB/sn 'lik ara bağlantı yerine, bununüzerinde bir bağlantı hızı ile iki şebeke haberleşmişolacaktır. Bu değişimierin etkisi abonelere fiyatlardadüşüş ve servis kalitesinde yükseliş olarakyansıyacaktır.

  2. Synthesis of Novel High Energy Polyaniline Derivative Containing S-S Bond in Six-membered Cycle

    ZHOU Lei; DENG Shi-Ren; LI Zao-Ying


    @@ A novel conducting polymer as new class of high energy storage material, [1,2] which has one six-membered cycle containing S-S bond in the moiety of aniline was synthesized. The polymer had enhanced redox progress due to an intramolecular electrocatalytic effect of polyaniline on S-S bond. The polymer has some advantages because of its high theoretical specific energy and fast kinetics when used in lithium batteries. The most promised advantage of it is that the intramolecular cleavage and recombination of the S-S bond improve the cyclicability greatly.

  3. SS7E机车辅助变流器的工作原理及常见故障分析%Operation Principle of the Auxiliary Current Transformer of SS7E Electric Locomotives and Common Fault Analysis

    卢亚东; 林立新


    该文简要介绍了SS7E机车辅助变流器的工作原理及常见故障分析,详细阐述了运用TGF11的工作原理、电路分析,论述了如何运用辅助变流器在SS7E机车上的运用,阐明了机车辅助变流器其原理的掌握和常见故障的处理方法.%This paper briefly introduced the SS7E locomotive assistance converter principle of work and the common fault analysis. Elabo-rated in detail utilizes TGF11 the principle of work, the circuit analysis, how elaborated has utilized the assistance converter on SS7E loco-motive utilization. It also describes locomotive assistance converter its principle grasping and the common breakdown processing method.

  4. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.; Norris, D.A. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA))


    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surface by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs.

  5. SS7型电力机车轮缘偏磨问题的探讨%Probe into bias-abrasion of wheel flange of SS7 electric locomotive




  6. 78 FR 47056 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 941, 941-PR, 941-SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule B...


    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 941, 941-PR, 941- SS, 941-X, 941-X... Federal Tax Return), 941-PR, 941-SS (Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return-American Samoa, Guam, the... Quarterly Federal Tax Return. OMB Number: 1545-0029. Form Numbers: 941, 941-PR, 941-SS, 941-X,...

  7. Deformability of Red Blood Cells and Correlation with ATP Content during Storage as Leukocyte-Depleted Whole Blood.

    Karger, Ralf; Lukow, Christian; Kretschmer, Volker


    BACKGROUND: Storage duration of red cells has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality following transfusion. This association has been attributed to the loss of deformability of stored red cells leading to deterioration of microvascular perfusion. ATP content is considered a critical determinant of the deformability of stored red cells. METHODS: ATP content and deformability were determined after storage for up to 49 days in 40 leukocyte-depleted whole blood units. Red cell deformability was determined using a laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer (LORCA( (®) )) employing shear stress (SS) ranging from 0.3 to 30 Pa. Deformability was expressed as the elongation index (EI). EI was correlated with ATP content. RESULTS: ATP content decreased from 3.5 to 1.7 ?mol/g hemoglobin. EI increased from 0.03 to 0.05 at an SS of 0.3 Pa, and decreased from 0.62 to 0.59 at an SS of 30 Pa. Correlation coefficient (r) of ATP vs. EI at 0.3 Pa ranged from -0.17 to +0.15 during storage. At 30 Pa, r ranged from -0.03 to +0.45. Correlation increased with storage irrespective of SS, and increased with SS irrespective of storage. CONCLUSIONS: ATP content is not a valid surrogate marker for red cell deformability and may not reflect in vivo survival of stored red cells.

  8. Neural network approach to blind-estimation of PN spreading sequence in lower SNR DS/SS signals

    Zhang Tianqi; Lin Xiaokang; Zhou Zhengzhong


    An approach based on discrete Karhunen-Loeve transformation of the DS/SS signals is proposed to estimate PN sequence in lower S/N ratio DS/SS signals. Characteristics of self-organization and principle components extraction of unsupervised neural networks are exploited adequately. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are provided to show that this approach can work well on the lower S/N ratio input signals.

  9. [Comparison of tests for SS-A/Ro, Ro52 and Ro60 in predicting congenital heart block].

    Miyano, Akira; Nakayama, Masahiro; Waguri, Masako; Nakanishi, Isao


    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is a rare syndrome caused by the transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies. Anti SS-A antibodies of a mother with Sjögren syndrome are associated with congenital heart block (CHB) in the newborns with NLE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of maternal antibody titers for SS-A, Ro52 and Ro60 in mothers of newborns with CHB. The study involved a total of 304 cases, 25 from mothers of newborns with CHB, 104 from mothers of newborns without and 175 from mothers suspected to have connective tissue diseases. All sera were tested with the EliA SS-A, EliA Ro52, EliA Ro60, MESACUP Ro52 and MESACUP Ro60. The concordance rate of Ro52 assays was 93.4%, whereas Ro60 assays showed a lower concordance rate (74.7%). The areas under the curve (AUC) of the EliA assays were higher than those of the MESACUP assays. The optimal cut-off values for EliA SS-A/Ro and EliA Ro60 as derived from the ROC analysis were 2027 U/mL and 2446 U/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for EliA SS-A using optimal cut-off values were 96.0% and 92.3%, respectively. A titer of 90% positive predictive value for EliA SS-A was reached at a cut-off of 9897.1 U/mL, corresponding to sensitivity and specificity values of 36.0% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the optimal cut-off value for EliA SS-A is likely to be useful for application in clinical practice for the EliA SS-A measurements in mothers to evaluate the risk of NLE for their newborns.

  10. Investigation on fracture behavior of the welded joint HAZ of ultra-fine grain steel SS400

    朱政强; 陈立功; 荆洪阳; 葛景国; 倪纯珍; 饶德林


    The critical crack dimensions of both base-metal specimen and HAZ specimen are measured via wide-plate tensile tests. Based on the "fitness for purpose" principle, the fracture behavior of the ultra-fine grain steel SS400 welded joint HAZ is assessed. The test results indicate that overmatching is benefit for the whole capability's improvement of ultra-fine grain steel SS400. The test results are confirmed by using finite element method (FEM).

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por



    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  13. Content Analysis

    George Bedinelli Rossi


    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  14. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.


    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  15. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.


    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  16. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu


    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of proximal caries using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in vivo.

    Shimada, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hisaichi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nikaido, Toru; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori


    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of swept-source optical coherent tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal caries in posterior teeth in vivo. SS-OCT images and bitewing radiographs were obtained from 86 proximal surfaces of 53 patients. Six examiners scored the locations according to a caries lesion depth scale (0-4) using SS-OCT and the radiographs. The results were compared with clinical observations obtained after the treatment. SS-OCT could detect the presence of proximal caries in tomograms that were synthesized based on the backscatter signal obtained from the proximal carious lesion through occlusal enamel. SS-OCT showed significantly higher sensitivity and larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than radiographs for the detection of cavitated enamel lesions and dentin caries (Student's t -test, p SS-OCT appears to be a more reliable and accurate method than bitewing radiographs for the detection and estimation of the depth of proximal lesions in the clinical environment.

  18. The simultaneous production of sphingan Ss and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) in Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02.

    Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Guoqiang; Huang, Haidong; Chen, Sibin; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Keran; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting


    Sphingans and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) are both widely used biopolymers produced by bacteria. In the batch fermentation of Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02 in a 5L fermenter using glucose as carbon source, ivory colored sphingan Ss production was a growth-associated process with a maximum purified production of 14.88 ± 0.83 g/L, while 6.08 ± 0.23 g/L PHB was simultaneously produced. Sphingan Ss and PHB were separated by a simple dilution, heating and centrifugation or filtration process, and sphingan Ss can be cost-effectively extracted using a small amount of acid rather than multi-fold volumes of alcohols. From ultrathin sections of S. sanxanigenens NX02, we found that the interior space of the cells was filled with PHB granules, and the outside was surrounded by abundant Ss. The purified sphingan Ss can be used as an excellent gelling and emulsifying agent in biotechnology applications such as food, personal care and production processes. Proposed pathways of Ss and PHB biosynthesis from glucose are also presented.

  19. Mycophenolate mofetil prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension and renal glomerular injury in Dahl SS rats.

    Spradley, Frank T; De Miguel, Carmen; Hobbs, Janet; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S


    We designed experiments to test the hypothesis that Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats are sensitive to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertension and renal injury via an inflammatory mechanism. Twelve-week-old Dahl SS rats were maintained on a normal diet (ND; 14% fat), HFD (59% fat), or HFD supplemented with the lymphocyte immunosuppressive agent, mycophenolate mofetil (HFD + MMF; 30 mg/kg/day orally in diet), for a period of 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), metabolic parameters, T lymphocyte (CD3(+)) localization, and renal structural damage were assessed during the studies. Four weeks of HFD significantly elevated MAP and visceral adiposity without changing circulating levels of lipids or adipokines. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that SS rats on HFD had significantly greater numbers of CD3(+) cells in renal glomerular and medullary areas compared to ND SS rats. Additionally, HFD led to increased glomerular injury, but did not alter renal medullary injury. Chronic MMF treatment in HFD-fed Dahl SS rats reduced MAP, visceral adiposity, infiltration of CD3(+) cells in the glomerulus, as well as glomerular injury. However, MMF treatment did not alter HFD-induced infiltration of CD3(+) cells in the renal medulla. In conclusion, Dahl SS rats are sensitized to HFD-induced hypertension and renal glomerular injury via infiltration of T lymphocytes.

  20. [Rasch analysis on stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) scale of acupuncture intervention on stroke].

    Hui, Jian-Rong; Pei, Jian; Wang, Yuan-Chun; Hui, Jian-Ping; Fu, Qin-Hui; Song, Yi; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Dan


    To optimize the evaluation level of active motor threshold and the functional domain of upper limbs of stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) scale with Rasch analysis. Sixty patients with acute ischemic stroke that were in accord with research criterid were randomly divided into a test group (30 cases) and a control group (30 cases). Acupuncture treatment and routine western medicine were applied on the test group, and single treatment of routine western medicine was applied on the control group. Selected acupoints were MS 5, Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), etc. Active motor threshold and the functional domain of upper limbs of SS-QOL were self-tested by patients after one treating course. The characteristics of the above mentioned items were tested with Rasch model. The statistical result on fitness of active motor threshold and the functional domain of upper limbs of SS-QOL showed that every reference of samples and items wosin accord with the Rasch model and has well inner reliability and validity. The Infit and Outfit MnSq values of active motor threshold and the functional domain of upper limbs of SS-QOL are basically between 0.5 and 1.5. The application of Rasch analysis on the assessment of patient reported outcome (PRO) has optimized the PRO scale (the activity and upper limb function domain of SS-QOL scale) and enhanced evaluation level of active motor threshold and the functional domain of upper limbs of SS-QOL scale.

  1. Dahl SS rats demonstrate enhanced aortic perivascular adipose tissue-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of NOS in the endothelium.

    Spradley, Frank T; Ho, Dao H; Pollock, Jennifer S


    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) mediates buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of endothelium-derived factors. We hypothesized that the PVAT of Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats has reduced ability to buffer vasoconstriction. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed on aortic rings with PVAT intact (+PVAT) or removed (-PVAT), and endothelium intact (+ENDO) or removed (-ENDO) from Dahl SS rats and control SS.13(BN) rats (Dahl SS rats that have had chromosome 13 completely replaced with that of the Brown Norway rat, rendering this strain insensitive to high-salt or high-fat diet-induced hypertension). Endothelial dysfunction, assessed by ACh-mediated vasorelaxation, was confirmed in aortic rings of Dahl SS rats. The +PVAT+ENDO aortic rings had indistinguishable phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction between genotypes. In both strains, removal of PVAT significantly enhanced vasoconstriction. Dahl SS rat -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings displayed exaggerated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine vs. SS.13(BN) rats, indicating that PVAT-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction was greater in Dahl SS rats. Removal of both the ENDO and PVAT restored vasoconstriction in both strains. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), produced a similar effect as that seen with -ENDO. These data indicate that the function of the PVAT to activate endothelium-derived NOS is enhanced in Dahl SS compared with SS.13(BN) rats and, most likely, occurs through a pathway that is distinct from ACh-mediated activation of NOS. PVAT weight and total PVAT leptin levels were greater in Dahl SS rats. Leptin induced a significantly decreased vasoconstriction in -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings from Dahl SS rats, but not SS.13(BN) rats. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, PVAT in Dahl SS rats buffers vasoconstriction by activating endothelial NOS via mechanisms that may include the involvement of leptin. Thus, the PVAT serves a vasoprotective role in

  2. Magnetic study of the Fe-Co-Nb {mu} and Nb{sub ss} phases

    Raposo, M.T. E-mail:; Ardisson, J.D.; Persiano, A.I.C


    The phases {mu} (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x})Nb and Nb{sub ss} (Nb dissolving a little amount of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}) were found in (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 1-y}Nb{sub y} alloys, with x=0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.0 and y=0.50; 0.67. The magnetic features were determined by using Moessbauer and VSM analyses. The magnetic behavior of {mu} was related to the Co atomic sites occupation.

  3. Ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuus ja sen tukeminen hoitotyössä - ohjeita hoitajille

    Hoffrén, Jenni; Eskelinen, Noora


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuutta ja kuinka hoitajat voivat tukea seksu-aalisuutta hoitotyössä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda opas ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuuden tukemiseksi Leivolan hoitohenkilökunnalle, johon kuuluu perus-, lähi- ja sairaanhoitajia. Toimeksiantajanamme on Leivolan palvelukeskus Leppävirralla, joka on ympärivuorokautinen hoitokoti. Palvelukeskuksen asukkaiden ikäjakauma on 63–99 vuotta. Opinnäytetyö on kehittämistyö. Opinnäyte...

  4. Corrosion Testing of 304L SS 3013 Inner Container and Teardrop Samples

    Tokash, Justin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lillard, Scott [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Joyce, Stephen Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tegtmeier, Eric Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) 3013 Standard specifies a minimum of two containers to be used for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials containing at least 30 wt.% plutonium and uranium. Three nested containers are typically used, the outer, inner, and convenience containers, shown in Figure 1. Both the outer and inner containers are sealed with a weld while the innermost convenience container must not be sealed. Lifetime of the containers is expected to be fifty years. The containers are fabricated of austenitic stainless steels (SS) due to their high corrosion resistance. Potential failure mechanisms of the storage containers have been examined by Kolman and Lillard et al.

  5. $b\\to ss{\\bar d} $ decay in Randall-Sundrum models

    Lü, Cai-Dian; Qin, Qin


    The extremely small branching ratio of $b\\to ss{\\bar d}$ decay in the Standard Model makes it a suitable channel to explore new physics through various extensions of the Standard Model. We study this $\\Delta S=2$ process in Randall-Sundrum models, including the custodially protected and the bulk-Higgs Randall-Sundrum models. Exploring the parameter space of these models constrained by $K^0-\\bar K^0$ mixing and $B_s^0-\\bar B_s^0$ mixing, it suggests a possible accessibility of this decay in future experiments.

  6. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.


    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  7. Luonnonmukainen hulevesien hallinta uusilla asuntoalueilla Lahden Karistossa ja Kytölässä

    Huttunen, Jessica


    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää luonnonmukaisen hulevesien hallinnan osaa, merkitystä, käyttöä ja toimivuutta kaupunkisuunnittelussa sekä arvioida kosteikkojen ja biosuodatusjärjestelmän tehokkuutta uusilla asuntoalueilla Lahden Karistossa ja Kytölässä. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana on Lahden seudun ympäristöpalvelut, ja työ toteutettiin osana Ilmastonkestävä kaupunki – työkaluja suunnitteluun (ILKKA) -hanketta, joka edistää ilmastonkestävää kaupunkisuunnittelua. Pohjatietoj...

  8. Yksinäisyyden kokeminen nuoruusiässä : WHO-Koululaistutkimus

    Perälä, Maiju


    Maiju Perälä (2015). Yksinäisyyden kokeminen nuoruusiässä. WHO-Koululaistutkimus. Terveystieteiden laitos, Jyväskylän yliopisto, terveyskasvatuksen pro gradu -tutkielma, 93 s., 9 liitettä. Nuorten koettua yksinäisyyttä on tärkeää selvittää, jotta tunnistetaan tekijöitä jotka ovat yhteydessä nuorten henkiseen pahoinvointiin, ja osataan puuttua yksinäisyyden kokemiseen varhaisessa vaiheessa. Nuoruudessa yksinäisyyden kokeminen on yleisempää kuin muissa elämänkulun vaiheissa. Pro gradu ...

  9. Restonomiopiskelijoiden työssä käyminen ja sen vaikutus opintoihin

    Virtanen, Sanna-Mari


    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli restonomiopiskelijoiden työssä käyminen ja sen vaikutus opintoihin. Aihe on ajankohtainen, sillä etenkin matkailu- ja ravitsemisalalla työnteko opintojen ohella on vuosi vuodelta yleistynyt. Monella opiskelijalla ei ole vaihtoehtoja, vaan töitä on tehtävä, jos haluaa säilyttää edes jonkinlaisen elintason. Opinnäytetyön tuottamista uusista tiedoista hyötyivät Saimaan ammattikorkeakoulu ja sen opettajat ja opiskelijat. Työntekoa ja sen vaikutuksia opiskeluun tutkit...

  10. Microstructures of an Ultrafine Grained SS400 Steel in an Industrial Scale


    The microstructures of a SS400 steel after thermomechanical control process (TMCP) in an industrial production were observed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicated that the size of ferrite grains was 4~5μm, and the volume fraction of ferrite was around 70%. The types of the ultrafine ferrite grains were analyzed and the strengthening mechanisms were discussed. The results show that the ultrafine ferrite grains came from three processes, i.e.deformation induced ferrite transformation (DIFT), dynamic recrystallization of ferrite and accelerated cooling process. The increase in the strength of the material was mainly due to the grain refining.

  11. Omaistoiminnan kehittäminen järjestötyössä

    Hirvonen, Sirpa


    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Hyvinkää Ylempi ammattikorkeakoulututkinto Terveyden edistämisen koulutusohjelma – ennalta ehkäisevän hyvinvointityön johtaminen ja kehittäminen (90 op) Sirpa Hirvonen Omaistoiminnan kehittäminen järjestötyössä Vuosi 2010 Sivumäärä 71 Tämän ylemmän ammattikorkeakoulun opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli koota aineistoa siitä, minkälaista tietoa ja tukea psyykkisesti sairastuneiden omaiset kokevat tarvitsevansa. Opinnäyte...

  12. Effects of passive films on corrosion resistance of uncoated SS316L bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    Yang, Ying, E-mail: [Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Institute of Analytical Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Ning, Xiaohui; Tang, Hongsheng [Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Institute of Analytical Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Guo, Liejin [International Research Center for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, Hongtan [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States)


    Highlights: • The passive film formed at PEMFC anode side shows a single layer structure. • The passive film formed at PEMFC cathode side shows a bi-layer structure. • The Cr/Fe atomic ratios in passive films formed at different side are different. • The passive films behave as n-type semiconductor at both anode and cathode sides. • The anode/cathode potential is positive than the flatband potential of passive film. - Abstract: The effects of passive films on the corrosion behaviors of uncoated SS316L in anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are studied. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarizations are employed to study the corrosion behavior; Mott-Schottky measurements are used to characterize the semiconductor properties of passive films; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses are used to identify the compositions and the depth profiles of passive films. The passive films formed in the PEMFC anode and cathode environments under corresponding conditions both behave as n-type semiconductor. The passive film formed in the anode environment has a single-layer structure, Cr is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio > 1), and the Cr/Fe atomic ratio decreases from the surface to the bulk; while the passive film formed in the PEMFC cathode environment has a bi-layer structure, Fe is the major element (Cr/Fe atomic ratio < 0.5), and in the external layer of the bi-layer structure Fe content increases rapidly and gradually in the internal layer. SS316L shows better corrosion resistance owing to both the high content of Cr oxide in the passive film and low band bending in normal PEMFC anode environments.

  13. Effect of Sr Content and Strain on Sr Surface Segregation of La 1–x Sr x Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-δ as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Yu, Yang; Ludwig, Karl F.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Basu, Soumendra N.


    Strontium doped lanthanum cobalt ferrite (LSCF) is a widely used cathode material due to its high electronic and ionic conductivity, and reasonable oxygen surface exchange coefficient. However, LSCF can have long-term stability issues such as surface segregation of Sr during solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation, which can adversely affect the electrochemical performance. Thus, understanding the nature of the Sr surface segregation phenomenon, and how it is affected by the composition of LSCF and strain are critical. In this research, heteroepitaxial thin films of La1-x SrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3- with varying Sr content (x = 0.4, 0.3, 0.2) were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal NdGaO3, SrTiO3 and GdScO3 substrates, leading to different levels of strain in the films. The extent of Sr segregation at the film surface was quantified using synchrotron-based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electronic structure of the Sr-rich phases formed on the surface was investigated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The extent of Sr segregation was found to be a function of the Sr content in bulk. Lowering the Sr content from 40% to 30% reduced the surface segregation, but further lowering the Sr content to 20% increased the segregation. The strain of LSCF thin films on various substrates was measured using high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and the Sr surface segregation was found to be reduced with compressive strain and enhanced with tensile strain present within the thin films. A model was developed correlating the Sr surface segregation with Sr content and strain effects to explain the experimental results.

  14. A New Blind Adaptive Array Antenna Based on CMA Criteria for M-Ary/SS Signals Suitable for Software Defined Radio Architecture

    Kozuma, Miho; Sasaki, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yukihiro; Fujii, Takeo; Umebayashi, Kenta; Suzuki, Yasuo

    M-ary/SS is a version of Direct Sequence/Spread Spectrum (DS/SS) aiming to improve the spectral efficiency employing orthogonal codes. However, due to the auto-correlation property of the orthogonal codes, it is impossible to detect the symbol timing by observing correlator outputs. Therefore, conventionally, a preamble has been inserted in M-ary/SS, signals. In this paper, we propose a new blind adaptive array antenna for M-ary/SS systems that combines signals over the space axis without any preambles. It is surely an innovative approach for M-ary/SS. The performance is investigated through computer simulations.

  15. Influence of total solid content and inoculum-to-substrate ratio on anaerobic digestion of leaf vegetable waste%含固率和接种比对叶菜类蔬菜垃圾厌氧消化的影响

    何品晶; 胡洁; 吕凡; 诸一殊; 邵立明


    通过叶菜类蔬菜垃圾中温批式厌氧消化实验,比较了含固率(3%、5%、7%)和接种比(1.5、2.5、3.5)对产甲烷效果的联合影响.结果表明,在研究实验参数范围内,含固率越低、接种比越高,越有利于缩短产甲烷反应迟滞期,平均日产甲烷速率越快.经过52d 的培养,在含固率为3%、接种比为3.5的工况中,平均日产甲烷速率最快,达到9.5mL/(gVS?d),日最大产甲烷速率最快,达到49.8mL/(gVS?d),最早进入快速产甲烷期.当接种比为3.5时,随着含固率的升高,产甲烷速率下降,迟滞期延长,但单位底物累计产甲烷量增大,含固率7%时单位底物累计净产甲烷量为481mL/gVS.而当接种比为1.5时,含固率为5%和7%的工况均无法启动甲烷化反应,含固率为3%的工况的产气迟滞期达15d.挥发性有机酸的累积抑制甲烷化反应的启动,迟滞期随着液相中有机酸浓度的增加而延长,当有机酸浓度低于1260mg/L,甲烷化反应没有明显的迟滞期.%Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mesophilic anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste. The performances of anaerobic digestion were compared at different total solid contents (3%, 5%, and 7%) and inoculum-to-substrate ratios (1.5, 2.5, and 3.5). Gas and liquid phase analysis showed that the lower total solid content and the higher inoculum-to-substrate ratio shortened the lag phase of methanogenesis, and increased the average daily methane production rate. After 52 days, the treatment at 3%in total solid content and inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 3.5 had the highest average daily methane production rate from VS of 9.5mL/(gVS?d), and the highest daily highest methane production rate from VS of 49.8 mL/(gVS?d). This treatment was also the first to enter the rapid methanogenic phase. At an inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 3.5, it was observed that as the total solid content increased the lag phase was prolonged and there was an increase in the methane production

  16. Hexameric Capsules Studied by Magic Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Identifying Solvent Molecules in Pyrogallol[4]arene Capsules.

    Avram, Liat; Goldbourt, Amir; Cohen, Yoram


    Powders of pyrogallol[4]arene hexamers were produced by evaporation from organic solvents and were studied, for the first time, by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR (MAS ssNMR). Evaporation selectively removed non-encapsulated solvent molecules leaving stable hexameric capsules encapsulating solvent molecules. After exposure of the powder to solvent vapors, (1)H/(13)C heteronuclear correlation MAS ssNMR experiments were used to assign the signals of the external and encapsulated solvent molecules. The formed capsules were stable for months and the process of solvent encapsulation was reversible. According to the ssNMR experiments, the encapsulated solvent molecules occupy different sites and those sites differ in their mobility. The presented approach paves the way for studying guest exchange, guest affinity, and gas storage in hexamers of this type in the solid state.

  17. Loss of the SxxSS motif in a human T-cell factor-4 isoform confers hypoxia resistance to liver cancer: an oncogenic switch in Wnt signaling.

    Hironori Koga

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Aberrantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling is important in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development. Downstream gene expressions involving the Wnt/β-catenin cascade occur through T-cell factor (TCF proteins. Here, we show the oncogenic potential of human TCF-4 isoforms based on the expression of a single conserved SxxSS motif. METHODS: We investigated the TCF-4J and K isoform pair characterized by the presence (K or absence (J of the SxxSS motif. The mRNA expression profiles were examined in 47 pairs of human HCCs and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues by RT-PCR. Proliferation, sphere assays and immunoblot analysis were performed under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. The ability of HCC cells overexpressing TCF-4J (J cells and K (K cells to grow as solid tumors in nude mice was explored. RESULTS: TCF-4J expression was significantly upregulated in HCC tumors compared to corresponding peritumor and normal liver and was preferentially expressed in poorly differentiated HCCs. In contrast, TCF-4K was downregulated in those same HCC tumors. TCF-4J-overexpressing HCC cells (J cells revealed a survival advantage under hypoxic conditions, high proliferation rate and formation of aggregates/spheres compared to overexpression of TCF-4K (K cells. The hypoxic J cells had high expression levels of HIF-2α and EGFR as possible mechanisms to promote tumorigenesis. Increased stability of HIF-2α under hypoxia in J cells was associated with a decreased level of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL protein, a known E3 ligase for HIF-αs. In a xenograft model, the J cells rapidly developed tumors compared to K cells. Tumor tissues derived from J cells exhibited high expression levels of HIF-2α and EGFR compared to the slow developing and small K cell derived tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the specific TCF-4J isoform, which lacks a regulatory SxxSS motif, has robust tumor-initiating potential under hypoxic conditions.

  18. False positives and false negatives measure less than 0.001% in labeling ssDNA with osmium tetroxide 2,2’-bipyridine

    Anastassia Kanavarioti


    Full Text Available Osmium tetroxide 2,2’-bipyridine (OsBp is known to react with pyrimidines in ssDNA and preferentially label deoxythymine (T over deoxycytosine (C. The product, osmylated DNA, was proposed as a surrogate for nanopore-based DNA sequencing due to OsBp’s “perfect” label attributes. Osmylated deoxyoligos translocate unassisted and measurably slow via sub-2 nm SiN solid-state nanopores, as well as via the alpha-hemolysin (α-HL pore. Both nanopores discriminate clearly between osmylated and intact nucleobase; α-HL was also shown to discriminate between osmylated T and osmylated C. Experiments presented here confirm that the kinetics of osmylation are comparable for short oligos and long ssDNA and show that pyrimidine osmylation is practically complete in two hours at room temperature with less than 15 mM OsBp. Under the proposed labeling conditions: deoxyoligo backbone degradation measures less than 1/1,000,000; false positives such as osmylated deoxyadenine (A and osmylated deoxyguanine (G measure less than 1/100,000; false negatives, i.e., unosmylated C measure less than 1/10,000; and unosmylated T must measure substantially lower than 1/10,000 due to the 27-fold higher reactivity of T compared to C. However, osmylated C undergoes degradation that amounts to about 1–2% for the duration of the labeling protocol. This degradation may be further characterized, possibly suppressed, and the properties of the degradation products via nanopore translocation can be evaluated to assure base calling quality in a DNA sequencing effort.

  19. Low-temperature intermediates to oxygen reduction reaction catalysts based on amine-modified metal-loaded carbons. An XPS and ss-NMR investigation

    Marzorati, Stefania [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ragg, Enzio M. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze per l’Alimentazione, la Nutrizione e l’Ambiente, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Longhi, Mariangela, E-mail: [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Formaro, Leonardo [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    Carbon functionalization is a major subject of interest in a number of project applications. Herein we report results on the characterization of nitrogen- and metal-loaded (Me = Fe, Co) carbon derivatives from low-T reaction steps before they are converted to catalysts for electrochemical oxygen reduction by later high-T treatments. The aim is to shed light on the state of carbon and carbon-bonded moieties before thermal modifications take place during any chosen high-T treatment. Though necessary for end catalyst activation, such thermal treatments make difficult to establish a relation between the starting reactants and finally obtained catalysts. Of interest to the paper are {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N solid-state NMR (ss-NMR) and high-resolution X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results on a commercial carbon that was reacted first with aliphatic di- and tri-amines and then with Fe, Co ions in room-T water. Data from natural abundance ss-{sup 15}N NMR in combination with XPS analysis were found especially relevant to assess that, in the adopted conditions, amines preferentially bind to carbon by creating alkylimino functional groups, which spontaneously form hydrous surface metal complexes with soluble Fe and Co ions. A chemical model is thus proposed for metal coordination in such C–N species. - Highlights: • A commercial carbon is nitrogen-doped by a low-T reaction with di- and tri-amines. • In the used conditions alkylimino groups are formed, able to act as ligands with metals (mainly Co). • A combination of {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N NMR and XPS is adopted for product characterization. • A model is proposed for the metal coordination with surface bonded groups.

  20. Influence of Nitrogen Sources on Sucrose Synthetase(SS) in Sugar Beet%不同氮源对甜菜蔗糖合成酶的影响

    赵越; 马凤鸣; 王丽艳; 刘涧洋


    不同氮素形态对蔗糖合成酶(SS)活性影响不同,硝态氮促进SS分解活性,氨态氮则促进SS合成活性。生育前期SS分解活性大于SS合成活性,有利于器官的形态建成,而在生育后期SS合成活性大于SS分解活性,则有利于根中蔗糖的形成。生育前期根中的SS分解活性较强,说明根中有蔗糖合成后的再分解过程。%Influence of nitrogen sources on the activity of sucrose synthetase(SS) is different. Nitrate nitrogen can improve the decomposition activity of SS (SS-D), but ammonium nitrogen can improve the synthetic activity of SS(SS-S).In prophase of sugar beet life, it advantages morphogenesis of organ when SS-D> SS-S, and in postphase of sugar life, it advantages formation of sucrose in sucrose beet roots, when SS-S>SS-D. In prophase of sugar beet life, the activity of SS-D is higher than that of SS-S in sucrose beet roots, this indicates that there is redecomposition after sucrose synthesis.