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Sample records for solids ss content

  1. Changes of plasma SS, SP contents in adult patients with primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Song Changyi; Lei Yamei; Ning Ning; Chen Wei; Li Runming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible mechanism of imparirment of central nervous system function in hypothyroid patients through determination of changes of plasma neuropeptides after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Methods: Plasma somatostatin (SS) and substance P(SP) contents were measured with RIA in 45 patients with primary hypothyroidism both before and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy as well as in 38 controls. Results: Before treatment, the plasma contents of SP in the patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P 0.05). However, the plasma contents of SS in the more advanced hypothyroid patients with FT 3 3 , FT 4 levels, the plasma SS, SP increased significantly (vs before treatment P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: The decrease of plasma contents of SS and SP in patients with hypothyroidism might be related to the development of psycho-neurological symptoms in these patients and thyroid hormone replacement therapy was desirable. (authors)

  2. Defining the Content of an Online Sexual Health Intervention: The MenSS Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rosie; Gerressu, Makeda; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Ang, Chee Siang; Murray, Elizabeth; Rait, Greta; Stephenson, Judith; Bailey, Julia V

    2015-07-03

    Health promotion and risk reduction are essential components of sexual health care. However, it can be difficult to prioritize these within busy clinical services. Digital interventions may provide a new method for supporting these. The MenSS (Men's Safer Sex) website is an interactive digital intervention developed by a multidisciplinary team, which aims to improve condom use in men who have sex with women (MSW). This paper describes the content of this intervention, and the rationale for it. Content was informed by a literature review regarding men's barriers to condom use, workshops with experts in sexual health and technology (N=16) and interviews with men in sexual health clinics (N=20). Data from these sources were analyzed thematically, and synthesized using the Behavior Change Wheel framework. The MenSS intervention is a website optimized for delivery via tablet computer within a clinic waiting room setting. Key targets identified were condom use skills, beliefs about pleasure and knowledge about risk. Content was developed using behavior change techniques, and interactive website features provided feedback tailored for individual users. This paper provides a detailed description of an evidence-based interactive digital intervention for sexual health, including how behavior change techniques were translated into practice within the design of the MenSS website. Triangulation between a targeted literature review, expert workshops, and interviews with men ensured that a range of potential influences on condom use were captured.

  3. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma ET and SS contents in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuhong; Chen Chuanbing; Li Hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and somatostatin (SS) levels in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods: Plasma ET and SS contents were determined with RIA in 63 neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 35 controls. Results: In neonates with HIE, the plasma ET levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01), while the plasma SS levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). Conclusion: Development of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn infants was closely associated with increase of plasma ET and SS levels. (authors)

  5. Dynamic effect of total solid content, low substrate/inoculum ratio and particle size on solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Escudié, R; Bernet, N; Delgenes, J-P; Steyer, J-P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Among all the process parameters of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), total solid content (TS), inoculation (S/X ratio) and size of the organic solid particles can be optimized to improve methane yield and process stability. To evaluate the effects of each parameter and their interactions on methane production, a three level Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented in SS-AD batch tests degrading wheat straw by adjusting: TS content from 15% to 25%, S/X ratio (in volatile solids) between 28 and 47 and particle size with a mean diameter ranging from 0.1 to 1.4mm. A dynamic analysis of the methane production indicates that the S/X ratio has only an effect during the start-up phase of the SS-AD. During the growing phase, TS content becomes the main parameter governing the methane production and its strong interaction with the particle size suggests the important role of water compartmentation on SS-AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the microbial communities in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) reactors operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    The microbiomes involved in liquid anaerobic digestion process have been investigated extensively, but the microbiomes underpinning solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) are poorly understood. In this study, microbiome composition and temporal succession in batch SS-AD reactors, operated at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures, were investigated using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A greater microbial richness and evenness were found in the mesophilic than in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors. Firmicutes accounted for 60 and 82 % of the total Bacteria in the mesophilic and in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, respectively. The genus Methanothermobacter dominated the Archaea in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, while Methanoculleus predominated in the mesophilic SS-AD reactors. Interestingly, the data suggest syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as an important pathway for biogas production during the thermophilic SS-AD. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that temperature was the most influential factor in shaping the microbiomes in the SS-AD reactors. Thermotogae showed strong positive correlation with operation temperature, while Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were positively correlated with daily biogas yield. This study provided new insight into the microbiome that drives SS-AD process, and the findings may help advance understanding of the microbiome in SS-AD reactors and the design and operation of SS-AD systems.

  7. Determination of solid fat content by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Tsukasa; Kato, Chihiro; Suzuki, Kazuaki

    1984-01-01

    To establish a standard method for determing solid fat content, the NMR method was tested at six laboratories and the results were examined for collaboration. Two types of instruments, pulse NMR and wide-line NMR were used. Standard deviation in results at six laboratories was less than 1.5 for the step wise method, but more than 1.5 for the rapid method. The standard deviation in results at a single laboratory was much less than either of these cases. No significant difference could be observed in the values obtained using both instruments. Solid fat content values measured for a mixture of fully hydrogenated rapeseed and rapeseed oil agreed well with the percentage of solid by weight. (author)

  8. Probing the Conformation of an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody in Lyophilized Solids Using Solid-State Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometric Analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ehab M; Singh, Satish K; Kimmel, Michael; Nema, Sandeep; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2018-02-05

    Therapeutic proteins are often formulated as lyophilized products to improve their stability and prolong shelf life. The stability of proteins in the solid-state has been correlated with preservation of native higher order structure and/or molecular mobility in the solid matrix, with varying success. In the studies reported here, we used solid-state hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) to study the conformation of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in lyophilized solids and related the extent of ssHDX to aggregation during storage in the solid phase. The results demonstrate that the extent of ssHDX correlated better with aggregation rate during storage than did solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (ssFTIR) spectroscopic measurements. Interestingly, adding histidine to sucrose at different formulation pH conditions decreased aggregation of the mAb, an effect that did not correlate with structural or conformational changes as measured by ssFTIR or ssHDX-MS. Moreover, peptide-level ssHDX-MS analysis in four selected formulations demonstrated global changes across the structure of the mAb when lyophilized with sucrose, trehalose, or mannitol, whereas site-specific changes were observed when lyophilized with histidine as the sole excipient.

  9. Fabrication of Nb3Al superconducting wires by utilizing the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al)ss supersaturated solid-solution with low-temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, X.F.; Yan, G.; Qi, M.; Cui, L.J.; Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y.; Li, C.S.; Liu, X.H.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, P.X.; Liu, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reported superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube Nb 3 Al wires. • The Nb 3 Al wires were made by using Nb(Al) ss supersaturated solid solution powders. • The Cu-matrix Nb 3 Al superconducting wires have been successfully fabricated. • The transport J c of Nb 3 Al wires at 4.2 K, 10 T is up to 12,700 A/cm 2 . - Abstract: High-performance Nb 3 Al superconducting wire is a promising candidate to the application of high-field magnets. However, due to the production problem of km-grade wires that are free from low magnetic field instability, the Nb 3 Al wires made by rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) are still not available to the large-scale engineering application. In this paper, we reported the properties of the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb 3 Al superconducting wires, which were made by using the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al) ss supersaturated solid solution, as well as the low temperature heat-treatment at 800 °C for 10 h. The results show that Nb 3 Al superconductors in this method possess very fine grains and well superconducting properties, though a little of Nb 2 Al and Nb impurities still keep being existence at present work. At the Nb 3 Al with a nominal 26 at.% Al content, the onset T c reaches 15.8 K. Furthermore, a series of Nb 3 Al wires and tapes with various sizes have been fabricated; for the 1.0 mm-diameter wire, the J c at 4.2 K, 10 T and 14 T have achieved 12,700 and 6900 A/cm 2 , respectively. This work suggests it is possible to develop high-performance Cu-matrix Nb 3 Al superconducting wires by directly using the Nb(Al) ss supersaturated solid-solution without the complex RHQT heat-treatment process

  10. Fabrication of Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by utilizing the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution with low-temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, X.F. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Yan, G., E-mail: gyan@c-nin.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Qi, M. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Cui, L.J. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Chen, Y.L.; Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, C.S. [Superconducting Materials Center, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China); Liu, X.H. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Feng, Y.; Zhang, P.X. [National Engineering Laboratory for Superconducting Material, Western Superconducting Technologies (WST) Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710018 (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity and New Energy R and D Center, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Liu, H.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This paper reported superconducting properties of the powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Al wires. • The Nb{sub 3}Al wires were made by using Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution powders. • The Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires have been successfully fabricated. • The transport J{sub c} of Nb{sub 3}Al wires at 4.2 K, 10 T is up to 12,700 A/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: High-performance Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wire is a promising candidate to the application of high-field magnets. However, due to the production problem of km-grade wires that are free from low magnetic field instability, the Nb{sub 3}Al wires made by rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) are still not available to the large-scale engineering application. In this paper, we reported the properties of the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires, which were made by using the mechanically alloyed Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid solution, as well as the low temperature heat-treatment at 800 °C for 10 h. The results show that Nb{sub 3}Al superconductors in this method possess very fine grains and well superconducting properties, though a little of Nb{sub 2}Al and Nb impurities still keep being existence at present work. At the Nb{sub 3}Al with a nominal 26 at.% Al content, the onset T{sub c} reaches 15.8 K. Furthermore, a series of Nb{sub 3}Al wires and tapes with various sizes have been fabricated; for the 1.0 mm-diameter wire, the J{sub c} at 4.2 K, 10 T and 14 T have achieved 12,700 and 6900 A/cm{sup 2}, respectively. This work suggests it is possible to develop high-performance Cu-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al superconducting wires by directly using the Nb(Al){sub ss} supersaturated solid-solution without the complex RHQT heat-treatment process.

  11. Study of C/N Ratio Effect on Biogas Production of Carica Solid Waste by SS-AD Method And LS-AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Bakti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as an alternative source to replace fossil fuels. Recently, the use of energy has become an important issue because the oil sources and natural gas are depleting. Utilization of carica waste to produce biogas can reduce the consumption of commercial energy sources such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood. Biogas is produced by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobic bacterial activity in anaerobic digester. In this study we studied the influence of LS-AD and SS-AD methods, the effect of C / N ratio on biogas yield obtained and kinetics of biogas production reaction. The study was conducted by making a total solid variation of 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 19%, 21%, 23% and C/N ratio 25 and 30. The study started with carica waste collection process and examination of the total composition of solids and water content. Thereafter, calculation and determination of variation of C / N ratio by mixing the substrate with inoculum and urea into the reactor. Observe the volume of biogas produced every two-day intervals. The highest biogas production rate of 1.7825 ml/g TS day was obtained from carica solid waste variable by liquid state anaerobic disgestion and C/N 25.

  12. Decontamination of Stainless Steel SS 304 Type with Pressurized CO2 Solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutoto

    2007-01-01

    The abrasive decontamination of the stainless steel valve using 12 bar pressurized CO 2 solid has been done. Experiment activities was performed in the HOT CELL facility with variation of blasting time 15, 30, 45 and 60 seconds. The result of experiment shown that the operation of abrasive decontamination during 45 seconds gives the decreasing of the equipment radiation dose rate from 460 to 200 mRem/h and decontamination factor 1.35. The secondary waste from decontamination activities was treated by filtration method using HEPA filter and activated carbon filter. (author)

  13. Relationship between refractive index and mineral content of enamel and dentin using SS-OCT and TMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ilnaz; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Nakashima, Syozi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate relationship between refractive index (n) and mineral content (MC) (vol %) of enamel and dentin using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Enamel and dentin blocks were partitioned into three regions. The middle partition of each sample was covered with a nail polish to protect the sound area during exposure to the treatment solutions. Samples were demineralized in a demineralizing solution, which was refreshed once a week, for 2 months. One window was covered with acid-resistant varnish, leaving the other window exposed; the samples were placed in a solution for remineralization. Samples then were sliced into disks with thickness of 300 μm to 400 μm and placed on metal plate in order to capture cross-sectional images of sound, demineralized and remineralized regions by OCT at 1319 nm center wavelength. The n then was calculated via formula using image analysis software. Following n measurement, these specimens were further polished for the TMR analysis. Correlation between OCT n and TMR MC was examined. A significant and highly positive correlation was found between the measured n and the actual MC at the corresponding locations (Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.94 and 0.97 in enamel and 0.95 and 0.91 in dentin after de-/remineralization process, respectively p < 0.05). OCT showed a potential for quantitative analysis of the mineral loss or gain by measuring of the n in vitro. Supported by the grant from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, "International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases."

  14. Proton transfer and hydrogen bonding in the organic solid state: a combined XRD/XPS/ssNMR study of 17 organic acid-base complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joanna S; Byard, Stephen J; Seaton, Colin C; Sadiq, Ghazala; Davey, Roger J; Schroeder, Sven L M

    2014-01-21

    The properties of nitrogen centres acting either as hydrogen-bond or Brønsted acceptors in solid molecular acid-base complexes have been probed by N 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy and are interpreted with reference to local crystallographic structure information provided by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We have previously shown that the strong chemical shift of the N 1s binding energy associated with the protonation of nitrogen centres unequivocally distinguishes protonated (salt) from hydrogen-bonded (co-crystal) nitrogen species. This result is further supported by significant ssNMR shifts to low frequency, which occur with proton transfer from the acid to the base component. Generally, only minor chemical shifts occur upon co-crystal formation, unless a strong hydrogen bond is formed. CASTEP density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (15)N ssNMR isotropic chemical shifts correlate well with the experimental data, confirming that computational predictions of H-bond strengths and associated ssNMR chemical shifts allow the identification of salt and co-crystal structures (NMR crystallography). The excellent agreement between the conclusions drawn by XPS and the combined CASTEP/ssNMR investigations opens up a reliable avenue for local structure characterization in molecular systems even in the absence of crystal structure information, for example for non-crystalline or amorphous matter. The range of 17 different systems investigated in this study demonstrates the generic nature of this approach, which will be applicable to many other molecular materials in organic, physical, and materials chemistry.

  15. Pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 for solid oxide fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Anshu, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalliguem 534101 (India); Prasad, Muvva D. [UGC Networking Centre, School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India. Phone:+91-40-23134382, Fax:+91-40-23010227 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The growth and oxidation study of pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 substrate for solid oxide fuel cell application is demonstrated. MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been achieved in three different ways including, deposition at higher substrate temperature (700°C), and deposition at room temperature on pre-oxidized and untreated SS430 substrate followed by annealing at 700°C for 2 hrs. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to demonstrate the kind of phases developed in each case. These three samples were subjected to heat treatment at 750°C for 5 hr. The extent of undesired Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase formation in the post deposition heat treated samples is discussed based on Raman spectroscopic results.

  16. Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seggiani, Maurizia, E-mail: m.seggiani@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Puccini, Monica, E-mail: m.puccini@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Raggio, Giovanni, E-mail: g.raggio@tiscali.it [Italprogetti Engineering SPA, Lungarno Pacinotti, 59/A, 56020 San Romano (Pisa) (Italy); Vitolo, Sandra, E-mail: s.vitolo@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was

  17. Solid-soluted content of cerium in solid solution of sphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Teng Yuancheng; Li Yuxiang; Ren Xuetan; Huang Junjun

    2010-01-01

    The sphene solid solution was synthesized by solid-state method,with calcium carbonate, silica, titanium dioxide, cerium oxalate and alumina as raw materials. The solid-soluted content of cerium in sphene was researched by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), backscattering scanning electron microscopy (BSE), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and so on. The influence of A l3+ ion introduction to sphene on the solid-soluted content of cerium in sphene solid solution was studied. The results indicate that when introducing Al 3+ to sphene as electrovalence compensation, Ce 4+ could be well solidified to Ca 1-x Ce x Ti 1-2x A l2x SiO 5 , and the solid-soluted content is approximately 12.61%. With no electrovalence compensation, Ce 4+ could be solidified to Ca 1-2x Ce x TiSiO 5 , and the solid-soluted content is approximately 10.98%. The appropriate synthesis temperature of sphene solid solution is 1 260 degree C.(authors)

  18. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  19. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  20. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  1. Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “Lőrinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. PMID:22195010

  2. Enhanced treatment efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for cassava stillage with high solids content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2009-06-01

    Cassava stillage is a high strength organic wastewater with high suspended solids (SS) content. The efficiency of cassava stillage treatment using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was significantly enhanced by discharging settled sludge to maintain a lower sludge concentration (about 30 g/L) in the reactor. Three hydraulic retention times (HRTs), namely 10 d, 7.5 d, 5 d, were evaluated at this condition. The study demonstrated that at an HRT of 5 d and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 11.3 kg COD/(m(3) d), the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency can still be maintained at above 80%. The settleability of digested cassava stillage was improved significantly, and thus only a small amount of settled sludge needed to be discharged to maintain the sludge concentration in the reactor. Furthermore, the performance of ASBR operated at low and high sludge concentration (about 79.5 g/L without sludge discharged) was evaluated at an HRT of 5 d. The TCOD removal efficiency and SS in the effluent were 61% and 21.9 g/L respectively at high sludge concentration, while the values were 85.1% and 2.4 g/L at low sludge concentration. Therefore, low sludge concentration is recommended for ASBR treating cassava stillage at an HRT 5 d due to lower TCOD and SS in the effluent, which could facilitate post-treatment.

  3. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  4. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  5. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Solid waste landfills are an extremely complex and heterogeneous environment. Modeling the biodegradation processes within a landfill must involve an understanding of how environmental factors affect these processes...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Pppp... - Determination of Weight Volatile Matter Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Content and Weight Solids Content of Reactive Adhesives A Appendix A to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection... Reactive Adhesives 1.0Applicability and Principle 1.1Applicability: This method applies to the... reactive adhesives. Reactive adhesives are composed, in large part, of monomers that react during the...

  7. Magnetotransport, structural and optical characterization of p-type modulation doped heterostructures with high Ge content Si1-xGex channel grown by SS-MBE on Si1-yGey/Si(001) virtual substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myronov, M.

    2001-04-01

    This thesis is a report on experimental investigations of magnetotransport, structural and optical properties of p-type modulation doped (MOD) heterostructures with Si 1-x Ge x channel of high Ge content (0.6 1-y Ge y /Si(001) virtual substrate (VS). The active layers of MOD heterostructures were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (SS-MBE). The VSs were grown either by SS-MBE or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition (LP-CVD). The influence of thermal annealing on magnetotransport, structural and optical properties of Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y heterostructures was studied by performing the post growth furnace thermal annealing (FTA) treatments in the temperature range of 600-900C for 30min and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatments at temperature 750C for 30sec. Structural and optical analysis of p-type MOD Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y heterostructures involved the techniques of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, ultra low energy secondary ion mass spectrometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning white-light interferometry. From the combinations of experimental results obtained by these techniques the Ge composition in the SiGe heteroepilayers, their thicknesses, state of strain in the heteroepilayers and dislocations microstructure in VSs were obtained. After post growth thermal annealing treatments were observed broadening of the Si 1-x Ge x channel accompanied with the reduction of Ge content in the channel and smearing of Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y interfaces. The Si 0.7 Ge 0.3 on low-temperature Si buffer VSs with very good structural properties were designed and grown by SS-MBE. These include: relatively thin 850nm total thickness of VS, 4-6nm Peak-to-Valley values of surface roughness, less than 10 5 cm -2 threading dislocations density and more than 95% degree of relaxation in the top layers of VS. The Hall mobility and sheet carrier density of as-grown and annealed p-type MOD Si 1-x Ge x /Si 1-y Ge y

  8. Nuclear physical express analysis of solid fuel sulphur content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Yu.; Ponomaryova, M

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sulphur content is an important qualitative coal parameter. The problem of coal sulphur content determining remains one of the most important both in Kazakhstan and in other coal-mining countries. The traditional method of sampling, the final stage of which is chemical analysis of coal for sulphur, is characterized by high labour intensity and low productivity. That's why it is ineffective for mass express analytical quality control and technological schemes of coal processing control. In this connection it is very urgent to develop a method of coal sulphur content on the base of a series nuclear-geophysical equipment with an isotope source of primary radiation, allowing to increase analysis representativity and maximally take into account coal real composition inconstancy. To solve the problem set it is necessary to study the main laws of X-ray-radiometric method applied to the coal quality analysis for working out instrumental methods of speed determining of coal sulphur content with satisfactory accuracy for technological tasks, to determine laws of changing the flows of characteristic X-ray and scattered radiation from coal sulphur content of various real composition and to optimize methodical and hardware parameters, providing minimal error of sulphur content control. On the base of studying laws of real composition coal components and their interconnections with sulphur content there has been substantiated the expediency of using hardware functions of calcium and iron to control coal sulphur contents; there has been suggested a model to estimate the methodical error of coal sulphur content determining on the base of the data about sensitivity to sulphur and effecting factors using ultimate methods of coal components substitution methods allowing to optimize sulphur control parameters; there has been worked out an algorithm of X-ray-radiometric control of sulphur content based on the sequential radiating the analyzed coal with gamma-radiation of

  9. Kinethical Aspects of High Solid Contents Copoly(Styrene/Butylacrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High solid content poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate latex ( with 20% and 40% solid content including high amounts of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt% were kinetically investigated. Gravimetric method via measuring the rate of polymerization, number of particles and average number of radicals per particle was used. Results showed that by increasing the solid content; the average diameter of polymer particles decreased. Studies on the polymerization rate depict that the increase in polymer particle size provides more average reactive radicals per polymer particle, which increased from 0.48 to 0.88 for the sample containing 7 wt% clay and 20 wt% solid content. Observed armored particles with honeycomb morphology is the most novelty of this research work, which is suitable for making barrier packaging films.

  10. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-09

    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  11. Reassessment of MxiH subunit orientation and fold within native Shigella T3SS needles using surface labelling and solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verasdonck, Joeri; Shen, Da-Kang; Treadgold, Alexander; Arthur, Christopher; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H; Blocker, Ariel J

    2015-12-01

    T3SSs are essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative bacteria, used to inject bacterial effectors of virulence into eukaryotic host cells. Their major extracellular portion, a ∼50 nm hollow, needle-like structure, is essential to host cell sensing and the conduit for effector secretion. It is formed of a small, conserved subunit arranged as a helical polymer. The structure of the subunit has been studied by electron cryomicroscopy within native polymers and by solid-state NMR in recombinant polymers, yielding two incompatible atomic models. To resolve this controversy, we re-examined the native polymer used for electron cryomicroscopy via surface labelling and solid-state NMR. Our data show the orientation and overall fold of the subunit within this polymer is as established by solid-state NMR for recombinant polymers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of solids, caloric content on dual-phase gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Maegdenbergh, V.; Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Mortelmans, L.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium) Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The dual-phase gastric emptying technique is routinely employed to determine the differential emptying of solids and liquids in a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases. Composition, acidity, volume, caloric density, physical form and viscosity of the test means have been shown to be important determinants for the quantitative evaluation of gastric emptying. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of increasing the caloric content of the solid portion of a physiologic test mean on both solid and liquid emptying kinetics in health male volunteers. They observed that increasing solid caloric content delayed emptying of both solids and liquids. For the solid phase, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and decrease in emptying rate; for liquids a longer emptying rate was also obtained. They conclude that modification of the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only affects the emptying of the solid phase but also alters the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  13. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  14. Mechanical behavior and microstructure during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Weiwei; Luo Shoujing

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical behavior during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content is researched in this paper. The alloy was prepared from ZK60 alloy and rare earth elements by casting, equal channel angular extruding, and liquidus forging. Semi-solid isothermal pre-treatment was carried out to make the grains globular before the compression. Here, several groups of true strain-true stress curves with different variables during compression are given to make comparisons of their mechanical behaviors. Liquid paths were the most essential to deformation, and its variation during compression depends on the strain rate. Here, thixotropic strength is defined as the true stress at the first peak in the true stress-true strain curve

  15. Biogas Production from Palm Oil Fruit Bunch in Anaerobic Biodigester through Liquid State (LS-AD and Solid State (SS-AD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Bakti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The crucial problem facing the world today is energy resources. Waste production of palm oil fruit bunch potentially produce as renewable energy resource. Palm oil fruit bunch contains 44% cellulose, 18% lignin and 34% hemicellulose. Organic carbon source is contained in biomass potentially produce biogas. Biogas is one of alternative energy, which is environmentally friendly and has been widely developed. This research is aimed to examine the effect of pretreatment in raw material of waste palm oil fruit bunch for the production of biogas, the effect of time, ratio C/N, and effect of microbial consortium. The variables are total solid (TS used 10% and 18% with a 40 mesh physical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment with NaOH 8% gr / gr TS, and biology 5% g/vol with microbial consortium. Biogas production process was conducted over 2 months in room temperature, the test response quantitative results in the form of biogas volume every 2 days and also flame test. The result of this research shows that the highest daily production rate of biogas obtained from this study was 5,73 ml/gr TS and the highest biogas production accumulation generated at 58,28 ml/gr TS produced through a 40 mesh sieve of waste oil palm empty fruit bunch, immersion in NaOH, through solid state fermentation and C/N 30. From this research, it can be concluded that the optimum production of biogas formation occurs with the value of C/N 30, physical and biological pretreatment, and solid state method.

  16. Effect of solid content variations on PZT slip for tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT particles with pure tetragonal structure were synthesized by solid-state reaction method and used for preparation of slurries with different solid contents (34–80 wt.%. Then, PZT thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. It was shown that the slurry prepared from ball-milled particles exhibited better rheology properties than slurry from particles which were not ball-milled. Measurement of sedimentation volumes and zeta potentials indicated particle aggregation, resulting in weak stability of the slurries with high solid contents. The microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT sintered films were investigated in terms of solid contents. Ceramic films prepared from the slurry with solid contents of 73 wt.% had the optimal structure and properties. After poling at 200 °C with an applied field of 1.2 kV/cm, a d33 of 294 pC/N was achieved; typical ferroelectric properties were also observed with a Ps of 38 μC/cm2.

  17. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  18. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  19. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  20. A study of the metal content of municipal solid waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the content of toxic components, so called pollutant precursors, in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is essential to development of the strategies for source reduction and reuse, recycling, composting and disposal. Data are scarce; trends in composition for any locality even more so. In a previous study the total and water soluble chlorine content of the components of municipal solid waste were determined from sampling studies at two sites, Baltimore County, MD, and Brooklyn, NY, each for a five day period. The total sulfur content of the combined combustible components was also determined. Because of the scarcity of data and synergistic effects, it seemed appropriate to determine the heavy metal content of the preceding material prior to its disposal. The metals chosen were the so-called priority pollutant metals (PPM): antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc.

  1. Examinations of content of heavy metals in municipal solid waste and produced compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.; Tykarska, A.; Orzechowska, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic methods of utilization of municipal solid waste are biothermic and aerobic methods to compost. The content of heavy metals in composts depends on the initial their content in wastes as well as on the compost process. The voltammetric method has been applied for measurement of concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Hg in the waste and composts samples. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  3. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  4. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  5. Synthesis and properties of hydroxy acrylic resin with high solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Hu, Mingguang; Cui, Han; Xiao, Jijun

    2017-10-01

    Manufacturers of automotive repair finishes are tending to reduce more and more the level of volatile organic compounds in their paints in order to comply with increasingly strict environmental legislation. A high solid hydroxy acrylic resin was synthesised using CARDURA E10 and a type of hydroxyacrylic acid resin, its' acid value, hydroxylvalue, viscosity, structure, morphology was measured and film-forming properties after curing were characterised. The results show that the addition of CARDURA E10 in the copolymer composition significantly reduced the viscosity of the polymer system, improved the solid content of the resin and the physical properties of the coating. The hydroxyl acrylate resin with solid content of 90% and excellent comprehensive performance were successfully prepared by controlling the initiator dosage, polymerization temperature and monomer ratio.

  6. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 % nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt % were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 30B content on the barrier properties presents excellent and wide use of these films for packaging and nanocoatings industries.

  7. Solid state fermentation of Trichoderma viride for enhancement phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2018-05-04

    The phenolic content of methanolic and water extracts of ginger fermented by Trichoderma spp. during solid state fermentation (SSF) was detected as compared with unfermented ginger. The total phenolic content of fermented ginger increased several times. The highest phenolic content of ginger was detected after SSF by T. viride. The optimal physiological conditions for the maximum production of the phenolic content and β-glucosidase activity of fermented ginger by T. viride were detected at day 7 incubation, pH 6.0, 30°C and 30% moisture. There are consistent between the maximum production of β-glucosidase and phenolic content. The SSF of ginger by T. viride greatly enhanced the antioxidant potency of phenolic compounds by using DPPH and ABTS assays. Potent antibacterial activity was appeared by phenolic compounds of fermented ginger against all the tested human-pathogenic bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Acid Pre-Treatment using Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid in The Production of Biogas from Rice Husk during Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Syafrudin; Keumala, Cut Fadhila; Matin, Hasfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Pretreatment during biogas production aims to assist in degradation of lignin contained in the rice husk. In this study, pretreatment which is used are acid and biological pretreatment. Acid pretreatment was performed using acetic acid and nitric acid with a variety levels of 3% and 5%. While biological pretreatment as a control variable. Acid pretreatment was conducted by soaking the rice straw for 24 hours with acid variation. The study was conducted using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) with 21% TS. Biogas production was measured using water displacement method every two days for 60 days at room temperature conditions. The results showed that acid pretreatment gave an effect on the production of biogas yield. The yield of the biogas produced by pretreatment of acetic acid of 5% and 3% was 43.28 and 45.86 ml/gr.TS. While the results without pretreatment biogas yield was 29.51 ml/gr.TS. The results yield biogas produced by pretreatment using nitric acid of 5% and 3% was 12.14 ml/gr.TS and 21.85 ml/gr.TS. Results biogas yield with acetic acid pretreatment was better than the biogas yield results with nitric acid pretreatment.

  9. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabpai, S.; Charerntanyarak, L.; Siri, B.; Moore, M.R.; Noller, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  10. Remote operation of microwave systems for solids content analysis and chemical dissolution in highly radioactive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.; Floyd, T.S.; Manchester, D.P.

    1986-10-01

    Microwave systems provide quick and easy determination of solids content of samples in high-level radioactive cells. In addition, dissolution of samples is much faster when employing microwave techniques. These are great advantages because work in cells,using master-slave manipulators through leaded glass walls, is normally slower by an order of magnitude than direct contact methods. This paper describes the modifiction of a moisture/solids analyzer microwave system and a drying/digestion microwave system for remote operation in radiation environments. The moisture/solids analyzer has operated satisfactorily for over a year in a gamma radiation field of 1000 roentgens per hour and the drying/digestion system is ready for installation in a cell

  11. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  12. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique*

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyz...

  13. DSCu/SS joining techniques development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1998-01-01

    Joining techniques of alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) and type 316L stainless steel (SS) has been investigated aiming at applying to the fabrication of the ITER first wall/blanket. As the joining method, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of solid plates and/or blocks has been pursued. By a screening test including HIP temperatures of 980-1050degC, it was concluded that the HIP temperature of 1050degC would be optimum for the simultaneous HIPping of DSCu/DSCu, DSCu/SS and SS/SS. With DSCu/SS joint specimens HIPped at 1050degC, tensile, impact, fatigue, crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were performed as well as mechanical test of structural model with one SS circular tube embedded. Typically, the properties of the joints were almost the same as those of DSCu or SS base metal with the same heat treatment of the HIP process, thus good joints were obtained, though parts of properties were decreased at elevated test temperature. Typical results of the mechanical test of structural mode indicated that a crack initiated at the inner surface of the SS tube under cyclic operation, and the lifetime of the first wall structure could be evaluated by existing SS fatigue data. Two HIPped first wall panel mock-ups were successfully fabricated with built-in coolant tubes: one was 300 mm long and the other 800 mm long. The former was thermo-mechanically tested with high heat fluxes corresponding to the ITER operation conditions. The mock-up showed good heat removal performance during the high heat flux tests. In addition, there were no cracks and delaminations found at HIPped interfaces by microscopic observation after all tests. Ultrasonic testing have been tried as a non-destructive examination method, and detectable defect size at SS/SS, DSCu/DSCu and DSCu/SS joint interfaces were estimated. (author)

  14. Artificial Neural Network Modelling of the Energy Content of Municipal Solid Wastes in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Oumarou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an application of the artificial neural network model using the back propagation learning algorithm to predict the actual calorific value of the municipal solid waste in major cities of the northern part of Nigeria, with high population densities and intense industrial activities. These cities are: Kano, Damaturu, Dutse, Bauchi, Birnin Kebbi, Gusau, Maiduguri, Katsina and Sokoto. Experimental data of the energy content and the physical characterization of the municipal solid waste serve as the input parameter in nature of wood, grass, metal, plastic, food remnants, leaves, glass and paper. Comparative studies were made by using the developed model, the experimental results and a correlation which was earlier developed by the authors to predict the energy content. While predicting the actual calorific value, the maximum error was 0.94% for the artificial neural network model and 5.20% by the statistical correlation. The network with eight neurons and an R2 = 0.96881 in the hidden layer results in a stable and optimum network. This study showed that the artificial neural network approach could successfully be used for energy content predictions from the municipal solid wastes in Northern Nigeria and other areas of similar waste stream and composition.

  15. On the dopplars SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Li Zhi; Riffini, R.

    1979-07-01

    A new family of X-ray sources has recently been proposed including SS433. The general relativistic formula to fit the frequency dependence of Hsub(α) lines in SS433 as a function of the phase is presented here. Particularly relevant for the verification of the model are the observations at the phase of minimum shift. (author)

  16. Assessment of the content of arsenic in solid by-products from coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierońska Faustyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal combustion processes constitute one of the major sources of heavy metals emission into the atmosphere. From the point of view of the reduction of the emission of heavy metals and the selection of the correct exhaust gas treatment system, it is important to monitor the amount of trace elements in the solid fuels and in the solid by-products from coal combustion. One of these highly toxic elements is arsenic. The average content of arsenic in Polish hard coals and lignites is 0 ÷ 40 mg/kg [1] and 5 ÷ 15 mg/kg [2], respectively. The world average content of arsenic in hard coals and lignites, is equal to 9.0 ± 0.8 and 7.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg [3], respectively. During coal combustion processes, a significant amount of arsenic enters the atmosphere through gases and fly ashes. The proportions in which those two forms of arsenic occur in exhaust gases depend on the conditions of combustion processes [4]. The aim of the research was to determine the content of arsenic in coal blends and by-products of their combustion (slag, fly ash, gypsum, filter cakes. The determination of the arsenic quantity was performed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with the electrothermal atomization.

  17. Moisture content determination in solid biofuels by dielectric and NIR reflection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg; Morsing, Merete [Department of Forest and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Temmerman, Michael; Rabier, Fabienne [Departement Genie Rural, Chee de Namur 146, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    One near infrared (NIR) reflectance and five dielectric moisture meters were tested for their capability of measuring moisture content (MC) in solid biofuels. Ninety-eight samples were tested at up to eight moisture levels covering the MC range from fresh fuel to approximately 10% MC (w.b.). The fuel types ranged from typical solid biofuels such as coniferous and deciduous wood chips over short rotation coppice (SRC) to sunflower seed and olive stones. The most promising calibrations were obtained with the NIR reflection method and two dielectric devices where the sample is placed in a container integrated in the device. The calibration equations developed show that there is a profound influence from both laboratory and fuel type. It is suggested that individual calibrations that are based on the specific fuel types used at the individual heating plant could be applied. (author)

  18. Fast characterization of solid organic waste content with near infrared spectroscopy in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Jimenez, Julie; Lemoine, Margaux; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand. We built a Partial Least Square regression model with 295 samples and validated it with an independent set of 46 samples across a wide range of solid wastes found in anaerobic digestion units. The standard errors of cross-validation were 90mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 2.5∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 7.2∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 99mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. The standard errors of prediction were 53mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 3.2∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 8.6∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 83mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. These results show that near infrared spectroscopy is a new fast and cost-efficient way to characterize solid wastes content and improve their anaerobic digestion monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir MatJafri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2 = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  20. Near infrared spectral linearisation in quantifying soluble solids content of intact carambola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2013-04-12

    This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  1. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  2. Solid recovered fuel: influence of waste stream composition and processing on chlorine content and fuel quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas; Wagland, Stuart; Longhurst, Phil; Robson, Bryce; Sinfield, Keith; Wise, Stephen; Pollard, Simon

    2012-02-07

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO(2)-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. SRF application is limited by low confidence in quality. We present results for key SRF properties centered on the issue of chlorine content. A detailed investigation involved sampling, statistical analysis, reconstruction of composition, and modeling of SRF properties. The total chlorine median for a typical plant during summer operation was 0.69% w/w(d), with lower/upper 95% confidence intervals of 0.60% w/w(d) and 0.74% w/w(d) (class 3 of CEN Cl indicator). The average total chlorine can be simulated, using a reconciled SRF composition before shredding to limit for ash content marginally below the 20% w/w(d) deemed suitable for certain power plants; and a lower 95% confidence limit of net calorific value (NCV) at 14.5 MJ kg(ar)(-1). The data provide, for the first time, a high level of confidence on the effects of SRF composition on its chlorine content, illustrating interrelationships with other fuel properties. The findings presented here allow rational debate on achievable vs desirable MBT-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery.

  3. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  4. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo, E-mail: jxliuyd@163.com [School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Changbei Open and Developing District, Nanchang, 330013 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62{sup 0}Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  5. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62 0 Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  6. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of {sup 60}Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  7. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of 60 Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  8. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  9. Relativistic jets in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.

    1982-01-01

    The most unusual characteristic of the star SS 433 emerged in the late 1970's when a series of optical spectra showed intense, broad optical emission lines whose profiles and wavelengths changed drastically from night to night. These features are interpreted as strong Doppler-shifted Balmer and HeI lines. The modulation of the Doppler shifts are observed as being cyclic with a period of about 164 days. It was hypothesized that these phenomena were caused by two collimated, colinear, jets which were ejecting in opposite directions from SS 433. Most authors believe that velocity variations of the emission lines are caused by a cyclic rotation of jet axis inclined to line of sight. This rotation being the result of precession, which leads one to suspect SS 433 as a member of a close binary system. This hypothesis has been confirmed from recent optical, radio, and x-ray observations which are discussed in the article. The combination of optical and radio observations of SS 433, described in the article, gives an accurate measure of the Kinematics of the system and some confidence that the Kinematic equations are understood. However, the specific physical processes of this ejection are poorly understood. Some theoretical difficulties regarding this are given

  10. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  11. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of soluble solids content and ph in red wine by visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; He, Yong; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-02-01

    Soluble solids content (SSC) and pH are two major characteristic used for assessing quality of red wine, and they are also two important quality indexes in the manufacture of red wine. For rapid detection of SSC and pH in red wine, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) transmittance spectroscopy technique combined with partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) were used in this study. First, the near infrared transmittance spectra of 175 red wine samples were obtained using Vis/NIR spectroradiometer, then, PLS was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the original spectra, latent variables (LVs) selected by PLS could be used to replace the complex spectral data. All samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set. The LVs (selected by PLS) of each sample in calibration set was used as the inputs to train the LS-SVM model, then the optimal model was used to predict the SSC and pH values of samples in validation set based on their LVs. Standard error prediction (SEP) and determination coefficient (r2) were used as the evaluation standards, and the results indicated that the SEP and r2 for the prediction of SSC were 0.2313 and 0.9348; while 0.0071 and 0.9986 for pH. This prediction model was more accurate compared with the related research.

  13. Polonium content in sediments and other solid tailings generated by mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Central Mining Institute, 40-166 Katowice, Pl. Gwarkow 1 (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    All legal limits or recommendations concerning NORM include only primordial radionuclides and secular equilibrium state among all decay products is assumed. This is not valid for a majority of residues from NORM industry where activity concentration of progenies can substantially differ each other. Upper Silesia Coal Basin is a unique region where mining activity is continuously done over longer period of time and this include discharging of radium-bearing water to environment and creating huge amount of solid wastes where at the beginning radium is the most dominant radionuclide. With time other daughter products start to build up and actual exposure to radiation is changing. One of them is polonium that with regard to its chemical properties can be easily accumulated in non-human biota resulting in the increase of radiation exposure. In our work we focused attention on sediments where content of {sup 210}Po was determined by chemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry. Chemical preparation involves organic matter destruction and dissolution of the sample itself (if possible). In our research we employed wet digestion by means of mixture of concentrated acids: HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, HCl. Later on polonium was spontaneously deposited onto silver disc and measured with use of alpha spectrometry. In this article we want to show results of our study and as well to present some conclusions concerning changes in radiation risk assessment when actual concentration of polonium is taken into consideration. (authors)

  14. Changes on the Solid Fat Content of Palm Oil/ Sunflower Oil Blends via Inter esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suria Ramli; Azwani Mohd Lazim; Siti Aishah Hasbullah

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of binary blends containing refined-deodorized-bleached palm oil (RBDPO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were studied before and after chemical inter esterification at different temperature (110 degree Celsius (CIE1) and 80 degree Celsius (CIE2)) using sodium methoxide as catalyst. Thirty-three samples with different ratios were analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, fatty acid composition (FAC) and solid fat content (SFC) profile. Upon CIE, extensive rearrangements of fatty acids among triacylglycerol (TAG) were seen. Generally, CIE not induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of ratio 8:2 and 5:5 of RBDPO:SFO blends. However, CIE induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of the 9:1, 7:3, 6:4, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8 and 1:9 blends, which some of the TAGs were increasing while the other decreasing. These changes in TAG profiles resulted in some changes in the physical properties (especially SFC) of the blends. Generally, the SFC of inter esterified blend were decreased after CIE1 and increased after CIE2, except for sample 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 9:1 which were decreased after CIE1 and CIE2. As a conclusion, CIE1 and CIE2 successfully changed the physicochemical characteristics of the binary blends. (author)

  15. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  16. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 10 BF 3 neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (α,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables

  17. STUDIES ON HIGH SOLID CONTENT AND STABLE EMULSIFIER—FREE EMULSION POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等

    1998-01-01

    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  18. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-02-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 degrees Brix (QL); 0.58 degrees Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 degrees Brix (QL); 0.34 degrees Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra (Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a

  20. Process control of solid-state fermentation : simultaneous control of temperature and moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.I.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF), i.e. cultivation of micro-organisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free-flowing water, is an alternative for submerged fermentation (SmF) for the production of biotechnological products. In recent years, research on SSF has led to a

  1. Bizarre spectrum of SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.

    1980-01-01

    SS 433 is an emission-line star, a radio source, and an x-ray source centered in a supernova remnant, W50. Through observations and spectroscopic studies much has been learned of this object. The spectrum of SS 433 is characterized by Doppler-shifted emission lines of hydrogen and helium. This implies the presence of a gas. The wavelengths of these lines vary. Some of the moving lines of the spectrum are red-shifted and some are blue-shifted. Since the wavelengths of the Doppler-shifted features change rapidly with time, the velocity of both approaching gas and receding gas is changing. On any given night the average velocity is 12,000 km/sec. Also, the variations in velocity are periodic, with a 164-day period. These characteristics of the spectrum of SS 433 are explained by assuming the following hypothetical model. The object responsible for ejecting two jets in opposite directions is thought to be part of a binary system, consisting of a comparatively normal star bound in close orbit to a neutron star, which is in the process of pulling material away from the companion by virtue of its strong gravitational field. The gas streaming from the normal star forms a rotating accretion disk around the neutron star, and it is from the faces of this disk that the two jets are ejected in opposite directions. Precession of the plane of the disk is presumably what causes the axis of the jets to rotate, hence the 164-day period

  2. Co-digestion of ruminal content and blood from slaughterhouse industries: influence of solid concentration and ammonium generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Passeggi, M; Borzacconi, L

    2006-01-01

    At the present time, organic solid wastes from industries and agricultural activities are considered to be promising substrates for biogas production via anaerobic digestion. Moreover solids stabilisation is required before reutilization or disposal. Slaughterhouses are among the most important industries in Uruguay and produce 150,000 tons of ruminal content (RC) and 30,000 tons of blood per year. In order to determine the influence of the solids and blood contents, the ammonia inhibition and the inoculum adaptation co-digestion batch tests were performed. A set of experiences with TS concentration of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% and different ratios of RC/blood were carried out using an inoculum from an UASB reactor. In all experiences fast blood hydrolisation was observed. A higher methane production was detected in the experiences with higher TS content. However, the fraction of solids degradation was lower in these experiences. A plateau in the biogas production was found. The free ammonia level, which was above the reported inhibitory levels, could explain this behaviour. After the inhibition period the biogas production restarted probably due to the biomass acclimatisation to the ammonia. In order to determine the inoculum adaptation a new experiment was performed. The inoculum used was the sludge coming from the first set of experiences. Based upon batch tests a 3.5 m3 pilot reactor was designed and started up. Ammonia inhibition was avoided by the start-up strategy and in two weeks the biogas production was 3.5 m3/d. The VS stabilisation with a solid retention time of 20 days was of 43%. The pilot reactor working at steady state had a TS concentration of 3-4% with a ratio of RC/blood of 10:1 at the entrance.

  3. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  4. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  5. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  6. Thermomagnetic method to determine cobalt content in solid WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanov, V.I.; Loshakov, A.L.; Korchakova, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermomagnetic method of cobalt amount determination in tungsten solid alloys is suggested. The method consists in the following: a sample of solid alloy is placed in a magnetic field sufficient to achieve technical saturation (not less than 10 kOe), and specific magnetization of saturation of the alloy σ is determined, then the sample is heated and according to the curves of magnetic permeability dependence on the temperature the Curie point of the alloy THETA is determined and cobalt amount is calculated by the formula qsub(Co)=σ100/(kTHETA+b). The analysis duration is approximately 30 min. Comparative data of cobalt amount determination in solid alloys WC-Co using thermonagnetic and potentiometric methods are presented. Results obtained by thermomagnetic and chemical method are in good agreement. Efficiency of the thermomagnetic method is much higher

  7. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  9. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  10. Mechanical properties, phenolic composition and extractability indices of Barbera grapes of different soluble solids contents from several growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca

    2010-02-15

    Phenolic compounds, extractable from grape skins and seeds, have a notable influence on the quality of red wines. Many studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between the phenolic composition of the grape at harvest time and its influence on the phenolic composition of the red wine produced. In many previous works the evolution of phenolic composition and relative extractability was normally studied on grapes sampled at different times during ripening, but at the same date the physiological characteristics of grape berries in a vineyard are often very heterogeneous. Therefore, the main goal of the study is to investigate the differences among mechanical properties, phenolic composition and relative extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv Barbera grape berries, harvested at the same date from several vineyards, and calibrated according to their density at three levels of soluble solids (A=235+/-8, B=252+/-8 and C=269+/-8 g L(-1) sugar) with the aim of studying the influence of ripeness stages and growing locations on these parameters. Results on mechanical properties showed that the thickness of the berry skin (Sp(sk)) was the parameter most affected by the different level of sugars in the pulp, while different skin hardnesses, evaluated by the break skin force (F(sk)), were related to the cultivation sites. The latter were also observed to influence the mechanical characteristics of seeds. Generally, the anthocyanin content increased with the level of soluble solids, while the increase in the tannin content of the berry skin and seeds was less marked. However, significant changes in flavanols reactive to vanillin in the seeds were found. The cellular maturity index (EA%) was little influenced by the soluble solids content of grapes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  12. Validation of Robotic Surgery Simulator (RoSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Stegemann, Andrew; Sathyaseelan, Gughan; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Seixas-Mikelus, Stéfanie; Chandrasekhar, Rameella; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    Recent growth of daVinci Robotic Surgical System as a minimally invasive surgery tool has led to a call for better training of future surgeons. In this paper, a new virtual reality simulator, called RoSS is presented. Initial results from two studies - face and content validity, are very encouraging. 90% of the cohort of expert robotic surgeons felt that the simulator was excellent or somewhat close to the touch and feel of the daVinci console. Content validity of the simulator received 90% approval in some cases. These studies demonstrate that RoSS has the potential of becoming an important training tool for the daVinci surgical robot.

  13. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  14. Determination of alpha activity and fissile mass content in solid waste by systems using neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lacruche, G.; Berne, R.; Auge, J.; Martin Deidier, L.; Butez, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Quantitative control (determination of heavy nuclides and alpha activity) of alpha radioactive wastes is necessary, particularly to determine if the waste is in accordance with the surface storage limits. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the alpha activity resulting from unknown isotopic composition, inhomogeneity of heavy nuclides in the matrix, combination of several methods is necessary. In the paper we present the Cadarache development work in the NDA of solid waste using the Californium shuffler, 14 Mev neutron generator, and also passive techniques such as neutron emission measurement and gamma spectrometry. Experimental systems combining active and passive methods are presented (COSAC, BANCO, DANAIDE, PROMETHEE)

  15. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  16. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horttanainen, M.; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose

  17. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horttanainen, M., E-mail: mika.horttanainen@lut.fi; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  18. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were 85 Sr, 236 U, and 238 U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period

  19. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Application of characteristic NIR variables selection in portable detection of soluble solids content of apple by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Zhaq, Chun-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    In order to detect the soluble solids content(SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly, a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple. Different wavelength variable selection methods, including unin- formative variable elimination (UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro- posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS. The back interval LS- SVM (BiLS-SVM) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM. Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model, respectively. The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962, 0.403°Brix respectively for SSC. The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detection model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision. The study can provide a reference for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer.

  1. Management efficiency improvement promotion of SS; SS no unei koritsuka sokushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Full amount fund petroleum product marketer and Sumisyo petroleum of Sumitomo accelerate management efficiency improvement of service station (SS). National about 300 places have been developed in within the year Within SS, it aims at break-even point achievement of gasoline, coarse advantage 10 yen per light oil of 1 liter in 84 all tied SS stores. SS which has realized the system of 10 yen in the current is whole about 50%. But, by doing personnel configurations and operational procedures, that they reexamine the balance management, etc. in half remaining SS 12 yen-13 yen; the efficiency improvement is done thoroughly. (translated by NEDO)

  2. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  3. Influence of solid state fermentation by Trichoderma spp. on solubility, phenolic content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of commercial turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M

    2016-05-01

    The influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on the solubility, total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of turmeric was determined and compared with unfermented turmeric. The solubility of turmeric was monitored by increase in its phenolic content. The total phenolic content of turmeric extracted by 80% methanol and water after SSF by six species of Trichoderma spp. increased significantly from 2.5 to 11.3-23.3 and from 0.5 to 13.5-20.4 GAE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities of fermented turmeric were enhanced using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity of fermented turmeric against human-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Entreococcus faecalis, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae showed a broad spectrum inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the results indicated the potentials of using fermented turmeric as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material for food applications.

  4. Bio-drying and size sorting of municipal solid waste with high water content for improving energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li-Ming; Ma, Zhong-He; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Dong-Qing; He, Pin-Jing

    2010-07-01

    Bio-drying can enhance the sortability and heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW), consequently improving energy recovery. Bio-drying followed by size sorting was adopted for MSW with high water content to improve its combustibility and reduce potential environmental pollution during the follow-up incineration. The effects of bio-drying and waste particle size on heating values, acid gas and heavy metal emission potential were investigated. The results show that, the water content of MSW decreased from 73.0% to 48.3% after bio-drying, whereas its lower heating value (LHV) increased by 157%. The heavy metal concentrations increased by around 60% due to the loss of dry materials mainly resulting from biodegradation of food residues. The bio-dried waste fractions with particle size higher than 45 mm were mainly composed of plastics and papers, and were preferable for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in view of higher LHV as well as lower heavy metal concentration and emission. However, due to the higher chlorine content and HCl emission potential, attention should be paid to acid gas and dioxin pollution control. Although LHVs of the waste fractions with size bio-drying, they were still below the quality standards for RDF and much higher heavy metal pollution potential was observed. Different incineration strategies could be adopted for different particle size fractions of MSW, regarding to their combustibility and pollution property. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of total solids content and initial pH on batch biohydrogen production by solid substrate fermentation of agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Narváez, Paula N; Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ortega-Clemente, L Alfredo; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Estrada-Vázquez, Carlos; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa; Salazar-Montoya, J Alfredo

    2013-10-15

    Hydrogen is a valuable clean energy source, and its production by biological processes is attractive and environmentally sound and friendly. In México 5 million tons/yr of agroindustrial wastes are generated; these residues are rich in fermentable organic matter that can be used for hydrogen production. On the other hand, batch, intermittently vented, solid substrate fermentation of organic waste has attracted interest in the last 10 years. Thus the objective of our work was to determine the effect of initial total solids content and initial pH on H2 production in batch fermentation of a substrate that consisted of a mixture of sugarcane bagasse, pineapple peelings, and waste activated sludge. The experiment was a response surface based on 2(2) factorial with central and axial points with initial TS (15-35%) and initial pH (6.5-7.5) as factors. Fermentation was carried out at 35 °C, with intermittent venting of minireactors and periodic flushing with inert N2 gas. Up to 5 cycles of H2 production were observed; the best treatment in our work showed cumulative H2 productions (ca. 3 mmol H2/gds) with 18% and 6.65 initial TS and pH, respectively. There was a significant effect of TS on production of hydrogen, the latter decreased with initial TS increase from 18% onwards. Cumulative H2 productions achieved in this work were higher than those reported for organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and mixtures of OFMSW and fruit peels waste from fruit juice industry, using the same process. Specific energetic potential due to H2 in our work was attractive and fell in the high side of the range of reported results in the open literature. Batch dark fermentation of agrowastes as practiced in our work could be useful for future biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could influence the management of this type of agricultural wastes in México and other countries and regions as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing beryllium content in mixed bed solid-type breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimwell, J., E-mail: mail@jshimwell.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Lilley, S.; Morgan, L.; Packer, L.; Kovari, M.; Zheng, S. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McMillan, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The ratio of breeder ceramic to neutron multiplier of breeder blankets was varied linearly with depth. • Blankets with varying composition were found to perform better than uniform composition breeder blankets. • It was also possible to reduce the amount of beryllium required by the blanket. - Abstract: Beryllium (Be) is a precious resource with many high value uses, the low energy threshold (n,2n) reaction makes Be an excellent neutron multiplier for use in fusion breeder blankets. Estimates of Be requirements and available resources suggest that this could represent a major supply difficulty for solid-type blanket concepts. Reducing the quantity of Be required by breeder blankets would help to alleviate the problem to some extent. In addition, it is important that the reduction in the Be quantity does not diminish the blanket's performance in key aspects such as the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), energy multiplication and peak nuclear heating. Mixed pebble bed designs allow for the multiplier fraction to be varied throughout the blanket. This neutronics study used MCNP 6 to investigate linear variations of the multiplier fraction in relation to blanket depth, in order to better utilise the important multiplying Be(n,2n) and breeding reactions. Blankets with a uniform multiplier fraction showed little scope for reduction in Be mass. Blankets with varying multiplier fractions were able to simultaneously use 10% less Be, increase the energy amplification by 1%, reduce the peak heating by 7% and maintaining a sufficient TBR when compared to the performance achievable using a uniform composition.

  7. The effect of gadolinium content on the thermal conductivity of near-stoichiometric (U,Gd)O2 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, S.; Ohmichi, T.; Maeda, A.; Watanabe, H.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal conductivities of near-stoichiometric (U, Gd)O 2 solid solutions containing CdOsub(1.5) up to 15 mol% were determined in the temperature range 700 to 2000 K from thermal diffusivities measured by the laser flash method. Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivities up to around 1600 K could be expressed by the phonon conduction equation K = (A + BT) -1 . The thermal conductivity decreased gradually with an increase of gadolinium content. Thermal resistivities caused by lattice defects were calculated from a theoretical model considering U 4+ , U 5+ and Gd 3+ ions as phonon scattering centers. It was found that this model was in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculation based on this model indicates that the lattice strain effect on the lattice defect thermal resistivity is much larger than the mass effect. (orig.)

  8. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA 9 ) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg -1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg -1 VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Masok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  10. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  11. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 chemotherapics and 3 antibiotics were evaluated by random experiment with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analysis of TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer, and the pH values were determined by potentiometry. Results: The mean TSS contents ranged from 11.73 (Keflaxina to 63.83 (Azitromed. The minimum and maximum mean pH values were 4.12 (Keflaxina and 10.97 (Zitroneo, respectively. Conclusions: The chemotherapic antimicrobials evaluated in this study presented the highest TSSC means, while the antibiotics showed pHs below the values considered as critical, which may contribute to the development of caries lesions in case of inadequate administration of these medications to children.

  12. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  13. Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure from a Sawdust-Bedded Pack Barn: Moisture Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bedded pack manure has long been considered an unsuitable feedstock for conventional anaerobic digestion systems due to its high solids content. However, solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD provides an opportunity to generate methane from such high-solids feedstocks. This study was conducted to determine the influence of moisture content on the digestion of bedded pack dairy manure using SS-AD. Mixtures of sawdust bedding and dairy manure were prepared with moisture contents (MCs of 70, 76, and 83% and digested at 37 °C for 85 days. The performance of digesters containing manure at 83% MC was 1.3 to 1.4-fold higher than that of digesters containing 70% MC manure in terms of volatile solids (VS reduction and biogas production. VS reduction rates were 55 to 75% and cumulative methane yield ranged from 64 to 90 NmL (gVS−1. These values are lower than those from SS-AD of fresh manure and this is likely due to the partial decomposition of biodegradable materials during the two to three-month period before the manure was removed from the barn. However, in terms of efficient management of farm odors and providing a renewable energy source for heating, SS-AD of bedded pack manure offers a potential alternative to the conventional composting systems currently in use.

  14. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreove...

  15. Effect of Cr content on the SHS reaction of Cr-Ti-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.N.; Wang, H.Y.; Wang, P.J.; Zhang, J.; He, L.; Jiang, Q.C.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Cr content on the self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction of Cr-Ti-C system has been investigated in this research. The thermodynamics calculation indicates that the TiC possesses higher thermodynamic stability than the Cr 23 C 6 , Cr 7 C 3 and Cr 3 C 2 phases, and the formation of TiC is the most exothermic. Additionally, the adiabatic combustion temperature (T ad ) decreases with the increase of Cr content except for the phase transition regions. The XRD result shows that the type of products synthesized by SHS changes that a higher Cr content corresponds to higher chromium carbide. When Cr content is 10 wt.%, only solid solution (Ti,Cr)C ss is formed in the products. When Cr content increases to 20 wt.%, besides (Ti,Cr)C ss , the Cr 7 C 3 phase is also detected. With the Cr content further increasing to 30 and 40 wt.%, the products consist of (Ti,Cr)C ss , Cr 23 C 6 , Cr 7 C 3 and Cr, and therefore, much higher chromium carbide is synthesized. When Cr content reaches 50 wt.%, however, the Cr 7 C 3 disappears and the final products become (Ti,Cr)C ss , Cr 23 C 6 and Cr. Moreover, when Cr content increases from 10 to 20 wt.%, the lattice parameter of (Ti,Cr)C ss decreases, while it increases when the Cr content ranges from 20 to 50 wt.%. Furthermore, the microstructure shows that the TiC particulate size decreases from ∼8 to ∼2 μm with the increase of Cr content from 10 to 50 wt.%, and the morphology shape of TiC particulate becomes more and more spherical

  16. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  17. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS -1 ), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS -1 ) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eco-geochemical peculiarities of mercury content in solid residue of snow in the industrial enterprises impacted areas of Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonenko, E. A.; Lyapina, E. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Parygina, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Snow, as short-term consignation Wednesday, has several properties that lead to its widespread use in ecologicalgeochemical and geological research. By studying the chemical composition of the dust fallout you can indirectly assess the condition of atmospheric air.1-2. Determining the content of mercury in snow cover, you can define its contribution for the longest period of the year in our region, with the most intensive use of various types of fuel (coal, gas, firewood), that puts a strain on urban ecosystems in terms of ecology.3-4. In addition, snow cleans the atmosphere of mercury, but it accumulates in the snow, and during the spring melting of snow hits the ground and rivers, polluting them. Part of the mercury back into the atmosphere. It should also be note the special nature of the circulation of air masses over the city in winter, creating a heat CAP, which contributes to air pollution of the city. 5-6-7. The high load areas of industrial impact were detected during the eco-geochemical investigations of mercury load index in the impacted areas of enterprises of Tomsk. It was found out, that aerosol particles of industrial emissions in Tomsk contain mercury. The contamination transfer character of mercury sources and occurrence modes of pollutants in snow solid residue were detected during the researches of industrial impact.

  19. The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a sawdust-bedded pack barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a Korean sawdust-bedded pack barn was determined using laboratory-scale digesters operated at three moisture levels (70, 76, and 83% on a wet basis) at 37 C for 85 days. Results showed that digesters containing m...

  20. Effects of minor Si on microstructures and room temperature fracture toughness of niobium solid solution alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Bin, E-mail: kongbin@buaa.edu.cn; Jia, Lina, E-mail: jialina@buaa.edu.cn; Su, Linfen, E-mail: sulinfen@mse.buaa.edu.cn; Guan, Kai, E-mail: guankai@mse.buaa.edu.cn; Weng, Junfei, E-mail: wengjf@mse.buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, Hu, E-mail: zhanghu@buaa.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Controlling the elements content in the niobium solid solution (Nb{sub SS}) is significant for the better comprehensive performance of Nb-silicide-based alloys. In this paper, the effects of minor Si on the microstructures and room temperature fracture toughness of Nb–(0/0.5/1/2)Si–27.63Ti–12.92Cr–2.07Al–1.12Hf (at%, unless stated otherwise) solid solution alloys were investigated. The alloys were processed by vacuum arc-casting (AC), and then heat treated (HT) at 1425 °C for 10 h. In HT alloys, Nb{sub SS} grains are refined gradually with the increase of Si content. Meanwhile, the volume fraction of Cr{sub 2}Nb and silicides phases precipitates increases. The fracture toughness of HT alloys decreases at first but then increases in the range of 0 to 2% Si, because it is a combinatorial process of positive and negative effects caused by the addition of Si. The refinement of Nb{sub SS} grains displays positive effect on fracture toughness, while the increase of solid solubility of Si in Nb{sub SS} and brittle Cr{sub 2}Nb and Nb-silicides precipitate phases display negative effect.

  1. Advertising Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  2. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  3. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  4. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountadar Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  5. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 304 SS and 316 SS Alloys in Aqueous Chloride and Bromide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Kareem Shakir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present work falls on the pitting corrosion behavior investigation of 304 SS and 316 SS alloys in 3.5 wt% of aqueous solution bearing with chloride and bromide anion at different solutions temperature range starting from (20-50oC due to the pitting corrosion tremendous effect on the economic, safety and materials loss due to leakage. The impact of solution temperatures on the pitting corrosion resistance at 3.5wt% (NaCl and NaBr solutions for the 304 SS and 316 SS has been investigated utilizing the cyclic polarization techniques at the potential range -400 to1000 mV vs. SCE at 40 mV/sec scan rate followed by the surface characterization employing Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that a significant decline in the pitting corrosion potential Ep values of both stainless steel alloys in chloride and bromide solution during temperature increase attributed to the pitting corrosion potential decreased arises from the modification of the passive film properties. The surface examination using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope prove the occurring of higher pitting density over 304 SS in chloride solution than that observed in bromide solution with a non-circular lacy cover pitfall out at the center and falls inside the pits hall in comparison to the isolated circular lacy cover pit formed on 316 SS in 3.5wt% NaBr solution at 50 oC.

  6. A kinematic model for SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abell, G.O.; Margon, B.

    1979-01-01

    A model is suggested to explain the bizarre object SS433 which was first noted because of its H α emission and most recently because it is the optical counterpart of a variable radio and X-ray source and exhibits an extraordinary optical spectrum. It is considered that the radiation, with emission lines which show variable Doppler shift, is emitted by hot matter ejected by the central object at high but nearly constant velocity in oppositely directed narrow streams, possible along a magnetic axis. Rotation of the beam axis provides the observed radial velocity variations. The red and blue shifts of SS433 measured by a number of workers on 55 nights during 1978-79 and folded with a 164-d period are shown, from which it is predicted that on or about 1 July 1979 the two moving emission line systems in SS433 will briefly merge into one, similar to a previously reported episode, and that for the following 40 days the lines will separate again, but by an amount much less than previously observed. (author)

  7. The effect of solid content on silylated-γ-AI2O3/PVDF-HFP-coated PE separators for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Su; Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang; Kim, Jeong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Several PVDF-HFP/silylated γ-AI 2 O 3 -coated PE (polyethylene) separators with various solidities (various compositions of PVDF-HFP/silylated γ-AI 2 O 3 ) were prepared by a dip-coating of PE separators in PVDF-HFP/silylated γ-AI 2 O 3 /acetone mixtures. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the chemical reactions between silane coupling agent and γ-AI 2 O 3 . The SEM images of the coated separators showed that various morphologies could be produced by changing the composition of total contents of binder and solid contents. The effects of composition in inorganic material (silane coupling agent-treated γ-AI 2 O 3 ) and binder (PVDF-HFP) on the physio-chemical properties of the prepared separators such as liquid electrolyte uptake, and ion conductivity were investigated and reported in this paper

  8. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... °C with increasing conversion degree. Increased conversion degree from the blend to products, measured by X-ray with addition of 50% of rapeseed oil for dilution, caused the content of â to decrease from 100% to 33%, and 30% and eventually to pure ⢠crystal. However, double chain packing...

  9. Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin-the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannow, J; Benjamins, J-W; Wohlert, J

    2017-01-01

    to verify the wet-foam stability at different pHs. The pH influenced the amount of solubilized drug and the processing-window was very narrow at high drug loadings. The results were compared to real foaming-experiments and solid state analysis of the final cellular solids. The parameters were assembled...... into a processing chart, highlighting the importance of the right combination of processing parameters (pH and time-point of pH adjustment) in order to successfully prepare cellular solid materials with up to 46 wt% drug loading....

  10. The effect of treating plum tree with Rovral (iprodion and Euparen (dichlofluanid on the content of soluble solids in fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of soluble solids in plum fruit varied and depended on the cultivar, year, and fungicide treatment. Plums from trees treated with Rovral (iprodion contained in some case the lowest level of soluble solids, higher or equal levels were found in those sprayed with Euparen (dichlofluanid, and the highest concentration of soluble solids was in fruits from untreated trees. Explanation of this phenomenon is possible by looking for changes in photosynthesis of treated and untreated leaves. Fungicide treatment of some plum cultivars, particularly with Rovral, decreased the photosynthesis of the leaves.

  11. Enormous periodic doppler shifts in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.; Ford, H.C.; Grandi, S.A.; Stone, R.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously reported prominent ''moving' emission lines in the visible spectrum of Stephenson-Sanduleak 433, the optical counterpart of a variable radio and X-ray source. Further observations show that despite the implausible velocities and changes in velocities implied if the moving features are interpreted as Doppler-shifted Balmer lines, this explanation is indeed correct. Spectroscopy of SS 433 on 51 mights in 1978--1979 reveals that the unidentified features are two sets of Balmer and He I lines, one with large and changing redshift, and the other with large and changing blueshift. Combining our data with published earlier observations, we obtain Doppler shifts on 80 nights in the period 1978 June to 1979 June. These data indicate that the velocity variations are cyclical, repeating in both the blueshift and redshift systems with a period of 164 +- 3 days. The two systems have thus far been observed to reach maximum positive and negative radial velocities of +50,000 and -35,000 km s -1 , respectively, are always symmetric about redshift z=0.04, and follow roughly sinusoidal velocity curves. We discuss in addition a variety of interesting short-term spectroscopic details, including minor but highly significant deviations of the radial velocity from the sinusoid, and nightly line profile changes, sometimes appearing as mirror-image events in the redshift and blueshift systems. The behavior of SS 433 is unprecedented

  12. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Effect of W content in solid solution on properties and microstructure of (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bin; Xiong, Weihao, E-mail: whxiong@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, Man; Jing, Yong; Li, Baolong; Luo, Haifeng; Wang, Shengqing

    2016-08-15

    (Ti{sub 1-x}W{sub x})C solid solutions (x = 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35) were synthesized by carbothermal reduction and then were used as hard phases to prepare (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets by vacuum sintering. (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets showed weak core-rim structure carbide particles embedded in Ni{sub 3}Al binder. As W content in (Ti,W)C increased, core-rim structure of carbide particles got weaker and the contrast of particles lowered down in SEM-BSE morphologies. Furthermore, the densification of cermets was promoted with W content in solid solution increasing, meanwhile TRS and toughness of cermets were improved obviously. In this paper, the wettability of molten metal on different group transition metal carbides was discussed in detail based on valence-electron configurations (VECs) of carbides. - Highlights: • (Ti{sub 1-x}W{sub x})C solid solutions were synthesized by carbothermal reduction. • (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets were prepared through powder metallurgy route. • The increase of W can improve wetting and densification significantly. • (Ti,W)C-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets showed a weak core-rim structure particles embedded in binder. • Wetting behavior were discussed from valence-electron configurations of carbides.

  15. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW

  17. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  18. Periodic and secular changes in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W.; Newsom, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The recent history of SS 433 is reviewed with particular attention being given to the discovery of the periodic phenomena displayed by this object. Several periods ranging from days to months are established as being present in the spectrum of the ''moving'' lines as well as in other aspects of the emission from the object. In addition evidence for secular change in some of the defining parameters of the system is presented. Although these secular changes may eventually prove to be periodic on a rather long time scale, some interpretation of both the periodic and secular phenomena is possible. It is shown that it is possible to interpret all the known periodic phenomena in terms of a processing object responding to the time-varying torques that one would expect in a binary system

  19. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On levels unconditional declassification of solid materials with very low radioactive content and downloads liquids and gases to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide aims to establish radiological criteria for declassification (waiver) of the radioactive material of radiological regulatory control and levels unconditional clearance for solid materials and the authorized discharge limits for liquids and gases to the environment that meet these criteria for exposure scenarios acceptably conservative. This Guide to radioactive waste from the apply industrial, medical and research, which they will be managed as waste conventional. This guidance excludes from its scope the option of recycling and reuse of materials that have been declassified and wastes arising from activities and practices which naturally occurring radionuclides present are.

  1. Autoalan työssäoppiminen : Case: Autoalan merkkiliikkeet

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliomäki, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää Jyväskylän ammattiopiston autoalan työssäoppimista Jyväskylän autoalan merkkiliikkeissä työnantajien näkökulmasta. Työssä selvitettiin yhteistyön nykytilanne ja millaisia ongelmia yhteistyössä koetaan olevan. Mukaan otettiin myös oppilaitoksen näkemyksiä ja kokemuksia yhteistyöstä autoalan merkkiliikkeiden kanssa työssäoppimisesta. Tutkimustulosten perusteella rakennettiin kehittämissuunnitelma yhteistyön kehittämisen pohjaksi. Tutkimusaineisto saatii...

  2. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Determination of aromatic fragment content in phenol-containing fractions of solid fuel conversion products using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitskaya, L.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    Optimum conditions are determined for obtaining quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 13/C spectra of fragments in phenol-containing fraction of coal products. Causes are analyzed of residual signals in spectra of un-protonized carbon atoms. The tests were carried out on: low-temperature carbonization tar and phenol fraction obtained during medium-temperature coking of Cherenkhovskii coal (which contains 84.13% C; 9.68% H; 1.23% S; 4.96% O); products of tar hydrogenation with various phenol content; standard phenol mixture. It was found that quantitative determination of aromatic fraction content in coal conversion products and other phenol- and amine-containing complex mixtures, using NMR spectroscopy requires the addition of dimethylsulfide or acetone in order to suppress specific interactions of phenols (amines) with relaxants and obtain quantitative subspectra of Tertiary and Quaternary aromatic carbon atoms. 16 references.

  4. Biological conversion of forage sorghum biomass to ethanol by steam explosion pretreatment and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation at high solid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Maria Jose; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Gonzalez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes [Renewable Energy Department-CIEMAT, Biofuels Unit, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, forage sorghum biomass was studied as feedstock for ethanol production by a biological conversion process comprising the steps of hydrothermal steam explosion pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes, and fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Steam explosion conditions were optimized using a response surface methodology considering temperature (180-230 C) and time (2-10 min). Sugar recovery in the pretreatment and the enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated solid were used to determine the optimum conditions, i.e., 220 C and 7 min. At these conditions, saccharification efficiency attained 89 % of the theoretical and the recovery of xylose in the prehydrolyzate accounted for 35 % of the amount of xylose present in raw material. Then, a simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) process was tested at laboratory scale on the solid fraction of forage sorghum pretreated at optimum condition, in order to evaluate ethanol production. The effect of the enzyme dose and the supplementation with xylanase enzyme of the cellulolytic enzyme cocktail was studied at increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) in SSF media. Results show good performance of SSF in all consistencies tested with a significant effect of increasing enzyme load in SSF yield and final ethanol concentration. Xylanase supplementation allows increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) with good SSF performance and final ethanol content of 55 g/l after 4-5 days. Based on this result, about 190 l of ethanol could be obtained from 1 t of untreated forage sorghum, which means a transformation yield of 85 % of the glucose contained in the feedstock. (orig.)

  5. Two New Sharp Ostrowski-Grüss Type Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use a variant of the Grüss inequality to derive two new sharp Ostrowski-Grüss type inequalities related to a perturbed trapezoidal type rule and a perturbed generalized interior point rule, respectively, which provide improvements of some previous results in the literatures.

  6. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J.; Yan, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.

  7. Investigation and analysis to the content of natural radionuclides at rate-earth ore and solid waste in China through the first nationwide pollution source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianjun; Liu Guifang; Sun Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    China has launched the First Nationwide Pollution Source Survey (FNPSS) during 2006-2009. Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) sponsored the campaign of measuring the natural radionuclide contents. And the Ministry Environmental Protection (MEP) organized the measurements of natural radionuclide contents of in the factories and mines associated with rare-earth, niobium/tantalum, zircon, tin, lead/zinc, copper, iron, phosphate, coal, aluminum and vanadium. This paper analyzes mainly the data on the contents of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the rare-earth ore and solid waste produced by the rare-earth industry in China, as one of a series of papers on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) s investigation. It is concluded that the average of the U, 232 Th and 226 Ra for the monazite sand of rare-earth ore is 16911, 49683, and 20072 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in bastnaesite is 42, 701 and 91 Bq/kg, respectively. The average of U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the ionic type rare-earth ore is 3918.6, 2315 and 1221 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  8. HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELL CONTENT OF VERTEBRAL BODY MARROW USED FOR COMBINED SOLID ORGAN AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Witold B.; Fontes, Paulo A.; Rao, Abdul S.; Winkelstein, Alan; Ricordi, Camillo; Ball, Edward D.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    While cadaveric vertebral bodies (VB) have long been proposed as a suitable source of bone marrow (BM) for transplantation (BMT), they have rarely been used for this purpose. We have infused VB BM immediately following whole organ (WO) transplantation to augment donor cell chimerism. We quantified the hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) content of VB BM as well as BM obtained from the iliac crests (IC) of normal allogeneic donors (ALLO) and from patients with malignancy undergoing autologous marrow harvest (AUTO). Patients undergoing WOIBM transplantation also had AUTO BM harvested in the event that subsequent lymphohematopoietic reconstitution was required. Twenty-four VB BM, 24 IC BM-ALLO, 31 IC AUTO, and 24 IC WO-AUTO were harvested. VB BM was tested 12 to 72 hr after procurement and infused after completion ofWO grafting. IC BM was tested and then used or cryopreserved immediately. HPC were quantified by clonal assay measuring CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM, and by flow cytometry for CD34+ progenitor cells. On an average, 9 VB were processed during each harvest, and despite an extended processing time the number of viable nucleated cells obtained was significantly higher than that from IC. Furthermore, by HPC content, VB BM was equivalent to IC BM, which is routinely used for BMT. We conclude that VB BM is a clinically valuable source of BM for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:7701582

  9. The SS-SCR Scheme for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Thumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrate the two models of Cognitive Radio (CR, namely, the conventional Sense-and-Scavenge (SS Model and Symbiotic Cooperative Relaying (SCR. The resultant scheme, called SS-SCR, improves the efficiency of spectrum usage and reliability of the transmission links. SS-SCR is enabled by a suitable cross-layer optimization problem in a multihop multichannel CR network. Its performance is compared for different PU activity patterns with those schemes which consider SS and SCR separately and perform disjoint resource allocation. Simulation results depict the effectiveness of the proposed SS-SCR scheme. We also indicate the usefulness of cloud computing for a practical deployment of the scheme.

  10. Thermal analysis of RFETS SS and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    In support of the gas generation test program (GGTP) for the 9975 shipping container, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted. The objective of this activity was to determine the moisture content as an input to the gas generation model

  11. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  12. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-22

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  13. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  14. Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yande; Tao, Yang

    2005-09-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

  15. Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r 2 ) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r 2 of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples

  16. Enhancing the Hardness of Sintered SS 17-4PH Using Nitriding Process for Bracket Orthodontic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharno, B.; Supriadi, S.; Ayuningtyas, S. T.; Widjaya, T.; Baek, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    Brackets orthodontic create teeth movement by applying force from wire to bracket then transferred to teeth. However, emergence of friction between brackets and wires reduces load for teeth movement towards desired area. In order to overcome these problem, surface treatment like nitriding chosen as a process which could escalate efficiency of transferred force by improving material hardness since hard materials have low friction levels. This work investigated nitriding treatment to form nitride layer which affecting hardness of sintered SS 17-4PH. The nitride layers produced after nitriding process at various temperature i.e. 470°C, 500°C, 530°C with 8hr holding time under 50% NH3 atmosphere. Optical metallography was conducted to compare microstructure of base and surface metal while the increasing of surface hardness then observed using vickers microhardness tester. Hardened surface layer was obtained after gaseous nitriding process because of nitride layer that contains Fe4N, CrN and Fe-αN formed. Hardness layers can achieved value 1051 HV associated with varies thickness from 53 to 119 μm. The presence of a precipitation process occurring in conjunction with nitriding process can lead to a decrease in hardness due to nitrogen content diminishing in solid solution phase. This problem causes weakening of nitrogen expansion in martensite lattice.

  17. OPNET simulation Signaling System No.7 (SS7) network interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ow, Kong Chung.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents an OPNET model and simulation of the Signaling System No.7 (SS7) network, which is dubbed the world's largest data communications network. The main focus of the study is to model one of its levels, the Message Transfer Part Level 3, in accordance with the ITU.T recommendation Q.704. An overview of SS7 that includes the evolution and basics of SS7 architecture is provided to familarize the reader with the topic. This includes the protocol stack, signaling points, signaling...

  18. Sosiaalisen median rooli kunnan viestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Selkämaa, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää sosiaalisen median roolia kunnan viestinnässä sekä tutkia, miten sosiaalista mediaa hyödynnetään kuntien viestinnässä. Teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa, tutustuttiin sen tunnetuimpiin sovelluksiin sekä perehdyttiin kuntien viestintään yleisesti. Työssä tarkasteltiin myös kuntien viestintään vaikuttavia ja sitä sääteleviä lakeja. Kuntien sosiaalisen median käyttöön tutustuttiin Kuntaliiton tekemän viestintätutkimuksen tulosten pohjalt...

  19. Clinical characteristics of RA patients with secondary SS and association with joint damage

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lindsay E.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Liao, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Secondary SS (sSS) is a common extra-articular manifestation of RA. There are conflicting data regarding the association of sSS with worse joint damage. This study aims to characterize sSS patients in an RA cohort and study the association between sSS and joint damage.

  20. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, Naeem, E-mail: naeem.saqib@oru.se; Bäckström, Mattias, E-mail: mattias.backstrom@oru.se

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  1. Role of ethanol on growth, laccase production and protease activity in Pycnoporus cinnabarinus ss3

    OpenAIRE

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Auria, Richard; Lomascolo, A.; Sigoillot, J. C.; Casalot, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Laccase production by the strain Pycnoporus cinnabarinus ss3 was studied in a solid-state culture on sugar-cane bagasse using chemical compounds as inducers (ethanol, methanol, veratryl alcohol and ferulic acid). Laccase productions were about 5- to 8.5-fold higher than non-induced cultures. Liquid-culture experiments with "Glabeled ethanol were conducted. Ninety-eight percent of the initial amount of C-14 from ethanol was recovered as (CO2)-C-14, C-14-biomass and soluble C-14-compounds (main...

  2. Effect of Acetylene Black Content in Li4Ti5O12 Xerogel Solid-State Anode Materials on Half-Cell Li-ion Batteries Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, N. M.; Priyono, B.; Syahrial, A. Z.; Subhan, A.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of Acetylene Black (AB) additive contents in lithium titanate/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on Li-ion Batteries performance is studied in this work. The LTO active material for Li-ion batteries anode was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method to form TiO2 xerogel continued by mixing process with LiOH in ball-mill and then sintered to obtain spinel LTO. The LTO powder is characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The spinel LTO and TiO2 rutile were detected by XRD diffractogram. The LTO powder is in the form of agglomerates structure. This powder then was mixed with PVDF binder (10%wt) and AB additives with various amount from 10%wt (LTO2 Ac-1), 12%wt (LTO2 Ac-2), and 15%wt (LTO2 Ac-3) of total weight solid content to form electrode sheet. Half-cell coin battery was made with lithium metal foil as a counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge discharge (CD) test used to examine the battery performance. The highest resistance value is obtained in LTO2 Ac-3 sample with 15%wt of AB. It might be caused by the formation of side reaction product on electrode surface at initial cycle due to high reactivity of LTO2 Ac-3 electrode. The highest initial capacity at CV test and CD test was obtained in LTO2 Ac-1 (10%wt AB) sample, due to the best proportion of active material content in the compound. While, in the charge-discharge test at high current rate, the best sample rate-capability performance belongs to LTO2 Ac-3 sample (15%wt AB), which still have 24.12 mAh/g of discharge capacity at 10 C with 71.34% capacity loss.

  3. Design basis ground motion (Ss) required on new regulatory guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    New regulatory guide is enforced on July 8. Here, it is introduced how the design basis ground motion (Ss) for seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities was revised on the new guide. Ss is formulated as two types of earthquake ground motions, earthquake ground motions with site specific earthquake source and with no such specific source locations. The latter is going to be revised based on the recent observed near source ground motions. (author)

  4. Novel Insight for Organic Matter Sourcing: Interest of Time Resolved Fluorescence to Qualify and Quantify PAH Content of Solid Matrix at High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiers, M.; Perrette, Y.; Jacq, K.; Pousset, E.; Plassart, G.

    2017-12-01

    OM fluorescence is today a well-developed tool used to characterize and quantify organic matter (OM), but also to evaluate and discriminate OM fate and changes related to climate and environmental modifications. While fluorescence measurements on water and soils extracts provide information about organic fluxes today, solid phase fluorescence using natural archives allows to obtain high resolution records of OM evolution during time. These evolutions can be discussed in regards of climate and environmental perturbations detected in archives using different proxies, and thus provide keys for understanding factors driving carbon fluxes mechanisms. Among fluorescent organic species, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) have been used as probe molecules for organic contamination tracking. Moreover, monitoring studies have shown that PAH could also be used as markers to discriminates atmospheric and erosion factors leading to PAH and organic matter fluxes to the aquifer. PAH records in soils and natural archives appear as a promising proxy to follow both past atmospheric contamination and soil erosion. But, PAH fluorescence is difficult to discriminate from bulk OM fluorescence using steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technics as their fluorescence domains recover. Time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) increases the information provided by SSF technic, adding a time dimension to measurements and allowing to discriminate PAH fluorescence. We report here a first application of this technic on natural archives. The challenge is to obtain TRES signature along the sample, including for low PAH concentrations. This study aims to evaluate the reliability of high resolution TRES measurement as PAH carbon fluxes sources. Method is based on LIF instrument for solid phase fluorescence measurement. An instrument coupling an excitation system constituting by 2 pulsed lasers (266 and 355 nm) and a detection system was developed. This measurement provides high resolution record of

  5. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  7. Effect of total solid content and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid from mixed culture dark fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2018-04-28

    Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0.6 g lactic /g totalacids . The results indicated that aeration pretreatment does not significantly improve product concentration or yield. Non-pretreated waste in a 29% TS system showed a lactic acid concentration of 31 g/L. The results showed that enzymatic pretreated waste at TS of 34% results in the highest production of lactic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A bi-layer model for nondestructive prediction of soluble solids content in apple based on reflectance spectra and peel pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi; Li, Jiangbo; Wang, Qingyan; Fan, Shuxiang; Huang, Wenqian

    2018-01-15

    Hyperspectral imaging technology was used to investigate the effect of various peel colors on soluble solids content (SSC) prediction model and build a SSC model insensitive to the color distribution of apple peel. The SSC and peel pigments were measured, effective wavelengths (EWs) of SSC and pigments were selected from the acquired hyperspectral images of the intact and peeled apple samples, respectively. The effect of pigments on the SSC prediction was studied and optimal SSC EWs were selected from the peel-flesh layers spectra after removing the chlorophyll and anthocyanin EWs. Then, the optimal bi-layer model for SSC prediction was built based on the finally selected optimal SSC EWs. Results showed that the correlation coefficient of prediction, root mean square error of prediction and selected bands of the bi-layer model were 0.9560, 0.2528 and 41, respectively, which will be more acceptable for future online SSC prediction of various colors of apple. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Extraction and Determination of Ellagic Acid Content in the Peels of Six Iranian Pomegranates Cultivars Using a New Miniaturized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Nazari Serenjeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:The peels of six Iranian pomegranates (Punica granatum L. cultivars, as a traditional medicine, were treated with a new miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD method for the HPLC determination of ellagic acid (EA. Materials and Methods:In the proposed method, only 10mg of the sample powder was ground and blended with an equal amount of C18 sorbent in an agate mortar. The use of the agate mortar with smooth surface facilitated the sample transfer into a cartridge and reduced the required amount of sample and sorbent. Micro volumes of dichloromethane, n-hexane and methanol were used as modifier, washing and elution solvents, respectively. The eluate was injected into an HPLC-UV system for the analysis. Results:Several factors such as the type and amount of dispersing sorbent, modifier, washing solvent and eluent were carefully studied and optimized. Six replicated analyses at the optimized conditions resulted in a recovery of 96.7% and a relative standard deviation of 5.87%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of EA in the peels samples. Conclusion:According to the ultimate results, the MSPD method is an efficient technique for the quantitative extraction of EA from the peels of pomegranate. Malas cultivar has the highest amount (18.1 g kg-1 of ellagic acid content compared to the other studied pomegranate cultivars.

  10. Effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system applied to grey water treatment. kenkiter dot koki roshoho no shori seino ni oyobosu ryuryo hendo oyobi kendaku busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, T; Sagehashi, M; Otsuka, N; Okada, M; Murakami, A [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-10

    In this study, effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids (SS) on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system were investigated through the laboratory test using synthetic wastewater and the field test using grey water. Effects of flow variation scarcely appeared on the time change of effluent quality in both cases where daily average hydraulic retention time (HRT) in anaerobic filter was 20h and that of aerobic filter was 6.7h. In the field test, however, removal rate of organic substances was lower (20-30%) than that of the laboratory test (90%), since SS content in grey water accumulated in the anaerobic filter which led dissolution of organic substances from accumulated SS, blocking, and short-circuit flow. Moreover, it was confirmed by the batch test that constituent of grey water has lower resolution for microorganisms and is more difficult to nitrate than synthetic waste water. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghdam, Ehsan Fathi; Kinnunen, V.; Rintala, Jukka A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), biowaste (BW), sewage sludge (SS), and co-digestion of BW and SS. Average methane yields of 386 ± 54, 385 ± 82, 198 ± 14, and 318 ± 59 L CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) were obtained for OFMSW...

  12. CellSs: Scheduling Techniques to Better Exploit Memory Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bellens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell Superscalar's (CellSs main goal is to provide a simple, flexible and easy programming approach for the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/B.E. that automatically exploits the inherent concurrency of the applications at a task level. The CellSs environment is based on a source-to-source compiler that translates annotated C or Fortran code and a runtime library tailored for the Cell/B.E. that takes care of the concurrent execution of the application. The first efforts for task scheduling in CellSs derived from very simple heuristics. This paper presents new scheduling techniques that have been developed for CellSs for the purpose of improving an application's performance. Additionally, the design of a new scheduling algorithm is detailed and the algorithm evaluated. The CellSs scheduler takes an extension of the memory hierarchy for Cell/B.E. into account, with a cache memory shared between the SPEs. All new scheduling practices have been evaluated showing better behavior of our system.

  13. Biomass hydrolysis inhibition at high hydrogen partial pressure in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazier, E A; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Escudie, R

    2015-08-01

    In solid-state anaerobic digestion, so-called ss-AD, biogas production is inhibited at high total solids contents. Such inhibition is likely caused by a slow diffusion of dissolved reaction intermediates that locally accumulate. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 and CO2 partial pressure on ss-AD. Partial pressure of H2 and/or CO2 was artificially fixed, from 0 to 1 557mbars for H2 and from 0 to 427mbars for CO2. High partial pressure of H2 showed a significant effect on methanogenesis, while CO2 had no impact. At high [Formula: see text] , the overall substrate degradation decreased with no accumulation of metabolites from acidogenic bacteria, indicating that the hydrolytic activity was specifically impacted. Interestingly, such inhibition did not occur when CO2 was added with H2. This result suggests that CO2 gas transfer is probably a key factor in ss-AD from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Swelling and microstructure of neutrons irradiated 316 Ti SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seran, J.L.; Le Naour, L.; Grosjean, P.; Hugon, M.P.; Carteret, Y.; Maillard, A.

    1984-06-01

    The analysis of the behaviour of fuel pins irradiated in the same RAPSODIE subassembly, shows that titanium has a marked beneficial effect on the swelling resistance of CW 316 SS in a large range of temperature. This effect is particularly visible at high temperature since CW 316 Ti SS does not swell above 550 0 C up to a dose of 100 French dpa. The results obtained on samples irradiated in a RAPSODIE experimental rig give us confirmation of the good behaviour of CW 316 Ti SS which swells less and at smaller temperature than the other steels of the 316 series such as SA 316 Ti or aged SA 316 Ti. The swelling differences between some of these materials can be associated to different microstructures which are also very different from the ones obtained on the irradiated steels aged in the same time and temperature conditions

  15. YouTube osuuskaupan markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Lindevall, Tytti

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda toimeksiantaja Suur-Seudun Osuuskauppa SSO:lle suunnitelma YouTuben hyödyntämiseksi markkinointiviestinnässään. Työn avulla on tarkoitus löytää keino, miten SSO voisi hyödyntää YouTubea markkinointiviestinnässään ja mitä asioita tulisi huomioida omaa kanavaa perustettaessa. Tarkoituksena on tuottaa raportti mahdollisista käyttötarkoituksista sekä ohjeistus oman kanavan perustamiseen ja hallinnointiin liittyvistä asioista. Työn alkupuolella taustoite...

  16. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  17. CoordSS: An Ontology Framework for Heterogeneous Networks Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nejkovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimenting with HetNets environments is of importance because of the role that such environments have in next-generation cellular networks. In this paper, the CoordSS ontology experimentation framework is proposed with an aim to support experimenting with HetNets environments on wireless networking testbeds. In the framework, domain and system ontologies are adopted for formal representation of the knowledge about the context of the problem. This paper outlines implementation details of ontologies in the CoordSS experimentation framework. The synergy between semantic and cognitive computing is introduced as the theoretical foundation of the paper.

  18. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of directors shall monitor planning and execution of the S&S business activities. 2. The S&S board of... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  19. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  20. Katariina kirikus algab Geeniuste mäss / Kai Ilustrumm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilustrumm, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Briti Nõukogu toetusel Pärnus, Tartus ja Tallinnas toimuvatel inglise filmide päevadel "Geeniuste mäss" näidatakse ka 3 Lindsay Andersoni nn. Travise triloogia filmi "Kui..." (1968), "Oo, õnneseen!" (1973) ja "Ravila Britannia" (1982), kus Mick Travise rollis on Malcolm McDowell (1943). Lisatud kava

  1. Predictability of Joint Promotion Examinations in SS2 on Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research studied the predictability of joint SS2 promotion examinations of all the command secondary schools in Nigeria on academic performance of students in Senior School Certificate Examinations. The sample consists of 120 students selected at the Command Secondary School, Abakaliki and Command Day ...

  2. The Symbiotic System SS73 17 seen with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall K.; Mushotzky, Richard; Kallman, Tim; Tueller, Jack; Mukai, Koji; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    We observed with Suzaku the symbiotic star SS73 17, motivated by the discovery by the INTEGRAL satellite and the Swift BAT survey that it emits hard X-rays. Our observations showed a highly-absorbed X-ray spectrum with NH > loz3 emp2, equivalent to Av > 26, although the source has B magnitude 11.3 and is also bright in UV. The source also shows strong, narrow iron lines including fluorescent Fe K as well as Fe xxv and Fe XXVI. The X-ray spectrum can be fit with a thermal model including an absorption component that partially covers the source. Most of the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line in this model can be explained as a combination of reprocessing in a dense absorber plus reflection off a white dwarf surface, but it is likely that the continuum is partially seen in reflection as well. Unlike other symbiotic systems that show hard X-ray emission (CH Cyg, RT Cru, T CrB, GX1+4), SS73 17 is not known to have shown nova-like optical variability, X-ray flashes, or pulsations, and has always shown faint soft X-ray emission. As a result, although it is likely a white dwarf, the nature of the compact object in SS73 17 is still uncertain. SS73 17 is probably an extreme example of the recently discovered and relatively small class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic systems.

  3. Sleeping sickness (ss) in the Abraka Belt: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty six parasitologically confirmed SS cases by microscopic examination of blood, lymph node aspirate or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) made up of 14 (53.8%) males and 12 (46.2%) females aged between 0 – 70years (mean 29.88 +18.89), were seen during the period of study. Peak incidence occurred at age 0 – 20 years ...

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus associating with different size suspended solids in roof and road runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Ren, Yufen; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Liding; Liu, Gangcai

    2015-10-01

    Roofs and roads, accounting for a large portion of the urban impervious land surface, have contributed significantly to urban nonpoint pollution. In this study, in Beijing, China, roof and road runoff are sampled to measure the suspended solids (SS), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contained in particles with different sizes. The SS content in the road runoff (151.59 mg/L) was sevenfold that in the roof runoff (21.13 mg/L, p runoff than in road runoff. The small particulates in the range of 0.45-50 μm consisted of 59 % SS in the roof runoff and 94 % SS in the road runoff. P was mainly attached to particle sizes of 10-50 μm in the roof (73 %) and road (48 %) runoffs, while N was mainly in a dissolved phase state in both runoffs. So, the different associations of N and P raise a challenge in preventing stormwater pollution in urban environments.

  5. Oxynitrides decorated 316L SS for potential bioimplant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan Kaliaraj, Gobi; Kumar, N.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiON) and zirconium oxynitride (ZrON) were deposited onto 316L stainless steel (316L SS) using reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The monoclinic and cubic phase of TiON and ZrON were obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoindentation and wear test analysis exhibited the better mechanical properties of TiON and ZrON films. Wettability studies showed hydrophilic nature on coated films; whereas bare 316L SS substrate was least hydrophilic. Drastic reduction of bacterial adhesion (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as biofilm formation, was observed in both the films at different time duration. TiON and ZrON films were exhibited excellent hemocompatibility by preventing the platelet activation. Furthermore, the coated films exhibited corrosion protection in presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in artificial blood plasma (ABP) solution.

  6. Digipelaamisen hyödyt mielenterveystyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Simula, Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    Mielenterveyshäiriöitä ilmenee joka viidennellä suomalaisella. Avohoitopainotteiseen mielenterveystyöhön siirryttäessä tarvitaan uusia näkökulmia asiakastyöhön. DIgipelien suosion myötä on tärkeää miettiä niiden käyttömahdollisuuksia mielenterveystyössä. Jotta uudet menetelmät voidaan ottaa käyttöön, tarvitaan digipelien hyödyistä tutkimustietoa. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata mitä tutkimustietoa on saatavilla digipelaamisen hyödyistä mielenterveystyössä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena ...

  7. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  8. Social class and survival on the S.S. Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W

    1986-01-01

    Passengers' chances of surviving the sinking of the S.S. Titanic were related to their sex and their social class: females were more likely to survive than males, and the chances of survival declined with social class as measured by the class in which the passenger travelled. The probable reasons for these differences in rates of survival are discussed as are the reasons accepted by the Mersey Committee of Inquiry into the sinking.

  9. EMPReSS: European mouse phenotyping resource for standardized screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eain C J; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Lad, Heena V; Blake, Andrew; Weekes, Joseph; Hancock, John M

    2005-06-15

    Standardized phenotyping protocols are essential for the characterization of phenotypes so that results are comparable between different laboratories and phenotypic data can be related to ontological descriptions in an automated manner. We describe a web-based resource for the visualization, searching and downloading of standard operating procedures and other documents, the European Mouse Phenotyping Resource for Standardized Screens-EMPReSS. Direct access: http://www.empress.har.mrc.ac.uk e.green@har.mrc.ac.uk.

  10. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior

  11. Asiakkaan profilointi matkailupalveluiden puhelinmyyntityössä

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksonen, Aura; Taralainen, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on asiakkaan profilointi puhelinmyyntityössä. Työn toimeksiantaja on Itä-Suomen yliopiston Matkailualan opetus- ja tutkimuslaitos. Tutkimuksessamme selvitimme videotallenteiden avulla, millä tavoin myyjä profiloi asiakasta puhelinmyynnissä, ja missä myyntiprosessin vaiheessa profilointia tapahtuu. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella toimeksiantajan on tarkoitus luoda matkailupalveluyritykselle verkossa toimiva matkanvarausjärjestelmä. Teoriaosassa käsittelimme asi...

  12. THE Be STAR SPECTRA (BeSS) DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiner, C.; De Batz, B.; Cochard, F.; Floquet, M.; Mekkas, A.; Desnoux, V.

    2011-01-01

    Be stars vary on many timescales, from hours to decades. A long time base of observations to analyze certain phenomena in these stars is therefore necessary. Collecting all existing and future Be star spectra into one database has thus emerged as an important tool for the Be star community. Moreover, for statistical studies, it is useful to have centralized information on all known Be stars via an up-to-date catalog. These two goals are what the Be Star Spectra (BeSS, http://basebe.obspm.fr) database proposes to achieve. The database contains an as-complete-as-possible catalog of known Be stars with stellar parameters, as well as spectra of Be stars from all origins (any wavelength, any epoch, any resolution, etc.). It currently contains over 54,000 spectra of more than 600 different Be stars among the ∼2000 Be stars in the catalog. A user can access and query this database to retrieve information on Be stars or spectra. Registered members can also upload spectra to enrich the database. Spectra obtained by professional as well as amateur astronomers are individually validated in terms of format and science before being included in BeSS. In this paper, we present the database itself as well as examples of the use of BeSS data in terms of statistics and the study of individual stars.

  13. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  14. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K s ) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K s ) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10 8-9 cm –3 ), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S

  15. Effect of synthesis route on the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3: A comparative study between solid state and sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, Pittala; Srinath, S.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO 3 (BFO) powder was prepared through optimized solid state (SS) and sol–gel (SG) reaction methods. The effect of preparation routes on the crystal purity and multiferroic properties of the BFO was investigated. Sol–gel synthesis results almost a single-phase material at relatively lower temperatures while the solid-state method results into BFO with a small amount of Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 secondary phase. The grain size of SG processed sample reduces to half the size of the one that is prepared by SS. Elemental analysis shows a stoichiometric Bi:Fe content for SG samples by restricting the Bi loss. In comparison with the SS samples, dielectric constant of SG samples exhibit higher values with Maxwell–Wagner type dielectric dispersion. A cusp at 50 K was seen in M–T curves for SS samples, for which no frequency dependence was observed in a.c susceptibility measurements ruling out the earlier predictions of spin glass nature in this system. M−H loops show a typical antiferromagnetic nature at 300 K while a weak ferromagnetic behavior is found at 10 K. A slight increase in H C and M r was observed for SG samples over SS. The improved properties of SG processed BFO makes it more promising for applications. - Highlights: • Optimized conditions to attain the BiFeO 3 with minimized impurities are reported. • The influence of the impurities on the dielectric, magnetic properties is reported. • Maxwell–Wagner relaxation is found for BiFeO 3 prepared by sol–gel technique. • a.c. susceptibility measurements ruled out the possibility of spin glass nature. • The anomalous behavior of H C with the temperature is reported

  16. Influence of Mn-Co Spinel Coating on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic SS Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatachalam, Vinothini; Molin, Sebastian; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Chromia forming ferritic stainless steels (SS) are being considered for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications. However, protective coatings are in general needed to avoid chromium volatilization and poisoning of cathodes from chromium species. Mn-Co spinel is one...... of the promising candidates to prevent chromium outward diffusion, improve oxidation resistance and ensure high electrical conductivity over the lifetime of interconnects. In the present study, uniform and well adherent Mn-Co spinel coatings were produced on Crofer 22APU using electrophoretic deposition (EPD...

  17. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  18. The complex, variable structure of stationary lines in SS433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falomo, R.; Boksenberg, A.; Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1987-01-01

    On 1979 June 3-6, a number of spectra of SS433 were obtained using the UCL Image Photon Counting System on the 3.6-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The stationary Hα and He I lambdalambda5875, 6678 and 7065 lines have a complex structure which on June 4-5 exhibited a central feature accompanied by two equally displaced (+- 1000 km s -1 ) side components. Variability of the line profile and equivalent width is observed on time-scales as short as a quarter of an hour. (author)

  19. Complex, variable structure of stationary lines in SS433

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falomo, R.; Boksenberg, A.; Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1987-01-15

    On 1979 June 3-6, a number of spectra of SS433 were obtained using the UCL Image Photon Counting System on the 3.6-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The stationary H..cap alpha.. and He I lambdalambda5875, 6678 and 7065 lines have a complex structure which on June 4-5 exhibited a central feature accompanied by two equally displaced (+- 1000 km s/sup -1/) side components. Variability of the line profile and equivalent width is observed on time-scales as short as a quarter of an hour.

  20. Tapahtuman mallintaminen kauppakeskusmiljöössä

    OpenAIRE

    Mäenpää, Piia

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda kauppakeskusmiljööseen sopiva tapahtumakonsepti kohdennetulle asiakaskohderyhmälle, tässä tapauksessa seniori-ikäisille yli 65-vuotiaille. Kokonaisvaltaisesti tapahtuman mallinnuksen tavoitteeksi määriteltiin lisäksi uudenlaisen asiakaslähtöisen palvelukulttuurin luominen kauppakeskusmiljööseen, asiakkaiden aktivointi palveluiden sekä synergian luominen yksityisten eri toimijoiden välillä kauppakeskuksessa ja osuuskaupan sisällä. Konseptoinnin tausto...

  1. Solid-state vs water-perfused catheters to measure colonic high-amplitude propagating contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, O.; Burgers, R. E.; Connor, F. L.; Benninga, M. A.; Reddy, S. N.; Mousa, H. M.; Di Lorenzo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Solid-state (SS) manometry catheters with portable data loggers offer many potential advantages over traditional water-perfused (WP) systems, such as prolonged recordings in a more physiologic ambulatory setting and the lack of risk for water overload. The use of SS catheters has not been

  2. NanoRNase from Aeropyrum pernix shows nuclease activity on ssDNA and ssRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Jie; Feng, Lei; Zhou, Huan; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping; Liu, Xi-Peng

    2018-05-01

    In cells, degrading DNA and RNA by various nucleases is very important. These processes are strictly controlled and regulated to maintain DNA integrity and to mature or recycle various RNAs. NanoRNase (Nrn) is a 3'-exonuclease that specifically degrades nanoRNAs shorter than 5 nucleotides. Several Nrns have been identified and characterized in bacteria, mainly in Firmicutes. Archaea often grow in extreme environments and might be subjected to more damage to DNA/RNA, so DNA repair and recycling of damaged RNA are very important in archaea. There is no report on the identification and characterization of Nrn in archaea. Aeropyrum pernix encodes three potential Nrns: NrnA (Ape1437), NrnB (Ape0124), and an Nrn-like protein Ape2190. Biochemical characterization showed that only Ape0124 could degrade ssDNA and ssRNA from the 3'-end in the presence of Mn 2+ . Interestingly, unlike bacterial Nrns, Ape0124 prefers ssDNA, including short nanoDNA, and degrades nanoRNA with lower efficiency. The 3'-DNA backbone was found to be required for efficiently hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds. In addition, Ape0124 also degrads the 3'-overhang of double-stranded DNA. Interestingly, Ape0124 could hydrolyze pAp into AMP, which is a feature of bacterial NrnA, not NrnB. Our results indicate that Ape0124 is a novel Nrn with a combined substrate profile of bacterial NrnA and NrnB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene-adenine conjugate recognizes complementary poly dT among ss-DNA/ss-RNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić Stojković, Marijana; Škugor, Marko; Tomić, Sanja; Grabar, Marina; Smrečki, Vilko; Dudek, Łukasz; Grolik, Jarosław; Eilmes, Julita; Piantanida, Ivo

    2013-06-28

    Among three novel DBTAA derivatives only the DBTAA-propyl-adenine conjugate showed recognition of the consecutive oligo dT sequence by increased affinity and specific induced chirooptical response in comparison to other single stranded RNA and DNA; whereby of particular importance is the up until now unique efficient differentiation between dT and rU. At variance, its close analogue DBTAA-hexyl-adenine did not reveal any selectivity between ss-DNA/RNA pointing out the important role of steric factors (linker length); moreover non-selectivity of the reference compound (, lacking adenine) stressed the importance of adenine interactions in the selectivity.

  4. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kai Dong,1 Yan Yan,2 Pengchong Wang,2 Xianpeng Shi,2 Lu Zhang,2 Ke Wang,2 Jianfeng Xing,2 Yalin Dong1 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 2School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA and a multidrug resistance (MDR reversal agent (D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS. The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG and stearic acid (SA. The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE. Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in

  5. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Proposed real-time data processing system to control source and special nuclear material (SS) at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVer, E.A.; Baston, M.; Bishop, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    The SS Acountability System was designed to provide accountability of all SS materials by unit identification and grams. The existing system is a gram-accountable system. The new system was designed to incorporate unit identification into an ADP (Automated Data Processing) System. It also records all transactions performed against a particular unit of accountable material. The high volume of data is input via CRT terminals. Input data will consist of the following: source of the material (its unit identification), amount of material being moved, isotopic content, type of material, Health Physics number of the person moving the material, account number from which the material is being moved, unit identification of the material being moved (if all material is not moved), Health Physics number of the person receiving the material, account number to which material is being moved, and acceptance of the material by the receiver. A running inventory of all material is kept. At the end of the month the physical inventory will be compared to the data base and all discrepancies reported. Since a complete history of transactions has been kept, the source and cause for any discrepancies should be easily located. Discrepancies are held to a minimum since errors are detected before entrance into the data base. The system will also furnish all reports necessary to control SS Accountability. These reports may be requested at any time via an accountability master terminal

  8. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Kolkova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  9. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  10. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Copolimerização em emulsão de acetato de vinila e acrilato de butila com alto teor de sólidos High solid contents semi-batch emulsion copolymerization of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Palma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a influência da concentração de uma mistura dos emulsificantes nonilfenol etoxilado e sulfato sódico de nonilfenol etoxilado (não iônico e iônico, respectivamente e concentração de protetor coloidal, poli (álcool vinílico na estabilidade coloidal de látices do copolímero acetato de vinila (AV/acrilato de butila (AB com alto teor de sólidos. Foram determinados o teor de sólidos e o tamanho médio das partículas ao longo da reação e foram obtidas as viscosidades das emulsões finais. Os ensaios foram realizados de acordo com um projeto fatorial com 3 níveis de concentração de emulsificantes e de protetor coloidal. Foi verificado que são necessárias maiores quantidades relativas de emulsificantes e de protetor coloidal pela massa total de monômeros para se obter látices estáveis com teores de sólidos de 70 e 73% (m/m. Os tamanhos médios das partículas no final de cada ensaio foram relativamente elevados (800 a 1000 nm e as viscosidades a 20°C relativamente baixas (500 mPa.s para teor de sólidos de 67% (m/m; para teor de sólidos de 70% (m/m as viscosidades variaram de 5.000 a 10.000 mPa.s e para teor de sólidos de 73% (m/m a viscosidade foi de 365.000 mPa.s.In this work the influence of the concentration of ionic (alkyl phenol polyglycol ether sodium sulfate, and non-ionic (alkyl phenol polyglycol ether, surfactants mixture and of protective colloid (polyvinyl alcohol on the colloidal stability of high solid contents butyl acrylate/vinyl acetate copolymers latexes was investigated. Solid contents and particle diameter were determined along the reaction and, at the end of each run, also the emulsion viscosity. The experiments were carried out according to a factorial design with three levels of surfactant and protective colloid concentrations. Higher amounts of surfactant and protective colloid per total monomers were required for the colloidal stability of emulsions with total solid

  12. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  13. Optical, UV, and EUV Oscillations of SS Cygni in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2004-07-01

    I provide a review of observations in the optical, UV (HST), and EUV (EUVE and Chandra LETG) of the rapid periodic oscillations of nonmagnetic, disk-accreting, high mass-accretion rate cataclysmic variables (CVs), with particular emphasis on the dwarf nova SS Cyg in outburst. In addition, I drawn attention to a correlation, valid over nearly six orders of magnitude in frequency, between the frequencies of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries. This correlation identifies the high frequency quasi-coherent oscillations (so-called ``dwarf nova oscillations'') of CVs with the kilohertz QPOs of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), and the low frequency and low coherence QPOs of CVs with the horizontal branch oscillations (or the broad noise component identified as such) of LMXBs. Assuming that the same mechanisms produce the QPOs of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries, this correlation has important implications for QPO models.

  14. Photometric behavior of SS 433 in 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeh, T.; Tel Aviv University; Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv, Israel); Leibowitz, E.M.; Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv, Israel)

    1981-01-01

    Results and analysis of photometric measurements performed in the last two observing seasons of SS 433 are presented. The light of the star in the V and the B photometric bands varies with a period of either 6.55 or 6.43 days. The periodicity of approximately 164 days is also apparent in the photometric data, with its first and third harmonics. Fluctuations of the order of a half a magnitude within a few hours have also been recorded. The B-V color shows no dependence on the phase of the periodic variations, while it does change by up to 0.25 mag, in an apparent association with the short time scale fluctuations

  15. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboul-Magd Mohammed O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI, a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/PCISS. In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input

  16. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give for BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.

  17. Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Zhu

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regulator SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides, to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS. In yeast two-hybrid assays, SsMYB3 interacted with the Arabidopsis AtTT8 and AtTTG1 to reform the ternary transcriptional complex, and also interacted with two tobacco bHLH proteins (NtAn1a and NtJAF13-1 and a WD40 protein, NtAn11-1. Ectopic overexpression of SsMYB3 in transgenic tobacco led to almost-white flowers by greatly reducing anthocyanin levels and enhancing accumulation of condensed tannins. This overexpression of SsMYB3 upregulated the key PA genes (NtLAR and NtANR and late anthocyanin structural genes (NtDFR and NtANS, but downregulated the expression of the final anthocyanin gene NtUFGT. The formative SsMYB3-complex represses anthocyanin accumulation by directly suppressing the expression of the final anthocyanin structural gene NtUFGT, through competitive inhibition or destabilization of the endogenous NtAn2-complex formation. These results suggested that SsMYB3 may form a transcription activation complex to regulate PA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant and transgenic tobacco. Our findings suggest that SsMYB3 is involved in the regulation of PA biosynthesis in coleus and has the potential as a molecular tool for manipulating biosynthesis of PAs in fruits and other crops using metabolic engineering.

  18. Pulsar-driven Jets In Sne, Grbs, Lmxbs, Ss 433, And The Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents, (SLIP), predicts that pulsations produced by such currents at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, the possible Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, GRBs, ms pulsars, and SS 433, such highly collimated (>1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities 0.95 c, were responsible for its very early light curve (days 3-20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30-50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. The numbers for Sco X-1's jet are identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also drives positrons from SNe to high energies, possibly accounting for the excess seen by PAMELA at scores of GeV, and predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also predicts that GRB afterglows will be 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  19. Oxide induced corrosion on the welded stainless steels SS 2352 and 2353

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, S.; Li Huiqin.

    1991-01-01

    The pitting corrosion properties have been investigated in welded and unwelded condition by polarization tests in sodium chloride solutions. The two steels were TIG welded without adding welding material and as shielding on the bottom side argon gas containing 2, 26 or 99 ppm oxygen was used. In some tests low breakthrough potentials were received, without discovering any pitting corrosion in the specimen surfaces. The unwelded SS 2352 steel had a critical (lowest) pitting temperature (CPT) of 5 degrees C in the more concentrated solution. For the same steel with weld pitting corrosion was obtained at 5 degrees C, which was the lowest temperature for the tests. Thus the CPT value was lower than 5 degrees C, but by looking at the pitting corrosion potentials the following conclusion could be drawn: Welding with higher oxygen content in the shielding gas implied lower pitting corrosion resistance. For the SS 2353 steel the CPT values were 25 and 27.5 degrees C for material without weld, in contact with the more concentrated and the more dilute solution respectively. Welded material was all through more sensitive to pitting corrosion, and the CPT values were 15-17.5, 15 and 5-10 degrees C for welded areas which had been gas shielded with argon containing 2, 26 and 99 ppm oxygen respectively. The result thus showed that welding with shielding gas containing maximum about 30 ppm oxygen does not substantially affect the pitting corrosion properties. Post treatment of the welding areas increased the pitting corrosion resistance. Acid pickling implied the highest pitting corrosion resistance with 15 degrees C as CPT value for the 2353 steel in the more concentrated solution. Steel brushing implied an obvious increase to the pitting corrosion resistance compared to untreated weld areas and the same statement could be done for sand blasted surfaces. (10 refs., 16 tabs., 11 figs.)

  20. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  1. Continuous cooling and low temperature sensitization of AISI types 316 SS and 304 SS with different degrees of cold work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathavarthini, N.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Programme); Seshadri, S.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out to study the sensitization behaviour of AISI Types 316 SS and 304 SS with various degrees of cold work ranging from 0 to 25%. Initially Time-Temperature-Sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM standard A262 Practice A and E tests. From these diagrams it was found that the rate of sensitization and overall susceptibility to intergranular corrosion increases up to 15% cold work and above that starts decreasing. Desensitization was observed to be faster for higher levels of cold work, especially in the higher sensitization temperature range. From the TTS diagrams, the critical linear cooling rate below which sensitization occurs was calculated. From these data, Continuous Cooling Sensitization (CCS) diagrams were established. The results show that as the degree of cold work increases up to 15%, time needed for sensitization decreases and hence faster cooling rates must be used in order to avoid sensitization. At temperatures sufficiently below the nose temperature of the TTS diagram, log t versus 1/T plots follow a linear relationship where t is the time needed for the onset of sensitization at temperature T. From the slope, the apparent activation energy for sensitization was estimated. The validity of extrapolating these linear plots to lower temperatures (725 to 775 K) (which lie in the operating temperature regime of fast reactors) has been verified by experiment. The effect of heat treatment and microstructure on the Low Temperature Sensitization (LTS) behaviour was investigated. The results indicate that carbides of optimum size and distribution are the essential pre-requisites for LTS and cold work enhances susceptibility of stainless steels to LTS. (orig.).

  2. Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of S,S-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone

    OpenAIRE

    Derisvaldo Rosa Paiva; Roberto da Silva Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Diastereoselective synthesis of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanol by reduction of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone optically enriched demonstrating to be highly efficiency using the sulfanyl group as asymmetric induction control agent during an addition reaction to carbonyl group.The 2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone was obtained for the first time in one unique step without further oxidation steps. The synthesis of SR, SS of 2-methylsulphinyl-1-indanone optically enrich...

  3. Hoitajien kokemuksia voimistavan johtamisen arvojen ilmenemisestä esimiestyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Karvinen, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    ssä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin hoitajien kokemuksia voimistavan johtamisen keskeisten arvojen ilmenemisessä esimiestyössä. Voimistavan johtamisen keskeisiksi arvoiksi valittiin viisi Hannele Laaksosen (2008) nimeämää arvoa: avoimuus, luottamus, arvostus, oikeudenmukaisuus ja itseohjautuvuus. Tutkimus kuvaa hoitajien kokemuksia siitä, kuinka esimies voi edistää voimistavan johtamisen arvoja. Hoitajien kokemuksia ei rajattu nykyiseen työsuhteeseen. Hoitajat kertoivat kokemuksistaan yleisesti....

  4. How to Distinguish Patients with pSS among Individuals with Dryness without Invasive Diagnostic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of pSS, inflammatory cell infiltration consists mainly of lymphocytes infiltrating exocrine glands, which leads to their impaired function. The characteristic feature is generalized dryness. The aim of this study was to attempt to answer the question whether it is possible to distinguish between patients with pSS and individuals with dryness caused by other pathologies without applying invasive studies. The study included 68 patients with pSS and 43 healthy controls with dryness. FS ≥ 1 was observed in 90% of patients with pSS (with or without dryness, and only in 23% of the control group (only with xerostomia. In the pSS group, anaemia (p=0.0085, lymphocytopenia (p=0.0006, elevated ERS (p=0.001, higher RF titer, and ANA antibodies were noted. Configuration of anti-SSA + SSB + Ro52 antibodies was characteristic for the pSS group. Considering the clinical symptoms, statistically significant differences were noted between pSS patients and the control group in frequency (p=0.02 and severity (p=0.042 of fatigue, lymphadenopathy, major salivary gland involvement, and photosensitivity to UV light. In conclusion, invasive methods are pivotal in pSS diagnosis in this salivary gland biopsy. Chronic fatigue syndrome is more common in pSS patients and can be subjective distinguishing factor in the group of people with dryness.

  5. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-05-15

    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition.

  7. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C–S–H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste was analyzed using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering response indicates that the microstructure consists of a uniform matrix of hydration product with a high surface area studded with unhydrated cores of slag particles. In contrast with portland cement paste, no surface fractal scattering regime was detected, and elevated temperature curing (at 60 °C) had no detectable effect on the microstructure at any length scale studied. The specific surface area of the AAS pastes is about 25% higher than that of a portland cement paste cured under the same conditions. The composition and mass density of the nanoscale solid C–S–H phase formed in the AAS paste was determined using a previously developed neutron scattering method, in conjunction with a hydration model. The result ((CaO) 0.99 –SiO 2 –(Al 2 O 3 ) 0.06 –(H 2 O) 0.97 , d = (2.73 ± 0.02) g/cm 3 ) is significantly lower in calcium and in water as compared to portland cement or pure tricalcium silicate paste. These values were used to calculate the chemical shrinkage that would result from complete hydration of the AAS paste. The result, (12.2 ± 1.5) cm 3 of volumetric shrinkage per 100 g of unhydrated cement, is about twice the amount of chemical shrinkage exhibited by normal cement pastes.

  8. Profiling the Fatty Acids Content of Ornamental Camellia Seeds Cultivated in Galicia by an Optimized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Nande, Marta; Lamas, Juan Pablo; Lores, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Camellia (genus of flowering plants of fam. Theaceae) is one of the main crops in Asia, where tea and oil from leaves and seeds have been utilized for thousands of years. This plant is excellently adapted to the climate and soil of Galicia (northwestern Spain) and northern Portugal where it is grown not only as an ornamental plant, but to be evaluated as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the main fatty acids were extracted from Camellia seeds of four varieties of Camellia: sasanqua, reticulata, japonica and sinensis, by means of matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD), and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with MS detection of the corresponding methyl esters. MSPD constitutes an efficient and greener alternative to conventional extraction techniques, moreover if it is combined with the use of green solvents such as limonene. The optimization of the MSPD extraction procedure has been conducted using a multivariate approach based on strategies of experimental design, which enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the factors influencing the extraction efficiency as well as interactions between factors. The optimized method was applied to characterize the fatty acids profiles of four Camellia varieties seeds, allowing us to compare their fatty acid composition. PMID:29039745

  9. Studying the molecular determinants of potassium channel structure and function in membranes by solid-state NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, Elwin

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) has made remarkable progress in the structural characterization of membrane proteins systems at atomic resolution. Such studies can be further aided by the use of molecular dynamic simulations. Moreover, ssNMR data can be directly compared to functional

  10. Effects of carbon source and carbon content on electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C prepared by one-step solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xuebu [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610066 (China); Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Lin Ziji [China National Quality Supervision and Inspection Center for Alcoholic Beverage Products and Processed Food, Luzhou, Sichuan 646100 (China); Yang Kerun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Hua, Yongjian [China Aviation Lithium Battery Co. Ltd., Luoyang, Henan 471009 (China); Deng Zhenghua, E-mail: zhdeng@cioc.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > A simple route to prepare the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C by one-step solid-state reaction. > Carbon source and carbon content are two important factors on the electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C. > As-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C under optimized conditions shows excellent electrochemical performances. - Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were synthesized by one-step solid-state reaction method using four commonly used organic compounds or organic polymers as carbon source, i.e., polyacrylate acid (PAA), citric acid (CA), maleic acid (MA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The physical characteristics of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, particle size distribution and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry techniques. Their electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammograms, electrochemical impedance spectra, constant current charge-discharge and rate charge-discharge. These analyses indicated that the carbon source and carbon content have a great effect on the physical and electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. An ideal carbon source and appropriate carbon content effectively improved the electrical contact between the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles, which enhanced the discharge capacity and rate capability of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. PAA was the best carbon source for the synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. When the carbon content was 3.49 wt.% (LiOH.H{sub 2}O/PAA molar ratio of 1), as-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C showed the maximum discharge capacity. At 0.2 C, initial capacity of the optimized sample was 168.6 mAh g{sup -1} with capacity loss of 2.8% after 50 cycles. At 8 and 10 C, it showed discharge capacities of 143.5 and 132.7 mAh g{sup -1}, with capacity loss of 8.7 and 9.9% after 50 cycles

  11. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bo [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Gui Zhou University, Guiyang 550000 (China); Zhang, Weiwen, E-mail: mewzhang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.

  12. Solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases in Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn squeeze cast alloy with variable Fe contents during solution heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al 6 (FeMn) and needle-like Al 3 (FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al 7 Cu 2 (FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al 6 (FeMn) and Al 3 (FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve

  13. Evolution of microstructure in laser welding of SS304L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kushwaha, R.P.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Laser welding is an important joining process and its application in industries is growing rapidly. One can produce laser welds over a wide range of process parameters and this offers very good opportunity for producing microstructure of different morphology and scales in the weldment. Weld beads have been produced on 5 mm thick plates of SS304L using CW Nd-YAG laser. Laser power was varied in 200 W to 1000 W range and welding speed was varied in 100 mm/mm to 1000 mm/mm. This resulted in weld beads of different morphology. Microstructure of the weld beads was examined on the cross-section as well as in the axial direction using optical microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to study evolution of the microstructure in the weldment. Microstructure was cellular and cellular-dendritic with grains growing from the fusion line towards the centerline. In the central region, cellular growth along the welding direction was observed. The cell size was found to increase with increasing laser power and decreasing welding speed. The findings are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Multi-pass TIG welding process: simulating thermal SS304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harinadh, Vemanaboina; Akella, S.; Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Edision, G.

    2015-01-01

    Welding is basic requirement in the construction of nuclear reactors, power plants and structural components development. A basic studies on various aspects of the welding is essential to ensure the stability and structural requirement conditions. The present study explored the thermo-mechanical analysis of the multipass welds of austenitic stainless steels which are widely used in fusion and fission reactor components development. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model is developed to investigate thermally induced stress field during TIG welding process for SS304 material. The transient thermal analysis is performed to obtain the temperature history, which then is applied to the mechanical (stress) analysis. The present thermal analysis is conducted using element type DC3D8. This element type has a three dimensional thermal conduction capability and eight nodes. The 6 mm thick plated is welded with six numbers of passes. The geometry and meshed model with tetrahedral shape with volume sweep. The analysis is on TIG welding process using 3D-weld interface plug-in on ABAQUS-6.14. The results are reported in the present paper

  15. Chronic administration of mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31 prevents atherosclerotic development in ApoE knockout mice fed Western diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory factors are deeply involved in progression of atherosclerosis. Mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31, selectively targeting to mitochondrial inner membrane reacting with cardiolipin, has been reported to inhibit ROS generation and mitigate inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate whether SS-31 could suppress the development of atherosclerosis in vivo.Male ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old fed with Western diet were treated with normal saline or SS-31 (1 mg/kg/d or 3 mg/kg/d through subcutaneous injection for 12 weeks. Oil Red O staining was performed to evaluate area and sizes of the plaques. DHE staining and immunohistochemical staining of 8-OHDG was performed to assess the oxidative stress. The aorta ATP contents were assessed by the ATP bioluminescence assay kit. Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 and α-SMA and Masson's trichrome staining were performed to evaluate the composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Biochemical assays were performed to determine the protein level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. The levels of CD36, LOX-1 and ABCA1 were immunohistochemically and biochemically determined to evaluate the cholesterol transport in aorta and peritoneal macrophages. Inflammatory factors, including ICAM-1, MCP-1, IL-6 and CRP in serum, were detected through ELISA.SS-31 administration reduced the area and sizes of western diet-induced atherosclerotic plaques and changed the composition of the plaques in ApoE-/- mice. Oxidative stress was suppressed, as evidenced by the reduced DHE stain, down-regulated 8-OHDG expression, and increased SOD activity after chronic SS-31 administration. Moreover, systemic inflammation was ameliorated as seen by decreasing serum ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6 levels. Most importantly, SS-31 administration inhibited cholesterol influx by down-regulating expression of CD36 and LOX-1 to prevent lipid accumulation to further suppress the foam cell formation and

  16. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-09

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and

  17. Proposal and Implementation of An IDS for Potential SMS Spam Signaling Messages on SS7

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Paul Ntim

    2016-01-01

    Problem Description Reports on spam activities reaching telecom operators reveal flaws in routing for SMS on the Signaling System 7 network. This thesis consists of the following tasks: A comprehensive Study of vulnerabilities on the SS7 network. Proposal and implementation of an intrusion detection system to mitigate signaling for SMS spam on the SS7 network. Evaluation of the proposed detection method.

  18. Advanced drug delivery nanosystems (aDDnSs): a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas; Pippa, Natassa

    2014-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in nanoscale drugs and delivery systems employing diverse chemical formulations to facilitate the rate of drug delivery and to improve its pharmacokinetics. Biocompatible nanomaterials have been used as biological markers, contrast agents for imaging, healthcare products, pharmaceuticals, drug-delivery systems as well as in detection, diagnosis and treatment of various types of diseases. The classification of drug delivery nanosystems (DDnSs) is a crucial issue and fundamental efforts on this subject are missing from the literature. This article deals with the classification of DDnSs with a modulatory controlled release profile (MCR) denoted as modulatory controlled release nanosystems (MCRnSs). Conventional (c) and advanced (a) DDnSs are denoted by the acronyms cDDnSs and aDDnSs, and can be composed of a single or more than one biomaterials, respectively. The classification was based on their characteristics such as: surface functionality (f), the nature of biomaterials used and the kind of interactions between biomaterials. The aDDnSs can be classified as hybridic (Hy-) or chimeric (Chi-) based on the nature - same or different respectively - of biomaterials and inorganic materials used. The nature of the elements used for producing advanced biomaterials is of great importance and medicinal chemistry contributes effectively to the production of aDDnSs.

  19. Produtividade e teor de sólidos solúveis de frutos de cultivares de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Yield and soluble solids contents of fruits of strawberry cultivars in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo protegido é uma alternativa para controlar variações climáticas em diferentes locais e épocas de plantio, entretanto, seus efeitos e interações com a cultura do morangueiro ainda são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência de três sistemas de cultivo (túnel alto, túnel baixo e a campo na produtividade, massa média de frutos e no teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos das cultivares de morango Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie e Oso Grande em Guarapuava-PR. Quanto à produtividade e massa média de frutos, a cultivar Camarosa foi a melhor nos cultivos em túnel, tanto alto quanto baixo, pelo seu excelente desempenho. Os frutos da cultivar Sweet Charlie apresentaram o maior teor de sólidos solúveis nos três ambientes de cultivo. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos foram significativamente superiores nos cultivos em túneis, alto e baixo, quando comparados ao cultivo a campo. O ambiente que propiciou maior acúmulo de sólidos solúveis nos frutos foi o túnel alto, diferindo significativamente dos demais ambientes de cultivo.Protected cultivation is an alternative to control the climatic effects in different places and times of planting, however, its effects and interactions with the strawberry crop are little known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of three cropping systems (high tunnel, low tunnel and field on yield, mean fruit mass and the soluble solids contents of strawberry cultivars Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie and Oso Grande in Guarapuava. Camarosa cultivar presents an excellent performance regarding yield and mean fruit mass in high and low tunnel cultivation; hence, these cropping system can be indicated. Fruits of Sweet Charlie cultivar had the highest content of soluble solids in all the cultivation environments. Yield and mean fruit mass obtained from high and low tunnels were significantly higher than in the field. The environment high tunnel allowed

  20. TIMES-SS - A mechanistic evaluation of an external validation study using reaction chemistry principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, David W.; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.

    2007-01-01

    The TImes MEtabolism Simulator platform used for predicting skin sensitization (TIMES-SS) is a hybrid expert system that was developed at Bourgas University using funding and data from a consortium comprised of industry and regulators. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure...... chemicals in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and then compared with predictions made by TIMES-SS. The results were promising with an overall good concordance (83%) between experimental and predicted values. The LLNA results were evaluated with respect to reaction chemistry principles...... for sensitization. Additional testing on a further four chemicals was carried out to explore some of the specific reaction chemistry findings in more detail. Improvements for TIMES-SS, where appropriate, were put forward together with proposals for further research work. TIMES-SS is a promising tool to aid...

  1. Asymmetric PCR for good quality ssDNA generation towards DNA aptamer production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Tominaga4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are ssDNA or RNA that binds to wide variety of target molecules with high affinity and specificity producedby systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Compared to RNA aptamer, DNA aptamer is muchmore stable, favourable to be used in many applications. The most critical step in DNA SELEX experiment is the conversion ofdsDNA to ssDNA. The purpose of this study was to develop an economic and efficient approach of generating ssDNA byusing asymmetric PCR. Our results showed that primer ratio (sense primer:antisense primer of 20:1 and sense primer amountof 10 to 100 pmol, up to 20 PCR cycles using 20 ng of initial template, in combination with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,were the optimal conditions for generating good quality and quantity of ssDNA. The generation of ssDNA via this approachcan greatly enhance the success rate of DNA aptamer generation.

  2. French validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye-Dumanget, Christine; Carré, Julie; Le Borgne, Margaux; Boudoukha, Pr Abdel Halim

    2017-12-01

    Several international studies have been conducted on student burnout. To contribute to the clinical examination as well as research on the mental health of students, the MBI-SS (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey) has been validated and used in different countries but not in French. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the 3-dimensional model of the French version of the MBI-SS, which is characterized by emotional "Emotional Exhaustion" (EE); "Cynicism" (CY); and low scores in "Academic Efficacy" (AE). A total of 667 university students were questioned to study the 3-dimensional structure of the French translation of the MBI-SS. The results validate the 3-dimensional structure of the MBI-SS and indicate satisfactory psychometric values. It is concluded that the MBI-SS can be used to assess burnout in French students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Simultaneous radio and x-ray activity in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Gilmore, W.S.; Johnston, K.J.; Grindlay, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous observations at radio and X-ray wavelengths of flarelike events in SS 433 were made during 1979 October 5-9 and 19-22. The radio spectra show evidence for low-frequency absorption, which may be due to either synchrotron self-absorption or free-free absorption by a stellar wind. In the latter case, a model is developed indicating that clouds of relativistic gas are generated at least 10 14 cm from the stellar object and are swept outward through the stellar wind by highly collimated beams. A mass loss of approx.10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and an outflow speed of approx.1000 km s -1 are consistent with the data. The beam velocities (0.26c) are found to be consistent with the previous optical and radio data. The X-ray emission is evidently nonthermal and closely related to the radio flares, particularly during the event on October 5-9. The behavior during the second event on October 19-22 is considerably more complex. The source of the X-ray radiation is either synchrotron or inverse Compton emission. No clear cut decision is permitted by the data, although the latter mechanism seems to be an inevitable consequence of the known presence of both ultrarelativistic electrons and a high optical stellar luminosity. The inverse Compton mechansim is considered in more detail in the context of the model used to explain the radio behavior. The complexity of the October 19-22 data seems to defy' any simple model

  4. Cytotoxic Vibrio T3SS1 Rewires Host Gene Expression to Subvert Cell Death Signaling and Activate Cell Survival Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial effectors are potent manipulators of host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para), delivers effectors into host cells through two type three secretion systems (T3SS). The ubiquitous T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate non-apoptotic cell death. Much is known about how T3SS1 effectors function in isolation, but we wanted to understand how their concerted action globally affects host cell signaling. To assess the host response to T3SS1, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1+) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1−). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1+ and T3SS1− V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 re-wired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors target host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, network analysis indicated that V. para T3SS1 also precipitates a host transcriptional response that initially activates cell survival and represses cell death networks. The increased expression of several key pro-survival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 was dependent on a host signaling pathway that is silenced later in infection by the posttranslational action of T3SS1. Taken together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. PMID:28512145

  5. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I was successful in delivering a complete prototype of the proposed innovation, an LED-based, solid state, large area, pulsed, solar simulator (ssLAPSS)....

  6. AtlasT4SS: a curated database for type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rangel C; del Rosario Quispe Saji, Guadalupe; Costa, Maiana O C; Netto, Diogo S; Lima, Nicholas C B; Klein, Cecília C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Nicolás, Marisa F

    2012-08-09

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary relationships: (i) F-T4SS, (ii) P-T4SS, (iii

  7. Chitin-induced T6SS in Vibrio cholerae is dependent on ChiS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourashi, Rhishita; Das, Suman; Dhar, Debarpan; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae regularly colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of crustacean shells in the aquatic region. The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae is an interbacterial killing device. This system is thought to provide a competitive advantage to V. cholerae in a polymicrobial community of the aquatic region under nutrient-poor conditions. V. cholerae chitin sensing is known to be initiated by the activation of a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in the presence of GlcNAc2 (N,N'-diacetylchitobiose) residues generated by the action of chitinases on chitin. It is known that T6SS in V. cholerae is generally induced by chitin. However, the effect of ChiS activation on T6SS is unknown. Here, we found that ChiS inactivation resulted in impaired bacterial killing and reduced expression of T6SS genes. Active ChiS positively affected T6SS-mediated natural transformation in V. cholerae. ChiS depletion or inactivation also resulted in reduced colonization on insoluble chitin surfaces. Therefore, we have shown that V. cholerae colonization on chitinous surfaces activates ChiS, which promotes T6SS-dependent bacterial killing and horizontal gene transfer. We also highlight the importance of chitinases in T6SS upregulation.

  8. MUFOLD-SS: New deep inception-inside-inception networks for protein secondary structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Protein secondary structure prediction can provide important information for protein 3D structure prediction and protein functions. Deep learning offers a new opportunity to significantly improve prediction accuracy. In this article, a new deep neural network architecture, named the Deep inception-inside-inception (Deep3I) network, is proposed for protein secondary structure prediction and implemented as a software tool MUFOLD-SS. The input to MUFOLD-SS is a carefully designed feature matrix corresponding to the primary amino acid sequence of a protein, which consists of a rich set of information derived from individual amino acid, as well as the context of the protein sequence. Specifically, the feature matrix is a composition of physio-chemical properties of amino acids, PSI-BLAST profile, and HHBlits profile. MUFOLD-SS is composed of a sequence of nested inception modules and maps the input matrix to either eight states or three states of secondary structures. The architecture of MUFOLD-SS enables effective processing of local and global interactions between amino acids in making accurate prediction. In extensive experiments on multiple datasets, MUFOLD-SS outperformed the best existing methods and other deep neural networks significantly. MUFold-SS can be downloaded from http://dslsrv8.cs.missouri.edu/~cf797/MUFoldSS/download.html. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on the Corrosion Behavior of AISI Type 304L SS Weld Metal in Simulated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Girija; Nandakumar, T.; Viswanath, A.

    2018-05-01

    The manuscript presents the investigations carried out on the effect of low-temperature sensitization (LTS) of 304L SS weld metal on its corrosion behavior in simulated groundwater, for its application as a canister material for long-term storage of nuclear vitrified high-level waste in geological repositories. AISI type 304L SS weld pad was fabricated by multipass gas tungsten arc welding process using 308L SS filler wire. The as-welded specimens were subsequently subjected to carbide nucleation and further to LTS at 500 °C for 11 days to simulate a temperature of 300 °C for 100-year life of the canister in geological repositories. Delta ferrite ( δ-ferrite) content of the 304L SS weld metal substantially decreased on carbide nucleation treatment and further only a marginal decrease occurred on LTS treatment. The microstructure of the as-welded consisted of δ-ferrite as a minor phase distributed in austenite matrix. The δ-ferrite appeared fragmented in the carbide-nucleated and LTS-treated weld metal. The degree of sensitization measured by double-loop electrochemical potentokinetic reactivation method indicated an increase in carbide nucleation treatment when compared to the as-welded specimens, and further increase occurred on LTS treatment. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization investigations in simulated groundwater indicated a substantial decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the carbide-nucleated and LTS 304L SS weld metals, when compared to the as-welded specimens. Post-experimental micrographs indicated pitting as the primary mode of attack in the as-welded, while pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurred in the carbide-nucleated weld metal. LTS-treated weld metal predominantly underwent IGC attack. The decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the weld metal after LTS treatment was found to have a direct correlation with the degree of sensitization and the weld microstructure. The results are detailed in the manuscript.

  10. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on the Corrosion Behavior of AISI Type 304L SS Weld Metal in Simulated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Girija; Nandakumar, T.; Viswanath, A.

    2018-04-01

    The manuscript presents the investigations carried out on the effect of low-temperature sensitization (LTS) of 304L SS weld metal on its corrosion behavior in simulated groundwater, for its application as a canister material for long-term storage of nuclear vitrified high-level waste in geological repositories. AISI type 304L SS weld pad was fabricated by multipass gas tungsten arc welding process using 308L SS filler wire. The as-welded specimens were subsequently subjected to carbide nucleation and further to LTS at 500 °C for 11 days to simulate a temperature of 300 °C for 100-year life of the canister in geological repositories. Delta ferrite (δ-ferrite) content of the 304L SS weld metal substantially decreased on carbide nucleation treatment and further only a marginal decrease occurred on LTS treatment. The microstructure of the as-welded consisted of δ-ferrite as a minor phase distributed in austenite matrix. The δ-ferrite appeared fragmented in the carbide-nucleated and LTS-treated weld metal. The degree of sensitization measured by double-loop electrochemical potentokinetic reactivation method indicated an increase in carbide nucleation treatment when compared to the as-welded specimens, and further increase occurred on LTS treatment. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization investigations in simulated groundwater indicated a substantial decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the carbide-nucleated and LTS 304L SS weld metals, when compared to the as-welded specimens. Post-experimental micrographs indicated pitting as the primary mode of attack in the as-welded, while pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurred in the carbide-nucleated weld metal. LTS-treated weld metal predominantly underwent IGC attack. The decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the weld metal after LTS treatment was found to have a direct correlation with the degree of sensitization and the weld microstructure. The results are detailed in the manuscript.

  11. Effect of alloying elements on the isothermal solidification during TLP bonding of SS 410 and SS 321 using a BNi-2 interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arafin, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, H3G 1M8 (Canada)], E-mail: ma_arafi@encs.concordia.ca; Medraj, M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, H3G 1M8 (Canada)], E-mail: mmedraj@encs.concordia.ca; Turner, D.P. [Metallurgical Planning, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Que., J4G 1A1 (Canada)], E-mail: Daniel.P.Turner@pwc.ca; Bocher, P. [Department de Genie Mecanique, Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, H3C 1K3 (Canada)], E-mail: Philippe.Bocher@etsmtl.ca

    2007-11-15

    The random diffusion of solute atoms during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of SS 410 and 321 with nickel-based brazing filler alloy BNi-2 have been modeled using Random Walk Modeling technique. Cumulative probability distributions and probability density functions of isothermal solidification times have been calculated for different process conditions and verified with experimental data. The solubility limit of boron has been found to have decreased from 0.3 at.% at higher temperature bonding operations (1358-1394 K) because of substantial iron-rich base metal dissolution when SS 410 was used as base metals; whereas it remained unchanged for SS 321/BNi-2 combination because of high concentrations of nickel and chromium in the base metal. Silicon diffusion model, based on the EDS analysis, also predicted the isothermal solidification times reasonably well.

  12. Construction, characterization and evaluation of the protective efficacy of the Streptococcus suis double mutant strain ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC as a live vaccine candidate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; You, Wujin; Wang, Bin; Hu, Xueying; Tan, Chen; Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) causes sepsis and meningitis in piglets and humans, and results in one of the most serious bacterial diseases affecting the production of commercial pigs around the world. Due to the failure of the current inactivated vaccine to protect against the disease, development of a new attenuated live vaccine against S. suis 2 by deleting essential virulence factors is urgently needed. We have previously reported the construction and characterization of an SsPep single gene deletion mutant strain ΔSsPep based on S. suis 2. Our previous results have shown that SsPep plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2. In this study, a precisely defined double-deletion mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC of S. suis 2 without antibiotic-resistance markers was constructed based on ΔSsPep, and the levels of virulence of the wild-type (WT) and ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC were compared in a mouse experimental infection model. We demonstrated that the double mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC was less virulent than the WT, and could induce a noticeable antibody response. Analysis of IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) indicated that both Th1 and Th2 responses were induced by ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC, although the IgG2a (Th1) response predominated over the IgG1 (Th2) response. Moreover, ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC could confer 90% protective efficacy against challenge with a lethal dose of fully virulent S. suis 2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC can be used as an effective live vaccine and provide a novel strategy against infection of S. suis 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Responsiivinen web-kehitys WordPress-julkaisujärjestelmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Jutila, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin responsiivisen web-kehityksen toteuttamista WordPress-julkaisujärjes¬-telmässä. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa yrityksen käyttöön WordPress-teema, joka sisälsi tarvittavat ominaisuudet mukautuvien verkkosivujen toteuttamiseen. Teeman tarkoituksena oli toimia pohjana, jonka päälle verkkosivun rakentaminen olisi mahdollisimman vaivatonta. Työssä käsiteltiin mobiililaitteiden asettamia haasteita web-kehityksessä, sekä tekniikoita niiden rat-kaisemiseen. Päätelaitteiden ...

  14. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H

    2009-01-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  15. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H, E-mail: vib@sai.msu.r [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Athens University, Zagrafos 15784, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  16. Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of S,S-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derisvaldo Rosa Paiva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diastereoselective synthesis of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanol by reduction of SS-2-methylsulfanyl-2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone optically enriched demonstrating to be highly efficiency using the sulfanyl group as asymmetric induction control agent during an addition reaction to carbonyl group.The 2-methylsulfinyl-1-indanone was obtained for the first time in one unique step without further oxidation steps. The synthesis of SR, SS of 2-methylsulphinyl-1-indanone optically enriched in good yield and good enantiomeric excess determined by nuclear magnetic resonance technique employing the Kagan reagent as chiral shift agent.

  17. Modulación de la expresión por GA y ABA de los genes Ss1 y Ss2 que codifican sacarosa sintasa en cebada

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonero Zalduegui, Pilar; Barrero Sicilia, Cristina; Oñate Sanchez, Luis; Hernando Amado, Sara; Rueda Romero, Paloma

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio comparativo entre distintas isoformas de SUSy de cereales y arabidopsis. Además se ha realizado un análisis de expresión de HvSs1 y HvSs2 en distintos órganos, incluyendo patrones temporales en semillas en desarrollo y germinación, así como la variación de su respuesta a ácido abscísico (ABA) y giberélico (GA3).

  18. Treatment of Petroleum Sludge By Using Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) Method : Effect of Hydration Days to Heavy Metals Leaching and Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, N.; Kamil, N. A. F. M.; Kadir, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Petroleum sludge is one of the major solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. Generally, there are numbers of heavy metals in petroleum sludge and one treatment that is gaining prominence to treat a variety of mixed organic and inorganic waste is solidification/stabilization (S/S) method. The treatment protects human health and the environment by immobilizing contaminants within the treated material and prevents migration of the contaminants. In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S) method has been used to treat the petroleum sludge. The comparison of hydration days, namely, 7th and 28th days in these cement-based waste materials were studied by using Synthetic Precipitate Leaching Procedure (SPLP). The results were compared to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. The results for leaching test concluded that less percentage OPC gave maximum concentration of heavy metals leaching due to deficient in Calcium Oxide (CaO), which is can caused weak solidification in the mixture. Physical and mechanical properties conducted such as compressive strength and density test. From the results, it shows addition up to of 30percentage PS give results which comply with minimum landfill dispose limit. The results shows correlation between strength and density are strong regression coefficient of 82.7%. In conclusion, S/S method can be alternative disposal method for PS in the same time complies with standard for minimum landfill disposal limit. The results for leaching test concluded the less OPC percentage gave maximum concentration of heavy metals leaching.

  19. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  20. Solid-State NMR and DFT Studies on the Formation of Well-Defined Silica-Supported Tantallaaziridines: From Synthesis to Catalytic Application

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Chen, Yin; El Eter, Mohamad; Chermak, Edrisse; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1H,13C HETCOR and DQ TQ solid-state (SS) NMR spectroscopy. The formation mechanism, by β-H abstraction, was investigated by SS NMR spectroscopy and supported by DFT calculations. The C-H activation of the dimethylamide

  1. Characterization of 316L(N)-IG SS joint produced by hot isostatic pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, J.; Miwa, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Kita, S.; Nemoto, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Type 316L(N) stainless steel of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor grade (316L(N)-IG SS) is being considered for the first wall/blanket module. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique is expected for the fabrication of the module. To evaluate the integrity and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of HIPed 316L(N)-IG SS, tensile tests in vacuum and slow strain rate tests in high temperature water were performed. Specimen with the HIPed joint had similar tensile properties to specimens of 316L(N)-IG SS, and did not show susceptibility to SCC in oxygenated water at 423 K. Thermally sensitized specimen was low susceptible to SCC even in the creviced condition. It is concluded that the tensile properties of HIPed SS are as high as those of the base alloy and the HIP process caused no deleterious effects

  2. Preparation of the Pt/CNTs Catalyst and Its Application to the Fabrication of Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Containing a Low Content of Trans Fatty Acids Using the Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huanyu; Ding, Yangyue; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Cui, Yueting; Han, Jianchun; Zhu, Xiuqing; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou; Liu, Lilai

    2018-08-01

    Pt/CNTs were synthesized with an ethylene glycol reduction method, and the effects of carboxyl functionalization, ultrasonic power and the concentration of chloroplatinic acid on the catalytic activity of Pt/CNTs were investigated. The optimal performance of the Pt/CNTs catalyst was obtained when the ultrasonic power was 300 W and the concentration of chloroplatinic acid was 40 mg/mL. The durability and stability of the Pt/CNTs catalyst were considerably better compared to Pt/C, as shown by cyclic voltammetry measurement results. The trans fatty acids content of the obtained hydrogenated soybean oil (IV: 108.4 gl2/100 g oil) using Pt/CNTs as the cathode catalyst in a solid polymer electrolyte reactor was only 1.49%. The IV of hydrogenated soybean oil obtained using CNTs as carrier with Pt loading 0.1 mg/cm2 (IV: 108.4 gl2/100 g oil) was lower than carbon with a Pt loading of 0.8 mg/cm2 (IV: 109.9 gl2/100 g oil). Thus, to achive the same IV, the usage of Pt was much less when carbon nanotubes were selected as catalyst carrier compared to traditional carbon carrier. The changes of fatty acid components and the hydrogenated selectivity of octadecenoic acid were also discussed.

  3. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Dawn; Schwarz, Laura; McClure, Rebecca; Peterka, Lauren; Rouhani, Farshid; Brantly, Mark; Strange, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT) is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS) and 29 matched control participants (PiMM) were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was perform...

  4. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44) and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstr...

  5. An investigation of p-normed sparsity evaluation for SS-LBP-based edge extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-yi, Zhao [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Jia-ning, Sun, E-mail: sunjn118@nenu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Shuang, Qiao, E-mail: qiaos810@nenu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China)

    2017-02-01

    SS-LBP is a very efficient tool for fast edge extraction in digital radiography. In this paper, we introduce a p-normed sparsity evaluation strategy to improve and generalize the existing SS-LBP framework. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, several experimental results are presented. Comparisons show that 1-normed sparsity evaluation is more effective and robust in practical applications.

  6. Features of systemic sclerosis-rheumatoid arthritis overlap syndrome (SS-RA overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Desinova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To reveal clinico-laboratory, immunologic and immunogenetic features of systemic sclerosis-rheumatoid arthritis overlap syndrome (SS-RA.Material and methods. 32 pts with SS-RA (1 male, 31 female aged 22 to 74 years with disease onset at 18 to 69 years and disease duration from 1 to 35 years were included. Complex laboratory and instrumental examination was performed including nailfold capillaroscopy. A part of pts was also evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging of hands. Serum level of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor, circulating immune complexes, C-reactive protein, antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP was evaluated. Genotyping of DRB1 alleles was performed.Results. Characteristic features of SS-RA were prevalence of limited skin damage, less prominent peripheral and visceral symptoms of SS, presence of anti-topoisomerase antibodies and erosive arthritis, high laboratory and immunological activity, more frequent association with DRB1*01.Conclusion. SS-RA possesses its own clinical features and can be considered as a distinct subtype of SS.

  7. Novel solidsolid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojda Marta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  8. Validation of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL): test of reliability and validity of the Danish version (SS-QOL-DK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Ingrid; Williams, Linda S; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2007-07-01

    To test the reliability and validity of the Danish version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale version 2.0 (SS-QOL-DK), an instrument for evaluation of health-related quality of life. A correlational study. A stroke unit that provides acute care and rehabilitation for stroke patients in Frederiksborg County, Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two stroke survivors participated; 24 of these performed test-retest. Questionnaires were sent out and returned by mail. A subsequent telephone interview assessed functional level and missing items. Test-retest was measured using Spearman's r, internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha, and evaluation of floor and ceiling values in proportion of minimum and maximum scores. Construct validity was assessed by comparing patients' scores on the SS-QOL-DK with those obtained by other test methods: Beck's Depression Index, the General Health Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Barthel Index and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, evaluating shared variance using coefficient of determination, r2. Comparing groups with known scores assessed known-group validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Test-retest of SS-QOL-DK showed excellent stability, Spearman's r = 0.65-0.99. Internal consistency for all domains showed Cronbach's alpha = 0.81-0.94. Missing items rate was 1.0%. Most SS-QOL-DK domains showed moderately shared variance with similar domains of other test methods, r2 = 0.03-0.62. Groups with known differences showed statistically significant difference in scores. Item-to-scale correlation coefficients of 0.37-0.88 supported convergent validity. SS-QOL-DK is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring self-reported health-related quality of life on group level among people with mild to moderate stroke.

  9. Clinical significance of changes of serum TGF-β1, CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To esplore the clinical significance of serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum TGF-β 1 , SS (with RIA) serum CTGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 35 normal healthy controls. Results: Serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels were remarkably higher than those in controls (P 1 levels were positively correlated with CTGF and SS levels (r=0.6134, 0.4916, P 1 , CTGF and SS levels may help to recognize the pathogenesis and prediction in chronic hepatitis C. (authors)

  10. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  11. VMD-SS: A graphical user interface plug-in to calculate the protein secondary structure in VMD program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyavi, Masoumeh; Falsafi-Zadeh, Sajad; Karimi, Zahra; Kalatarian, Giti; Galehdari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The investigation on the types of secondary structure (SS) of a protein is important. The evolution of secondary structures during molecular dynamics simulations is a useful parameter to analyze protein structures. Therefore, it is of interest to describe VMD-SS (a software program) for the identification of secondary structure elements and its trajectories during simulation for known structures available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The program helps to calculate (1) percentage SS, (2) SS occurrence in each residue, (3) percentage SS during simulation, and (4) percentage residues in all SS types during simulation. The VMD-SS plug-in was designed using TCL script and stride to calculate secondary structure features. The database is available for free at http://science.scu.ac.ir/HomePage.aspx?TabID=13755.

  12. Efficiency of removal of bod5 and ss in sedimentation tanks and filters in wastewater treatment systems for coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez Guzmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available n order to evaluate the current operating conditions of wastewater treatment systems of small scale coffee growers in the south of Huila a lab-scale prototype (S 1:25 was constructed. It was composed of both a sediment tank and a filter fit in series, simulating similar operating conditions used by coffee producers. Removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD5 and suspended solids (SS was performed in wastewater from coffee bean processing. A 23 factorial experimental design for the evaluation of the type of sedimentation tank, type of filter and hydraulic retention time (HRT in the sedimentation tank was employed. The results showed high removal efficiencies of suspended solid concentrations (more than 95%, and low removal efficiencies in BOD5 (about 20%. The combination of tank type 1 (square with a lower area, filter type 1 (upflow anaerobic filter – UAF and HRT of 30 hours had the highest removal efficiency.

  13. [Study and development of a new automatic suction system (SS) of intratracheal sputum in order to improve QOL of many patients with tracheostomy mechanical ventilation (TMV) and their family members by this new autonomic SS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tokunaga, Syuichi; Niikura, Makoto; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Kira, Jun-ichi; Fukunaga, Toshihide; Shima, Kouji; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kimura, Itaru; Kondo, Kiyohiko; Mori, Teruhiko; Goto, Katumasa; Takigami, Shigeru; Shioya, Keiichi; Uehara, Minako

    2009-11-01

    In Japan, many patients equipped with TMV are under medical treatment at home after 1990. These patients can't put out sputa in trachea, so that these patient's family members must suck these patient's intratracheal sputa all days. Mr Yamamoto and Mr Tokunaga, main researchers of this study, began the study on the automatic SS of itratracheal sputa from 1999. In first stage, They developed the intermittent SS in detaining the suction tube within tracheal cannula, monitering the intratracheal pressure, but this system takes the ventilation away from the patient. Hypoventilation caused by this SS may cause the serious accident in patient. Therefore, we remodel the SS from intermittent SS to rollerpomp-type SS continuing to suck the itratracheal sputa with low volume from 2004, and thereafter we made up the SS of piston pomp type-SS finally at 2007. We developed the tracheal cannula with double suction holes of inner and lower hole in the lower part of its cannula together with the suction machine. We think that the practical use of this automatic SS will bring these patients with TMV and their family members great benefits. We desire that the practical use of this SS will be realized as soon as possible.

  14. On fitting the full spectrum of luminous red galaxies by using ULySS and STARLIGHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gao-Chao; Lu You-Jun; Chen Xue-Lei; Du Wei; Zhao Yong-Heng

    2013-01-01

    We select a sample of quiescent luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to study the consistency of fitting the full spectrum by using different packages, mainly, ULySS and STARLIGHT. The spectrum of each galaxy in the sample is fitted by the full spectrum fitting packages ULySS and STARLIGHT. We find: (1) for spectra with higher S/Ns, the ages of stellar populations obtained from ULySS are slightly older than those from STARLIGHT, and metallicities derived from ULySS are slightly richer than those from STARLIGHT. In general, both packages can give roughly consistent fitting results. (2) For low S/N spectra, it is possible that the fitting by ULySS can become trapped at some local minimum in the parameter space during execution and thus may give unreliable results, but STARLIGHT can still give reliable results. Based on the fitting results of LRGs, we further analyze their star formation history and the relation between their age and velocity dispersion, and find that they agree well with conclusions from previous works

  15. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage) characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, G. T., III; Livescu, V.; Rigg, P. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Cady, C. M.; Chen, S. R.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Fensin, S.

    2015-09-01

    For additive manufacturing (AM), the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no "ASTM-type" additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  16. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  17. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve, E-mail: parag@fnal.go, E-mail: garzogli@fnal.go, E-mail: tlevshin@fnal.go, E-mail: timm@fnal.go [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P O Box 500, Batavia, IL - 60510 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  18. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  19. Architecture and ssDNA interaction of the Timeless-Tipin-RPA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witosch, Justine; Wolf, Eva; Mizuno, Naoko

    2014-11-10

    The Timeless-Tipin (Tim-Tipin) complex, also referred to as the fork protection complex, is involved in coordination of DNA replication. Tim-Tipin is suggested to be recruited to replication forks via Replication Protein A (RPA) but details of the interaction are unknown. Here, using cryo-EM and biochemical methods, we characterized complex formation of Tim-Tipin, RPA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Tim-Tipin and RPA form a 258 kDa complex with a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. The cryo-EM 3D reconstruction revealed a globular architecture of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex with a ring-like and a U-shaped domain covered by a RPA lid. Interestingly, RPA in the complex adopts a horse shoe-like shape resembling its conformation in the presence of long ssDNA (>30 nucleotides). Furthermore, the recruitment of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex to ssDNA is modulated by the RPA conformation and requires RPA to be in the more compact 30 nt ssDNA binding mode. The dynamic formation and disruption of the Tim-Tipin-RPA-ssDNA complex implicates the RPA-based recruitment of Tim-Tipin to the replication fork. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  1. Fluorescence Detection and Discrimination of ss- and ds-DNA with a Water Soluble Oligopyrene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoquan Shi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel water-soluble cationic conjugated oligopyrene derivative, oligo(N1,N1,N1,N4,N4,N4-hexamethyl-2-(4-(pyren-1-yl butane-1,4-diaminium bromide (OHPBDB, was synthesized by a combination of chemical and electrochemical synthesis techniques. Each oligomer chain has five pyrene derivative repeating units and brings 10 positive charges. OHPBDB showed high and rapid fluorescence quenching in aqueous media upon addition of trace amounts of single-stranded (ss and double-stranded (ds DNA. The Stern-Volmer constants for ss- and ds-DNA were measured to be as high as 1.3 × 108 mol-1·L and 1.2 × 108 mol-1·L, respectively. On the other hand, distinct fluorescence enhancement of OHPBDB upon addition of large amount of ss-DNA or ds-DNA was observed. Furthermore, ss-DNA showed much stronger fluorescence enhancement than that of ds-DNA, thus yielding a clear and simple signal useful for the discrimination between ss- and ds-DNA in aqueous media.

  2. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault-Grunenwald, Marie-Laure; Borges, Vitor; Charpentier, Xavier; Limansky, Adriana S.; Gomes, João Paulo; Viale, Alejandro M.; Salcedo, Suzana P.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978), a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011) and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825), revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS) functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner. PMID:26401654

  3. Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation; genera Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifiyanto, Achmad; Apriyanti, Fitria Dwi; Purwaningsih, Puput; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Agustina, Dyah; Surtiningsih, Tini; Shovitri, Maya; Zulaika, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) includes a group of large heavy metal in nature was toxic either on animal or human and did not provide an advantage function biologically. Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 known resistant to lead up to 50 mg / L PbCl2. In this research will be examined whether genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 could accumulate metal lead (Pb), their capability in accumulating and profile protein differences when the bacteria genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 get exposed metal lead (Pb). Inoculum at age ± 9 hours are used, with a Nutrient Broth (NB) containing 50, 75 and 100 mg / L PbCl2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) used to assessed Pb2+ concentrations. Bioaccumulation levels of Pb2+ by Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 related to the distinction of beginning concentration to the final concentration. Bacillus isolate S1 achieved 53% and 51% bioaccumulation efficiency rate in lead presence concentration (75 and 100 mg/L) and 51% (50 mg/L). Another way Bacillus isolate SS19 was able to accumulate 57% (50 mg/L PbCl2) and kept stable on 36% bioaccumulation efficiency rate (75 and 100 mg/L PbCl2). Regarding SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profile result, protein in ± 127 kDa, molecule mass detected in the presence of Lead for Bacillus isolate S1.

  4. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithjof eGlowinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  5. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray III G.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For additive manufacturing (AM, the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no “ASTM-type” additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  7. Analysis of the stress-inducible transcription factor SsNAC23 in sugarcane plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fava Ditt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stresses such as cold and drought can impair plant yield and induce a highly complex array of responses. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and is considered a cold-sensitive plant. We previously showed that cold stress induces the expression of several genes in in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Here we characterize one of those genes, SsNAC23, a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcription factors, which are induced by low temperature and other stresses in several plant species. The expression of SsNAC23 was induced in sugarcane plants exposed to low temperatures (4ºC. With the aim of further understanding the regulatory network in response to stress, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify sugarcane proteins that interact with SsNAC23. Using SsNAC23 as bait, we screened a cDNA expression library of sugarcane plants submitted to 4ºC for 48 h. Several interacting partners were identified, including stress-related proteins, increasing our knowledge on how sugarcane plants respond to cold stress. One of these interacting partners, a thioredoxin h1, offers insights into the regulation of SsNAC23 activity.

  8. Study on the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 variant in Ukrainian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherenko A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine genotype and allele disribution for the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 and examine it for linkage with the IL28B gene rs12979860 in Ukrainian population. Methods. The studied group consisted of 100 unrelated donors of Eastern European origin representing the population of Ukraine. Genotyping for the IFNL4 gene ss469415590 was performed using the amplification-refractory mutation system PCR. Genotyping for the IL28B gene rs12979860 was performed by the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results. Genotype frequencies for both studied variants showed no significant deviation from those expected according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Allelic distribution for ss469415590 was: TT – 0.665, G – 0.335. Allelic frequencies of rs12979860 were: C – 0.655, T – 0.345. The results of likelihood ratio test indicated a linkage disequilibrium between the studied variants (p > 0.0001, the major alleles ss469415590 TT and rs12979860 C were in phase. The genetic structure of Ukrainian population in terms of two studied polymorphic variants is similar to the European population presented in the «1000 genomes» project. Conclusions. Considering a tight linkage revealed in Ukrainian population between the ss469415590 variant and rs12979860, a crucial genetic marker of chronic hepatitis C treatment efficiency, this polymorphism might be a promising target for further investigation as a pharmacogenetic marker.

  9. Excessive counterion condensation on immobilized ssDNA in solutions of high ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Shozo; Tornow, Marc; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2003-12-01

    We present experiments on the bias-induced release of immobilized, single-stranded (ss) 24-mer oligonucleotides from Au-surfaces into electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength. Desorption is evidenced by fluorescence measurements of dye-labeled ssDNA. Electrostatic interactions between adsorbed ssDNA and the Au-surface are investigated with respect to 1), a variation of the bias potential applied to the Au-electrode; and 2), the screening effect of the electrolyte solution. For the latter, the concentration of monovalent salt in solution is varied from 3 to 1600 mM. We find that the strength of electric interaction is predominantly determined by the effective charge of the ssDNA itself and that the release of DNA mainly occurs before the electrochemical double layer has been established at the electrolyte/Au interface. In agreement with Manning's condensation theory, the measured desorption efficiency (etarel) stays constant over a wide range of salt concentrations; however, as the Debye length is reduced below a value comparable to the axial charge spacing of the DNA, etarel decreases substantially. We assign this effect to excessive counterion condensation on the DNA in solutions of high ionic strength. In addition, the relative translational diffusion coefficient of ssDNA in solution is evaluated for different salt concentrations.

  10. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo D Repizo

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978, a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011 and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825, revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner.

  11. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  12. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  13. Experimental study of microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of cBN particulates SS316 alloy based MMCs fabricated by DMLS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, M.; Mandal, V.; Singh, P. K.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, V.; Das, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad (India)

    2017-06-15

    Direct metal laser sintering process (DMLS) was chosen to develop cBN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal matrix composite (MMC) with 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % cBN in the nitrogen gas atmosphere using continuous wave fibre laser of 400 W output capacity. Effects of process parameters such as laser power, beam scanning speed and the mixing ratio of powder on different physical properties of the developed MMC were investigated. It was found that the physical and mechanical properties such as friction and wear behavior, micro hardness and density come up with improved results. FESEM images indicate the microstructure of the composite and evidently confirms the presence of cubic boron nitride in the SS316 matrix where chromium nitride acted as a binder in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere. The Vickers hardness values of the developed MMCs with laser power 60 W and 65 W were found in the range of 276-478 HV{sub 0}.2 and 297-460 HV{sub 0}.2, respectively. It was found that Vickers hardness is directly proportional to the % of cBN in the powder mixture and the laser beam power. The wear resistance of the sintered MMCs increased with increasing cBN content in powder mixture and re- sults show that wear of MMCs are much lower than that of SS316. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the fabricated MMC confirms the presence of different phases such as cBN, CrN, CrB{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}N and Fe{sub 3}N as a consequence of a series of chemical reaction between cBN and different elements of SS316 in nitrogen atmosphere.

  14. Experimental study of microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of cBN particulates SS316 alloy based MMCs fabricated by DMLS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Mandal, V.; Singh, P. K.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, V.; Das, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering process (DMLS) was chosen to develop cBN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal matrix composite (MMC) with 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % cBN in the nitrogen gas atmosphere using continuous wave fibre laser of 400 W output capacity. Effects of process parameters such as laser power, beam scanning speed and the mixing ratio of powder on different physical properties of the developed MMC were investigated. It was found that the physical and mechanical properties such as friction and wear behavior, micro hardness and density come up with improved results. FESEM images indicate the microstructure of the composite and evidently confirms the presence of cubic boron nitride in the SS316 matrix where chromium nitride acted as a binder in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere. The Vickers hardness values of the developed MMCs with laser power 60 W and 65 W were found in the range of 276-478 HV_0.2 and 297-460 HV_0.2, respectively. It was found that Vickers hardness is directly proportional to the % of cBN in the powder mixture and the laser beam power. The wear resistance of the sintered MMCs increased with increasing cBN content in powder mixture and re- sults show that wear of MMCs are much lower than that of SS316. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the fabricated MMC confirms the presence of different phases such as cBN, CrN, CrB_2, Cr_2N and Fe_3N as a consequence of a series of chemical reaction between cBN and different elements of SS316 in nitrogen atmosphere.

  15. Polymorphism and solvates of 3,3'-dihydroxy-ss,ss-carotene-4,4'-dione: Screening and their thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J.; Ulrich, J. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Center for Engineering Sciences/ TVT, 06099, Halle Saale (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    3,3'-dihydroxy-ss,ss-carotene-4,4'-dione (DCD) is a carotenoid used for the pink coloration in animal and fish foods. Two nonsolvated and two solvated forms of this compound have been discovered and characterized using different analytical techniques. The thermodynamic stability of the relevant polymorphs is revealed. The transformation rate depends strongly on the selection of solvent medium. Moreover, different chemical stability refers to the shelf life is studied correlating to the different polymorphs. The results show the possibilities to improve the pigmentation efficiency and chemical stability by a changing in the crystal polymorphs. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. EPR of gamma irradiated solid sucrose and UV spectra of its solution. An attempt for calibration of solid state/EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Karakirova, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A simple new approach for independent calibration of solid state/EPR (SS/EPR) dosimetry system is reported. It is based on the fact that: (i) gamma-irradiation of solid sucrose (sugar) induces stable EPR detectable free radicals accompanied by UV detectable brown colour stable in the solid state and in solution; (ii) both the EPR intensity of gamma-irradiated solid sucrose and its solution UV absorbance linearly depend on the absorbed dose high energy radiation and may be independently used for dosimetric purpose; (iii) UV spectrometers are calibrated. The correlation between EPR response and absorbed dose radiation of solid sucrose and UV absorption of its solutions is used in the present communication for calibration purpose. The procedure of sucrose extraction from sucrose-paraffin dosimeters is described. The calibration procedure may be applied to any other (alanine, self-calibrated, etc.) SS/EPR dosimeters, simultaneously irradiated with sucrose

  17. Fast Ss-Ilm a Computationally Efficient Algorithm to Discover Socially Important Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, A. S.; Celik, M.

    2017-11-01

    Socially important locations are places which are frequently visited by social media users in their social media lifetime. Discovering socially important locations provide several valuable information about user behaviours on social media networking sites. However, discovering socially important locations are challenging due to data volume and dimensions, spatial and temporal calculations, location sparseness in social media datasets, and inefficiency of current algorithms. In the literature, several studies are conducted to discover important locations, however, the proposed approaches do not work in computationally efficient manner. In this study, we propose Fast SS-ILM algorithm by modifying the algorithm of SS-ILM to mine socially important locations efficiently. Experimental results show that proposed Fast SS-ILM algorithm decreases execution time of socially important locations discovery process up to 20 %.

  18. Nucleation and growth microstructural study of ti films on 304 SS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Almeida Vieira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Coating of steel surfaces with titanium films has been studied with the objective to protect them against corrosion, and to create an intermediate film for CVD diamond and TiN film deposition. In this work, the nucleation, growth mechanisms and microstructural formation of the titanium films deposited on 304 stainless steel (304 SS substrate are presented and discussed. The titanium films of variable thickness were obtained by vapour phase deposition produced by electron beam. The surfaces of these samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The cross sections of these samples were observed by using an atomic force microscope. The Ti film-304 SS interfaces were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that titanium films have a columnar growth. The Ti film-304 SS interface had a residual compression stress at room temperature due to the inter-diffusion process.

  19. Osakkeenomistajan kunnossapitovastuu ja muutostyöoikeus asunto-osakeyhtiössä

    OpenAIRE

    Kujanpää, Vesa

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä oli tavoitteena selvittää 01.07.2010 muuttuneen asunto-osakeyhtiölain mukaista osakkeenomistajan kunnossapitovastuuta sekä oikeutta tehdä muutostöitä omistamassaan osakehuoneistossa. Lisäksi työssä käsiteltiin uuden lain mukaista korjaustyöhön liittyvää ilmoitus- ja lupamenettelyä. Työssä tutkittiin lain soveltamista käytäntöön ja pohdittiin lainmukaisen toiminnan tuomia lisäkustannuksia ja niiden oikeaa tasoa. Lisäksi työn tavoitteena oli auttaa isännöitsijöitä ymmärtämään, ...

  20. Resistance of superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces to varied temperature applications on 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza; Saleem, Sajid; Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    316L SS also called Marine Stainless Steel is an important material for structural and marine applications. When superhydrophobic and oleophobic coatings are applied on 316L SS it shows significant resistance to wear and corrosion. This paper aims to validate the coatings manufacturer's information on optimal temperature range and test the viability of coating against multiple oil based cleaning agents. 316L SS was coated with multiple superhydrophic and oleohobic coatings and observed under SEM for validity of adhesion and thickness and then scanned under FFM to validate the tribological information. The samples were then dipped into multiple cleaning agents maintained at the range of operating temperatures specified by the manufacturer. Coating was observed for deterioration over a fixed time intervals through SEM and FFM. A comparison was drawn to validate the most critical cleaning agent and the most critical temperature at which the coating fails to leave the base substrate exposed to the environment.

  1. Effect of water vapor on annealing scale formation on 316 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.-Y.; Kuan, S.-L.; Tsai, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of 316 stainless steel (SS) annealed in air containing 0.1 atm water vapor at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1030 deg. C was investigated. A kinetic study of the oxidation was made by employing thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology, composition and structure of the scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results showed that significant breakaway oxidation occurred, resulting in substantial weight increase, as the steel was annealed in moist air at temperatures above 950 deg. C. The scaling behavior of 316 SS in wet air at 1030 deg. C could be divided into two stages based on the alteration of the oxidation rate. In each stage, the scale on 316 SS exhibited a different structure and morphology. The complex process of the formation of scale in wet air was discussed and proposed

  2. Taloushallintoprosessien kehittäminen Iisalmen Putkiasennus Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Juntunen, Tiia

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee taloushallintoprosessien kehittämistä Iisalmen Putkiasennus Oy:ssä. Kehittämistyötä päädyttiin rajaamaan keskittyen myynti- ja ostolaskuprosessien kehittämiseen, koska niissä oli havaittu olevan eniten kehitettävää. Iisalmen Putkiasennus Oy on LVI-alalla työskentelevä perheyritys, joka on ollut toiminnassa jo yli 35 vuotta. Yritys sijaitsee Iisalmessa ja työllistää noin 50 henkilöä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä taloushallintoprosessien kehittäminen alkoi tilanteesta...

  3. FAST SS-ILM: A COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT ALGORITHM TO DISCOVER SOCIALLY IMPORTANT LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dokuz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Socially important locations are places which are frequently visited by social media users in their social media lifetime. Discovering socially important locations provide several valuable information about user behaviours on social media networking sites. However, discovering socially important locations are challenging due to data volume and dimensions, spatial and temporal calculations, location sparseness in social media datasets, and inefficiency of current algorithms. In the literature, several studies are conducted to discover important locations, however, the proposed approaches do not work in computationally efficient manner. In this study, we propose Fast SS-ILM algorithm by modifying the algorithm of SS-ILM to mine socially important locations efficiently. Experimental results show that proposed Fast SS-ILM algorithm decreases execution time of socially important locations discovery process up to 20 %.

  4. EuroPhenome and EMPReSS: online mouse phenotyping resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Ann-Marie; Blake, Andrew; Hancock, John M

    2008-01-01

    EuroPhenome (http://www.europhenome.org) and EMPReSS (http://empress.har.mrc.ac.uk/) form an integrated resource to provide access to data and procedures for mouse phenotyping. EMPReSS describes 96 Standard Operating Procedures for mouse phenotyping. EuroPhenome contains data resulting from carrying out EMPReSS protocols on four inbred laboratory mouse strains. As well as web interfaces, both resources support web services to enable integration with other mouse phenotyping and functional genetics resources, and are committed to initiatives to improve integration of mouse phenotype databases. EuroPhenome will be the repository for a recently initiated effort to carry out large-scale phenotyping on a large number of knockout mouse lines (EUMODIC).

  5. Conversion of sewage sludge to clean solid fuel using hydrothermal carbonization: Hydrochar fuel characteristics and combustion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Chao; Giannis, Apostolos; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge process is developed. • Hydrochars are solid fuels with less nitrogen and sulfur contents. • The first order combustion reaction of hydrochars is derived. • Main combustion decomposition of hydrochars is easier and more stable. • Formation pathways of hydrochars during hydrothermal carbonization are proposed. - Abstract: Conventional thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge (SS) is energy-intensive due to its high moisture content. To overcome this drawback, the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process was used to convert SS into clean solid fuel without prior drying. Different carbonization times were applied in order to produce hydrochars possessing better fuel properties. After the carbonization process, fuel characteristics and combustion behaviors of hydrochars were evaluated. Elemental analysis showed that 88% of carbon was recovered while 60% of nitrogen and sulfur was removed. Due to dehydration and decarboxylation reactions, hydrogen/carbon and oxygen/carbon atomic ratios reduced to 1.53 and 0.39, respectively. It was found that the fuel ratio increased to 0.18 by prolonging the carbonization process. Besides, longer carbonization time seemed to decrease oxygen containing functional groups while carbon aromaticity structure increased, thereby rendering hydrochars highly hydrophobic. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the combustion decomposition was altered from a single stage for raw sludge to two stages for hydrochars. The combustion reaction was best fitted to the first order for both raw sludge and hydrochars. The combustion of hydrochars is expected to be easier and more stable than raw sludge because of lower activation energy and pre-exponential factor

  6. Synergistic Protective Effects of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 and Mitochondria-Targeted Small Peptide SS31 in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing; Reddy, Arubala P

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the synergistic protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using biochemical methods, we assessed mitochondrial function by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial ATP, and GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity in mutant AβPP cells. Using biochemical methods, we also measured cell survival and apoptotic cell death. Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels were measured using sandwich ELISA, and using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we assessed mtDNA (mtDNA) copy number in relation to nuclear DNA (nDNA) in all groups of cells. We found significantly reduced levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in mutant AβPP cells treated with SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1, and the reduction of Aβ42 levels were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. The levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were significantly increased in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the increased levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Mitochondrial dysfunction is significantly reduced in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the reduction is much higher in cells treated with both SS31+Mdvi1. Similarly, GTPase Drp1 activity is reduced in all treatments, but reduced much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells. These observations strongly suggest that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is effective than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Therefore, we propose that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is a better therapeutic strategy for AD. Ours is the first study to investigate combined treatment of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 in AD neurons.

  7. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  8. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  9. Hybrid De Novo Genome Assembly Using MiSeq and SOLiD Short Read Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Ikegami

    Full Text Available A hybrid de novo assembly pipeline was constructed to utilize both MiSeq and SOLiD short read data in combination in the assembly. The short read data were converted to a standard format of the pipeline, and were supplied to the pipeline components such as ABySS and SOAPdenovo. The assembly pipeline proceeded through several stages, and either MiSeq paired-end data, SOLiD mate-paired data, or both of them could be specified as input data at each stage separately. The pipeline was examined on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, by aligning the assembly results against the reference sequences. Using both the MiSeq and the SOLiD data in the hybrid assembly, the alignment length was improved by a factor of 3 to 8, compared with the assemblies using either one of the data types. The number of the reproduced gene cluster regions encoding secondary metabolite biosyntheses (SMB was also improved by the hybrid assemblies. These results imply that the MiSeq data with long read length are essential to construct accurate nucleotide sequences, while the SOLiD mate-paired reads with long insertion length enhance long-range arrangements of the sequences. The pipeline was also tested on the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680, whose gene is known to have high-GC content. Although the quality of the SOLiD reads was too low to perform any meaningful assemblies by themselves, the alignment length to the reference was improved by a factor of 2, compared with the assembly using only the MiSeq data.

  10. Energy Efficiency Experiments on Samsung Exynos 5 Heterogeneous Multicore using OmpSs Task Based Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explore the energy efficiency of task based programming with OpenMP SuperScalar (OmpSs) on the heterogeneous Samsung Exynos 5422 system on a chip. The system features small energy efficient cores, large high performance cores and a GPGPU, and OmpSs tasks were run on all three different processors. Experiments running a genetic algorithm and a Cholesky decomposition were used to gather results. The option of running applications on the energy efficient cores, on the high perfo...

  11. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata

    2017-01-01

    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary. - Highlights: • GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing carbodiimide chemistry to generate a strong adherent uniform nano coating. • GO-modified surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SH5YSY cells cultured atop these surfaces. • Proliferation and alignment of the cells with the

  12. Xylanase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger SS7 in submerged culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Yasser; Al-Jazairi, Manal; Al-Kayat, Ghassan

    2008-01-01

    Xylanase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger SS7 was studied in submerged culture. The optimum initial pH for xylanase production was found to be 7.0. Different agricultural and industrial wastes were evaluated for their ability to induce xylanase production by this isolate. The best xylanase production (293.82 IU/ml) was recorded at 3% (w/v) corn cob hulls after 120 h of incubation. The Aspergillus niger SS7 isolate grown in a simple medium, proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

  13. Scalable and reusable emulator for evaluating the performance of SS7 networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Tseng, Kent H.; Lim, Koon Seng; Choe, Winston

    1994-04-01

    A scalable and reusable emulator was designed and implemented for studying the behavior of SS7 networks. The emulator design was largely based on public domain software. It was developed on top of an environment supported by PVM, the Parallel Virtual Machine, and managed by OSIMIS-the OSI Management Information Service platform. The emulator runs on top of a commercially available ATM LAN interconnecting engineering workstations. As a case study for evaluating the emulator, the behavior of the Singapore National SS7 Network under fault and unbalanced loading conditions was investigated.

  14. SS433: the second Wolf-Rayet X-ray binary ?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Yael; Koch-Miramond, Lydie; Abraham, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations of SS433 with ISOPHOT. The HeI+HeII lines in both spectra of SS433 and of the Wolf-Rayet star WR147, a wind-colliding WN8+BO5 binary system, closely match. The 2.5-12 micron continuum radiation is due to an expanding wind free-free emission in an intermediate case between optically thick and optically thin regimes. The inferred mass loss rate evaluation gives ~10^{-4} Msun/yr. Our results are consistent with a Wolf-Rayet-like companion t...

  15. Design and specificity of long ssDNA donors for CRISPR-based knock-in

    OpenAIRE

    Leonetti, Manuel; Li, Han; Beckman, Kyle; Pessino, Veronica; Huang, Bo; Weissman, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas technologies have transformed our ability to manipulate genomes for research and gene-based therapy. In particular, homology-directed repair after genomic cleavage allows for precise modification of genes using exogenous donor sequences as templates. While both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) forms of donors have been used as repair templates, a systematic comparison of the performance and specificity of repair using ssDNA versus dsDNA donors is still la...

  16. Suklaajälkiruoat ja niiden valmistamisen haasteet ammattikeittiössä

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on osa palvelujen tuottamisen ja johtamisen koulutusohjelmaa. Opinnäytetyön aiheena on suklaajälkiruuat ja niiden valmistamisen haasteet ammattikeittiössä. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa käsitellään suklaan historiaa, lajikkeita, tuottajamaita, valmistusmenetelmiä, suklaan laatuja, tärkeimpiä valmistajia sekä suklaan käyttöä ja tekniikoita ammattikeittiössä. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin yleisimpiä suklaajälkiruokia ja niiden valmistuksessa olevia haasteita ammattikeitti...

  17. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata, E-mail: bjoddar@utep.edu

    2017-04-01

    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary. - Highlights: • GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing carbodiimide chemistry to generate a strong adherent uniform nano coating. • GO-modified surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SH5YSY cells cultured atop these surfaces. • Proliferation and alignment of the cells with the

  18. Skipping Strategy (SS) for Initial Population of Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, M.; Nababan, E. B.; Sarim, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Initial population in job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an essential step to obtain near optimal solution. Techniques used to solve JSSP are computationally demanding. Skipping strategy (SS) is employed to acquire initial population after sequence of job on machine and sequence of operations (expressed in Plates-jobs and mPlates-jobs) are determined. The proposed technique is applied to benchmark datasets and the results are compared to that of other initialization techniques. It is shown that the initial population obtained from the SS approach could generate optimal solution.

  19. Aliupseereiden työssä oppiminen - Tapaustutkimus sosiomateriaalisten oppimisverkostojen näkökulmasta

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkarinen, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin Puolustusvoimien perusyksiköissä kouluttajatehtävissä toimivien aliupseerien työssä oppimista ja sen ohjaamista. Työssä oppimista tarkasteltiin kulttuurihistori-allisen toiminnan teorian ja tietoa luovan oppimisen metaforan mukaisen trialogisen oppimisen tarjoamilla teoreettisilla työkaluilla. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen näkökulma kiteytettiin sosiomate-riaalisen oppimisverkostoon, joka määriteltiin toiminnan yhteisen kohteen ympärille rakentu-neeksi yksilön, hänen yh...

  20. Changes in orientation and appearance of the 100 m arc s radio structure in SS433

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilizzi, R T [Netherlands Foundation for Radio Astronomy, Radio Sterrenwacht, Dwingeloo; Miley, G K [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Sterrewacht; Romney, J D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.); Spencer, R E [Nuffield Radio Astronomy Labs., Jodrell Bank (UK)

    1981-03-26

    Results are presented of observations of SS433 made with the European VLBI network for periods of 9 and 10 h at a wavelength of 6 cm on 9 January (JD2444248) and 1-2 June (JD2444392.5) 1980. The results, together with earlier ones of Walker et al., show that the compact radio structure of SS433 changes orientation in a manner consistent with the 164-day precession period inferred from the optical emission lines, but with a phase delay of 5 +- 4 days. The shape of the radio structure is elongated, non-linear and changes from one observing epoch to the other.

  1. Elokuvan rooli nuorten elämässä ja nuorisotilojen arjessa

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    Elokuva on arkipäiväinen taiteenmuoto, jota erityisesti nuoret seuraavat aktiivisesti. Halusinkin opinnäy-tetyössäni selvittää mitä elokuva nuorille oikeastaan merkitsee. Lisäksi minua kiinnosti tutkia työssäni millaisessa asemassa elokuvien esittäminen on nuorisotiloilla. Tutkimuksen alkuvaiheessa selvisi, että mikkeliläisillä nuorisotaloilla ei esitetä elokuvia, koska ei ole tarvittavia lupia. Sen sijaan Tampereella esitetään elokuvia ilman mitään lupia. Näin työstäni syntyi tapaustutkimus,...

  2. Ostotoiminnan laadunvarmistus ja toiminnanohjauksen kehittäminen Mantsinen Group Ltd Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli ostotoiminnan laadunvarmistuksen ja toiminnanohjauksen kehittäminen Mantsinen Group Ltd Oy:ssä. Työssä on perehdytty erityisesti niihin ostotoiminnan laadun kehittämisen haasteisiin mitkä liittyvät alihankintaostamisen osa-alueeseen. Opinnäytetyön päätavoitteena oli luoda työkaluja hankinnan laadun jatkuvan parantamisen avuksi. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli perehtyä hankintojen mittaamisen teoriaan. Opinnäytetyön tutkimusmenetelmänä on käytetty käytännön tietoa ostam...

  3. Microstructural evolution in dual-ion irradiated 316SS under various helium injection schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Igata, N.; Ayrault, G.; Tokyo Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Dual-ion irradiated 316 SS samples with various helium injection schedules were studied. The intent of using different schedules was to either approximate the MFR condition, mimic the mixed spectrum reactor condition or mimic the fast reactor condition. The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of these different helium injection schedules on the microstructural development under irradiation. The materials for this study was 316 SS (MFE heat) with three thermomechanical pre-irradiation treatments: solution annealed, solution annealed and aged and 20% cold worked. The cavity nucleation and growth stages were investigated using high resolution TEM. (orig.)

  4. Treatment of high organic content wastewater from food-processing industry with the French vertical flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, J; Serdobbel, V; Welschbillig, M; Calvez, M; Gagnon, V; Chazarenc, F

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the treatment performances of a full-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands designed to treat wastewater from a food-processing industry (cookie factory), and to study the influence of the organic loading rate. The full-scale treatment plant was designed with a first vertical stage of 630 m², a second vertical stage of 473 m² equipped with a recirculation system and followed by a final horizontal stage of 440 m². The plant was commissioned in 2011, and was operated at different loading rates during 16 months for the purpose of this study. Treatment performances were determined by 24 hour composite samples. The mean concentration of the raw effluent was 8,548 mg.L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 4,334 mg.L(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 2,069 mg.L(-1) suspended solids (SS). Despite low nutrients content with a BOD5/N/P ratio of 100/1.8/0.5, lower than optimum for biological degradation (known as 100/5/1), mean removal performances were very high with 98% for COD, 99% for BOD5 and SS for the two vertical stages. The increasing of the organic load from 50 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD to 237 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD (on the first stage) did not affect removal performances. The mean quality of effluent reached French standards (COD < 125 mg.L(-1), BOD5 < 25 mg.L(-1), SS < 35 mg.L(-1)).

  5. Characterization of systemic disease in primary Sjogren's syndrome : EULAR-SS Task Force recommendations for articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal involvements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Seror, Raphaele; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J.; Doerner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Theander, Elke; Bombardieri, Stefano; De Vita, Salvatore; Mandl, Thomas; Ng, Wan-Fai; Kruize, Aike; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To reach a European consensus on the definition and characterization of the main organspecific extraglandular manifestations in primary SS. Methods. The EULAR-SS Task Force Group steering committee agreed to approach SS-related systemic involvement according to the EULAR SS Disease

  6. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-14

    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  7. Microbiological features and clinical impact of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates causing bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungok; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Haejeong; Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Dae Hun; Wi, Yu Mi; Peck, Kyong Ran; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-10-03

    We investigated the genetic background and microbiological features of T6SS-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and clinical impact of the T6SS in patients with A. baumannii bacteremia. One hundred and 62 A. baumannii isolates from patients with bacteremia in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Korea were included in this study. Approximately one-third (51/162, 31.5%) of the A. baumannii clinical isolates possessed the hcp gene, and the hcp-positive isolates were found in several genotypes in multilocus sequence typing. The expression and secretion of Hcp protein varied among the clinical isolates. A. baumannii isolates with detectable Hcp secretion (T6SS+) could better outcompete Escherichia coli compared with T6SS- isolates, including hcp-negative and inactivated hcp-positive isolates. In addition, T6SS+ isolates showed higher biofilm-forming activity and better survival in the presence of normal human serum than the T6SS- isolates. T6SS+ isolates were more frequently detected in patients with catheter-related bloodstream infection, haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and patients receiving immunosuppressive agents. However, T6SS was not a prognostic factor for mortality. Our results suggest that the T6SS of A. baumannii is associated with virulence and contributes to infections in immunocompromised patients and those with implanted medical devices.

  8. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  9. Comparison of direct shear and simple shear responses of municipal solid waste in USA

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Xunchang

    2017-10-25

    Although large-size simple shear (SS) testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) may arguably provide a more realistic estimate of the shear strength (τ ) of MSW than the most commonly used direct shear (DS) testing, a systematic comparison between the shear responses of MSW obtained from the two testing methods is lacking. In this study, a large-size shear device was used to test identical MSW specimens sampled in USA in DS and SS. Eight DS tests and 11 SS tests were conducted at vertical effective stresses of 50–500 kPa. The stress–displacement response of MSW in SS testing was hyperbolic and a maximum shear stress was reached, whereas a maximum shear stress was not reached in most DS tests. The τ, effective friction angle (ϕ ′) and cohesion (c ′) of MSW were obtained from DS and SS tests by using a displacement failure criterion of 40 mm. τ in SS testing was found to be equal to or lower than τ in DS testing with ratios of τ between 73 and 101%. SS testing resulted in higher ϕ ′ but lower c ′ than DS testing. The shear strength parameters were lower than those obtained in previous studies from DS tests at 55 mm displacement.

  10. Production of improved infant porridges from pearl millet using a lactic acid fermentation step and addition of sorghum malt to reduce viscosity of porridge with high protein, energy and solids (30%) content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaoge, ML

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving the safety and nutritional quality of traditional African weaning porridge, the reduction of the viscosity of high solids fermented pearl millet porridge by addition of sorghum malt (amylase rich flour, ARF...

  11. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  12. A Bio-Electro-Fenton System Employing the Composite FePc/CNT/SS316 Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ta Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells generate energy through the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms. The generated electricity drives a Fenton reaction in a cathode chamber, which can be used for the decolorization of dye wastewater. Most of the previous works added expensive platinum catalyst to improve the electrical property of the system. In this research, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs were generated on the surface of SS316 stainless steel by chemical vapor deposition, and an iron phthalocyanine (FePc catalyst was added to fabricate a compound (FePc/CNT/SS316 that was applied to the cathode electrode of the fuel cell system. This was expected to improve the overall electricity generation efficiency and extent of decolorization of the system. The results showed that the maximum current density of the system with the modified electrode was 3206.30 mA/m2, and the maximum power was 726.55 mW/m2, which were increased by 937 and 2594 times, respectively, compared to the current and power densities of a system where only the SS316 stainless steel electrode was used. In addition, the decolorization of RB5 dye reached 84.6% within 12 h. Measurements of the electrical properties of bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells and dye decolorization experiments with the FePc/CNT/SS316 electrode showed good results.

  13. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Dawn; Schwarz, Laura; McClure, Rebecca; Peterka, Lauren; Rouhani, Farshid; Brantly, Mark; Strange, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT) is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS) and 29 matched control participants (PiMM) were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. Finally, a comprehensive literature review was performed by two investigators. Results. 12/19 (63.2%) study participants reported the presence of lung and/or liver disease compared to 12/29 (41.4%) control participants. There trended toward having a higher frequency of medication allergies in the study population (42.11% versus 20.69%). Conclusions. The PiSS genotype was associated with a similar incidence of obstructive lung disease to controls. Selective bias intrinsic in testing for AAT deficiency and the rarity of the PiSS genotype will make future study of this association dependent on population-based tests.

  14. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn McGee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS and 29 matched control participants (PiMM were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. Finally, a comprehensive literature review was performed by two investigators. Results. 12/19 (63.2% study participants reported the presence of lung and/or liver disease compared to 12/29 (41.4% control participants. There trended toward having a higher frequency of medication allergies in the study population (42.11% versus 20.69%. Conclusions. The PiSS genotype was associated with a similar incidence of obstructive lung disease to controls. Selective bias intrinsic in testing for AAT deficiency and the rarity of the PiSS genotype will make future study of this association dependent on population-based tests.

  15. Brasiliocroton : a new crotonoid genus of Euphorbiaceae s.s. from eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Ines Cordeiro; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Maria Amelia Vitorino-Cruz; Leticia Ribes de Lima

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of Euphorbiaceae s.s., Brasiliocroton mamoninha, is described from two disjunct areas of lowland forest remnants in eastern and northeastern Brazil. It is a member of tribe Crotoneae and was previously confused with Croton and Micrandra. The resemblance to Micrandra is based on the branched inflorescences and terminal position of the pistillate...

  16. Hybridization of plant virus ssRNAs Transferred to Hybond N membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, O.; Kudelova, K.; Plaschke-Jakubik, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a protocol for the non-denaturating agarose gel electrophoresis of plant virus ssRNAs, their blotting onto Hybond N membrane, and hybridization with [alpha 32 P]dNTP-labelled cDNA probe. The protocol is not pretentious on technical equipment, omits denaturation and neutralization steps and some chemical required in other modifications. (authors)

  17. Sour grapes: multiple groundwater enclosures in Morocco's Saïss region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbroek, L.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2017-01-01

    While driving to the douar 1 Ait Ali in the agricultural plain of the Saïss in Morocco, we always passed by a fallow land plot of approximately 10 hectares. We passed this plot without noticing much, until the day we spotted a Syrian tube-well driller with a checked red scarf on his head and his

  18. Photometric variability of the SS 433 (V 1343 Aq1) in 1979-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, S.A.; Goranskij, V.P.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of photometric observations of SS 433 carried out in 1981 are presented, the 164-day and 13-day variability of this ob ect being confirmed. All available photometric observations of SS 433 during 1979-1981 are summarized in order to investigate main regularities in brightness variability. Using the photometric data of three years the precessing period of 164sup(d)+-1sup(d) is determined. The orbital period is 13sup(d).086+-0sup(d).006. The maximum of the uneclipsed brightness of SS 433 is observed at the moment of maximum separation of ''relativistic'' emission lines. At this moment the orbital brightness curve is most similar to that of #betta# Lyr-type eclipsing variables. The amplitude of the orbital 13-day variability is minimal near the moments of coincidence of relativistic emissions (''cross-over'' dates). New observational data confirm the model of SS 433 as a massive eclipsing binary with a ''slaved'' bright accretion disk

  19. Screening and Identification of ssDNA Aptamer for Human GP73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As one tumor marker of HCC, Golgi Protein 73 (GP73 is given more promise in the early diagnosis of HCC, and aptamers have been developed to compete with antibodies as biorecognition probes in different detection system. In this study, we utilized GP73 to screen specific ssDNA aptamers by SELEX technique. First, GP73 proteins were expressed and purified by prokaryotic expression system and Nickle ion affinity chromatography, respectively. At the same time, the immunogenicity of purified GP73 was confirmed by Western blotting. The enriched ssDNA library with high binding capacity for GP73 was obtained after ten rounds of SELEX. Then, thirty ssDNA aptamers were sequenced, in which two ssDNA aptamers with identical DNA sequence were confirmed, based on the alignment results, and designated as A10-2. Furthermore, the specific antibody could block the binding of A10-2 to GP73, and the specific binding of A10-2 to GP73 was also supported by the observation that several tumor cell lines exhibited variable expression level of GP73. Significantly, the identified aptamer A10-2 could distinguish normal and cancerous liver tissues. So, our results indicate that the aptamer A10-2 might be developed into one molecular probe to detect HCC from normal liver specimens.

  20. High-frequency genome editing using ssDNA oligonucleotides with zinc-finger nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fuqiang; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Huang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have enabled highly efficient gene targeting in multiple cell types and organisms. Here we describe methods for using simple ssDNA oligonucleotides in tandem with ZFNs to efficiently produce human cell lines with three distinct genetic outcomes: (i) targeted point...

  1. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Lopharia s.s., Dendrodontia, Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena (Basidiomycota, Polyporales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Liang Liu; Karen K. Nakasone; Sheng-Hua Wu; Shuang-Hui He; Yu-Cheng. Dai

    2018-01-01

    Eleven taxa of Lopharia s.s., Dendrodontia, Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena in Polyporales are included in the phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S) and RNA polymerase II second-largest subunit (rpb2) sequences. New species Lopharia resupinata...

  2. Geological constraints on the thermodynamic properties of the stilbite - stellerite solid solution in low-grade metabasalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Thráinn; Neuhoff, Philip S.; Arnórsson, Stefán; Bird, Dennis K.

    2001-11-01

    Standard state thermodynamic data for stilbite (Ca2NaAl5Si13O36∗16H2O) and stellerite (Ca2Al4Si14O36∗14H2O), together with mixing properties of the stilbite -stellerite solid solution (stilbite SS) are derived through assessment of geological observations of stilbite SS compositions in metabasalts, experimental phase equilibria, and calorimetric observations. Measured compositions of stilbite SS in Tertiary metabasalts in Iceland and Icelandic geothermal systems change systematically towards the stellerite endmember with increasing stratigraphic depth and temperature. Standard molal volumes, heat capacities, and entropies for the endmembers of the solid solution are derived through critical review of published crystallographic and calorimetric data for natural stilbite SS. Standard molal Gibbs energies of formation at 298.15 K and 1 bar for stilbite (-4,946,475cal mol-1) and stellerite (-4,762,036 cal mol-1) and the mixing properties of the solid solution are retrieved from observed phase- and compositional-relations in metabasalts at Berufjördur, Iceland, measured temperatures of zeolite mineral distribution in active geothermal systems, and published observations of reversed phase equilibria. Mixing in stilbite SS can be described with an athermal solid solution model. Thermodynamic data resulting from our analysis provide close correlation between compositions of stilbite SS in Icelandic geothermal systems predicted from compositions of geothermal solutions and observed compositions of these minerals in low-grade metabasalts of Iceland, as well as the observed temperature of the stilbite SS to laumontite (leonhardite) transition in Icelandic geothermal systems. Stilbite SS composition in metabasalts is a sensitive function of temperature, fluid composition, coexisting minerals (especially silica polymorphs) and geothermal gradient.

  3. Stanford SsTO Mission to Mars: A Realistic, Safe and Cost Effective Approach to Human Mars Exploration Using the Stanford SsTO Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Robert D.

    1999-06-01

    In recent years, a lot of time and energy has been spent exploring possible mission scenarios for a human mission to Mars. NASA along with the privately funded Mars Society and a number of universities have come up with many options that could place people on the surface of Mars in a relatively short period of time at a relatively low cost. However, a common theme among all or at least most of these missions is that they require heavy lift vehicles such as the Russian Energia or the NASA proposed Magnum 100MT class vehicle to transport large payloads from the surface of Earth into a staging orbit about Earth. However, there is no current budget or any signs for a future budget to review the Russian Energia, the US made Saturn V, or to design and build a new heavy lift vehicle. However, there is a lot of interest and many companies looking into the possibility of "space planes". These vehicles will have the capability to place a payload into orbit without throwing any parts of the vehicle away. The concept of a space plane is basically that the plane is transported to a given altitude either by it's own power or on the back of another air worthy vehicle before the rocket engines are ignited. From this altitude, a Single Step to Orbit (SsTO) vehicle with a significant payload is possible. This report looks at the possibility of removing the requirement of a heavy lift vehicle by using the Stanford designed Single Step to Orbit.(SsTO) Launch Vehicle. The SsTO would eliminate the need for heavy lift vehicles and actually reduce the cost of the mission because of the very low costs involved with each SSTO launch. Although this scenario may add a small amount of risk assembling transfer vehicles in Earth orbit, it should add no additional risk to the crew.

  4. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Y =)~.~: SS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the true leader of the regiment in the more prac- tical sense. Any surplus monies at the end of the appropriate period, was shared out. But many .honest regiments used this surplus to provide schools, medical facilities and pensions for the widows and families of the disabled. • Mr Usher is a free-lance writer and a member of.

  6. Assessment of water-soluble thiourea-formaldehyde (WTF) resin for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, She-Jiang; Jiang, Jia-Yu; Wang, Shen; Guo, Yu-Peng; Ding, Hui

    2018-03-15

    Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) can be regarded as necessary for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. There is, however, solid agent is not very convenient to use. Water-soluble thiourea-formaldehyde (WTF) is a novel chelating agent, which has more practical applications. The process of WTF resin for S/S process of heavy metal contaminated soils was studied. Laboratory-prepared slurries, made of field soils spiked with Cd 2+ and Cr 6+ were treated with WTF resin. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that with 2 wt% WTF, in the neutral condition of soil after treatment for 7 d, the leaching concentrations of Cd 2+ and Cr 6+ in contaminated soil were decreased by 80.3% and 92.6% respectively. Moreover, Tessier sequence extraction procedure showed WTF resin reduced the leaching concentration by transforming heavy metal from exchange form to organic form. The structure of WTF is obtained according to elemental analysis result and reaction mechanism. Through analysis of the infrared spectrogram of WTF and WTF heavy mental chelating precipitation, WTF can form stable chelate with heavy mental through coordination. The significant groups are hydroxyl, nitrogen and sulphur function groups in WTF mainly. Toxicology test revealed that the WTF resin is nontoxic to microorganism in the soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GSM SiNYALLERİNİN .IP OMURGASI İİZERiNI>E TAŞINMASI (SS7 OVER IP- NettcSS7)

    OpenAIRE

    Tülü, Çağatay Neftali; Demirkol, Aşkın

    2003-01-01

    Bu çalışmada günümüzün en popüler nıobilhaberleşme sistemi olan GSM [1 l sisteminin, kendiöğeleri aras1ndaki en temel sinyalleşme sistemi olannumara 7 (SS7 [2) ) sinyallerinin, günümüzün enyaygın iletim omurgast olan ve tüm dünyadakibilgisayarları birbirine bağlayan IP (3] omurgasıüzerinden taşınabilmesi için gerekli si stemin tasar11n1ve gerçeklenınesi üzerinde çahş1lmtştır. Klasil\\ SS7iletimine göre en büyül< faydası çok düşül{ maliyetiolan bu sistem sayesinde, dünyadaki b i r çok GS...

  8. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  9. Phase transformation and hardness of SS 316 L steel cast alloy after heat treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, S.; Prayitno, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Heat treatment Study of SS 316 L cast alloy at high temperature was conducted. The alloy of SS 316 L was melted by arc melting furnace in argon atmosphere. Heat treatment of SS 316 L casting alloy was carried out in tube furnace at 1400 o C for period of 1/2, 1, and 2 hours. The optical microscopic characterization showed that SS 316 L cast has got dendritic micro structure with ferrite as the primary phase. After the heat treatment, the ferrite phase underwent gradual decrease followed by an increase of the austenite phase. The heat treatment process also resulted in the formation of the new grain boundary. The hardness examination revealed that for longer period of the heat treatment, the hardness of SS 316 L increased. (author)

  10. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  11. Characterization of volatile substances in apples from Rosaceae family by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-qMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2009-06-01

    The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample amount, dilution factor, ionic strength, and desorption time, were optimized and discussed. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 50 degrees C for 30 min with constant magnetic stirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds among pulp (46, 45, and 39), peel (64, 60, and 64), and entire fruit (65, 43, and 50) in PP, PS, and SS apples, respectively. Ethyl esters, terpenes, and higher alcohols were found to be the most representative volatiles. Alpha-farnesene, hexan-1-ol and hexyl 2-methylbutyrate were the compounds found in the volatile profile of studied apples with the largest GC area, representing, on average, 24.71, 14.06, and 10.80% of the total volatile fraction from PP, PS, and SS apples. In PP entire apple, the most abundant compounds identified were alpha-farnesene (30.49%), the unknown compound m/z (69, 101, 157) (21.82%) and hexyl acetate (6.57%). Regarding PS entire apple the major compounds were alpha-farnesene (16.87%), estragole (15.43%), hexan-1-ol (10.94), and E-2-hexenal (10.67). Alpha-farnesene (30.3%), hexan-1-ol (18.90%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (4.7%), and pentan-1-ol (4.6%) were also found as SS entire apple volatiles present in a higher relative content. Principal

  12. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  13. Immunization with the recombinant antigen Ss-IR induces protective immunity to infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, David; Hess, Jessica A; Mejia, Rojelio; Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B; Lustigman, Sara; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-10-19

    Human intestinal infections with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis remain a significant problem worldwide and a vaccine would be a useful addition to the tools available to prevent and control this infection. The goal of this study was to test single antigens for their efficacy in a vaccine against S. stercoralis larvae in mice. Alum was used as the adjuvant in these studies and antigens selected for analysis were either recognized by protective human IgG (Ss-TMY-1, Ss-EAT-6, and Ss-LEC-5) or were known to be highly immunogenic in humans (Ss-NIE-1 and Ss-IR). Only mice immunized with the Ss-IR antigen demonstrated a significant decrease of approximately 80% in the survival of larval parasites in the challenge infection. Antibodies, recovered from mice with protective immunity to S. stercoralis after immunization with Ss-IR, were used to locate the antigen in the larvae. Confocal microscopy revealed that IgG from mice immunized with Ss-IR bound to the surface of the parasites and observations by electron microscopy indicated that IgG bound to granules in the glandular esophagus. Serum collected from mice immunized with Ss-IR passively transferred immunity to naïve mice. These studies demonstrate that Ss-IR, in combination with alum, induces high levels of protective immunity through an antibody dependent mechanism and may therefore be suitable for further development as a vaccine against human strongyloidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human serum albumin supported lipid patterns for the targeted recognition of microspheres coated by membrane based on ss-DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoming; He Qiang; Cui Yue; Duan Li; Li Junbai

    2006-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) patterns have been successfully fabricated for the deposition of lipid bilayer, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sglycerophosphate (DMPA), by making use of the micro-contact printing (μCP) technique and liposome fusion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) results indicate that lipid bilayer has been assembled in HSA patterns with a good stability. Such well-defined lipid patterns formed on HSA surface create possibility to incorporate specific components like channels or receptors for specific recognition. In view of this, microspheres coated with lipid membranes were immobilized in HSA-supported lipid patterns via the hybridization of complementary ss-DNAs. This procedure enables to transfer solid materials to a soft surface through a specific recognition

  15. Effect of Thermal Aging and Test Temperatures on Fracture Toughness of SS 316(N) Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, B. Shashank; Babu, M. Nani; Shanthi, G.; Moitra, A.; Sasikala, G.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of thermal aging and test temperatures on fracture toughness (J 0.2) of SS 316(N) weld material has been studied based on J-R curve evaluations. The aging of the welds was carried out at temperatures 370, 475 and 550 °C and for durations varying from 1000 to 20,000 h. The fracture toughness (J-R curve) tests were carried out at 380 and 550 °C for specimens after all aging conditions, including as-weld condition. The initiation fracture toughness (J 0.2) of the SS 316(N) weld material has shown degradation after 20,000-h aging durations and is reflected in all the test temperatures and aging temperatures. The fracture toughness after different aging conditions and test temperatures, including as-weld condition, was higher than the minimum specified value for this class of welds.

  16. Pala-animaatiohahmojen animointi 2D- ja 3D-ympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee hahmoanimointia digitaalisessa pala-animaatiossa. Työssä keskitytään pääasiassa vertailemaan keskenään kahta hyvin erityyppistä ohjelmaa hahmoanimaattorin työskentely-ympäristöinä. Ohjelmat, joita opinnäytetyössä on käytetty animoimiseen, ovat 3D-ohjelma Cinema 4D sekä 2D-2.5D -ohjelma After Effects. Opinnäytetyö on kirjoitettu hahmoanimaattorin näkökulmasta perustuen käytännön animointityöskentelyyn lasten animaatiosarjassa Ella & Aleksi. Työn tekijä on toiminut p...

  17. Functionalization of PVC membrane with ss oligonucleotides for a potentiometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkanova, T V; Volf, R; Krondak, M; Král, V

    2007-05-15

    A novel application of a single stranded (ss) oligonucleotide as an active component of polymeric membrane in an ion-selective electrode (ISE) is described. The original oligonucleotides, oligo(dA)(15), modified by cholesterol, triphenylmethyl and hexadecyl derivatives, were immobilized into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane using extraction protocol. In parallel, the adsorption protocol was used to immobilize unmodified oligo(dA)(15) on the PVC membrane based on tridodecylmethyammonium chloride (TDDMA(+)Cl(-)). Immobilization of ss oligonucleotide probe through spacer was more effective for the potentiometric detection of the hybridization between complementary oligonucleotides. It was found that cholesterol-oligo(dA)(15) modified membranes were sensitive toward complementary oligo(dT)(15) in the concentration range 2-80 nM at pH 7. An explanation for the detection mechanism is proposed.

  18. Evaluation of stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized 304SS in low-temperature borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1981-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking has been observed in constant extension rate tests, CERT and constant load tests of 304SS tested at 32 0 C in borated water plus 15 ppM C1 - . Evidence of IGSCC was obtained in CERT tests of welded pipe samples only when the original inner diameter surface was intact and with 15 ppM C1 - added to the borated water while IGSCC occurred in a furnace sensitized pipe sample after 500 h at a constant stress of 340 MPa in borated water containing 15 ppM C1 - . These results indicate that surface features associated with weld preparation grinding contributed to the susceptibility of sensitized 304SS to IGSCC in low temperature borated water; however, the constant load test indicates that such surface defects are not necessary for IGSCC in low temperature borated water

  19. Tributyylitina (TBT) maaympäristössä: esiintyminen, vaikutukset ja riskit

    OpenAIRE

    Lukkari, Tuomas; Koponen, Kari; Tuomi, Pirjo; Dahlbo, Kim; Rossi, Esko; Järvinen, Kimmo

    2006-01-01

    Organometalleihin kuuluvan tributyylitinan (TBT) esiintymisestä, vaikutuksista ja mahdollisista riskeistä maaympäristössä on vain vähän tutkimustietoa. Tiedot perustuvat pääasiassa vesiympäristöissä tehtyihin tutkimuksiin. TBT:a ei esiinny ympäristössä luonnostaan, vaan se on peräisin ihmisen toiminnasta. TBT:n päästöt maaperään ovat peräisin mm. TBT:a sisältävien valmisteiden käytöstä, lähinnä laivojen pohjamaaleista sekä mahdollisesti pilaantuneiden sedimenttien loppusijoituksesta. TBT:n...

  20. Use of diffusion bonded SS-Al composite material in the development of neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Mary; Prasad, K.R.; Pappachan, A.L.; Grover, A.K.; Krishnan, J.; Derose, D.J.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Kale, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a SS-Al composite plate in-house at BARC by diffusion bonding technique. Details of the several tests carried out on the composite material and the use of the plate in the development of a boron lined neutron chamber for Dhruva reactor control instrumentation has been described. The bonded sample has withstood tensile strength test, leak test and thermal cycling test and the leak rate was observed to be less than 3 x 10 -10 stdcc/sec. The chamber with the composite material has been installed in Dhruva Basket C location and connected to the log rate safety channel. It has been working successfully for the past two years. The use of SS-Al composite material has improved the reliability and long-term performance of the detector. (author)

  1. Hoitajien kokemuksia Theraplay-ryhmäsovelluksesta lastenpsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Niina; Ollikainen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää hoitajien kokemuksia ja ajatuksia Theraplay-ryhmäsovelluksesta lastenpsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä sekä kartoittaa hoitajien mielipiteitä mahdollisesta tanssin ja musiikin käytöstä osana tätä sovellusta. Opinnäytetyön tehtävänä oli selvittää millaisia kokemuksia hoitajilla on Theraplay-ryhmäsovelluksesta, mitä ajatuksia mahdollinen musiikin ja tanssin käyttö osana Theraplay-ryhmäsovellusta herättää sekä mitä kehitettävää tämän sovelluksen käytössä ...

  2. Varttuneet ja ikäsyrjintä työelämässä

    OpenAIRE

    Viitasalo, Niina

    2015-01-01

    Työelämän ikäsyrjintä esteenä pitkille työurille Työelämässä esiintyvä ikäsyrjintä on ristiriidassa työurien pidentämisen kanssa. Ikäsyrjintää kokeneilla on jopa kaksinkertainen pitkien sairauspoissaolojen riski 3 vuoden seuranta-aikana. Eniten ikäsyrjintäkokemuksia on yli 55-vuotiailla naisilla, heistä lähes 8 prosenttia on kokenut ikäsyrjintää työssään. Ikäsyrjintä ilmenee työpaikkojen arjessa varttuneiden torjuntana, painostamisena, vähättelynä tai eristämisenä. Ikäsyrjintä näyttäytyy ...

  3. Rekrytointi Myyntityössä : vaikutus & kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Severi

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia rekrytointia myyntityössä, sen vaikutusta ja miten kehittää rekrytointia. Tätä lähdettiin selvittämään käsittelemällä teoriaosuudessa rekrytoinnin vaikutuksia, vaikutuksia myyntityössä sekä rekrytointiprosessin suorittamista. Tutkimusosuudessa tätä pyrittiin selvittämään etsimällä onnistuneista rekrytoinneista yhteisiä tekijöitä sekä epäonnistuneille rekrytoinneille syitä. Näitä tunnistamalla pystytään kehittämään ennalta toimivia rekrytointeja sekä välttä...

  4. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  5. Impact of the Arizona NExSS Winter School on Interdisciplinary Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Cierra; Burnam-Fink, Michael; Desch, Steven; Apai, Dániel

    2018-01-01

    The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) is a NASA-funded research coordination network whose focus is on investigating exoplanet diversity and devising strategies for searching for life on exoplanets. The fields of exoplanets and astrobiology are inherently highly interdisciplinary. Progress in these fields demands that researchers with various scientific backgrounds understand the issues and techniques of allied fields of study, including the tools and approaches used to solve different problems, as well as their limitations.In 2016, the NExSS teams at Arizona State University (ASU) and University of Arizona (UA) hosted 32 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers from various scientific backgrounds for one week at the Arizona NExSS Winter School. To bridge the gaps between fields and promote interdisciplinarity, students participated in lessons, field trips, hands-on activities, and a capstone proposal-writing activity. To assess the impact of the School on knowledge and attitudes about other fields, we administered a pre- and post-School questionnaire designed using the Impact Analysis Method of Davis & Scalice (2015).The results show that all participants gained knowledge at the School, especially in areas outside their primary field of study. The questionnaire revealed interesting differences in attitudes as well. When asked whether the geochemistry of Earth without life is predictable, planetary scientists were more likely than average to say yes, and geologists were more likely than average to say no. Their attitudes had converged after participation in the School. These results demonstrate that the Arizona NExSS Winter School was impactful not just in the knowledge gained, but in the interdisciplinary attitudes of students.

  6. Protein dynamics during presynaptic complex assembly on individual ssDNA molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double?stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single?stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic complex assembly. Here we use single?molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyce cerevisiae RPA, Rad52, and Rad51 during presynaptic complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA?ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 b...

  7. Combining use of a panel of ssDNA aptamers in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shaohua; Chen, Liucun; Ding, Hongmei; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yanping; Li, Jie; Liu, Nongle; Cao, Weihong; Zhu, Yanjun; Shen, Beifen; Shao, Ningsheng

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a panel of ssDNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus was obtained by a whole bacterium-based SELEX procedure and applied to probing S. aureus. After several rounds of selection with S. aureus as the target and Streptococcus and S. epidermidis as counter targets, the highly enriched oligonucleic acid pool was sequenced and then grouped under different families on the basis of the homology of the primary sequence and the similarity of the secondary structure. Eleven sequ...

  8. Beginning of the End: The Leadership of SS Obersturmbannfuehrer Jochen Peiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-17

    of Rudolf Lehmann and Ralf Tiemann on the Leibstandarte are based on the Bundesarchiven (National Archives) in Koblenz and Freiburg in Germany...Hans Schmidt, Paul Hausser, Richard Schulze-Kossens, Rudolf Lehmann, and Ralf Tiemann. Some German sources are at odds with American sources, but that...or a constitution. Among the men who set up the first military training for the Waffen-SS were Felix Steiner and Cassius Freiherr (Baron) von

  9. Assuring SS7 dependability: A robustness characterization of signaling network elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Vikram V.

    1994-04-01

    Current and evolving telecommunication services will rely on signaling network performance and reliability properties to build competitive call and connection control mechanisms under increasing demands on flexibility without compromising on quality. The dimensions of signaling dependability most often evaluated are the Rate of Call Loss and End-to-End Route Unavailability. A third dimension of dependability that captures the concern about large or catastrophic failures can be termed Network Robustness. This paper is concerned with the dependability aspects of the evolving Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) networks and attempts to strike a balance between the probabilistic and deterministic measures that must be evaluated to accomplish a risk-trend assessment to drive architecture decisions. Starting with high-level network dependability objectives and field experience with SS7 in the U.S., potential areas of growing stringency in network element (NE) dependability are identified to improve against current measures of SS7 network quality, as per-call signaling interactions increase. A sensitivity analysis is presented to highlight the impact due to imperfect coverage of duplex network component or element failures (i.e., correlated failures), to assist in the setting of requirements on NE robustness. A benefit analysis, covering several dimensions of dependability, is used to generate the domain of solutions available to the network architect in terms of network and network element fault tolerance that may be specified to meet the desired signaling quality goals.

  10. Electrical Properties of Al, Ag, Cu, Ti and SS Thin Film for Electrode of Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Siswanto; Wirjoadi; Sudjatmoko; Tjipto Sujitno

    2003-01-01

    The Al, Ag, Cu, Ti and SS materials were deposited on the surface of glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. The deposition process was done with the following plasma parameters : deposition time, gas pressure and substrate temperature with the aim to obtain a good conductance of thin films. Variation of substrate deposition time was 1 - 15 minutes, gas pressure was 5x10 -2 - 7x10 -2 torr and of temperature was 100 - 300 o C. The resistance measurement has been done by four points probes and the conductivity was calculated using mathematic formulation. It was obtained that the minimum resistance in the order of R = 0.07 Ω, was found at Ag materials and this was obtained at the following plasma parameters : deposition time 15 minutes, gas pressure 6x10 -2 torr and temperature 300 o C, while, the resistance of : Cu, Al, Ti and SS materials were R = 0.13 Ω, R = 450 Ω, R = 633 Ω, R = 911 Ω respectively, It could be concluded that the Ag thin film has a minimum resistance, high conductivity compared to the other materials Al, Cu, Ti and SS. Ag is therefore the suitable material for applying as electrode of solar cell. (author)

  11. Using long ssDNA polynucleotides to amplify STRs loci in degraded DNA samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Santángelo, Agustín; Corti Bielsa, Rodrigo M.; Sala, Andrea; Ginart, Santiago; Corach, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining informative short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from degraded DNA samples is a challenging task usually undermined by locus or allele dropouts and peak-high imbalances observed in capillary electrophoresis (CE) electropherograms, especially for those markers with large amplicon sizes. We hereby show that the current STR assays may be greatly improved for the detection of genetic markers in degraded DNA samples by using long single stranded DNA polynucleotides (ssDNA polynucleotides) as surrogates for PCR primers. These long primers allow a closer annealing to the repeat sequences, thereby reducing the length of the template required for the amplification in fragmented DNA samples, while at the same time rendering amplicons of larger sizes suitable for multiplex assays. We also demonstrate that the annealing of long ssDNA polynucleotides does not need to be fully complementary in the 5’ region of the primers, thus allowing for the design of practically any long primer sequence for developing new multiplex assays. Furthermore, genotyping of intact DNA samples could also benefit from utilizing long primers since their close annealing to the target STR sequences may overcome wrong profiling generated by insertions/deletions present between the STR region and the annealing site of the primers. Additionally, long ssDNA polynucleotides might be utilized in multiplex PCR assays for other types of degraded or fragmented DNA, e.g. circulating, cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). PMID:29099837

  12. Electropolymerization of camphorsulfonic acid doped conductive polypyrrole anti-corrosive coating for 304SS bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Syed, Junaid Ali; Gao, Yangzhi; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Lu, Hongbin; Meng, Xiangkang

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymer coating doped with large molecular organic acid is an alternative method used to protect stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, it is difficult to select the proper doping acid, which improves the corrosion resistance of the coating without affecting its conductivity. In this study, large spatial molecular group camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) doped polypyrrole (PPY) conductive coating was prepared by galvanostatic electropolymerization on 304SS. The electrochemical properties of the coating were evaluated in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution in order to simulate the PEMFC service environment. The results indicate that the coating increased the corrosion potential and shifted Ecorr towards more positive value, particularly the jcorr value of PPY-CSA coated 304SS was dropped from 97.3 to 0.00187 μA cm-2. The long-term immersion tests (660 h) show that the PPY-CSA coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in comparison with the small acid (SO42-) doped PPY-SO42- or PPY/PPY-SO42- coatings. Moreover, the PPY-CSA coating presents low contact resistance and maintains strong corrosion resistance during the prolonged exposure time due to barrier effect and anodic protection.

  13. An MC-SS Platform for Short-Range Communications in the Personal Network Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakirtzoglou Zeta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless personal area networks (WPANs have gained interest in the last few years, and several air interfaces have been proposed to cover WPAN applications. A multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS air interface specified to achieve 130 Mbps in typical WPAN channels is presented in this paper. It operates in the 5.2 GHz ISM band and achieves a spectral efficiency of 3.25  . Besides the robustness of the MC-SS approach, this air interface yields to reasonable implementation complexity. This paper focuses on the hardware design and prototype of this MC-SS air interface. The prototype includes RF, baseband, and IEEE802.15.3 compliant medium access control (MAC features. Implementation aspects are carefully analyzed for each part of the prototype, and key hardware design issues and solutions are presented. Hardware complexity and implementation loss are compared to theoretical expectations, as well as flexibility is discussed. Measurement results are provided for a real condition of operations.

  14. Protein dynamics during presynaptic complex assembly on individual ssDNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double–stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single–stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic complex assembly. Here we use single–molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyce cerevisiae RPA, Rad52, and Rad51 during presynaptic complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA–ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 binding extends the ssDNA, and Rad52–RPA clusters remain interspersed along the presynaptic complex. These clusters promote additional binding of RPA and Rad52. Together, our work illustrates the spatial and temporal progression of RPA and Rad52 association with the presynaptic complex, and reveals a novel RPA–Rad52–Rad51–ssDNA intermediate, which has implications for understanding how the activities of Rad52 and RPA are coordinated with Rad51 during the later stages recombination. PMID:25195049

  15. QoSS Hierarchical NoC-Based Architecture for MPSoC Dynamic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sepulveda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As electronic systems are pervading our lives, MPSoC (multiprocessor system-on-chip security is becoming an important requirement. MPSoCs are able to support multiple applications on the same chip. The challenge is to provide MPSoC security that makes possible a trustworthy system that meets the performance and security requirements of all the applications. The network-on-chip (NoC can be used to efficiently incorporate security. Our work proposes the implementation of QoSS (quality of security service to overcome present MPSoC vulnerabilities. QoSS is a novel concept for data protection that introduces security as a dimension of QoS. QoSS takes advantage of the NoC wide system visibility and critical role in enabling system operation, exploiting the NoC components to detect and prevent a wide range of attacks. In this paper, we present the implementation of a layered dynamic security NoC architecture that integrates agile and dynamic security firewalls in order to detect attacks based on different security rules. We evaluate the effectiveness of our approach over several MPSoCs scenarios and estimate their impact on the overall performance. We show that our architecture can perform a fast detection of a wide range of attacks and a fast configuration of different security policies for several MPSoC applications.

  16. Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S; Britton, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution.

  17. ssDNA degradation along capillary electrophoresis process using a Tris buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ric, Audrey; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Poinsot, Verena; Martins-Froment, Nathalie; Chauvet, Fabien; Boutonnet, Audrey; Ginot, Frédéric; Ecochard, Vincent; Paquereau, Laurent; Couderc, François

    2017-06-01

    Tris-Acetate buffer is currently used in the selection and the characterization of ssDNA by capillary electrophoresis (CE). By applying high voltage, the migration of ionic species into the capillary generates a current that induces water electrolysis. This phenomenon is followed by the modification of the pH and the production of Tris derivatives. By injecting ten times by capillary electrophoresis ssDNA (50 nM), the whole oligonucleotide was degraded. In this paper, we will show that the Tris buffer in the running vials is modified along the electrophoretic process by electrochemical reactions. We also observed that the composition of the metal ions changes in the running buffer vials. This phenomenon, never described in CE, is important for fluorescent ssDNA analysis using Tris buffer. The oligonucleotides are degraded by electrochemically synthesized species (present in the running Tris vials) until it disappears, even if the separation buffer in the capillary is clean. To address these issues, we propose to use a sodium phosphate buffer that we demonstrate to be electrochemically inactive. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses T3SS to inhibit diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldufsky, Josef; Wood, Stephen J; Jayaraman, Vijayakumar; Majdobeh, Omar; Chen, Lin; Qin, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunxiang; DiPietro, Luisa A; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Bacterial infection is recognized as an important factor associated with impaired healing in diabetic ulcers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently detected Gram-negative pathogen in diabetic ulcers. P. aeruginosa infection has been shown to impair healing in diabetic wounds in a manner that correlates with its ability to form biofilm. While the majority of infections in diabetic ulcers are biofilm associated, 33% of infections are nonbiofilm in nature. P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogen in all diabetic wound types, which suggests that the deleterious impact of P. aeruginosa on healing in diabetic wounds goes beyond its ability to form biofilm and likely involves other factors. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) virulence structure is required for the pathogenesis of all P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, suggesting that it may also play a role in the inhibition of wound repair in diabetic skin ulcers. We evaluated the role of T3SS in mediating P. aeruginosa-induced tissue damage in the wounds of diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa establishes a robust and persistent infection in diabetic wounds independent of its ability to form biofilm and causes severe wound damage in a manner that primarily depends on its T3SS. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  19. The Masses and Evolutionary State of the Stars in the Dwarf Nova SS Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Martin A.; Robinson, Edward L.; Behr, Bradford B.

    2007-06-01

    The dwarf nova SS Cygni is a close binary star consisting of a K star transferring mass to a white dwarf by way of an accretion disk. We have obtained new spectroscopic observations of SS Cyg. Fits of synthetic spectra for Roche lobe-filling stars to the absorption-line spectrum of the K star yield the amplitude of the K star's radial velocity curve and the mass ratio, KK=162.5+/-1.0 km s-1 and q=MK/MWD=0.685+/-0.015. The fits also show that the accretion disk and white dwarf contribute a fraction f=0.535+/-0.075 of the total flux at 5500 Å. Taking the weighted average of our results with previously published results obtained using similar techniques, we find =163.7+/-0.7 km s-1 and =0.683+/-0.012. The orbital light curve of SS Cyg shows an ellipsoidal variation diluted by light from the disk and white dwarf. From an analysis of the ellipsoidal variations, we limit the orbital inclination to the range 45degAustin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  20. Anomalous quark and gluon contents of light hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, T. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory); Kunihiro, T. (Ryukoku Univ., Otsu-City (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1992-09-14

    The sea-quark contents such as anti ss, anti cc, anti bb... of the low-lying baryons in the octet and decuplet are calculated with a combined use of the trace anomaly of QCD and a chiral quark model. We find (i) the empirical value of the [pi]-N sigma term ([proportional to] 45 MeV) can be reproduced with a rather small anti ss content of nucleon consistently with the Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula, (ii) the probability to find a charm quark in nucleon is found to be 0.5% which is consistent with the experimental analysis of the charm structure function of the proton and is necessary to account for the J/[psi]-production in proton-nucleous collisions and (iii) both strange and heavy quarks are equally important for the Higgs-nucleon coupling. The heavy-quark and gluon contents of pion and kaon are briefly mentioned. (orig.).

  1. Characterization of carbonaceous solids by oxygen chemisorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.; Duguay, D.G.; McConnell, D.G.; Henson, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    Oxygen chemisorption of high and low carbon carbonaceous solids was measured in an electro-microbalance at 200 degrees C in air. A linear correlation between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and H/C ratio as well as aromaticity was established for the high carbon solids. For the low carbon solids a linear correlation was established between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and the content of organic matter. Experimental observations are discussed in terms of structural aspects of the solids. Oxygen chemisorption is a suitable technique for a rapid characterization of carbonaceous solids including coal. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. GSM SiNYALLERİNİN .IP OMURGASI İİZERiNI>E TAŞINMASI (SS7 OVER IP- NettcSS7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağatay Neftali Tülü

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada günümüzün en popüler nıobilhaberleşme sistemi olan GSM [1 l sisteminin, kendiöğeleri aras1ndaki en temel sinyalleşme sistemi olannumara 7 (SS7 [2 sinyallerinin, günümüzün enyaygın iletim omurgast olan ve tüm dünyadakibilgisayarları birbirine bağlayan IP (3] omurgasıüzerinden taşınabilmesi için gerekli si stemin tasar11n1ve gerçeklenınesi üzerinde çahş1lmtştır. Klasil\\ SS7iletimine göre en büyüllt; faydası çok düşül{ maliyetiolan bu sistem sayesinde, dünyadaki b i r çok GSMşebekesi ara bağlanti harcanıalarıııda büyükmiktarda tasarrufa gideceklerdir. Aralarındakiklasik 64 KB/sn 'lik ara bağlantı yerine, bununüzerinde bir bağlantı hızı ile iki şebeke haberleşmişolacaktır. Bu değişimierin etkisi abonelere fiyatlardadüşüş ve servis kalitesinde yükseliş olarakyansıyacaktır.

  3. Solid-state NMR on complex biomolecules: novel methods and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nand, D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) represents a versatile technique in providing atomic-resolution information without the need for crystals or fast molecular motion required for X-ray crystallography and solution-state NMR, respectively. Recent past has witnessed the ability of this technique in providing

  4. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  5. Comparison of direct shear and simple shear responses of municipal solid waste in USA

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Although large-size simple shear (SS) testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) may arguably provide a more realistic estimate of the shear strength (τ ) of MSW than the most commonly used direct shear (DS) testing, a systematic comparison between

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  7. Subtle variation within conserved effector operon gene products contributes to T6SS-mediated killing and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Zhu, Kevin; Hershey, Haley L; Musili, Ninette; Miller, Jessa E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-11-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein. In this study, we investigated the role that the PefE T6SS immunity protein plays in recognition between two strains harboring nearly identical effector operons. Interestingly, despite containing seven of eight identical effector proteins, the less conserved immunity proteins only provided protection against their native effectors, suggesting that specificity and recognition could be dependent on variation within an immunity protein and one effector gene product. The variable effector gene product, PefD, is encoded upstream from pefE, and displays toxic activity that can be countered by PefE independent of T6SS-activity. Interestingly, while the entire pef operon was necessary to exert toxic activity via the T6SS in P. mirabilis, production of PefD and PefE alone was unable to exert this effector activity. Chimeric PefE proteins constructed from two P. mirabilis strains were used to localize immunity function to three amino acids. A promiscuous immunity protein was created using site-directed mutagenesis to change these residues from one variant to another. These findings support the notion that subtle differences between conserved effectors are sufficient for T6SS-mediated kin discrimination and that PefD requires additional factors to function as a T6SS-dependent effector.

  8. The Analysis of Septic Tank Performance in Regard to Suspended Solids and Organic Matter Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Kirjanova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 117 The aim of this work was to evaluate the removal of suspended solids (SS and 7-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7 in a three chamber septic tank depending on theoretical wastewater retention time and the degree of septic tank cleanliness. It was found out that the performance of the septic tank depended on the degree of its cleanliness: when the septic tank was clean and retention time was three days, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 77±10% and 67±14% respectively, whereas two months later, after septic tank desludging, SS removal efficiency decreased to 53±22% and BOD7 to 32±31%. The performance of the septic tank also depended on theoretical wastewater retention time: when some amount of solids was accumulated at the bottom of the septic tank and wastewater retention time was one day, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 45±40% and 33±16% respectively; when retention time was three days, SS removal efficiency increased to 53±22% but BOD7 removal efficiency remained similar to one day retention time, i.e. 32±31%.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.; Norris, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surface by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs

  10. Nuorisopsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä jaksaminen, kun itsellä alaikäisiä lapsia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuuslehto, Marianna; Niemi, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kuvata sairaanhoitajien jaksamista nuorisopsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä, kun heillä itsellään on alaikäisiä lapsia. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on saada tietoa, millaisena sairaanhoitajat kokevat työssäjaksamisen nuorisopsykiatrisessa hoitotyössä, kun itsellä on alaikäisiä lapsia. Tavoitteena on myös saada tietoa sairaanhoitajien työssäjaksamisen keinoista ja nuorisopsykiatrisen työn kuormittavuustekijöistä. Opinnäytetytön avulla saatavaa tietoa voidaan hyödyn...

  11. Kehityshankkeena tasa-arvo : Sukupuolinäkökulman huomioon ottaminen teknologiaosaamisen johtamisessa Yritys Oyj:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjäläinen, Suvi

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin suurelle kansainväliselle teknologiayritykselle, josta käytän tässä opinnäytetyössä työssä nimeä Yritys Oyj. Opinnäytetyön johtoajatuksena oli tehdä suomalainen sukupuolijärjestelmä, -stereotypiat sekä sukupuolten välinen tasa-arvo näkyväksi ja osoittaa, kuinka näitä parantamalla voidaan lisätä Yritys Oyj:n tuottavuutta ja sitä kautta menestystä. Työn sukupuolta ja sukupuolieroja käsittelevässä teoriaosuudessa selvitettiin sukupuolistereotypioiden olemassao...

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  13. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Share, G.H.; Kinzer, R.L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system. 19 refs

  14. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  15. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  17. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B Ramesh; Gangradey, R

    2012-01-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  18. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  19. Single-molecule analysis reveals the kinetics and physiological relevance of MutL-ssDNA binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Park

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA binding by MutL homologs (MLH/PMS during mismatch repair (MMR has been considered based on biochemical and genetic studies. Bulk studies with MutL and its yeast homologs Mlh1-Pms1 have suggested an integral role for a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA binding activity during MMR. We have developed single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET and a single-molecule DNA flow-extension assays to examine MutL interaction with ssDNA in real time. The smFRET assay allowed us to observe MutL-ssDNA association and dissociation. We determined that MutL-ssDNA binding required ATP and was the greatest at ionic strength below 25 mM (K(D = 29 nM while it dramatically decreases above 100 mM (K(D>2 µM. Single-molecule DNA flow-extension analysis suggests that multiple MutL proteins may bind ssDNA at low ionic strength but this activity does not enhance stability at elevated ionic strengths. These studies are consistent with the conclusion that a stable MutL-ssDNA interaction is unlikely to occur at physiological salt eliminating a number of MMR models. However, the activity may infer some related dynamic DNA transaction process during MMR.

  20. Microstructural studies of suck cast (Zr-SS)-3 and 5 AI alloys for nuclear metallic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Das, N.; Sengupta, P.; Arya, A.; Dey, G.K.

    2015-01-01

    Management of radioactive metallic waste using 'alloy melting route' is currently being investigated. For disposal of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes, Zr-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) alloys. In this context Zr-16 wt. %55 has been selected for MWF alloy in our previous study. In present study, to include amorphous phase in this alloy, 3 and 5 wt. % Al has been added in order to improve desirable properties and useful features of MWF and the two alloys have been prepared by suck casting techniques. Microstructure of these alloys have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy which shows occurrence of two different phases, e.g. dark grey and white phases, in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al and three different phases, e.g. grey, dark grey and white phases in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. Electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of these two alloy specimens revealed the occurrence of Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey) and Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al whereas, Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey), Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (grey) and Zr 3 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases were found in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. In addition, presence of amorphous phase was indicated by XRD analysis that could be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of these two alloys. (author)

  1. Efficient Programming for Multicore Processor Heterogeneity: OpenMP versus OmpSs

    OpenAIRE

    Butko , Anastasiia; Bruguier , Florent; Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Sassatelli , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; ARM single-ISA heterogeneous multicore processors combine high-performance big cores with power-efficient small cores. They aim at achieving a suitable balance between performance and energy. How- ever, a main challenge is to program such architectures so as to efficiently exploit their features. In this paper, we study the impact on performance and energy trade-offs of single-ISA architecture according to OpenMP 3.0 and the OmpSs programming models. We consider differ...

  2. Osaamalla organisaatiokulttuurin oivaltajaksi : Johtamisosaamista tehostetun palveluasumisen esimiestyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Oja, Ulla; Heinonen, Miia

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin työelämälähtöisenä tutkimuksellisena kehittämishankkeena. Sen tarkoituksena oli edistää organisaatiokulttuuriin liittyvää johtamisosaamista Lahden kaupungin tehostetun palveluasumisen yksiköissä. Kehittämishankkeen ensimmäisenä tavoitteena oli kuvata, miten organisaatiokulttuuri ilmenee työyhteisössä ja millaista osaamista organisaatiokulttuurin johtaminen vaatii. Toisena tavoitteena oli tuottaa organisaatiokulttuurin johtamisosaamisen kehittämisalueet. Keh...

  3. Kehonkuvaa eheyttämässä - kehonkuva psykofyysisessä fysioterapiassa

    OpenAIRE

    Härkälä, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Kuntoutuslainsäädännön mukaan fysioterapia kuuluu lääkinnälliseen kuntoutukseen, jonka tavoitteena on vaikuttaa ihmisen toimintakykyyn ja normaalin elämän edellytyksiin. Käytännössä ihmisen toimintakykyä arvioidaan sen mukaan, millaiset fyysiset, psyykkiset ja sosiaaliset edellytykset yksilöllä on selviytyä päivittäisistä toiminnoista ja askareista, kuten työstä, opiskelusta, sosiaalisista suhteista ja vapaa-ajan toimista. Toimintakyky on siis laaja käsite, ja tähän kuuluvat oleellisesti fyys...

  4. Butt Weldability for SS400 Using Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Do; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, Duck; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, In Duck

    2016-01-01

    This study presents results of an experimental investigation of the laser-arc, hybrid, butt welding process of SS400 structural steel. Welding parameters including laser power, welding current and speed were varied in order to obtain one-pass, full-penetration welds without defects. The conditions that resulted in optimal beads were identified. After welding, hardness measurements and microstructure observations were carried out in order to study weld properties. The mechanical properties of both the base material and welded specimen were compared based on the results of tensile strength measurements. The yield and tensile strengths were found to be similar

  5. Ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuus ja sen tukeminen hoitotyössä - ohjeita hoitajille

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffrén, Jenni; Eskelinen, Noora

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuutta ja kuinka hoitajat voivat tukea seksu-aalisuutta hoitotyössä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda opas ikääntyneiden seksuaalisuuden tukemiseksi Leivolan hoitohenkilökunnalle, johon kuuluu perus-, lähi- ja sairaanhoitajia. Toimeksiantajanamme on Leivolan palvelukeskus Leppävirralla, joka on ympärivuorokautinen hoitokoti. Palvelukeskuksen asukkaiden ikäjakauma on 63–99 vuotta. Opinnäytetyö on kehittämistyö. Opinnäyte...

  6. Transmutation and activation of stainless steel 316 SS in a thermal fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.; Schneider, J.

    1977-10-01

    Using the program MATEXP (matrix exponential method) the influence of neutron flux is calculated for stainless steel 3s16 SS which is used as a structural material in a fusion reactor blanket (CTRD-I). The transmutations, activations and γ-dose rates are determined for an operation time of 20 years. Investigating the decay behaviour after operation time, we found that the long term activity and dose rate was mainly influenced by five nuclides: Fe55, Ni63, Ni59, Co60 and Nb94. (orig.) [de

  7. Guanxi-verkostojen merkitys kiinalaisessa liiketoimintaympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Anne; Matveinen, Tarja

    2009-01-01

    Kiina muuttuu valtavaa vauhtia. Entinen suljettu valtio on kasvanut jättimahdiksi ja yhtäjak-soinen talouskasvu on jatkunut yhdeksän prosentin vuositasolla vuodesta 1979 lähtien. Ulko-maisia yrityksiä kiinnostavat Kiinan halvat työvoimakustannukset ja valtavat markkinat, mutta kiinalaiseen liiketoimintaympäristöön sopeutuminen vaatii yrityksiltä aikaa, kärsivällisyyttä ja oikeanlaisia suhteita. Vaikka ulkoiset muutokset ovat tapahtuneet häkellyttävän nopeasti, vaikuttavat ihmisten sisimmässä ...

  8. Constitutive modeling for uniaxial time-dependent ratcheting of SS304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Qianhua; Kang Guozheng; Zhang Juan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of uniaxial time-dependent ratcheting behavior of SS304 stainless steel at room temperature and 973K, a new time-dependent constitutive model was proposed. The model describes the time-dependent ratcheting by adding a static/thermal recovery into the Abdel-Karim-Ohno non-linear kinematic hardening rule. The capability of the model to describe the time-dependent ratcheting was discussed by comparing the simulations with the corresponding experimental results. It is shown that the revised unified viscoplastic model can simulate the time-dependent ratcheting reasonably both at room and high temperatures. (authors)

  9. Interaction of dense nitrogen plasma with SS304 surface using APF plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrashteh, M.; Habibi, M.; Heydari, E.

    2012-04-01

    The nitridation of SS304 surfaces is obtained by irradiating nitrogen ions from Amirkabir plasma focus device, which use multiple focus deposition shots at optimum distance 10 cm from the anode. The Vickers Micro-Hardness values are improved more than twice for the nitrided samples comparing to the nonnitrided ones. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is carried out in order to explore the phase changes in the near surface structure of the metals. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicate changes in surface morphology which are the emergence of smooth and uniform film on the surface of the nitrided metals.

  10. Short-time-scale Doppler and intensity variations in the spectrum of SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.M.; Newsom, G.H.; Foltz, C.B.; Byard, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of SS 433 were obtained on ten consecutive nights in 1981 May. Measurements of the equivalent widths of the spectral lines and Doppler shifts of the moving lines are presented. Not only does the 6-day period in the wavelengths of the moving lines appear quite clearly, but the data strongly suggest that this period is decreasing at a rate of (3.0 +- 1.1) x 10 -5 days/day. In addition, large equivalent width variations of the stationary lines are observed

  11. Osallisena omassa elämässä : Kehitysvammaisen nuoren itsenäistymisen tukeminen

    OpenAIRE

    Rosbacka, Marjo

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tehtiin yhteistyössä Eskoon aikuiskoulutusyksikkö Kaarisillan kanssa. Tutkinnan kohteena oli kehitysvammaisten nuorten itsenäisyys ja osallisuus arkipäivän toimintaan. Työn tarkoituksena on herättää ihmisiä pohtimaan tasa-arvoista elämää. Mitä siihen kuuluu ja kenen tehtävänä on varmistaa yhdenvertaisuus? Tutkimuksen pääongelmaksi muodostui; Miten tavallisen nuoren ja kehitysvammaisen nuoren elämät eroavat toisistaan? Lisäksi tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, miksi elämät eroavat toisi...

  12. Röntgenhoitajaopiskelijan työturvallisuus ammattitaitoa edistävässä harjoittelussa

    OpenAIRE

    Vierula, Hanna-Leena

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyönä tuotettiin taskuinfo työturvallisuudesta Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulun radiografian ja sädehoidon koulutusohjelman opiskelijoille ammattitaitoa edistäviin harjoitteluihin. Opinnäytetyön tavoite on edistää röntgenhoitajaopiskelijoiden tietoutta työturvallisuudesta sekä auttaa heitä työturvallisuuteen liittyvissä ongelmatilanteissa ammattitaitoa edistävissä harjoitteluissa. Opinnäytetyössä tuotettiin materiaalia opiskelijoiden työturvallisuuteen liittyen. Pohjana käytettiin...

  13. Lisätty todellisuus vähittäiskaupan markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Moisa, Teuvo

    2017-01-01

    Lisätty todellisuus eli AR (englanniksi augmented reality) lisää todellisuuteen virtuaalisen elementin. Vähittäiskaupan markkinointiviestinnässä lisättyä todellisuutta on käytetty useiden vuosien ajan vahvistamaan brändikokemusta. Lisätty todellisuus mahdollistaa mukaansatempaavan markkinoinnin ja lisää asiakkaiden uskollisuutta. Lisättyä todellisuutta voi hyödyntää neljän paradigman kautta, jotka ovat aktiiviset painotuotteet ja pakkaukset, virtuaalipeilit, virtuaali-ikkunat ja paikannusta k...

  14. Pitting corrosion studies on nitrogen implanted 316L SS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiyan, M.; Veerabadran, K.M.; Thampi, N.S.; Kanwar Krishnan; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Dayal, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, human bone fracture and defects have been corrected using metal and alloy fixing devices. Austenitic stainless steels (such as 316L alloy studied here) are favoured because of low cost, compared to titanium alloys, ease of fabrication and fair corrosion resistance. Localized attack on 316l stainless steel, however, results in iron, chromium and nickel ions leaching into surrounding body fluids. This study reports on the successful use of nitrogen ion implantation into 316lSS to evaluate the optimum dose needed to minimise this localised attack, in a physiological saline solution. (UK)

  15. Synthesis and antioxidant evaluation of (S,S)- and (R,R)-secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs)

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Om P.; Simmons, Nicholas; Tyagi, Sonia; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Valiulin, Roman A.; Heretsch, Philipp; Nicolaou, K. C.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) (S,S)-SDG-1 (major isomer in flaxseed) and (R,R)-SDG-2 (minor isomer in flaxseed) were synthesized from vanillin via secoisolariciresinol (6) and glucosyl donor 7 through a concise route that involved chromatographic separation of diastereomeric diglucoside derivatives (S,S)-8 and (R,R)-9. Synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 exhibited potent antioxidant properties (EC50 = 292.17 ± 27.71 μM and 331.94 ± 21.21 μM, respectively) which compared well with...

  16. Butt Weldability for SS400 Using Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, Duck [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Gi Hoon; Park, In Duck [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    This study presents results of an experimental investigation of the laser-arc, hybrid, butt welding process of SS400 structural steel. Welding parameters including laser power, welding current and speed were varied in order to obtain one-pass, full-penetration welds without defects. The conditions that resulted in optimal beads were identified. After welding, hardness measurements and microstructure observations were carried out in order to study weld properties. The mechanical properties of both the base material and welded specimen were compared based on the results of tensile strength measurements. The yield and tensile strengths were found to be similar.

  17. Corrosion Testing of 304L SS 3013 Inner Container and Teardrop Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokash, Justin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lillard, Scott [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Joyce, Stephen Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tegtmeier, Eric Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) 3013 Standard specifies a minimum of two containers to be used for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials containing at least 30 wt.% plutonium and uranium. Three nested containers are typically used, the outer, inner, and convenience containers, shown in Figure 1. Both the outer and inner containers are sealed with a weld while the innermost convenience container must not be sealed. Lifetime of the containers is expected to be fifty years. The containers are fabricated of austenitic stainless steels (SS) due to their high corrosion resistance. Potential failure mechanisms of the storage containers have been examined by Kolman and Lillard et al.

  18. Turvajalkineiden vaikutus jalkaterveyteen Suur-Savon Sähkötyö Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Pulkkinen, Riikka; Tossavainen, Inka; Ryynänen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millaisia vaikutuksia turvajalkineilla voi olla jalkaterveyteen, minkälaisia jalkaongelmia turvajalkineiden käyttö voi aiheuttaa, voivatko työntekijät itse vaikuttaa turvajalkineiden hankintaan ja millainen on turvajalkineiden hankintaprosessi Suur-Savon Sähkötyö Oy:ssä. Opinnäytetyömme toimeksiantaja oli Suur-Savon Sähkötyö Oy. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin pääasiassa kvantitatiivista tutkimusta ja aineisto kerättiin puolistrukturoidulla kysely...

  19. The effect of inhibitor sodium nitrate on pitting corrosion of dissimilar material weldment joint of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilca, B. R., E-mail: bangkithilca@yahoo.com; Triyono, E-mail: triyonomesin@uns.ac.id [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    This study experimentally evaluated the effect of Sodium Nitrate inhibitor (NaNO{sub 3}) of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% on NaCl 3.5% toward pitting corrosion of dissimilar metal welding joint between stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400. Electrochemical corrosion was tested using potentiodynamic polarization. Further the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) conducted to analyze the specimen. Chemical composition analysis used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS). The highest efficiency of sodium nitrate for ER 308 attained 63.8% and 64.89%for ER 309L. The specimen surface which observed through SEM showed decrease of pitting corrosion respectively with the addition of sodium nitrate content as inhibitor.

  20. Fluidized pellet bed bioreactor system for SS, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus; Ryudoso zoryu bio reactor system ni yoru SS, COD, chisso oyobi rin jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Tanbo, N.; Kudo, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hamaguchi, T.; Nakabayashi, A. [Tsukishima Kikai Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-10

    An examination was carried out on a treatment system which was constituted of an aerobic fluidized pellet bed (AFRB) bioreactor and the two steps comprising a contact aeration process and a sand filtration process for sewage/drainage treatment. The following data were obtained from the experiment by a pilot plant installed in a sewage plant. The removal ratios were the same as or above 95% in SS, 95% in total phosphorus, 85% in COD and 80% in total nitrogen. The highly dense sludge pellets formed in the AFPB bioreactor in summer contained aerobic filamentous bacteria that were capable of multiplying. The sludge retention time of this bioreactor was 2.2 to 8.1 days which were sufficient for the multiplication of denitrifiers, whose number and activity were also satisfactory for dinitrification. Further, other microorganisms existed in the bioreactor such as sulfate reducers and methanation bacteria. The role of a contact aeration tank was the oxidized decomposition and nitration of soluble BOD, and the biofilm had niterite and nitrate bacteria adhered to it. Assuming the retention time of the tank was two hours, the nitration ratio was 90% or more at the water temperature of 15{degree}C or higher. 29 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Strengths of Metastable FCC Solid Solutions in Al-Ce-Fe System

    OpenAIRE

    A., Inoue; H., Yamaguchi; M., Kikuchi; T., Masumoto; Institute for Materials Research; Institute for Materials Research; Institute for Materials Research; Institute for Materials Research

    1990-01-01

    A metastable fcc solid solution (SS) with high mechanical strengths and good bending ductility was found to be formed in rapidly solidified Al-Ce-Fe alloys containing the solute elements below about 6 at%. The SS consists of equiaxed grains with a size of about 2μm and contains a high density of internal defects. The highest hardness (H_v) and tensile fracture strengtn (σ_f) are 440 and 860 MPa in the as-quenched state and remain almost unchanged up to about 600 K for 1 h, though fine compoun...

  2. Caffeine inhibits gene conversion by displacing Rad51 from ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabar, Michael; Mason, Jennifer M.; Chan, Yuen-Ling; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination relies on the formation of a Rad51 recombinase filament that forms on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) created at DSB ends. This filament facilitates the search for a homologous donor sequence and promotes strand invasion. Recently caffeine treatment has been shown to prevent gene targeting in mammalian cells by increasing non-productive Rad51 interactions between the DSB and random regions of the genome. Here we show that caffeine treatment prevents gene conversion in yeast, independently of its inhibition of the Mec1ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent DNA damage response or caffeine's inhibition of 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends. Caffeine treatment results in a dosage-dependent eviction of Rad51 from ssDNA. Gene conversion is impaired even at low concentrations of caffeine, where there is no discernible dismantling of the Rad51 filament. Loss of the Rad51 filament integrity is independent of Srs2's Rad51 filament dismantling activity or Rad51's ATPase activity and does not depend on non-specific Rad51 binding to undamaged double-stranded DNA. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, promoting loss of previously assembled Rad51 foci. We conclude that caffeine treatment can disrupt gene conversion by disrupting Rad51 filaments. PMID:26019181

  3. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasri, R., E-mail: subasri@arci.res.in; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO{sub 2} as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes.

  4. Sol–gel derived solar selective coatings on SS 321 substrates for solar thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasri, R.; Soma Raju, K.R.C.; Reddy, D.S.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Padmanabham, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings were generated on AISI SS 321 substrates using Ag-TiO_2 as the cermet layer, titania and silica as the dielectric layers with high and low refractive indices respectively. The phase compositions of the individual layers were independently confirmed using grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction, which was corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Thickness of the layers was measured using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The solar absorbance was measured over the UV–Vis-NIR wavelength range. Thermal emissivity was determined using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The durability of the coatings was ascertained using accelerated corrosion testing methods as well as by measuring the optical properties after thermal cycling experiments. The promising nature of hexavalent chrome-free, environmental friendly, multilayered solar selective coating was ascertained with respect to amenability to scale-up. - Highlights: • Sol–gel derived multilayered solar selective coatings developed on SS321 • Solar absorptance and thermal emittance at par with toxic chrome coating • Thermal stability and corrosion resistance of coatings studied • Coating performance found to be promising for large scale applications • Scale-up amenability investigated by coating generation on 1 m tubes

  5. NExSS/NAI Joint ExoPAG SAG 16 Report on Remote Biosignatures for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Nancy Y.; Parenteau, Mary Nicole; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Future exoplanet observations will soon focus on the search for life beyond the Solar System. Exoplanet biosignatures to be sought are those with global, potentially detectable, impacts on a planet. Biosignatures occur in an environmental context in which geological, atmospheric, and stellar processes and interactions may work to enhance, suppress or mimic these biosignatures. Thus biosignature scienceis inherently interdisciplinary. Its advance is necessary to inform the design of the next flagship missions that will obtain spectra of habitable extrasolar planets. The NExSS NAI Joint Exoplanet Biosignatures Workshop Without Walls brought together the astrobiology, exoplanet, and mission concept communities to review, discuss, debate, and advance the science of remote detection of planetary biosignatures. The multi-meeting workshop began in June 2016, and was a process that engaged a broad range of experts across the interdisciplinary reaches of NASA's Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) program, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), NASAs Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP), and international partners, such as the European Astrobiology Network Association (EANA) and Japans Earth Life Science Institute (ELSI). These groups spanned expertise in astronomy, planetary science, Earth sciences, heliophysics, biology, instrument mission development, and engineering.

  6. ssDNA Pairing Accuracy Increases When Abasic Sites Divide Nucleotides into Small Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Peacock-Villada

    Full Text Available Accurate sequence dependent pairing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA molecules plays an important role in gene chips, DNA origami, and polymerase chain reactions. In many assays accurate pairing depends on mismatched sequences melting at lower temperatures than matched sequences; however, for sequences longer than ~10 nucleotides, single mismatches and correct matches have melting temperature differences of less than 3°C. We demonstrate that appropriately grouping of 35 bases in ssDNA using abasic sites increases the difference between the melting temperature of correct bases and the melting temperature of mismatched base pairings. Importantly, in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites mismatches near one end of a long dsDNA destabilize the annealing at the other end much more effectively than in systems without the abasic sites, suggesting that the dsDNA melts more uniformly in the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites. In sum, the presence of appropriately spaced abasic sites allows temperature to more accurately discriminate correct base pairings from incorrect ones.

  7. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44 and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstructures and corresponding micro hardness of the samples have been measured along with Feritscopic studies. Wear characteristics have been studied in a multi tribo-tester (Ducom in dry sliding condition against EN-8 steel roller. Speed, load on job and duration of test run have been considered as the experimental parameters. The wear of the samples have been obtained directly from ‘Winducom 2006’ software. Mass loss of the samples before and after operation has also been considered as the measure of wear in the present study. All the samples have been slid against EN-8 steel roller with fixed experimental parameters. The data have been plotted, compared and analyzed. Effect of microstructures as well as micro hardness on the wear behavior has been studied and concluded accordingly.

  8. X-ray variability of SS 433: Evidence for supercritical accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapin, K. E.; Fabrika, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We study the X-ray variability of SS 433 based on data from the ASCA observatory and the MAXI and RXTE/ASM monitoring missions. Based on the ASCA data, we have constructed the power spectrum of SS 433 in the frequency range from 10-6 to 0.1 Hz, which confirms the presence of a flat portion in the spectrum at frequencies 3 × 10-5-10-3 Hz. The periodic variability (precession, nutation, eclipses) begins to dominate significantly over the stochastic variability at lower frequencies, which does not allow the stochastic variability to be studied reliably. The model in which the flat portion extends to 9.5 × 10-6 Hz, while a power-law rise with an index of 2.6 occurs below provides the best agreement with the observations. The nutational oscillations of the jets with a period of about three days suggests that the time for the passage of material through the disk is less than this value. At frequencies below 4 × 10-6 Hz, the shape of the power spectrum probably does not reflect the disk structure but is determined by external factors, for example, by a change in the amount of material supplied by the donor. The flat portion can arise from a rapid decrease in the viscous time in the supercritical or radiative disk zones. The flat spectrum is associated with the variability of the X-ray jets that are formed in the supercritical disk region.

  9. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  10. Localized Corrosion Behavior of Type 304SS with a Silica Layer Under Atmospheric Corrosion Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Tada; G.S. Frankel

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. [I] The temperature could be high on the waste packages, and it is possible that dripping water or humidity could interact with rock dust particulate to form a thin electrolyte layer with concentrated ionic species. Under these conditions, it is possible that highly corrosion-resistant alloys (CRAs) used as packages to dispose the nuclear waste could suffer localized corrosion. Therefore, to better understand long-term corrosion performance of CRAs in the repository, it is important to investigate localized corrosion under a simulated repository environment. We measured open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (i g ) for silica-coated Type 304SS during drying of salt solutions under controlled RH environments to clarify the effect of silica layer as a dust layer simulant on localized corrosion under atmospheric environments. Type 304SS was used as a relatively susceptible model CRA instead of the much more corrosion resistant alloys, such as Alloy 22, that are being considered as, waste package materials

  11. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Operational strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Cui, J.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01

    Three operational strategies to reduce inhibition due to ammonia during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) rich in proteins were investigated. Feed was prepared by diluting SS-OFMSW (ratio of 1:4) with tap water or reactor process...... ammonium bicarbonate additions. Dilution of SS-OFMSW with fresh water showed a stable performance with volatile fatty acids of solids (VS). Use of recirculated process water after stripping ammonia showed even better performance with a methane yield...... of 0.43 m(3) kg(-1)VS. Recirculation of process water alone on the other hand, resulted in process inhibition at both TAN levels of 3.5 and 5.5 g-N l(-1). However, after a short period, the process recovered and adapted to the tested TAN levels. Thus, use of recirculated process water after stripping...

  13. A second wave of Salmonella T3SS1 activity prolongs the lifespan of infected epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran E Finn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1 is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation. Here, we investigated the post-invasion role of T3SS1, using SopB as a model effector. In cultured epithelial cells, SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation was observed at two distinct stages of infection: during and immediately after invasion, and later during peak cytosolic replication. Single cell analysis revealed that cytosolic Salmonella deliver SopB via T3SS1. Although intracellular replication was unaffected in a SopB deletion mutant, cells infected with ΔsopB demonstrated a lack of Akt phosphorylation, earlier time to death, and increased lysis. When SopB expression was induced specifically in cytosolic Salmonella, these effects were restored to levels observed in WT infected cells, indicating that the second wave of SopB protects this infected population against cell death via Akt activation. Thus, T3SS1 has two, temporally distinct roles during epithelial cell colonization. Additionally, we found that delivery of SopB by cytosolic bacteria was translocon-independent, in contrast to canonical effector translocation across eukaryotic membranes, which requires formation of a translocon pore. This mechanism was also observed for another T3SS1 effector, SipA. These findings reveal the functional and mechanistic adaptability of a T3SS that can be harnessed in different microenvironments.

  14. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lindsay A. [University of Oxford, Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Division of Structural Biology, Nuffield Department of Medicine (United Kingdom); Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc, E-mail: m.baldus@uu.nl [Utrecht University, NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR.

  15. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Lindsay A.; Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR

  16. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Crasta, Graziano; Bellini, Romeo; Comandatore, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2016-11-02

    Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1) has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4) of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size) on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0-24 to 0-48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior and lower cannibalism rate. The understanding of

  17. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s. and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Porretta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1 has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4 of Anopheles gambiae (s.s. and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Results Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s. than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0–24 to 0–48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. Conclusions The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s. and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior

  18. The Effects of Hot Bending on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviors of 347 SS in PWR Primary Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho-Sub; Hong, Jong-Dae; Lee, Junho; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fatigue damage could be significant for some locations, especially the welds and bends where stress concentration is typically high. As a possible solution, a large radius hot-bending method has been suggested to eliminate some weld joints and all tight bends. However, for the hot-bending process which involves a high temperature thermal cycle, there is a concern about changes in mechanical properties including low cycle fatigue behaviors. In APR1400, Type 347 SS have been used as surge line pipes. Therefore, to verify the applicability of hot-bending on 347 SS surge line pipes, an environmental fatigue test program was initiated. In this paper, the preliminary results of the on-going test program are introduced. Also, the low cycle fatigue behaviors of 347 SS are compared with those of other grade of stainless steels. The effects of hot bending on the low cycle fatigue behavior of 347 SS were quantitatively evaluated. The fatigue life was compared with the estimated values per NUREG 6909 rev. 1. There are no distinct differences between NUREG 6909 and LCF tests. According to fractography and cross section analysis in progress, basically, the reduction of LCF life of 347 SS in PWR water was caused by operation of HIC mechanism. The cyclic stress responses shows that there is no secondary hardening in 330 .deg.C air and PWR water.

  19. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development in corrosion resistance by microstructural refinement in Zr-16 SS 304 alloy using suction casting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N., E-mail: nirupamd@barc.gov.in; Sengupta, P.; Abraham, G.; Arya, A.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Grain refinement was made in Zr–16 wt.% SS alloy while prepared by suction casting process. • Distribution of Laves phase, e.g., Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr) was raised in suction cast (SC) Zr–16 wt.% SS. • Corrosion resistance was improved in SC alloy compared to that of arc-melt-cast alloy. • Grain refinement in SC alloy assisted for an increase in its corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Zirconium (Zr)-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) with the motivation of disposing of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes. Zr–16 wt.% SS, a MWF alloy optimized from previous studies, exhibit significant grain refinement and changes in phase assemblages (soft phase: Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/α-Zr vs. hard phase: Zr{sub 3}(Fe, Ni)) when prepared by suction casting (SC) technique in comparison to arc-cast-melt (AMC) route. Variation in Cr-distribution among different phases are found to be low in suction cast alloy, which along with grain refinement restricted Cr-depletion at the Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/Zr interfaces, prone to localized attack. Hence, SC alloy, compared to AMC alloy, showed lower current density, higher potential at the breakdown of passivity and higher corrosion potential during polarization experiments (carried out under possible geological repository environments, viz., pH 8, 5 and 1) indicating its superior corrosion resistance.

  1. Identification of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2-associated chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Kodama, Toshio; Saito, Kazunobu; Iida, Tetsuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Honda, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2. Effector proteins secreted by these T3SSs are delivered into host cells, leading to cell death or diarrhea. However, it is not known how specific effectors are secreted through a specific T3SS when both T3SSs are expressed within bacteria. One molecule thought to determine secretion specificity is a T3SS-associated chaperone; however, no T3SS2-specific chaperone has been identified. Therefore, we screened T3SS2 chaperone candidates by a pull-down assay using T3SS2 effectors fused with glutathione-S-transferase. A secretion assay revealed that the newly identified cognate chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC was required for the efficient secretion of the substrate through T3SS2. Further experiments determined the chaperone-binding domain and the amino-terminal secretion signal of the cognate effector. These findings, in addition to the previously identified T3SS1-specific chaperone, VecA, provide a strategy to clarify the specificity of effector secretion through T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.; Gaynor, Whitney; Ding, I-Kang; Rim, Seung-Bum; Peumans, Peter; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Solution processed silver nanowire meshes (Ag NWs) were laminated on top of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) as a reflective counter electrode. Ag NWs were deposited in <1 min and were less reflective compared to evaporated Ag

  3. [Myocardiopathy diagnosed in utero in a mother with SS-A antibodies treated with plasmapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, C M; Puente Ledezma, F; Montiel Amoroso, G; Martínez García, A C

    1995-03-01

    We report a 36 years old patient with Sjogren's syndrome, who during her second pregnancy, the product developed a miocardiopathy with complete heart block that was diagnosed in utero at 26 weeks of pregnancy. Simultaneously, laboratory data reported a SS-A/Ro titer of 1:50,000 with positive antiphospholipids antibodies. Patient was subjected three times to plasmapheresis with three blood volume exchange each time. During the procedures, we had monitor the product and no hemodinamic changes were observed. Unfortunately, 25 days later the patient reported absence of fetal movement and by ecosonography and Doppler was not observed fetal movement or cardiac function. This pregnancy ends in cesarea. The patient is in perfect clinical conditions under control using prednisone and methotrexate.

  4. Perehdytys etätyössä : case Annanpura Oy:n perehdytyssuunnitelma

    OpenAIRE

    Kohomäki, Noora

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia toimiva perehdytyssuunnitelma yritykselle, jonka työntekijät työskentelevät pääsääntöisesti kotoaan käsin. Etätyön perehdyttämisessä korostuvat riittävän viestinnän ja vuorovaikutuksen järjestäminen. Työn keskeisenä haasteena oli dialogisen perehdytyksen ja itsenäisesti suoritettavan etätyön yhdistäminen. Työn tavoitteena oli lisäksi selvittää, onnistuuko hiljaisen tiedon ja osaamisen siirtäminen etätyössä ja sen perehdytyksessä. Teoreettisessa viitekeh...

  5. RICOMPOSIZIONE VIRTUALE DEL TABERNACOLO DI ISAIA DA PISA PER LA CHIESA DELLA SS. TRINITÀ DI VITERBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Abate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Questo progetto ha preso spunto da uno studio condotto da Giusy Zevolini e pubblicato nel 2003 sulla Rivista dell’Istituto Nazionale di Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte. Nell’articolo la studiosa proponeva un’ipotesi di ricomposizione di due opere scultoree in marmo, entrambe eseguite durante il XV secolo, una delle quali sicuramente dall’artista toscano Isaia da Pisa. Le due parti, in origine probabilmente inserite in un unico complesso scultoreo monumentale, all’interno della chiesa agostiniana della SS. Trinità di Viterbo, oggi sono conservate in due siti distinti del capoluogo del territorio della Tuscia.

    Virtual Reconstruction of the Tabernacolo of Isaia da Pisa for the Church of SS. Trinità in Viterbo

    This study is based upon a characteristic, Art History paper, published in 2003. Specifically it suggests a reconstruction hypotesis concerning two marble objects, created in the XV Century, which were supposed to belong to each other, in a monumental complex, inside the Augustinian Church of the SS. Trinità in Viterbo (Italy. In the article the iconography was rendered by simply stitching pictures together, losing the objects proportions, without any care given to the likely missing parts, and of course showing the image in 2D. Despite scholars mostly agreeing that the two marble artefacts were made by the same artist (Isaiada Pisa and that both belong to the same church, they are still notsure if the pieces are a unique structure. The virtual re-composition helps to enhance the visual perception of the whole construction, which is now available just in 2D flat images, and to understand how it originally would have looked. The two objects, today placed in different locations in the city of Viterbo, studied in this paper are: a marble tabernacle with Angels and Christ; a marble tympanum with a blessing by Christ. Both sculptures were acquired witha triangulation laser scanner in two different

  6. V 1343 aquilae (SS 433) as a double-periodic star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranskij, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The new computer method of double periodicity search earlier tested on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type variable stars is applied to define more precise periods of brightness variability of the binary V 1343 Aql (SS 433). Computer program was used in the two-parameter search regime. The obtained periods are P 1 = 13sup(d).074+-0sup(d).008 and P 2 = 163sup(d).8+-1sup(d).2. The periodically repeating brithness curve deeps treated as primary minima (the accretion disc eclipsed by the star) vary their shape with the phase of period P 2 . The expected eclipse at 1979 October 16 did nor occur

  7. SS Cygni: The accretion disk in eruption and at minimum light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiplinger, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    Absolute spectrophotometric observations of the dwarf nova SS Cygni have been obtained at maximum light, during the subsequent decline, and at minimum light. In order to provide a critical test of accretion disk theory, a model for a steady-state α-model accretion disk has been constructed which utilizes a grid of stellar energy distributions to synthesize the disk flux. Physical parameters for the accretion disk at maximum light are set by estimates of the intrinsic luminosity of the system that result from a desynthesis of a composite minimum light energy distribution. At maximum light, agreements between observational and theoretical continuum slopes and the Balmer jump are remarkably good. The model fails, however, during the eruption decline and at minimum light. It appears that the physical character of an accretion disk at minimum light must radiacally differ from the disk observed at maximum light

  8. Blood groups polymorphism (ABO, Ss, Rhesus and Duffy) in the Arabic population of Beni Mellal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ossmani, H.; El Amri, H.; Bouchrif, B.; Glouib, K.; Zaoui, D.; Chafik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with anthropogenetic profile of the Arab speaking population of the Beni Mellal region which separates areas inhabited by Mid-Atlas Berbers from those inhabited by Soth-Morroccan Arabs. The study of blood groups ABO, Rhesus, Ss,and Duffy was conducted on 131 individuals. The result shows that this population has the highest frequencies of the FyO allele (0.860) and s allele (0.524) in comparison to all Arab and Berber populations of North Africa and the Middle East. However genetic distances estimated on the basis of these four markers reveal that the population of Beni Mellal and another in the Beni Hlal region are in the same sub-cluster with populations from the Middle East. This may be attributed to the Oriental Arab ( M achrek ) origin of these two Moroccan Arab populations. (author)

  9. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-yi; Lu, Xiang-long; Zhao, Qiu-wen; Dong, Dian-qiao; Lao, Bao-qiang; Lu, Yang; Wei, Yan-heng; Wu, Xiao-cong; An, Tao

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  10. Effect of microstructure on radiation induced segregation and depletion in ion irradiated SS316 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Sang Chul; Kwon, Jun Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), void swelling and irradiation induced hardening are caused by change of characteristics of material by neutron irradiation, stress state of material and environmental situation. It has been known that chemical compositions varies at grain boundary (GB) significantly with fluence level and the depletion of Cr element at GB has been considered as one of important factors causing material degradation, especially, IASCC in austenitic stainless steel. However, experimental results of IASCC under PWR condition were directly not connected with Cr depletion phenomenon by neutron irradiation. Because the mechanism of IASCC under PWR has not yet been clearly understood in spite of many energetic researches, fundamental researches about radiation induced segregation and depletion in irradiated austenitic stainless steels have been attracted again. In this work, an effect of residual microstructure on radiation induced segregation and depletion of alloy elements at GB was investigated in ion irradiated SS316 steel using transmission electron microscope (TEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS)

  11. Why complexity matters: using ALMaSS for risk assessment of wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John

    with these system properties is agentbased modelling (ABM).ABMs are capable of integrating a range of drivers and actors in space and time and can represent detailed farming operations on a large scale, integrating these with realistic models of animal populations, and expressing each animal as an individual agent...... in time and space. All of these factors can affect the risk assessment. There is also another, difficult to observe, property of real systems, and that is the spatio-temporal dynamics associated with populations, climate, management, and ecology and behaviour, and the potential for feedback loops......-sink dynamics are emergent properties and do not need to be imposed.ALMaSS is one such model system and is used here to exemplify aspects of complexity in population-level risk assessment for terrestrial mammals, birds, and arthropods exposed to pesticides. Results are used to argue for greater realism...

  12. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  13. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  14. Uudistuva johtajuus ja Z-sukupolvi työelämässä

    OpenAIRE

    Aakkula, Eveliina

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käsitellään epäjohtamista, joka on uusi johtamisen käsite, jonka ovat luoneet Janne Tienari ja Rebekka Piekkari kirjassaan Z ja epäjohtaminen. Terminä epäjohtaminen ei ole virallinen, eikä tule välttämättä vakiintumaan johtajuuden käsitteiden joukkoon. Tämä uusi johtamisen malli liitetään vahvasti Z-sukupolven tulemiseen työmarkkinoille. Z-sukupolvea ovat 1990-luvulla syntyneet. Johtajuus on tärkeä aihe, jonka käsittelemiseen löytyy aina uusia näkökulmia, joiden toimivuutta vo...

  15. A PIONIER and Incisive Look at the Interacting Binary SS Lep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blind, N.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Berger, J.-P.; Lebouquin, J.-B.; Mérand, A.

    2011-09-01

    Symbiotic stars are excellent laboratories to study a broad range of poorly understood physical processes, such as mass loss of red giants, accretion onto compact objects, and evolution of nova-like outbursts. As their evolution is strongly influenced by the mass transfer episodes, understanding the history of these systems requires foremost to determine which process is at play: Roche lobe overflow, stellar wind accretion, or some more complex mixture of both. We report here an interferometric study of the symbiotic system SS Leporis, performed with the unique PIONIER instrument. By determining the binary orbit and revisiting the parameters of the two stars, we show that the giant does not fill its Roche lobe, and that the mass transfer most likely occurs via the accretion of an important part of the giant's wind.

  16. Evaluation of liquid metal embrittlement of SS304 by Cd and Cd-Al solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Begley, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of stainless steel 304 to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) by cadmium (Cd) and cadmium-aluminum (Cd-Al) solutions was examined as part of a failure evaluation for SS304-clad cadmium reactor safety rods which had been exposed to elevated temperatures. The active, or cadmium (Cd) bearing, portion of the safety rod consists of a 0.756 in. diameter aluminum allow (Al-6061) core, a 0.05 in. thick Cd layer, and a 0.042 in. thick Type 304 stainless steel cladding. The safety rod thermal tests were conducted as part of a program to define the response of reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor. LME was considered as a potential failure mechanism based on the nature of the failure and susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to embrittlement by other liquid metals

  17. Influence of agitation speeds and aeration rates on the Xylanase activity of Aspergillus niger SS7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Bakri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of agitation and aeration rates on xylanase activity of Aspergillus niger SS7 in 3-litre stirred tank bioreactor was investigated. The agitation rates tested were 100, 200 and 300 rpm at each airflow rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm. The maximum xylanase activity in mono- agitator system was at the agitation speed of 200 rpm and aeration rate of 1.0 vvm. In bi-agitator system, at low agitation speed (100 rpm, the xylanase activity was enhanced by 13% compared to mono- agitator system for an aeration rate of 1.0 vvm. Xylanase productivity in continuous culture was higher by approximately 3.5 times than in batch culture.

  18. Effect of helium preinjection and prior thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure of Type 316 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Ayrault, G.; Turner, A.P.L.; Igata, N.

    1982-10-01

    Samples of 316 SS were preinjected with 15 appM helium either hot (650 0 C) or cold (room temperature) and irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + ions to a dose level of 25 dpa at 625 0 C in order to test the validity of helium preinjection as a means of simulation of transmutant helium production. Results for preinjected and single-ion irradiated samples were compared to samples irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + and simultaneously injected with helium at a rate of 15 appM He/dpa (dual-ion irradiated samples). Preinjected samples exhibited bimodal cavity size distributions. Preinjected samples of solution annealed or solution annealed and aged material showed lower swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples. However, He preinjection in 20% cold worked samples showed greater swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples 9 figures, 1 table

  19. Differential biotin labelling of the cell envelope proteins in lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria: Exploring the proteosurfaceome of Escherichia coli using sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ricardo; Chafsey, Ingrid; Leroy, Sabine; Chambon, Christophe; Hébraud, Michel; Livrelli, Valérie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2018-06-15

    Surface proteins are the major factor for the interaction between bacteria and its environment, playing an important role in infection, colonisation, virulence and adaptation. However, the study of surface proteins has proven difficult mainly due to their hydrophobicity and/or relatively low abundance compared with cytoplasmic proteins. To overcome these issues new proteomic strategies have been developed, such as cell-surface protein labelling using biotinylation reagents. Sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin is the most commonly used reagent to investigate the proteins expressed at the cell surface of various organisms but its use in lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria (archetypical Gram-negative bacteria) remains limited to a handful of species. While generally pass over in silence, some periplasmic proteins, but also some inner membrane lipoproteins, integral membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins (cytoproteins) are systematically identified following this approach. To limit cell lysis and diffusion of the sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin through the outer membrane, biotin labelling was tested over short incubation times and proved to be as efficient for 1 min at room temperature. To further limit labelling of protein located below the outer membrane, the use of high-molecular weight sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin appeared to recover differentially cell-envelope proteins compared to low-molecular weight sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin. Actually, the sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin recovers at a higher extent the proteins completely or partly exposed in the periplasm than sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin, namely periplasmic and integral membrane proteins as well as inner membrane and outer membrane lipoproteins. These results highlight that protein labelling using biotinylation reagents of different sizes provides a sophisticated and accurate way to differentially explore the cell envelope proteome of lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria. While generally pass over in silence, some periplasmic proteins

  20. Association analysis of polymorphism in KiSS1 gene with reproductive traits in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; Zaglool, Asmaa W; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the genetic information of related genes is helpful for the selection and breeding course through marker assisted selection. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of the KiSS1 gene in 137 animals, including Baladi, Zaraibi and Damascus goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing and to investigate the association between these variants and reproductive traits. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence indicated the substitution of T with A at position 121 (T121A) in the intron 1 of the KiSS1 gene in all goat breeds. This substitution distorts the restriction site of the XmnI restriction enzyme and consequently two genotypes were detected (TA and TT). The T121A SNP is associated significantly with litter size in Damascus and Zaribi breeds (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). The animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had a significantly higher estradiol 17β level than that recorded in TA genotype at estrus phase (p=0.013 and 0.028, respectively) and late-luteal phase (p=0.067 and 0.041, respectively) of the estrus cycle. Furthermore, animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had significant higher progesterone level at mid-luteal (p=0.037 and 0.045, respectively) phase. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in progesterone level in late-luteal phase between both genotypes in Zaribi breed (p=0.267). The current trial indicated that the prolific TT genotype in both Damascus and Zaribi breeds had superior estradiol 17β level at estrus phase and an eminent progesterone level at both early and mid-luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interacting large-scale magnetic fields and ionized gas in the W50/SS433 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnes, J. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Purcell, C.; Sun, X. H.; Haverkorn, M.; Lenc, E.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Akahori, T.

    2017-06-01

    The W50/SS433 system is an unusual Galactic outflow-driven object of debatable origin. We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to observe a new 198 pointing mosaic, covering 3° × 2°, and present the highest-sensitivity full-Stokes data of W50 to date using wide-field, wide-band imaging over a 2 GHz bandwidth centred at 2.1 GHz. We also present a complementary Hα mosaic created using the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane. The magnetic structure of W50 is consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the nebula is a reanimated shell-like supernova remnant (SNR), which has been re-energized by the jets from SS433. We observe strong depolarization effects that correlate with diffuse Hα emission, likely due to spatially varying Faraday rotation measure (RM) fluctuations of ≥48-61 rad m-2 on scales ≤4.5-6 pc. We also report the discovery of numerous, faint, Hα filaments that are unambiguously associated with the central region of W50. These thin filaments are suggestive of an SNR's shock emission, and almost all have a radio counterpart. Furthermore, an RM-gradient is detected across the central region of W50, which we interpret as a loop magnetic field with a symmetry axis offset by ≈90° to the east-west jet-alignment axis, and implying that the evolutionary processes of both the jets and the SNR must be coupled. A separate RM-gradient is associated with the termination shock in the eastern ear, which we interpret as a ring-like field located where the shock of the jet interacts with the circumstellar medium. Future optical observations will be able to use the new Hα filaments to probe the kinematics of the shell of W50, potentially allowing for a definitive experiment on W50's formation history.

  2. The effects of various preservation methods on fatty acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various preservation methods on fatty acid content of African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. Fresh fish samples were obtained from swimming pool end (Gamji Gate) of River Rino, Kaduna. Preservation methods investigated were: straight smoking (SS), ...

  3. Analyses of Small Punch Creep Deformation Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Having Different Nitrogen Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.

    2018-04-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^[ φ( t - tr ) ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep (κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s ) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep (φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.

  4. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  5. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  6. Isolation and characterization of Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, S; Chamkha, M; Sayadi, S

    2009-09-01

    To isolate and characterize an efficient hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions, from a Tunisian off-shore oil field. Production water collected from 'Sercina' petroleum reservoir, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia, was used for the screening of halotolerant or halophilic bacteria able to degrade crude oil. Bacterial strain C2SS100 was isolated after enrichment on crude oil, in the presence of 100 g l(-1) NaCl and at 37 degrees C. This strain was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, oxidase + and catalase +. Phenotypic characters and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate C2SS100 showed that it was related to members of the Halomonas genus. The degradation of several compounds present in crude oil was confirmed by GC-MS analysis. The use of refined petroleum products such as diesel fuel and lubricating oil as sole carbon source, under the same conditions of temperature and salinity, showed that significant amounts of these heterogenic compounds could be degraded. Strain C2SS100 was able to degrade hexadecane (C16). During growth on hexadecane, cells surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying activity increased indicating the production of biosurfactant by strain C2SS100. A halotolerant bacterial strain Halomonas sp. C2SS100 was isolated from production water of an oil field, after enrichment on crude oil. This strain is able to degrade hydrocarbons efficiently. The mode of hydrocarbon uptake is realized by the production of a biosurfactant which enhances the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The biodegradation potential of the Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100 gives it an advantage for possibly application on bioremediation of water, hydrocarbon-contaminated sites under high-salinity level.

  7. SS-mPEG chemical modification of recombinant phospholipase C for enhanced thermal stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling; Zeng, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Jingwen

    2018-05-01

    PEGylation is one of the most promising and extensively studied strategies for improving the properties of proteins as well as enzymic physical and thermal stability. Phospholipase C, hydrolyzing the phospholipids offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. However, the poor thermal stability and higher cost of production have restricted its industrial application. This study focused on improving the stabilization of recombinant PLC by chemical modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol-Succinimidyl Succinate (SS-mPEG, MW 5000). PLC gene from isolate Bacillus cereus HSL3 was fused with SUMO, a novel small ubiquitin-related modifier expression vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fraction of SUMO-PLC reached 80% of the total recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 80 °C and was relatively thermostable at 40-70 °C. It showed extensive substrate specificity pattern and marked activity toward phosphatidylcholine, which made it a typical non-specific PLC for industrial purpose. SS-mPEG-PLC complex exhibited an enhanced thermal stability at 70-80 °C and the catalytic efficiency (K cat /K m ) had increased by 3.03 folds compared with free PLC. CD spectrum of SS-mPEG-PLC indicated a possible enzyme aggregation after chemical modification, which contributed to the higher thermostability of SS-mPEG-PLC. The increase of antiparallel β sheets in secondary structure also made it more stable than parallel β sheets. The presence of SS-mPEG chains on the enzyme molecule surface somewhat changed the binding rate of the substrates, leading to a significant improvement in catalytic efficiency. This study provided an insight into the addition of SS-mPEG for enhancing the industrial applications of phospholipase C at higher temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial effects, biocompatibility and electrochemical behavior of zinc incorporated niobium oxide coating on 316L SS for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep PremKumar, K.; Duraipandy, N.; Manikantan Syamala, Kiran; Rajendran, N.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, Nb2O5 (NZ0) composite coatings with various concentrations of zinc (NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6) are produced on 316L SS by sol-gel method with the aim of improving its antibacterial activity, bone formability and corrosion resistance properties. This work studied the surface characterization of NZ0, NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6 coated 316L SS by ATR-FTIR, XRD, HR-SEM with EDAX. The synthesized coatings were different in the morphological aspects, NZ0 shows mesoporous morphology whereas irregular cluster like morphology was observed for the zinc incorporated coatings. The chemical composition of the NZ0 and NZ4 composite coatings were studied by XPS and the results revealed that the zinc exist as ZnO and Nb as Nb2O5 in the coatings. The increase in the concentration of zinc in Nb2O5 increases the hydrophilic nature identified by water contact angle studies. The potentiodynamic polarization studies in simulated body fluid reveals the increase in polarization resistance with decrease in current density (icorr) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies with increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct) and double layer capacitance (Qdl) were observed for NZ4 coated 316L SS. The inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were identified for NZ4 coated 316L SS by bacterial viability studies. The NZ4 coated 316L SS showed better Osseo-integration by spreading the MG 63 osteoblast cells. The study results imply that zinc incorporated Nb2O5 (NZ4) composite coating exhibits antibacterial activity and also enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the 316L SS.

  9. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  10. Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations

    OpenAIRE

    MAGIC Collaboration; Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.

    2017-01-01

    The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes have been predicted for both the central binary and the interaction regions between jets and surrounding nebula. Also, non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported. We explore the capability of SS 433 to emit VHE gamma rays during periods in which the expected flux attenuation due to ...

  11. Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Bednarek, W.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Bernardini, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient partic...

  12. Laadun- ja riskienhallinta johtamisjärjestelmässä ISO 9001:2015 ja ISO 31000:2009 mukaisesti

    OpenAIRE

    Reinvall, Niko; Karhunen, Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tarkastella riskienhallinnan ja laadunhallintajärjestelmien suhdetta ISO 9001:2015 ja ISO 31000:2009-standardien viitekehyksessä, tutkimuskysymyksen ollessa ”miten ja miksi integroida ISO 9001 mukaista laadunhallintaa ja ISO 31000 mukaista riskienhallintaa organisaation johtamisjärjestelmään”. Lisäksi työssä tarkastellaan standardien välisiä yhtymäkohtia ja riskienhallinnan merkitystä ISO 9001:2015 mukaisessa laadunhallintajärjestelmässä. Työn tilaaja...

  13. Facebook-yhteisöpalvelun hyödyntäminen yrityksen markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Pajamäki, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, miksi yritysten olisi kannattavaa olla Facebook-yhteisöpalvelussa ja millaisia keinoja niillä on käytössään Facebook-palvelussa markkinoidessaan. Opinnäytetyössä rakennettiin työn toimeksiantajalle, Mainostoimisto Gurulle, oma Facebook-sivu. Guru on Turun ammattikorkeakoulun sisäinen mainostoimisto, jossa suunnitellaan kaikenlaista markkinointiviestintää opiskelijavoimin. Teoriaosassa käsiteltiin lyhyesti sosiaalista mediaa ja Facebook-palvel...

  14. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  15. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  16. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  17. Development of a sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor by 4-aminothiophenol self-assembled on electrodeposited nanogold electrode coupled with Au nanoparticles labeled reporter ssDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjiu; Liu Lihua; Qi Xiaowei; Guo Yaqing; Sun Wei; Li Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor was fabricated by using the 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) self-assembled on electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (NG) modified electrode to anchor capture ssDNA sequences and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) labeled with reporter ssDNA sequences, which were further coupled with electroactive indicator of hexaammineruthenium (III) ([Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ ) to amplify the electrochemical signal of hybridization reaction. Different modified electrodes were prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. By using a sandwich model for the capture of target ssDNA sequences, which was based on the shorter probe ssDNA and AuNPs label reporter ssDNA hybridized with longer target ssDNA, the electrochemical behavior of [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The fabricated electrochemical DNA sensor exhibited good distinguish capacity for the complementary ssDNA sequence and two bases mismatched ssDNA. The dynamic detection range of the target ssDNA sequences was from 1.4 × 10 −11 to 2.0 × 10 −9 mol/L with the detection limit as 9.5 × 10 −12 mol/L (3σ). So in this paper a new electrochemical DNA sensor was designed with gold nanoparticles as the immobilization platform and the signal amplifier simultaneously.

  18. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  19. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  20. Dynamic rockfall risk assessment along the SS113 coastal road (Northern Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolembo, V. Brunella; Penna, Ivanna; Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are natural hazards that usually affect only small areas. However, due to the big amount of material that can be moved and the associated kinetic energy they can cost serious damages to infrastructures and people. Even fairly small rockfall fragments are a significant hazard if deposited on a highway or along a rail-road track since they are not easily detected and can cause accidents or derailments. Rockfalls can also cause the closure of streets resulting in long term indirect economic losses due to transportation delays as well as to the impact on the commercial and tourist activities. In letterature there are numerous examples of rockfall risk assessments along transportation corridors, most of them are based on the use of standard risk estimation methods. The latters are static approaches founded on a macroscopic view of road traffic, assumed as uniform in space and time, thus characterized by average values of parameters. Lately, a new dynamic approach has been developed within the 'risk analysis group' at the University of Lausanne (Voumard, 2013). It consists of a kinematic interpretation of road traffic where vehicles are parametrized as single entities with different characteristics, speed, dimensions and behaviour. We apply this new approach to estimate the dynamic risk due to rockfall occurrence on the SS113 national road running along the northern coast of Sicily. In this work we focus our attention on a ≈10 km section along which the SS113 road and a railway connect all the costal villages going through very steep cliffs and very close to the sea with evident problems of erosion and maintenance. The area is a tourist destination and many hotels and facilities are found along the road. Moreover the area was already hit in the past by numerous rockfalls resulting in the closure of the road for periods running from a few days up to a few years with big direct and indirect damages to the local socio-economic activities. In order to achieve a

  1. Auto-anticorpos na Esclerose Sistêmica (ES Autoantibody in the Systemic Sclerosis (SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Coelho Andrade

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A esclerose sistêmica (ES é uma enfermidade inflamatória crônica idiopática, cujo principal indício de vínculo com a auto-imunidade é a presença de auto-anticorpos na maior parte dos pacientes. Pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta em células HEp-2, observa-se reatividade predominantemente contra o nucléolo e o núcleo, sendo que títulos de anticorpos antinucléolo acima de 1/640 são fortemente sugestivos de ES. Alguns desses auto-anticorpos apresentam alta especificidade para a ES, sendo considerados marcadores diagnósticos dessa enfermidade. São exemplos os anticorpos anti-Scl-70, antifibrilarina e anti-RNA polimerase I. Outros apresentam interessantes associações com manifestações específicas da ES, como os anticorpos anticentrômero, associados às formas limitadas, os anticorpos anti-RNA polimerase III, associados ao extenso comprometimento da pele, e os anticorpos anti-To/Th, associados às formas limitadas com propensão ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão pulmonar. Algumas dessas associações estão bem estabelecidas em diversos estudos, de diferentes grupos de pesquisadores. Outras, entretanto, devem ser vistas com cautela, pois a exigüidade de casos disponíveis para estudo pode ensejar conclusões preliminares e não acuradas. A detecção de anticorpos anticentrômero por técnica de IFI e anti-Scl-70 por imunodifusão dupla ou por ELISA está disponível nos principais laboratórios clínicos capacitados na área de auto-imunidade. O mesmo não se aplica para a maior parte dos demais auto-anticorpos associados à ES. Espera-se que, com a implementação rotineira de técnicas para detecção desses outros auto-anticorpos, o real significado clínico dos mesmos venha a ser melhor conhecido.Systemic Sclerosis (SS is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease whose main hint towards autoimmunity is given by the presence of high serum levels of autoantibodies in the majority of the patients. In indirect

  2. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  3. Introduction of Solid Food to Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Alice A.; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants? initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4?35?months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-...

  4. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Nicola; Trovesi, Camilla; Wery, Maxime; Martina, Marina; Cesena, Daniele; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by activating a checkpoint that depends on the protein kinases Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR. Mec1/ATR is activated by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises upon nucleolytic degradation (resection) of the DSB. Emerging evidences indicate that RNA-processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in genomic stability. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. The lack of Xrn1 inhibits ssDNA generation at the DSB by preventing the loading of the MRX complex. By contrast, DSB resection is not affected in the absence of Rrp6 or Trf4, but their lack impairs the recruitment of RPA, and therefore of Mec1, to the DSB. Rrp6 and Trf4 inactivation affects neither Rad51/Rad52 association nor DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR), suggesting that full Mec1 activation requires higher amount of RPA-coated ssDNA than HR-mediated repair. Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Efficient Computation of Sparse Matrix Functions for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations: The CheSS Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stephan; Dawson, William; Wagner, Michael; Caliste, Damien; Nakajima, Takahito; Genovese, Luigi

    2017-10-10

    We present CheSS, the "Chebyshev Sparse Solvers" library, which has been designed to solve typical problems arising in large-scale electronic structure calculations using localized basis sets. The library is based on a flexible and efficient expansion in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and presently features the calculation of the density matrix, the calculation of matrix powers for arbitrary powers, and the extraction of eigenvalues in a selected interval. CheSS is able to exploit the sparsity of the matrices and scales linearly with respect to the number of nonzero entries, making it well-suited for large-scale calculations. The approach is particularly adapted for setups leading to small spectral widths of the involved matrices and outperforms alternative methods in this regime. By coupling CheSS to the DFT code BigDFT, we show that such a favorable setup is indeed possible in practice. In addition, the approach based on Chebyshev polynomials can be massively parallelized, and CheSS exhibits excellent scaling up to thousands of cores even for relatively small matrix sizes.

  6. Simulation of tensile stress-strain properties of irradiated type 316 SS by heavily cold-worked material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Yasushi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1995-07-01

    Type 316 stainless steel is one of the most promising candidate materials to be used for the structural parts of plasma facing components in the nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron irradiation make the material brittle and reduces its uniform elongation to almost zero at heavy doses. In order to apply such a material of reduced ductility to structural components, the structural integrity should be examined and assured by the fracture mechanics. The procedure requires a formulated stress-strain relationship. However, the available irradiated tensile test data are very limited at present, so that the cold-worked material was used as a simulated material in this study. Property changes of 316 SS, that is, a reduction of uniform elongation and an enhancement of yield stress are seemingly very similar for both the irradiated 316 SS and the cold-worked one. The specimens made of annealed 316 SS, 20% (or 15%) cold worked one and 40% cold worked one were prepared. After the formulation of stress strain behavior, the equation for the cold-worked 316 SS was fitted to the data on irradiated material under the assumption that the yield stress is the same for both materials. In addition, the upper limit for the plastic strain was introduced using the data on the irradiated material. (author)

  7. Generation of a new spectral format, the lifetime synchronous spectrum (LiSS), using phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, J.M.; McGown, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    A new fluorescence spectral format is introduced in which fluorescence lifetime is shown as a function of synchronously scanned wavelength to generate a Lifetime Synchronous Spectrum (LiSS). Lifetimes are determined in the frequency domain with the use of Phase-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (PRFS) to obtain the phase of the fluorescence signal. Theory and construction of the LiSS are presented and experimental results are shown for solutions of single components and simple binary and ternary mixtures. These results show how the lifetime information in the LiSS augments the steady-state intensity information of a standard synchronous spectrum, providing unique information for identification of components and resolution of overlapping spectral peaks. The LiSS technique takes advantage of noise reduction inherent in the extraction of lifetime from PRFS in addition to standard spectral smoothing techniques. The precision of phase determination through PRFS is found to be comparable to that of direct phase measurements at normal fluorescence intensities and superior for low-intensity signals

  8. Structural insights of the ssDNA binding site in the multifunctional endonuclease AtBFN2 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Fu Yu

    Full Text Available The multi S1/P1 nuclease AtBFN2 (EC 3.1.30.1 encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana At1g68290 gene is a glycoprotein that digests RNA, ssDNA, and dsDNA. AtBFN2 depends on three zinc ions for cleaving DNA and RNA at 3'-OH to yield 5'-nucleotides. In addition, AtBFN2's enzymatic activity is strongly glycan dependent. Plant Zn(2+-dependent endonucleases present a unique fold, and belong to the Phospholipase C (PLC/P1 nuclease superfamily. In this work, we present the first complete, ligand-free, AtBFN2 crystal structure, along with sulfate, phosphate and ssDNA co-crystal structures. With these, we were able to provide better insight into the glycan structure and possible enzymatic mechanism. In comparison with other nucleases, the AtBFN2/ligand-free and AtBFN2/PO4 models suggest a similar, previously proposed, catalytic mechanism. Our data also confirm that the phosphate and vanadate can inhibit the enzyme activity by occupying the active site. More importantly, the AtBFN2/A5T structure reveals a novel and conserved secondary binding site, which seems to be important for plant Zn(2+-dependent endonucleases. Based on these findings, we propose a rational ssDNA binding model, in which the ssDNA wraps itself around the protein and the attached surface glycan, in turn, reinforces the binding complex.

  9. Tribological changes on SS304 stainless steel induced by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation with and without auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, C.B.; Ueda, M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Reuther, H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve quite thick treated layers with reasonable thickness uniformity in SS304 steel, the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process was run in high-temperature, up to 350 deg. C, to induce high thermal diffusion but avoid the white layer formation. In these experiments, we heated the sample-holder with a shielded resistive wire properly wound around it and subjected the SS samples to nitrogen glow discharge PIII with relatively low voltages (10 kV) in different temperatures. We also treated the SS samples by the traditional PIII method, slowly increasing the high voltage pulse intensities, until 14 kV at the end of processing, reaching temperatures of up to 350 deg. C. These modes of treatments were compared with respect to nitrogen implantation profiles, X-ray diffraction, tribology and mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction results indicated a much higher efficiency of auxiliary heated PIII mode compared to the ordinary PIII. Very prominent γ N peaks were observed for the first mode, indicating large concentration of nitrogen in thick layers, confirmed by the nitrogen profiles measured by GDOS and AES. Improved mechanical and tribological properties were obtained for SS304 samples treated by the PIII with auxiliary heating, more than for ordinary PIII. Hardness was enhanced by up to 2.77 times, as seen by nanoindentation tests.

  10. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  11. Applicability of Al-powder-alloy coating to corrosion barriers of 316SS in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Sato, Hidetomo; Yokota, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    A new Al-alloy coating method using Al, Ti and Fe powders has been applied to 316SS in order to develop corrosion resistant coating in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The 316SS plates with coating layers of different Al concentrations were exposed to liquid LBE with controlled oxygen concentrations of 10 -6 to 10 -4 mass% at 823 K for 3600 ks. While surface oxidation and grain boundary corrosion accompanied by liquid LBE penetration are observed in 316SS without Al-alloy coating, the Al-alloy coating is effective to protect such severe corrosion attacks in liquid LBE. Although the coating layer containing 2.8 mass% Al does not always keep sufficient corrosion resistance, good corrosion resistance is obtained through the Al-oxide film formed in liquid LBE in the coating layer where the average Al concentration is 4.2 mass%. Cracks are formed in the coating layer containing 17.8 mass% Al during the coating process. The Al-powder-alloy coating applied to 316SS is promising as a corrosion resistant coating method in liquid LBE environment. (author)

  12. Electrochemical and in vitro bioactivity of polypyrrole/ceramic nanocomposite coatings on 316L SS bio-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Kumar, A; Nagarajan, S; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Sudhagar, P; Kang, Yong Soo; Kim, Hyongbum; Gasem, Zuhair M; Rajendran, N

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation describes the versatile fabrication and characterization of a novel composite coating that consists of polypyrrole (PPy) and Nb2O5 nanoparticles. Integration of the two materials is achieved by electrochemical deposition on 316L stainless steel (SS) from an aqueous solution of oxalic acid containing pyrrole and Nb2O5 nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectral (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the existence of Nb2O5 nanoparticles in PPy matrix with hexagonal structure. Surface morphological analysis showed that the presence of Nb2O5 nanoparticles strongly influenced the surface nature of the nanocomposite coated 316L SS. Micro hardness results revealed the enhanced mechanical properties of PPy nanocomposite coated 316L SS due to the addition of Nb2O5 nanoparticles. The electrochemical studies were carried out using cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility, contact angle measurements and in vitro characterization were performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and on MG63 osteoblast cells. The results showed that the nanocomposite coatings exhibit superior biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion protection performance over 316L SS than pure PPy coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Voyage on the SS "School Library Leadership": Collaboration in Teaching and Learning at the University of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith L.; Ballard, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the SS "School Library Leadership" maiden voyage, which departed from the University of Vermont (UVM) during the 2010 fall semester. Twelve intrepid sailors followed their sense of adventure into uncharted waters with cocaptains Judy Kaplan and Susan Ballard in an online collaboration that provided a powerful…

  14. Comparative wood anatomy of Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The wood anatomical structure of 11 out of 13 genera from four tribes of the Vaccinioideae, namely Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Ericaceae s.l.), is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features of the secondary xylem support the tribal

  15. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Pescatello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT. The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years, healthy men (42% and women (58% that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  16. Sodium confluent rates of flow values, on 0,5 mixer, of a sodium italian SS-050 circuit component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium lines on different temperatures, during an emergency drainage on 0,5 mixer was found. To future valuation by DIMEC of tensions that occurs on that component of SS-050, the confluent rates of flow values were calculated. (L.M.J.) [pt

  17. Efficient Generation of Orthologous Point Mutations in Pigs via CRISPR-assisted ssODN-mediated Homology-directed Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise genome editing in livestock is of great value for the fundamental investigation of disease modeling. However, genetically modified pigs carrying subtle point mutations were still seldom reported despite the rapid development of programmable endonucleases. Here, we attempt to investigate single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODN mediated knockin by introducing two orthologous pathogenic mutations, p.E693G for Alzheimer's disease and p.G2019S for Parkinson's disease, into porcine APP and LRRK2 loci, respectively. Desirable homology-directed repair (HDR efficiency was achieved in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs by optimizing the dosage and length of ssODN templates. Interestingly, incomplete HDR alleles harboring partial point mutations were observed in single-cell colonies, which indicate the complex mechanism of ssODN-mediated HDR. The effect of mutation-to-cut distance on incorporation rate was further analyzed by deep sequencing. We demonstrated that a mutation-to-cut distance of 11 bp resulted in a remarkable difference in HDR efficiency between two point mutations. Finally, we successfully obtained one cloned piglet harboring the orthologous p.C313Y mutation at the MSTN locus via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Our proof-of-concept study demonstrated efficient ssODN-mediated incorporation of pathogenic point mutations in porcine somatic cells, thus facilitating further development of disease modeling and genetic breeding in pigs.

  18. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 Suppressor Metastasis Gene in Mexican Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhit Guadalupe Cruz Quevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT and the rs12998 (E20K KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP and patients with benign breast disease (BBD or breast cancer (BC. Results. The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P=0.0332 and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD groups were compared (P<0.0001. The H1 Haplotype (G/- occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256 whereas H2 haplotype (G/T was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674. Conclusions. Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations.

  19. Structure of the hDmc1-ssDNA filament reveals the principles of its architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei L Okorokov

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, meiotic recombination is a major source of genetic diversity, but its defects in humans lead to abnormalities such as Down's, Klinefelter's and other syndromes. Human Dmc1 (hDmc1, a RecA/Rad51 homologue, is a recombinase that plays a crucial role in faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis. The initial step of homologous recombination occurs when hDmc1 forms a filament on single-stranded (ss DNA. However the structure of this presynaptic complex filament for hDmc1 remains unknown. To compare hDmc1-ssDNA complexes to those known for the RecA/Rad51 family we have obtained electron microscopy (EM structures of hDmc1-ssDNA nucleoprotein filaments using single particle approach. The EM maps were analysed by docking crystal structures of Dmc1, Rad51, RadA, RecA and DNA. To fully characterise hDmc1-DNA complexes we have analysed their organisation in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, ATP, AMP-PNP, ssDNA and dsDNA. The 3D EM structures of the hDmc1-ssDNA filaments allowed us to elucidate the principles of their internal architecture. Similar to the RecA/Rad51 family, hDmc1 forms helical filaments on ssDNA in two states: extended (active and compressed (inactive. However, in contrast to the RecA/Rad51 family, and the recently reported structure of hDmc1-double stranded (ds DNA nucleoprotein filaments, the extended (active state of the hDmc1 filament formed on ssDNA has nine protomers per helical turn, instead of the conventional six, resulting in one protomer covering two nucleotides instead of three. The control reconstruction of the hDmc1-dsDNA filament revealed 6.4 protein subunits per helical turn indicating that the filament organisation varies depending on the DNA templates. Our structural analysis has also revealed that the N-terminal domain of hDmc1 accomplishes its important role in complex formation through domain swapping between adjacent protomers, thus providing a mechanistic basis for coordinated action of hDmc1 protomers

  20. On the Nature of the Compact Object in SS 433. Observational Evidence of X-Ray Photon Index Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from black hole , candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE) data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes a X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state (LHS) to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broad-band energy spectra during all spectral states are well fit by a sum of so called "Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) component" and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions respectively. In addition to these spectral model components we also find a strong feature that we identify as a" blackbody-like (BB)" component which color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high temperature BB" bump leads us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent and Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index vs mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of black hole (BH) mass of compact object in SS 433, M(sub bh) approximately > 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339-4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with recent BH mass measurement using the radial-velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig & Gies who find that M(sub x)( = (4.3 +/- 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, like in a number of other BH candidates, is the strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.