WorldWideScience

Sample records for solids mass fraction

  1. Semi solid metal processing: The fraction solid dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafisi, S.; Emadi, D.; Ghomashchi, R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects in semi solid metal (SSM) processing is to determine the actual volume fraction of the solid at the processing temperature. The fraction has great impact on the SSM slurry viscosity and the subsequent filling of the mold in the casting stage. Three methods, namely quantitative metallography, thermodynamic calculation, and thermal analysis are employed to investigate and clarify the contradictory open literature reports about the real value of the volume fraction of primary particles. It is reported that the discrepancies between the results obtained by different methods are caused mainly by variations in cooling rates and by coarsening of the primaries during the quenching process

  2. Semi solid metal processing: The fraction solid dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafisi, S. [EVRAZ Inc. NA 100 Armour Road, Regina, SK, S4P 3C7 (Canada)], E-mail: Shahrooz.Nafisi@evrazincna.com; Emadi, D. [CEPG, CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1M1 (Canada); Ghomashchi, R. [Advanced Materials and Processing Research Institute, Suite 122, A7-1390 Major MacKenzie, ON, L4S 0A1 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    One of the most challenging aspects in semi solid metal (SSM) processing is to determine the actual volume fraction of the solid at the processing temperature. The fraction has great impact on the SSM slurry viscosity and the subsequent filling of the mold in the casting stage. Three methods, namely quantitative metallography, thermodynamic calculation, and thermal analysis are employed to investigate and clarify the contradictory open literature reports about the real value of the volume fraction of primary particles. It is reported that the discrepancies between the results obtained by different methods are caused mainly by variations in cooling rates and by coarsening of the primaries during the quenching process.

  3. Mass fractionation processes of transition metal isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. K.; Guo, Y.; Williams, R. J. P.; O'Nions, R. K.; Matthews, A.; Belshaw, N. S.; Canters, G. W.; de Waal, E. C.; Weser, U.; Burgess, B. K.; Salvato, B.

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry make it possible to utilise isotope variations of transition metals to address some important issues in solar system and biological sciences. Realisation of the potential offered by these new isotope systems however requires an adequate understanding of the factors controlling their isotope fractionation. Here we show the results of a broadly based study on copper and iron isotope fractionation during various inorganic and biological processes. These results demonstrate that: (1) naturally occurring inorganic processes can fractionate Fe isotope to a detectable level even at temperature ˜1000°C, which challenges the previous view that Fe isotope variations in natural system are unique biosignatures; (2) multiple-step equilibrium processes at low temperatures may cause large mass fractionation of transition metal isotopes even when the fractionation per single step is small; (3) oxidation-reduction is an importation controlling factor of isotope fractionation of transition metal elements with multiple valences, which opens a wide range of applications of these new isotope systems, ranging from metal-silicate fractionation in the solar system to uptake pathways of these elements in biological systems; (4) organisms incorporate lighter isotopes of transition metals preferentially, and transition metal isotope fractionation occurs stepwise along their pathways within biological systems during their uptake.

  4. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2017-06-01

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  5. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  7. Inorganic mass spectrometry of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Vertes, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this review some recent developments in the field of inorganic mass spectrometry of solids are described with special emphasis on the actual state of understanding of the ionization processes. It concentrates on the common characteristics of methods such as spark source-, laser-, secondary ion-, inductively coupled plasma- and glow discharge mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  8. Complexified quantum field theory and 'mass without mass' from multidimensional fractional actionlike variational approach with dynamical fractional exponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabulsi, Ahmad Rami

    2009-01-01

    Multidimensional fractional actionlike variational problem with time-dependent dynamical fractional exponents is constructed. Fractional Euler-Lagrange equations are derived and discussed in some details. The results obtained are used to explore some novel aspects of fractional quantum field theory where many interesting consequences are revealed, in particular the complexification of quantum field theory, in particular Dirac operators and the novel notion of 'mass without mass'.

  9. Composting of sewage sludge with solid fraction of digested pulp from agricultural biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekała, Wojciech; Dach, Jacek; Przybył, Jacek; Mazurwiekiwcz, Jakub; Janczak, Damian; Lewicki, Andrzej; Smurzyńska, Anna; Kozłowski, Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is an important element of environmental protection. Composting and anaerobic digestion are the biological conversion methods for sewage sludge management. Mass and volume reduction is a result of a properly composted process. Solid fraction of digested pulp can be use as co-substrate, because it is good structural material. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of composting sewage sludge with a solid fraction of digestate. The compost mix consisted of 25 kilograms of sewage sludge and 20 kilograms solid fraction of digestate in fresh mass. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions. Bioreactors of 165 dm3 volume were used. The experiment included two stages. Stage I took place in bioreactors and lasted until the cooling phase of the compost was complete. Stage II included compost maturation for a period of eight months (to 287 day of composting). The reduction of mass obtained at the end of Stage I amounted 30.2%. At the end of Stage II, it was 86.7% relative to the initial weight of the compost. The maximum value of temperature was 75.1°C. Studies have shown that sludge with a solid fraction of digestate can be a suitable substrate for composting with sewage sludge.

  10. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  11. Solid-phase extraction NMR studies of chromatographic fractions of saponins from Quillaja saponaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Nils T; Baumann, Herbert; Kenne, Lennart

    2003-01-15

    The saponin mixture QH-B from the tree Quillaja saponaria var. Molina was fractionated by RP-HPLC in several steps. The fractions were analyzed by solid-phase extraction NMR (SPE-NMR), a technique combining the workup by solid-phase extraction with on-line coupling to an NMR flow probe. Together with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and comparison with chemical shifts of similar saponins, the structures of both major and minor components in QH-B could be obtained. The procedure described is a simple method to determine the structure of components in a complex mixture. The two major fractions of the mixture were found to contain at least 28 saponins, differing in the carbohydrate substructures. Eight of these have not previously been determined. The 28 saponins formed 14 equilibrium pairs by the migration of an O-acyl group between two adjacent positions on a fucosyl residue.

  12. Bidisperse and polydisperse suspension rheology at large solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Sidhant [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352; Morris, Jeffrey F. [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031

    2018-03-01

    At the same solid volume fraction, bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions display lower viscosities, and weaker normal stress response, compared to monodisperse suspensions. The reduction of viscosity associated with size distribution can be explained by an increase of the maximum flowable, or jamming, solid fraction. In this work, concentrated or "dense" suspensions are simulated under strong shearing, where thermal motion and repulsive forces are negligible, but we allow for particle contact with a mild frictional interaction with interparticle friction coefficient of 0.2. Aspects of bidisperse suspension rheology are first revisited to establish that the approach reproduces established trends; the study of bidisperse suspensions at size ratios of large to small particle radii (2 to 4) shows that a minimum in the viscosity occurs for zeta slightly above 0.5, where zeta=phi_{large}/phi is the fraction of the total solid volume occupied by the large particles. The simple shear flows of polydisperse suspensions with truncated normal and log normal size distributions, and bidisperse suspensions which are statistically equivalent with these polydisperse cases up to third moment of the size distribution, are simulated and the rheologies are extracted. Prior work shows that such distributions with equivalent low-order moments have similar phi_{m}, and the rheological behaviors of normal, log normal and bidisperse cases are shown to be in close agreement for a wide range of standard deviation in particle size, with standard correlations which are functionally dependent on phi/phi_{m} providing excellent agreement with the rheology found in simulation. The close agreement of both viscosity and normal stress response between bi- and polydisperse suspensions demonstrates the controlling in influence of the maximum packing fraction in noncolloidal suspensions. Microstructural investigations and the stress distribution according to particle size are also presented.

  13. The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

    2005-07-01

    Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

  14. Recycling Pig Slurry Solid Fraction Compost as a Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the physical and acoustical properties of compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction (SF in order to assess the potential to recycle this agricultural waste as a sound absorber. The compacts were obtained by compression. The physical parameters investigated were bulk density, durability, and particle size distribution. The acoustical features of the compacts were studied with an impedance tube device in order to verify the acoustic absorption coefficient. Two composts were prepared: pig SF compost without a bulking agent (SSFC and pig SF compost with wood chips as a bulking agent (WCC. The study’s results indicated that compost particles dimension played a key role in the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts: the smaller the particles, the higher the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts. The densification process increased the bulk density of the investigated composts up to 690 kg m−3 for SSFC and 660 kg m−3 for WWC, with, respectively, medium (77.9% and low (66.5% durability. The addition of woody bulking agent significantly reduced the absorption coefficient: the best results, in terms of potential use as a sound absorber, were observed for compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction without the addition of wood chips.

  15. THE BINARY FRACTION OF LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Justin M.; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe spectroscopic observations of 21 low-mass (≤0.45 M sun ) white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey obtained over four years. We use both radial velocities and infrared photometry to identify binary systems, and find that the fraction of single, low-mass WDs is ≤30%. We discuss the potential formation channels for these single stars including binary mergers of lower-mass objects. However, binary mergers are not likely to explain the observed number of single low-mass WDs. Thus, additional formation channels, such as enhanced mass loss due to winds or interactions with substellar companions, are likely.

  16. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.

  17. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  18. MRI of gynaecological solid masses pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Nishida, Masato; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Kohno, Keiko; Saida, Yukihisa; Itai, Yuji

    2000-12-01

    Differential diagnosis of gynaecological masses is sometimes difficult, as there are so many histological types. However, magnetic resonance characteristics of some gynaecological tumours have been reported past several years. On the basis of the recent literature, we have made a decision tree for differential diagnosis of solid gynaecological tumours, in which there are some important divergences. Bilateral disease and invasive growth are malignant signs in most cases. Specific findings for different tumour types include: fibrovascular septa in dysgermonimas; preserving ovarian follicles in round cell tumours; pseudolobular patterns in young patients in sclerosing stromal tumours; and extremely hypointense masses on T2WI in Brenner tumours. Distinguishing between sex-cord stromal tumours, Brenner tumours and metastatic tumours may be hard, however, especially in middle age, because they all tend to show well-demarcated, hypointense masses on T2WI. Disproportionately clear zonal anatomy of the uterus, enlarged uterus and thickened endometrium, which are indirect findings of oestrogen-producing tumours, are useful diagnostic findings in children and postmenopausals. Tanaka, Y.O. (2000)

  19. Relationship between keff and the fraction of critical mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.; Parsons, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    It is not universally understood that k eff and fractional critical mass are related in a non linear fashion. For example, a neutronic system with a k eff = 0. 95 is NOT at 95% of its critical mass. What is striking is just how non-linear the relationship between k eff and critical mass really is. This relationship is investigated and documented below for both unfavorable (i.e., very reactive) and favorable (less reactive) geometries. The implications of this non-linearity for criticality safety regulation will also be discussed

  20. Controllable isotope fractionation with thermal ionisation mass-spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebeda, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Isotopic ratios measured with thermal ionisation mass-spectrometers are biased by fractionation effects. A sample must therefore be analyzed according to the same procedures as applied for the analysis of the standard reference material. A comparison of the behaviour of the sample with that of the standard can then be used as a criterion whether the analytical results are acceptable or not. In this way it is possible to obtain reproducibilities similar to those for elements acceptable or not. In this way it is possible to obtain reproducibilities similar to those for elements where the fractionation can be determined by an internal standard. This procedure of controlled fractionation is demonstrated by means of the 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios measured on geological samples and the SRM 987 standard. (orig.)

  1. Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Malagutti, Luca; Fragali, Emilio; Ruboni, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) processes, when applied to different types of organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), may easily be subjected to inhibition due to organic overloading. In this study, a new approach for predicting these phenomena was proposed based on the estimation of the putrescibility (oxygen consumption in 20 h biodegradation, OD(20)) of the organic mixtures undergoing the HSAD process. Different wastes exhibiting different putrescibility were subjected to lab-scale batch-HSAD. Measuring the organic loading (OL) as volatile solids (VS) was found unsuitable for predicting overload inhibition, because similar VS contents corresponded to both inhibited and successful trials. Instead, the OL calculated as OD(20) was a very good indicator of the inhibiting conditions (inhibition started for OD(20)>17-18 g O(2)kg(-1)). This new method of predicting inhibition in the HSAD process of diverse OFMSW may be useful for developing a correct approach to the technology in very different contexts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A continued fraction representation of the mass operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswati, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    We explore some further possibilities of application of the projection operator method of Zwanzig to the theory of Green's functions of quantum statistical mechanics, initiated by Ichiyanagi, and present a continued fraction representation of the mass operator involving a hierarchy of the random forces. As an application of the theory, we calculate the polarization operator of the phonon Green's function of the Frohlich Hamiltonian in the first approximation which corresponds to the assumption that the electron momenta are orthogonal to the phonon momentum. (author)

  3. Thermal drying of the solid fraction from biogas digestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Drying of solids produced from digestate is prone to N losses through NH3 volatilisation. The applicability of acidification as an NH3 emission mitigation technique during the drying of solids from digestate was assessed in a drying experiment. Operating conditions comprised four drying temperatu...

  4. TWO EXTRASOLAR ASTEROIDS WITH LOW VOLATILE-ELEMENT MASS FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.

    2012-01-01

    Using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we extend our previous ground-based optical determinations of the composition of the extrasolar asteroids accreted onto two white dwarfs, GD 40 and G241-6. Combining optical and ultraviolet spectra of these stars with He-dominated atmospheres, 13 and 12 polluting elements are confidently detected in GD 40 and G241-6, respectively. For the material accreted onto GD 40, the volatile elements C and S are deficient by more than a factor of 10 and N by at least a factor of 5 compared to their mass fractions in primitive CI chondrites and approach what is inferred for bulk Earth. A similar pattern is found for G241-6 except that S is undepleted. We have also newly detected or placed meaningful upper limits for the amount of Cl, Al, P, Ni, and Cu in the accreted matter. Extending results from optical studies, the mass fractions of refractory elements in the accreted parent bodies are similar to what is measured for bulk Earth and chondrites. Thermal processing, perhaps interior to a snow line, appears to be of central importance in determining the elemental compositions of these particular extrasolar asteroids.

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well...

  6. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  7. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...... of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six...... to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions...

  8. Selected Topics on Mass Transport in Gas-solid Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The present article is a short review containing examples of the role of mass transport in the solid state during gas-solid interactions. Examples are taken from the authors' research on the interaction of carbon and/or nitrogen with iron-based metals. Topics dealt with are diffusion-controlled d......The present article is a short review containing examples of the role of mass transport in the solid state during gas-solid interactions. Examples are taken from the authors' research on the interaction of carbon and/or nitrogen with iron-based metals. Topics dealt with are diffusion...... on the kinetics of phenomena in the solid state. Various experimental techniques were applied to investigate these phenomena; it is however beyond the scope of the present article to treat experimental conditions in detail. The interested reader is referred to the original work for in depth discussions...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  11. Equilibrium mass-dependent fractionation relationships for triple oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobin; Liu, Yun

    2011-12-01

    With a growing interest in small 17O-anomaly, there is a pressing need for the precise ratio, ln 17α/ln 18α, for a particular mass-dependent fractionation process (MDFP) (e.g., for an equilibrium isotope exchange reaction). This ratio (also denoted as " θ") can be determined experimentally, however, such efforts suffer from the demand of well-defined process or a set of processes in addition to high precision analytical capabilities. Here, we present a theoretical approach from which high-precision ratios for MDFPs can be obtained. This approach will complement and serve as a benchmark for experimental studies. We use oxygen isotope exchanges in equilibrium processes as an example. We propose that the ratio at equilibrium, θE ≡ ln 17α/ln 18α, can be calculated through the equation below: θa-bE=κa+(κa-κb){ln18βb}/{ln18α} where 18βb is the fractionation factor between a compound "b" and the mono-atomic ideal reference material "O", 18αa-b is the fractionation factor between a and b and it equals to 18βa/ 18βb and κ is a new concept defined in this study as κ ≡ ln 17β/ln 18β. The relationship between θ and κ is similar to that between α and β. The advantages of using κ include the convenience in documenting a large number of θ values for MDFPs and in estimating any θ values using a small data set due to the fact that κ values are similar among O-bearing compounds with similar chemical groups. Frequency scaling factor, anharmonic corrections and clumped isotope effects are found insignificant to the κ value calculation. However, the employment of the rule of geometric mean (RGM) can significantly affect the κ value. There are only small differences in κ values among carbonates and the structural effect is smaller than that of chemical compositions. We provide κ values for most O-bearing compounds, and we argue that κ values for Mg-bearing and S-bearing compounds should be close to their high temperature limitation (i.e., 0.5210 for

  12. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters...... and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors...... for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40...

  13. Re-fermentation of washed spent solids from batch hydrogenogenic fermentation for additional production of biohydrogen from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2012-03-01

    In the first batch solid substrate anaerobic hydrogenogenic fermentation with intermittent venting (SSAHF-IV) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), a cumulative production of 16.6 mmol H(2)/reactor was obtained. Releases of hydrogen partial pressure first by intermittent venting and afterward by flushing headspace of reactors with inert gas N(2) allowed for further hydrogen production in a second to fourth incubation cycle, with no new inoculum nor substrate nor inhibitor added. After the fourth cycle, no more H(2) could be harvested. Interestingly, accumulated hydrogen in 4 cycles was 100% higher than that produced in the first cycle alone. At the end of incubation, partial pressure of H(2) was near zero whereas high concentrations of organic acids and solvents remained in the spent solids. So, since approximate mass balances indicated that there was still a moderate amount of biodegradable matter in the spent solids we hypothesized that the organic metabolites imposed some kind of inhibition on further fermentation of digestates. Spent solids were washed to eliminate organic metabolites and they were used in a second SSAHF-IV. Two more cycles of H(2) production were obtained, with a cumulative production of ca. 2.4 mmol H(2)/mini-reactor. As a conclusion, washing of spent solids of a previous SSAHF-IV allowed for an increase of hydrogen production by 15% in a second run of SSAHF-IV, leading to the validation of our hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1...

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the following... type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1% xylene...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass...

  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data: Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic...

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1...

  1. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, North-South Road, Brighton (United Kingdom); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: sy81@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R{sub c} in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k{sup 2}. We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes.

  2. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T.; Sasaki, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R c in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k 2 . We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes

  3. Characterisation of uremic "Middle molecular"fractions by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, isotachophoresis, and liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, A.C.; Mikkers, F.E.P.; Claessens, H.A.; Smet, de R.; Landschoot, van N.; Ringoir, S.M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Uremic ultrafiltrates (and normal serum, for comparison) were fractionated by means of gel filtration. The collected fractions were further investigated by combined analytical techniques: "high- performance" liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and isotachophoresis.

  4. Energy and pressure requirements for compression of swine solid fraction compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pig slurry spread on soil has contributed to nitrate water pollution both in surface and in ground waters, especially in areas classified as vulnerable zones to nitrate in accordance with European Regulation (91/676/CEE. Several techniques have been developed to manage livestock slurries as cheaply and conveniently as possible and to reduce potential risks of environmental pollution. Among these techniques, solid-liquid separation of slurry is a common practice in Italy. The liquid fraction can be used for irrigation and the solid fraction, after aerobic stabilization, produces an organic compost rich in humic substances. However, compost derived from swine solid fraction is a low density material (bulk density less than 500 kgm–3. This makes it costly to transport composted swine solid fraction from production sites to areas where it could be effectively utilized for value-added applications such as in soil fertilization. Densification is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the compost. This study therefore investigates the effect of pressure (20- 110 MPa and pressure application time (5-120 s on the compaction characteristics of compost derived from swine solid fraction. Two different types of material have been used: composted swine solid fraction derived from mechanical separation and compost obtained by mixing the first material with wood chips. Results obtained showed that both the pressure applied and the pressure application time significantly affect the density of the compacted samples; while the specific compression energy is significantly affected only by the pressure. Best predictor equations were developed to predict compact density and the specific compression energy required by the densification process. The specific compression energy values based on the results from this study (6-32 kJkg–1 were significantly lower than the specific energy required to manufacture pellets from

  5. Strategies for the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    Different process strategies for anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) are reviewed weighing high-solids versus low-solids, mesophilic versus thermophilic and single-stage versus multi-stage processes. The influence of different waste characteristics...... such as composition of biodegradable fractions, C:N ratio and particle size is described. Generally, source sorting of OFMSW and a high content of food waste leads to higher biogas yields than the use of mechanically sorted OFMSW. Thermophilic processes are more efficient than mesophilic processes in terms of higher...... biogas yields at different organic loading rates (OLR). Highest biogas yields are achieved by means of wet thermophilic processes at OLRs lower than 6 kg-VS(.)m(-3) d(-1). High-solids processes appear to be relatively more efficient when OLRs higher than 6 kg-VS(.)m(-3) d(-1) are applied. Multi...

  6. Elemental analysis of various biomass solid fractions in biorefineries by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    , poplar) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. For all the different biomasses, the biorefinery process concentrated silicon, aluminium, and calcium in the solid fraction, while potassium and magnesium were solubilised in the process and removed from the solid fraction. Sodium concentrations....... Based on ultimate elemental analysis of all biomasses, the formula for biomass was C6H8.4O3.5, which was used for all types of samples (raw biomass, pretreated biomass, and lignin residue) and can be used in future XRF analysis of samples of similar process and biomass feedstock as those used...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the... solvent blend matches both the name and CAS number for an entry, that entry's organic HAP mass fraction...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  9. Heat and mass transfer involving droplets containing soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, J.L.; Briggs, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The mass loss and temperature history of aqueous drops containing dissolved solids were measured under varying conditions of air velocity and temperature. The data taken from these drops were compared with the computer solution to a diffusional model. Very good agreement was obtained

  10. Estimation of optimal biomass fraction measuring cycle formunicipal solid waste incineration facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seongmin; Cha, Jae Hyung; Hong, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Daekyeom; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2018-01-01

    This study estimates the optimum sampling cycle using a statistical method for biomass fraction. More than ten samples were collected from each of the three municipal solid waste (MSW) facilities between June 2013 and March 2015 and the biomass fraction was analyzed. The analysis data were grouped into monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual intervals and the optimum sampling cycle for the detection of the biomass fraction was estimated. Biomass fraction data did not show a normal distribution. Therefore, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the average values for each sample group. The Kruskal-Wallis test results showed that the average monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual values for all three MSW incineration facilities were equal. Therefore, the biomass fraction at the MSW incineration facilities should be calculated on a yearly cycle which is the longest period of the temporal cycles tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...

  13. Studies on composite solid propellant with tri-modal ammonium perchlorate containing an ultrafine fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Suresh Babu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite solid propellant is prepared using tri-modal Ammonium perchlorate (AP containing coarse, fine and ultrafine fractions of AP with average particle size (APS 340, 40 and 5 μm respectively, in various compositions and their rheological, mechanical and burn rate characteristics are evaluated. The optimum combination of AP coarse to fine to ultrafine weight fraction was obtained by testing of series of propellant samples by varying the AP fractions at fixed solid loading. The concentration of aluminium was maintained constant throughout the experiments for ballistics requirement. The propellant formulation prepared using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9 has lowest viscosity for the propellant paste and highest tensile strength due to dense packing as supported by the literature. A minimum modulus value was also observed at 9 wt. % of ultrafine AP concentration indicates the maximum solids packing density at this ratio of AP fractions. The burn rate is evaluated at different pressures to obtain pressure exponent. Incorporation of ultrafine fraction of AP in propellant increased burn rate without adversely affecting the pressure exponent. Higher solid loading propellants are prepared by increased AP concentration from 67 to 71 wt. % using AP with coarse to fine to ultrafine ratio of 67:24:9. Higher solid content up to 89 wt. % was achieved and hence increased solid motor performance. The unloading viscosity showed a trend with increased AP content and the propellant couldn't able to cast beyond 71 wt. % of AP. Mechanical properties were also studied and from the experiments noticed that % elongation decreased with increased AP content from 67 to 71 wt.%, whereas tensile strength and modulus increased. Burn rate increased with increased AP content and observed that pressure exponent also increased and it is high for the propellant containing with 71 wt.% of AP due to increased oxidiser to fuel ratio. Catalysed

  14. Fractionation, solid-phase immobilization and chemical degradation of long pectin oligogalacturonides. Initial steps towards sequencing of oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Mutenda, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the optimized separation of pectin oligomers, their analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), their subsequent immobilization to supports, and our initial steps towards solid-support assisted sequencing. The ambient...... were produced in excellent purity (> 95%). Elution of OGAs followed by direct analysis of the peak fractions by MALDI-TOF MS. Purified OGAs (DP 5-7) were chemoselectively immobilized onto aminooxy-terminated polyethylene glycol polyacrylamide (PEGA) supports. Solid-phase anchoring took place...... at the reducing end of the oligosaccharide and resulted in the formation of an oxime linkage. The very high coupling yields confirmed the general suitability of aminooxy-PEGA resins for the immobilization of OGAs of different lengths. The OGA-functionalized PEGA supports were subsequently treated with aq TFA...

  15. Mathematical modelling of the mass-spring-damper system - A fractional calculus approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Bernal Alvarado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fractional differential equation for the mass-spring-damper system in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type is considered. In order to be consistent with the physical equation, a new parameter is introduced. This parameter char­acterizes the existence of fractional components in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative and the new parameter is found. Different particular cases are analyzed

  16. Effect of microwaves on solubilization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahriari, H.; Warith, M.; Kennedy, K.J. [Ottawa Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Landfilling is the most common method for disposing of municipal solid waste (MSW) in North America. MSW consists of nonbiodegradable fractions as well as biodegradable fractions known as the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Because of its high moisture content, OFMSW produces large amounts of leachate in landfills. If not treated properly, leachates can pollute groundwater and negatively affect health and the environment. This paper reported on a study that was conducted to determine the effects of microwave (MW) irradiation on the solubilization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at different temperatures, MW ramp times, and supplemental water addition (SWA). The objective was to enhance solubilization before anaerobic digestion (AD). MW pretreatment resulted in higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), proteins and sugars in the supernatant phase. The highest increase in sCOD was achieved at 175 degrees C. For the same condition, the free liquid volume from bound water released from OFMSW into the supernatant was about 1.39 times higher than the control. The increase in potentially bio-available sCOD increased significantly to more than 200 per cent after microwaving at high temperature. It was concluded that microwaving of OFMSW at high temperature with SWA provides the best conditions for waste solubilisation in preparation for anaerobic digestion. The actual effect of MW pre-treatment on the anaerobic digestion process has yet to be determined. 49 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Understanding the solid phase chemical fractionation of uranium in soil and effect of ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Sabyasachi, E-mail: srout.barc@gmail.com [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Ajay [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M. [Homi Bhabha National Institute Anushaktinagar, Mumbai (India)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Apart of U(VI) converted to U(IV) during adsorption to soil. • Ageing leads to rearrangement of chemical fractionation of U in soil. • Organic matter and carbonate minerals responsible for Surface enrichment of U. • There occurs Occlusion of U-Fe-Oxides (Hydroxide) in to silica. - Abstract: The aim of the present work is to understand the solid phase chemical fractionation of Uranium (U) in soil and the mechanism involved. This study integrated batch experiments of U(VI) adsorption to soil, study of U in different soil fractions, ageing impact on fractionation of U and spectroscopic investigation of adsorbed U(VI) using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). For the study three soils, pedogenically different (S1: Igneous, S2: Sedimentary and S3: Metamorphic) were amended with U(VI) and chemical fractionation of U was studied by sequential extraction after an interval of one month and 12 months. It was found that there occurs a significant rearrangement of U in different fractions with ageing and no correlation was observed between the U content in different fractions and the adsorbents of respective fractions such as soil organic matter (SOM), Fe/Mn oxides (hydroxides) carbonates, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). XPS study revealed that surface enrichment of U mainly governed by the carbonate minerals and SOM, whereas bulk concentration was controlled by the oxides (hydroxides) of Si and Al. Occlusion of U-Fe-oxides (hydroxides) on silica was identified as an important mechanism for bulk enrichment (Increase in residual fraction) and depletion of U concentration in reducible fraction.

  18. Understanding the solid phase chemical fractionation of uranium in soil and effect of ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Ajay; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Apart of U(VI) converted to U(IV) during adsorption to soil. • Ageing leads to rearrangement of chemical fractionation of U in soil. • Organic matter and carbonate minerals responsible for Surface enrichment of U. • There occurs Occlusion of U-Fe-Oxides (Hydroxide) in to silica. - Abstract: The aim of the present work is to understand the solid phase chemical fractionation of Uranium (U) in soil and the mechanism involved. This study integrated batch experiments of U(VI) adsorption to soil, study of U in different soil fractions, ageing impact on fractionation of U and spectroscopic investigation of adsorbed U(VI) using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). For the study three soils, pedogenically different (S1: Igneous, S2: Sedimentary and S3: Metamorphic) were amended with U(VI) and chemical fractionation of U was studied by sequential extraction after an interval of one month and 12 months. It was found that there occurs a significant rearrangement of U in different fractions with ageing and no correlation was observed between the U content in different fractions and the adsorbents of respective fractions such as soil organic matter (SOM), Fe/Mn oxides (hydroxides) carbonates, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). XPS study revealed that surface enrichment of U mainly governed by the carbonate minerals and SOM, whereas bulk concentration was controlled by the oxides (hydroxides) of Si and Al. Occlusion of U-Fe-oxides (hydroxides) on silica was identified as an important mechanism for bulk enrichment (Increase in residual fraction) and depletion of U concentration in reducible fraction.

  19. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  20. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2002-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  1. Revisiting the elemental composition and the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Alexandros; Giannakis, Georgios; Lymperis, Constantinos

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the elemental content (C, N, H, S, O), the organic matter content and the calorific value of various organic components that are commonly found in the municipal solid waste stream were measured. The objective of this work was to develop an empirical equation to describe the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste as a function of its elemental composition. The MSW components were grouped into paper wastes, food wastes, yard wastes and plastics. Sample sizes ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 kg. In addition to the above individual components, commingled municipal solid wastes were sampled from a bio-drying facility located in Crete (sample sizes ranged from 8 to 15 kg) and were analyzed for the same parameters. Based on the results of this work, an improved empirical model was developed that revealed that carbon, hydrogen and oxygen were the only statistically significant predictors of calorific value. Total organic carbon was statistically similar to total carbon for most materials in this work. The carbon to organic matter ratio of 26 municipal solid waste substrates and of 18 organic composts varied from 0.40 to 0.99. An approximate chemical empirical formula calculated for the organic fraction of commingled municipal solid wastes was C(32)NH(55)O(16). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) organic fraction. Energy and CO2 balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Benedetti, B.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comparison between different technologies for the treatment of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology constitutes the basic approach of the work, as reference international method of analysis, and allows to compare the energy and CO 2 balances taking into account the fractions deriving from renewable resources or from fossils resources. Results obtained show a significant advantage of the anaerobic treatment of MSW if compared with composting technology: obviously this conclusion refers only to an environmental point of view [it

  3. Solar-wind krypton and solid/gas fractionation in the early solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, D. S.; Neugebauer, M.; Pepin, R. O.

    1991-01-01

    The solar-system Kr abundance is calculated from solar-wind noble-gas ratios, determined previously by low-temperature oxidations of lunar ilmenite grains, normalized to Si by spacecraft solar-wind measurements. The estimated Kr-83 abundance of 4.1 + or - 1.5 per million Si atoms is within uncertainty of estimates assuming no fractionation, determined from CI-chondrite abundances of surrounding elements. This is significant because it is the first such constraint on solid/gas fractionation, though the large uncertainty only confines it to somewhat less than a factor of two.

  4. Aerosol Mass Scattering Efficiency: Generalized Treatment of the Organic Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Lovejoy, E. R.; Tolbert, M. A.; Baynard, T.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds. Current efforts to provide a simplified parameterization to describe the RH dependence of water uptake and associated optical properties lack the capability to include any dependence on the composition of the organic fraction. Using laboratory generated aerosol we have investigated the validity of such simplified treatment of organic fraction and estimated potential biases. In this study, we use cavity ring-down aerosol extinction photometry (CRD-AEP) to study the relative humidity (RH) dependence of the light extinction of aerosols, σep, simultaneously considering the influence of particle size, chemical composition, and mixing state (internal and external mixtures). We have produced internally mixed aerosol systems including; ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, dicarboxylic acids, sugars, amino acids and humic acid. These aerosols are produced with an atomizer and size-selected with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA). The particles then enter into a CRD-AEP to measure dry extinction, σep(Dry), after which they travel into a RH conditioner and another CRD-AEP to measure the humidified aerosol extinction, fσ(ep)RH. The ratio of the humidified extinction to the dry extinction is fσ(ep)RH. Representative organic compounds were found to have fσ(ep)RH values that are much smaller than pure salts; though the fσ(ep)RH values vary little within the organic compounds studied. In addition, we have found that treating the inorganic/organic aerosols as external mixtures is generally correct to within ~10%, indicating appropriate simplified treatment of the RH dependence of atmospheric aerosol according to inorganic/organic fraction. In this presentation, we include recommendations for the generalized treatment of the organic fraction, exceptions to this generalized behavior, and estimates of the potential bias caused by generalized treatment.

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction.... If a solvent blend matches both the name and CAS number for an entry, that entry's organic HAP mass...

  6. Comparison of rumen bacteria distribution in original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions in lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shoukun; Zhang, Hongtao; Yan, Hui; Azarfar, Arash; Shi, Haitao; Alugongo, Gibson; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun; Wang, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Background Original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions have been frequently used to assess the rumen bacterial community. However, bacterial profiles in rumen original digesta, liquid and solid fractions vary from each other and need to be better established. Methods To compare bacterial profiles in each fraction, samples of rumen digesta from six cows fed either a high fiber diet (HFD) or a high energy diet (HED) were collected via rumen fistulas. Rumen digesta was then squeezed...

  7. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The picture of the explosion of 1987A following collapse to a neutron star and neutrino emission is difficult to reconcile with the subsequent behavior of the ejected mass. It is shown that the inner solar mass of ejected matter should progressively fall back onto the neutron star after it collides with the outer 10--15 M circle and after an initial phase of explosion driven by a hot bubble for t approx-gt 2 x 10 3 s. This fall back is augmented due to heating by the radioactive decay of 56 Ni. The matter accreted onto the neutron star rapidly cools due to neutrino emission and merges with the neutron star, thus resulting in zero back pressure to the free falling matter. The predicted fall back mass approx-gt 1 M circle is far larger than is consistent with observations. The author discusses how the most likely explanation is that the hot radiation dominated bubble is continuously heated by neutrino emission from continuing accretion. This accretion continues until the presumed pulsar magnetic field exceeds the bubble pressure

  9. Using gravimetric measurement for determination of the mass fraction PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chirilă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determinate the air pollution level with mass fraction PM10 from Targu Mures area. For this purpose, determinations were made in University Petru Maior’s laboratory, using ADR 1200 S device and in Targu Mures Environmental Department’s laboratory. The results that we obtained show a low level of air pollution with mass fraction PM10 in Targu Mures area.

  10. Solid lubricant mass contact transfer technology usage for vacuum ball bearings longevity increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzymatov, B.; Deulin, E.

    2016-07-01

    A contact mass transfer technological method of solid lubricant deposition on components of vacuum ball bearings is presented. Physics-mathematical model of process contact mass transfer is being considered. The experimental results of ball bearings covered with solid lubricant longevity in vacuum are presented. It is shown that solid lubricant of contact mass transfer method deposition is prospective for ball bearing longevity increasing.

  11. Non-mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes during UV photolysis of sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Aranh

    Since the discovery of anomalous sulfur isotope abundance in the geological record in sulfate and sulfide minerals (Farquhar et al., 2000), much effort has been put into understanding their origin to provide new insights into the environmental conditions on the early Earth (Farquhar et al., 2001; Pavlov and Kasting, 2002; Ono et al., 2003; Zahnle et al., 2006; Farquhar et al., 2007; Lyons, 2007; Lyons, 2008). This discovery gained immense interest because of its implications for both the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere during the Archean era 2.5-3.8 Gya (billion years ago), and for rise of oxygen, or the "Great Oxidation Event", that occurred 2.2-2.4 Gya (Holland, 2002). These signatures are believed to be produced in an anticorrelation to oxygen abundance in the early atmosphere, which will aid in quantifying the rate of oxygenation during the "Great Oxidation Event". According to Farquhar et al. (2000), the non-mass-dependent (NMD), or anomalous, fractionation signatures were produced by photochemical reactions of volcanic sulfur species in Earth's early atmosphere (> 2.3 Gya) due to the lack of an oxygen and ozone shield, resulting in an atmosphere transparent to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Farquhar et al., 2001). Interpretation of the anomalous rock records, though, depends on the identification of (1) chemical reactions that can produce the NMD signature (Farquhar and Wing, 2003); and (2) conditions necessary for conversion of the gas-phase products into solid minerals (Pavlov and Kasting, 2002). The focus of my research addresses the first step, which is to determine whether the chemical reactions that occurred in Earth's early atmosphere, resulting in NMD fractionation of sulfur isotopes, were due to broadband UV photochemistry, and to test isotopic self-shielding as the possible underlying mechanism. In this project, our goals were to test isotopic self-shielding during UV photolysis as a possible underlying mechanism for anomalous sulfur isotopic

  12. Ultrasonic detection of solid phase mass flow ratio of pneumatic conveying fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guang Bin; Pan, Hong Li; Wang, Yong; Liu, Zong Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic attenuation detection and weight balance are adopted to evaluate the solid mass ratio in this paper. Fly ash is transported on the up extraction fluidization pneumatic conveying workbench. In the ultrasonic test. McClements model and Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law model were applied to formulate the ultrasonic attenuation properties of gas-solid flow, which can give the solid mass ratio. While in the method of weigh balance, the averaged mass addition per second can reveal the solids mass flow ratio. By contrast these two solid phase mass ratio detection methods, we can know, the relative error is less.

  13. Abundance of 14C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO 2 emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes 14 C and 12 C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in 14 C and reflect the 14 CO 2 abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying 14 C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper 14 C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated 14 C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC

  14. Determination of the interchangeable heavy-metal fraction in soils by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaebler, H.E.; Bahr, A.; Mieke, B.

    1999-01-01

    An isotope dilution technique using enriched stable isotopes is applied to determine the interchangeable heavy-metal fraction in soils. Metals in two soil samples are extracted at constant pH, with water, NH 4 NO 3 , and EDTA. A spike of enriched stable isotopes is added to the suspension of sample and eluant at the beginning of the extraction. The heavy-metal fraction which exchanges with the added spike during the extraction is called the interchangeable fraction. The extractable heavy-metal fractions are obtained from the heavy-metal concentrations in the eluates. Isotope ratios and concentrations are determined by HR-ICP-MS. The isotope dilution technique described enables both the extractable and the interchangeable heavy-metal fractions to be determined in the same experiment. The combination of both results gives additional information on elemental availability under different conditions that cannot be obtained by analyzing the extractable heavy-metal fractions alone. It is demonstrated that in some cases different eluants just shift the distribution of the interchangeable fraction of an element between the solid and liquid phases (e.g., Pb and Cd in a topsoil sample) while the amount of the interchangeable fraction itself remains constant. For other elements, as Ni, Zn, and Cr, the use of different eluants (different pH, complexing agents) sometimes enlarges the interchangeable fraction. (orig.)

  15. Simultaneous quantification of dissolved organic carbon fractions and copper complexation using solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElmurry, Shawn P.; Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Trace metal cycling in natural waters is highly influenced by the amount and type of dissolved organic C (DOC). Although determining individual species of DOC is unrealistic, there has been success in classifying DOC by determining operationally defined fractions. However, current fractionation schemes do not allow for the simultaneous quantification of associated trace metals. Using operational classifications, a scheme was developed to fractionate DOC based on a set of seven solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The cartridges isolated fractions based on a range of specific mechanisms thought to be responsible for DOC aggregation in solution, as well as molecular weight. The method was evaluated to determine if it can identify differences in DOC characteristics, including differences in Cu-DOC complexation. Results are that: (1) cartridge blanks were low for both DOC and Cu, (2) differences are observed in the distribution of DOC amongst the fractions from various sources that are consistent with what is known about the DOC materials and the mechanisms operative for each cartridge, (3) when present as a free cation, Cu was not retained by non-cationic cartridges allowing the method to be used to assess Cu binding, (4) the capability of the method to provide quantitative assessment of Cu-DOC complexation was demonstrated for a variety of DOC standards, (5) Cu was found to preferentially bind with high molecular weight fractions of DOC, and (6) estimated partitioning coefficients and conditional binding constants for Cu were similar to those reported elsewhere. The method developed describes DOC characteristics based on specific bonding mechanisms (hydrogen, donor-acceptor, London dispersion, and ionic bonding) while simultaneously quantifying Cu-DOC complexation. The method provides researchers a means of describing not only the extent of DOC complexation but also how that complex will be behave in natural waters.

  16. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  17. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  18. STELLAR AND TOTAL BARYON MASS FRACTIONS IN GROUPS AND CLUSTERS SINCE REDSHIFT 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giodini, S.; Pierini, D.; Finoguenov, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Boehringer, H.; Leauthaud, A.; Guzzo, L.; Aussel, H.; Bolzonella, M.; Capak, P.; Elvis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the discrepancy between estimates of the total baryon mass fraction obtained from observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and of galaxy groups/clusters persists when a large sample of groups is considered. To this purpose, 91 candidate X-ray groups/poor clusters at redshift 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1 are selected from the COSMOS 2 deg 2 survey, based only on their X-ray luminosity and extent. This sample is complemented by 27 nearby clusters with a robust, analogous determination of the total and stellar mass inside R 500 . The total sample of 118 groups and clusters with z ≤ 1 spans a range in M 500 of ∼10 13 -10 15 M sun . We find that the stellar mass fraction associated with galaxies at R 500 decreases with increasing total mass as M -0.37±0.04 500 , independent of redshift. Estimating the total gas mass fraction from a recently derived, high-quality scaling relation, the total baryon mass fraction (f stars+gas 500 = f stars 500 + f gas 500 ) is found to increase by ∼25%, when M 500 increases from (M) = 5 x 10 13 M sun to (M) = 7 x 10 14 M sun . After consideration of a plausible contribution due to intracluster light (11%-22% of the total stellar mass) and gas depletion through the hierarchical assembly process (10% of the gas mass), the estimated values of the total baryon mass fraction are still lower than the latest CMB measure of the same quantity (WMAP5), at a significance level of 3.3σ for groups of (M) = 5 x 10 13 M sun . The discrepancy decreases toward higher total masses, such that it is 1σ at (M) = 7 x 10 14 M sun . We discuss this result in terms of nongravitational processes such as feedback and filamentary heating.

  19. Thermogravimetric characteristics of typical municipal solid waste fractions during co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Long, YanQiu; Meng, AiHong; Li, QingHai; Zhang, YanGuo

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of nine typical municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions during pyrolysis were investigated using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). To compare the mixture results with the calculation results of superposition of single fractions quantitatively, TG overlap ratio was introduced. There were strong interactions between orange peel and rice (overlap ratio 0.9736), and rice and poplar wood (overlap ratio 0.9774). The interactions of mixture experiments postponed the peak and lowered the peak value. Intense interactions between PVC and rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, wool, terylene, and rubber powder during co-pyrolysis were observed, and the pyrolysis at low temperature was usually promoted. The residue yield was increased when PVC was blended with rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, or rubber powder; while the residue yield was decreased when PVC was blended with wool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Possible interactions between recirculated landfill leachate and the stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SOFMSW) is a product of the mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). SOFMSW is considered a 'grey' compost and the presence of pollutants (particularly heavy metals) and residual glass and plastic normally prevents agricultural use, making landfills the typical final destination for SOFMSW. Recirculation of leachate in landfills can be a cost-effective management option, but the long-term sustainability of such a practice must be verified. Column tests were carried out to examine the effect of SOFMSW on leachate recirculation. The results indicate that organic matter may be biologically degraded and metals (copper and zinc) are effectively entrapped through a combination of physical (adsorption), biological (bacterial sulfate reduction), and chemical (precipitation of metal sulfides) processes, while other chemicals (i.e. ammonia nitrogen and chloride) are essentially unaffected by filtration through SOFMSW.

  1. Organic fraction of solid waste in biodigester; Fracao organica de lixo urbano como substrato para biodigestor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgati, Claudia Q. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    1999-12-01

    The study of the anaerobic digestion was accomplished with the organic fraction of urban solid waste collected at the composting plant - CONSTRUFERT- from the municipal district of Sao Jose do Rio Preto - SP. The essay was conducted in six bio digesters at the Rural Engineering Department of the Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, in Jaboticabal/SP, three of them with fresh urban organic waste and remaining ones with dried and ground material. With regard to the anaerobic digestion the biogas production was monitored and the data indicated the energetic potential of urban waste, which was found to be 0.1034 - 0.1395 m{sup 3}/Kg of raw urban waste with reduction of volatile solids between 56 and 66.50%. (author)

  2. Modeling of pretreatment and acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccari, M; Longo, G; Majone, M; Rolle, E; Scarinci, A [Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste represents a potential feedstock to be treated through biorefining. However, the process feasibility strongly depends on the effectiveness of a chemical pretreatment. Consequently, experimentation aimed at choosing the optimal type of reagent (alkali or acids) and optimal operating conditions was carried out. The best results were obtained using NaOH at room temperature. Solubilization data are in good agreement with a kinetics based on two competing reactions. Simulation of the overall process (pretreatment and acidogenic fermentation) taking place in two CFSTR reactors shows that an optimum ratio exists between the hydraulic residence times of the two stages of the process. (author)

  3. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000. °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal...... changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16. weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying. >. composting. >. pyrolysis. >. combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would....... Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms....

  4. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic extraction system exploiting sequential injection (SI) for sequential extractions incorporating a specially designed extraction column is developed to fractionate radionuclides in environmental solid samples such as soils and sediments. The extraction column can contain a large amount...... of soil sample (up to 5 g), and under optimal operational conditions it does not give rise to creation of back pressure. Attention has been placed on studies of the readsorption problems during sequential extraction using a modified Standards, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) scheme with 4-step sequential...

  5. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    Improved recycling of the solid fraction of separated pig slurry, which is considerably enriched in the essential plant nutrient phosphorus (P), could balance the P input in differently used agricultural areas and reduce the unsustainable depletion of the limited P rock reserves. By subsequent...... biological or thermal treatment, the P concentration of the pig slurry-derived products is furthermore increased, but these processes are also expected to affect P availability from the respective products. Consequently it was the overall objective of this PhD project to identify options for upgrading...

  6. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typicalorganic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1% Xylene, 1% toluene, and...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Furniture Pt. 63, Subpt. RRRR, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1. Toluene 108-88...

  8. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1. Toluene 108-88-3...

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Furniture Pt. 63, Subpt. RRRR, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic percent HAP, by mass Aliphatic 2 0.03 1% Xylene, 1...

  10. Direct Laser Ablation and Ionization of Solids for Chemical Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Nelson, E J; Klunder, G L [Forensic Science Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    A laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer system is described for the direct chemical analysis of solids. An Nd:YAG laser is used for ablation and ionization of the sample in a quadrupole ion trap operated in an ion-storage (IS) mode that is coupled with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Single pulse experiments have demonstrated simultaneous detection of up to 14 elements present in glasses in the ppm range. However, detection of the components has produced non-stoichiometric results due to difference in ionization potentials and fractionation effects. Time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to spatially map elemental species on the surface and provide further evidence of fractionation effects. Resolution (m/{delta}m) of 1500 and detection limits of approximately 10 pg have been achieved with a single laser pulse. The system configuration and related operating principles for accurately measuring low concentrations of isotopes are described.

  11. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    Separation is an option when livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas producing a surplus of nutrients. Separation of the slurry into a liquid nitrogen rich fraction and a more solid phosphorus rich fraction, which is exported away from the farm, may alleviate this problem. Separation...

  12. Moisture and drug solid-state monitoring during a continuous drying process using empirical and mass balance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Gildemyn, Delphine; Peeters, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools (Raman and NIR spectroscopy) and a mass balance approach. The six-segmented fluid bed drying system being part of a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (ConsiGma™-25) was used for this study. A theophylline:lactose:PVP (30:67.5:2.5) blend......, the different size fractions of the dried granules obtained during different experiments (fines, yield and oversized granules) were compared separately, revealing differences in both solid state of theophylline and moisture content between the different granule size fractions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...... reserved...

  13. Determination of void fraction from source range monitor and mass flow rate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    This is a report on the calculation of the TMI-2 primary coolant system local void fraction from source range neutron flux monitor data and from hot leg mass flowrate meter data during the first 100 minutes of the accident. The methods of calculation of void fraction from the two data sources is explained and the results are compared. It is indicated that the void fraction determined using the mass flowrate data contained an error of unknown magnitude due to the assumption of constant homogeneous volumetric flowrate used in the calculation and required further work. Void fraction determined from the source range monitor data is felt to be usable although an uncertainty analysis has not been performed

  14. Analysis of solids by spark-source mass spectrometry; Analyse des solides au spectrometre de masse a etincelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, R; Desjardins, M; Brun, J C; Cornu, A; Bourguillot, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Spark source mass spectrometer MS7 has been designed to determine traces of impurities in solids without standards. An atlas of 12 000 lines, assembled in the Grenoble laboratory, allows a quick investigation of mass spectra, notwithstanding their complexity due to multiply charged and polyatomic darkening. Photometric measurements increase accuracy calibration curve is known for each photo-plate. Further, reproducibility is better, if random fluctuations of matrix line darkening are corrected. So far, in a concentration range of 0,01 to 1 000 ppm (atomic), reproducibility is approximately 20 per cent, but absolute value of results depends on 'sensitivity coefficients'. (authors) [French] Le spectrometre de masse a etincelles, de type MS7, est destine a l'analyse chimique de traces dans les solides, sans echantillons etalons. L'emploi de catalogues de 12 000 raies, elabores au laboratoire, permet un depouillement rapide des spectres, malgre leur complexite due aux ionisations multiples et aux associations d'atomes. Le niveau d'apparition d'une impurete donne une estimation de sa teneur, mais la valeur du renseignement depend de la preparation des electrodes et de la connaissance plus ou moins approfondie des processus d'ionisation dans l'etincelle et de noircissement des emulsions photographiques. Les mesures photometriques augmentent la precision des resultats, si l'on determine systematiquement la courbe de noircissement de chaque plaque. De meme la reproductibilite est amelioree si l'on tient compte des fluctuations statistiques du noircissement de l'emulsion par les ions de la matrice. Actuellement, les concentrations mesurees dans le domaine de 0,01 a 1000 ppm atomiques sont reproductibles a 20 pour cent pres, mais leur valeur absolue n'est assuree qu'a un coefficient 3 pres. Des etudes sont en cours pour calibrer l'appareil en valeur absolue, par une determination des coefficients de sensibilite a partir d'echantillons etalons. (auteurs)

  15. Endogenous Plasma Peptide Detection and Identification in the Rat by a Combination of Fractionation Methods and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Bertile

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based analyses are essential tools in the field of biomarker research. However, detection and characterization of plasma low abundance and/or low molecular weight peptides is challenged by the presence of highly abundant proteins, salts and lipids. Numerous strategies have already been tested to reduce the complexity of plasma samples. The aim of this study was to enrich the low molecular weight fraction of rat plasma. To this end, we developed and compared simple protocols based on membrane filtration, solid phase extraction, and a combination of both. As assessed by UV absorbance, an albumin depletion 99% was obtained. The multistep fractionation strategy (including reverse phase HPLC allowed detection, in a reproducible manner (CV [1] 30%–35%, of more than 450 peaks below 3000 Da by MALDI-TOF/MS. A MALDI-TOF/MS-determined LOD as low as 1 fmol/μL was obtained, thus allowing nanoLC-Chip/ MS/MS identification of spiked peptides representing ∼10–6% of total proteins, by weight. Signal peptide recovery ranged between 5%–100% according to the spiked peptide considered. Tens of peptide sequence tags from endogenous plasma peptides were also obtained and high confidence identifications of low abundance fibrinopeptide A and B are reported here to show the efficiency of the protocol. It is concluded that the fractionation protocol presented would be of particular interest for future differential (high throughput analyses of the plasma low molecular weight fraction.

  16. Alternatives for the treatment of the organic fraction of the urban solid residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Fonseca, Mabelin; Fernandez Mena, Dalia; Abalos Rodriguez, Arelis; Rodriguez Perez, Suyen

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of municipal solid waste outdoors, or in some cases burning under the same conditions, is action now and final disposition of these wastes without measuring their consequences. In the student's residence 'Antonio Maceo' Orient University is hosting up to 2250 students belonging to a total of 22 university, generating at full capacity, 3375 kg / day of MSW. This research aims to analyze the solid waste generated in the student's residence, where improperly evaluated the final disposition thereof. It was found that discharges are not separated at the source observed at the landfill, food waste, sweeping waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metal, textile waste, wood, etc. Samplings were carried out directly in 12 rooms of the residence for a total of 48 people, along with students, as part of the educational activities implemented within this work. The average weight of degradable waste generated was 2.5 kg / day during the sampling, revealing the presence of traces of cooked food (cereals, legumes, carbohydrates), fruit and vegetable remains, remains of shells of different origins ( meats, eggs), remnants of tea, etc. The average content of total solids in the waste sampled was 36.3 ± 5.4% and volatile solids content on dry weight was 81.3 ± 2.5% to an average density of 0.68 g / cm3. This residue is characterized to be treated in an anaerobic batch reactor where it is recirculated leachate and studied the competing microorganisms in the anaerobic degradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. (author)

  17. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Case, Sean; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified...... solid fractions, but also increased N2O and CO2 emissions in soil amended with the liquid fraction. Finally, the biochar production from the solid fraction of pig slurry resulted in a very recalcitrant material, which reduced N and C mineralisation in soil compared to the raw solid fractions....

  18. Comparison of two anaerobic systems for hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and synthetic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Perez-Hernandez, Antonino [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Two laboratory scale anaerobic digestion systems for hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and synthetic wastewater were compared in this study. One of them was formed by a coupled packed bed reactor (PBR) containing 19.4 L of OFMSW and the other an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) of 3.85 L. The reactors were inoculated with a mixture of non-anaerobic inocula. In the UASB the percentage of hydrogen yield reached 51% v/v and 127NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The concentration of synthetic wastewater in the affluent was 7 g COD/L. For the PBR the percentage yield was 47% v/v and 99NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a mass retention time (MRT) of 50 days and the organic load rate of 16 gvs (Grams Volatile Solids)/(kg-day). The UASB and PBR systems presented maximum hydrogen yields of 30% and 23%, respectively, which correspond to 4molH{sub 2}/mol glucose. These values are similar to those reported in the literature for the hydrogen yield (37%) in mesophilic range. The acetic and butyric acids were present in the effluent as by-products in watery phase. In this work we used non-anaerobic inocula made up of microorganism consortium unlike other works where pure inocula or that from anaerobic sludge was used. (author)

  19. The treatment of municipal solid waste in Malaysia comparing the biothennal process and mass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Iso-Tryykari, M.

    1997-12-31

    Mass burning is the previously much used technology in the combustion of municipal solid waste. In mass burning, unsorted waste is burned on a grate. The Biothermal Process is a new innovative municipal solid waste treatment concept. It consists of front end treatment, the biogasification of the biofraction and the fluidized bed combustion of the combustible fraction. The objective of this work is to compare the technical, environmental and economical features of the Biothermal Process and mass burning, when constructed in Malaysia. Firstly technical descriptions of concepts are presented. Secondly three cases namely Kuala Lumpur, Perai and Johor Bahru are studied. Finally conclusions are drawn. Economic comparisons revealed that the Biothermal Process is more economical than mass burning. The investment cost far the Biothermal Process is about 30 % lower than for mass burning plant. To achieve an 8 % Return on Investment, the treatment fee for the Biothermal Process is 47-95 MYR per tonne and for mass burning 181-215 MYR per tonne depending on the case. The sensibility analysis showed that independent of the variations in feeding values, the treatment fee remains much lower in the Biothermal Process. Technical comparisons show that the Biothermal Process has the better waste reduction and recycling rate in all cases. The Biothermal Process has much better electrical efficiency in the Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru cases, while mass burning has slightly better electrical efficiency in the Perai case. Both concepts have postal for phased construction, but phasing increases investment costs more in mass burning. The suitability of each concept to the differences in the quality of waste depends on local conditions, and both methods have merits. The Biothermal Process produces 45-70 % lower air emissions than mass burning, and generates less traffic in Kuala Lumpur and Perai, while traffic generation is equal in the Johor Bahru case. The comparisons show that according

  20. Identification and fingerprinting of biodiesel blends by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division; China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division

    2009-07-01

    Interest in biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum diesel fuel is growing. In North America, biodiesels are produced by the methyl esterification of plant and animal triglycerides, resulting in complex mixtures composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). It is important for both environmental forensic and remediation purposes to determine diesel and biodiesel origins, and the biodiesel content when it is blended with conventional petroleum diesel. This paper reported on a study that combined 2 methods to determine biodiesel levels in blended fuels. Micro-column fractionation of FAMEs involving solid phase extraction (SPE) was combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to achieve detailed chemical fingerprinting of blends, including the identification and quantification of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acid alkyl esters, and free sterols. Fractionation of the fuel samples was optimized for separation of fatty acid esters, free sterols from petroleum hydrocarbons into 4 fractions, notably aliphatic, aromatic, fatty-acid ester and polar components. A sum of the FAME components was used to determine an unknown blend level in freshly-prepared samples. This study showed that this method has great potential for identifying biodiesel in diesel fuel blends and could form the basis of a method for biodiesel-contaminated environmental samples. 28 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Identification and fingerprinting of biodiesel blends by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.; China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Landriault, M.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum diesel fuel is growing. In North America, biodiesels are produced by the methyl esterification of plant and animal triglycerides, resulting in complex mixtures composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). It is important for both environmental forensic and remediation purposes to determine diesel and biodiesel origins, and the biodiesel content when it is blended with conventional petroleum diesel. This paper reported on a study that combined 2 methods to determine biodiesel levels in blended fuels. Micro-column fractionation of FAMEs involving solid phase extraction (SPE) was combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to achieve detailed chemical fingerprinting of blends, including the identification and quantification of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acid alkyl esters, and free sterols. Fractionation of the fuel samples was optimized for separation of fatty acid esters, free sterols from petroleum hydrocarbons into 4 fractions, notably aliphatic, aromatic, fatty-acid ester and polar components. A sum of the FAME components was used to determine an unknown blend level in freshly-prepared samples. This study showed that this method has great potential for identifying biodiesel in diesel fuel blends and could form the basis of a method for biodiesel-contaminated environmental samples. 28 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Large Appliances Pt. 63, Subpt. NNNN, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart NNNN of Part 63—Default Organic HAP... type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1% Xylene...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Large Appliances Pt. 63, Subpt. NNNN, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart NNNN of Part 63—Default Organic HAP.../solvent blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass 1. Toluene...

  4. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, L.M.; Mourão, I.; Coutinho, J.; Smith, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. ► Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. ► Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. ► Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. ► The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m 3 h −1 and 1 m 3 h −1 and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62–64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520–660 g kg −1 dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P 4 + and increased concentrations of NO 3 - in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772–856 g kg −1 ) and plant nutrients. The

  5. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L.M., E-mail: miguelbrito@esa.ipvc.pt [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Mourao, I. [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Coutinho, J., E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt [C. Quimica, DeBA, EC Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, ap 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  6. Mass fractionation of noble gases in diffusion-limited hydrodynamic hydrogen escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.; Pollack, J.B.; Kasting, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The theory of mass fractionation by hydrogen is presently extended to atmospheres in which hydrogen is not the major constituent. This theoretical framework is applied to three different cases. In the first, it is shown that the fractionation of terrestrial atmospheric neon with respect to mantle neon is explainable as a consequence of diffusion-limited hydrogen escape from a steam atmosphere toward the end of the accretion process. In the second, the anomalously high Ar-38/Ar-36 ratio of Mars is shown to be due to hydrodynamic fractionation by a vigorously escaping and very pure hydrogen wind. In the last case, it is speculated that the currently high Martian D/H ratio emerged during the hydrodynamic escape phase which fractionated Ar. 35 refs

  7. Hydrogen production characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Yu, Zhang [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhenhong, Yuan; Yongming, Sun; Xiaoying, Kong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation was investigated using batch experiments at 37 C. Seven varieties of typical individual components of OFMSW including rice, potato, lettuce, lean meat, oil, fat and banyan leaves were selected to estimate the hydrogen production potential. Experimental results showed that the boiling treated anaerobic sludge was effective mixed inoculum for fermentative hydrogen production from OFMSW. Mechanism of fermentative hydrogen production indicates that, among the OFMSW, carbohydrates is the most optimal substrate for fermentative hydrogen production compared with proteins, lipids and lignocelluloses. This conclusion was also substantiated by experimental results of this study. The hydrogen production potentials of rice, potato and lettuce were 134 mL/g-VS, 106 mL/g-VS, and 50 mL/g-VS respectively. The hydrogen percentages of the total gas produced from rice, potato and lettuce were 57-70%, 41-55% and 37-67%. (author)

  8. Analysis of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for antibodies to cytoplasmic antigen fractions of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, H.; Bromback, J.

    1981-01-01

    An indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in individual polystyrene microtiter cups has been adapted for measurement of antibody to various cytoplasmic and carbohydrate antigen fractions of Candida albicans. The assay was optimized for sensitivity, precision and linearization of serum dilution curves. The optimized procedure allows computerized measurement of anti-Candida antibodies and can be used for measurement of antibody over a wide concentration range. The procedure obviates variation due to changes in day-to-day counts as a result of isotope decay and end-point antibody dilutions. The assay has been used to demonstrate a Poisson-like distribution of antibody levels in the sera of persons showing no symptoms of candidiasis. The minimum antibody level detectable by the assay is about two orders of magnitude lower than the lowest level found in human serum and 4 orders of magnitude lower than the most sensitive test used hitherto, the hemagglutination test. (Auth.)

  9. Dynamic Flow-through Methods for Metal Fractionation in Environmental Solid Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Petersen, Roongrat

    occurring processes always take place under dynamic conditions, recent trends have been focused on the development of alternative flow-through dynamic methods aimed at mimicking environmental events more correctly than their classical extraction counterparts. In this lecture particular emphasis is paid......Accummulation of metal ions in different compartments of the biosphere and their possible mobilization under changing environmental conditions induce a pertubation of the ecosystem and may cause adverse health effects. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that the information on total content...... the ecotoxicological significance of metal ions in solid environmental samples. The background of end-over-end fractionation for releasing metal species bound to particular soil phases is initially discussed, its relevant features and limitations being thoroughly described. However, taking into account that naturally...

  10. Efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: collection and pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Møller, H.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    of the principles of the anaerobic digestion process and to an optimization of its large-scale implementation. In order to get an overview of the current situation concerning the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in Denmark, interviews were carried out with operators of the biogas...... in paper bags is preferable to collection in plastic bags and successive separation of plastics in a waste processing treatment plant...... plants where OFMSW is treated and the municipality staff responsible for waste management. With the aim of fulfilling the governmental goal to treat 150 000 tons of OFMSW by the year 2004 mainly by anaerobic digestion, the different municipalities are investigating different concepts of waste collection...

  11. Influence of Heat Treatments on Electrical Properties and Microstructure of 10 % Mass Fraction of Sucrose YBCO Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalida Salleh; Fariesha, F.; Azhan, H.; Yusainee, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different heat treatments on the superconducting properties of 10 % mass fraction of sucrose structure YBCO superconductor was investigated. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipment were used to determine the phase of superconductor and structural studies respectively at 10 % mass fraction of sucrose. The samples were prepared via solid state (SSM) and co-precipitation (CPM) reaction methods and underwent sintering and heat treatment process at 900, 930 and 960 degree Celsius respectively with mixing of C 12 H 22 O 11 sucrose during pelletization. The T C,on decreases with respect to higher heat treatment temperature. The suppression of both T C,on and T C,off indicates the destruction of superconductivity trends. The best T C,off were achieved in pure SSM and CPM samples sintered at 950 degree Celsius for 5 hours with T C,off 86 K and 91 K respectively. Comparing with pure YBCO, the 10 % mass fraction of sucrose YBCO exhibited higher critical current, I C by two times. It indicates the effect of high surface area in porous structure. The XRD results confirmed that all the samples remain in single phase, which indicates no effect of sucrose in the porous structures sample and maintaining in orthorhombic structure. Higher heat treatment at 960 degree Celsius resulted in destruction on its superconductivity behavior due to the partial melt phase on its microstructure, especially in CPM. This is due to the smaller grain size of samples which trapped more heat and causing partial melting to occur rapidly. It can be deduced that, annealing temperatures at 900 and 930 degree Celsius are the best optimum heat treatments for CPM and SSM porous superconductor, respectively. (author)

  12. Several problems of cumulative effective mass fraction in anti-seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Sheng Feng; Li Hailong; Wen Jing; Luan Lin

    2005-01-01

    Cumulative Effective Mass Fraction (CEMF) is one of important items which sign the accuracy in antiseismic analysis. Based on the primary theories of CEMF, the paper show the influence of CEMF on the accuracy in antiseismic analysis. Moreover, some advices and ways are given to solve common problems in antiseismic analysis, such as how to increase CEMF, how to avoid the mass's loss because of the torsional frequency's being close to the frequency corresponding to the peak of seismic response spectrum, how to avoid the mass's loss because of the constraints, and so on. (authors)

  13. Rotating solid foam reactors : mass transfer and reaction rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tschentscher, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis the performance and applicability of rotating solid foam stirrers is investigated. The stirrer consists, thereby of a solid, highly porous structure, which is used as stirrer and catalyst support simultaneously. The solid foam block occupies a large part of the reactor volume.

  14. Mixing effect on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the effect of mixing on the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the start-up phase and in the absence of an acclimated seed. For this purpose, two digesters were used under similar starting conditions and operated for 235days with different mixing schemes. While both digesters exhibited a successful startup with comparable specific methane yield of 0.327 and 0.314l CH 4/gVS, continuous slow stirring improved stability by reducing average VFA accumulation from 2890 to 825mg HAc/l, propionate content from 2073 to 488mg/l, and VFA-to-alkalinity ratio from 0.32 to 0.07. As a result, the startup with slow mixing was faster and smoother accomplishing a higher loading capacity of 2.5gVS/l/d in comparison to 1.9gVS/l/d for non-mixing. Mixing equally improved microbial abundance from 6.6 to 10gVSS/l and enhanced solids and soluble COD removal. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mixing effect on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of mixing on the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the start-up phase and in the absence of an acclimated seed. For this purpose, two digesters were used under similar starting conditions and operated for 235days with different mixing schemes. While both digesters exhibited a successful startup with comparable specific methane yield of 0.327 and 0.314l CH 4/gVS, continuous slow stirring improved stability by reducing average VFA accumulation from 2890 to 825mg HAc/l, propionate content from 2073 to 488mg/l, and VFA-to-alkalinity ratio from 0.32 to 0.07. As a result, the startup with slow mixing was faster and smoother accomplishing a higher loading capacity of 2.5gVS/l/d in comparison to 1.9gVS/l/d for non-mixing. Mixing equally improved microbial abundance from 6.6 to 10gVSS/l and enhanced solids and soluble COD removal. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks

  17. Unbiased in-depth characterization of CEX fractions from a stressed monoclonal antibody by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaud, François; Denefeld, Blandine; Lang, Manuel; Hensinger, Héloïse; Haberl, Peter; Berg, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Characterization of charge-based variants by mass spectrometry (MS) is required for the analytical development of a new biologic entity and its marketing approval by health authorities. However, standard peak-based data analysis approaches are time-consuming and biased toward the detection, identification, and quantification of main variants only. The aim of this study was to characterize in-depth acidic and basic species of a stressed IgG1 monoclonal antibody using comprehensive and unbiased MS data evaluation tools. Fractions collected from cation ion exchange (CEX) chromatography were analyzed as intact, after reduction of disulfide bridges, and after proteolytic cleavage using Lys-C. Data of both intact and reduced samples were evaluated consistently using a time-resolved deconvolution algorithm. Peptide mapping data were processed simultaneously, quantified and compared in a systematic manner for all MS signals and fractions. Differences observed between the fractions were then further characterized and assigned. Time-resolved deconvolution enhanced pattern visualization and data interpretation of main and minor modifications in 3-dimensional maps across CEX fractions. Relative quantification of all MS signals across CEX fractions before peptide assignment enabled the detection of fraction-specific chemical modifications at abundances below 1%. Acidic fractions were shown to be heterogeneous, containing antibody fragments, glycated as well as deamidated forms of the heavy and light chains. In contrast, the basic fractions contained mainly modifications of the C-terminus and pyroglutamate formation at the N-terminus of the heavy chain. Systematic data evaluation was performed to investigate multiple data sets and comprehensively extract main and minor differences between each CEX fraction in an unbiased manner.

  18. Method and apparatus for accelerating a solid mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidman, D.A.; Goldstein, Y.A.

    1984-01-01

    An axi-symmetrical projectile, having a mass ranging from fractions of a gram to kilograms, is accelerated to velocities in the range of 10 5 to 10 7 centimeters per second by a propelling force produced by a plasma resulting from electric discharge. The discharge is imploded against the projectile surface so lines of the magnetic fields are approximately azimuthal around the projectile axis. The projectile is tapered so it experiences a net, stable axial accelerating force along the accelerator axis by the combined action of the magnetic field producing radially directed momentum and pressure on the plasma, the interaction of the magnetic field and ions induced by the plasma on the surface, as well as material the plasma ablates from the surface. The plasma discharge is initiated either in low density background gas between anode and cathode of a discharge module, or along an insulator surface between the electrodes in low density background gas. Alternatively, in either of these situations the discharge can be initiated in a gas which is produced by ablation of the projectile surface. In an alternative situation, the projectile acts as a switch for triggering discharges. Eddy current heating of the projectile is minimized by shaping the discharge current pulse so the plasma has a relatively weak magnetic field when it arrives at the surface, or by making the projectile electrically non-conducting. To provide a long acceleration path, a series of modules is aligned. In one embodiment, the projectile position, as it advances between modules, is sensed and discharges are switched on sequentially in the modules

  19. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day −1 . • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day −1

  20. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajeena Beevi, B., E-mail: sajeenanazer@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala 680 009 (India); Madhu, G., E-mail: profmadhugopal@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India); Sahoo, Deepak Kumar, E-mail: dksahoo@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  1. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  2. Characterisation of lipid fraction of marine macroalgae by means of chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonese, Carla; Tedone, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Torre, Germana; Cichello, Filomena; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2014-02-15

    In this work the characterisation of the lipid fraction of several species of marine macro algae gathered along the eastern coast of Sicily is reported. Two species of green marine algae (Chloropyceae), two species of red marine algae (Rhodophyceae) and four species of brown marine algae (Pheophyceae) were evaluated in terms of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, pigments and phospholipids profile. Advanced analytical techniques were employed to fully characterise the lipid profile of these Mediterranean seaweeds, such as GC-MS coupled to a novel mass spectra database supported by the simultaneous use of linear retention index (LRI) for the identification of fatty acid profile; LC-MS was employed for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs), carotenoids and phospholipids; the determination of accurate mass was carried out on carotenoids and phospholipids. Quantitative data are reported on fatty acids and triacylglycerols as relative percentage of total fraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A; Andraski, Brian J; Cooper, Clay A; Mayers, C Justin; Michel, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5 × 10(12) tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activitiesconversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  4. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L M; Mourão, I; Coutinho, J; Smith, S R

    2012-07-01

    Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4m(3)h(-1) and 1m(3)h(-1) and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg(-1) dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (Pcomposting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH(4)(+) and increased concentrations of NO(3)(-) in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg(-1)) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. INAA application in the assessment of chemical element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    The variation with age of the mass fraction of 37 chemical elements in intact nonhyperplastic prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short- and long-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for mass fractions (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis) of the chemical elements studied were: Ag—0.055±0.007, Br—33.2±3.3, Ca—2150±118, Cl—13014±703, Co—0.038±0.003, Cr—0.47±0.05, Fe—99.3±6.1, Hg—0.044±0.006, K—11896±356, Mg—1149±68, Mn—1.41±0.07, Na—10886±339, Rb—12.3±0.6, Sb—0.049±0.005, Sc—0.021±0.003, Se—0.65±0.03, and Zn—795±71. The mass fraction of other chemical elements measured in this study were lower than the corresponding detection limits (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis): As<0.1, Au<0.01, Ba<100, Cd<2, Ce<0.1, Cs<0.05, Eu<0.001, Gd<0.02, Hf<0.2, La<0.5, Lu<0.003, Nd<0.1, Sm<0.01, Sr<3, Ta<0.01, Tb<0.03, Th<0.05, U<0.07, Yb<0.03, and Zr<0.3. This work revealed that there is a significant trend for increase with age in mass fractions of Co (p<0.0085), Fe (p<0.037), Hg (p<0.035), Sc (p<0.015), and Zn (p<0.0014) and for a decrease in the mass fraction of Mn (p<0.018) in prostates, obtained from young adult up to about 60 years, with age. In the nonhyperplastic prostates of males in the sixth to ninth decades, the magnitude of mass fractions of all chemical element were maintained at near constant levels. Our finding of correlation between the prostatic chemical element mass fractions indicates that there is a great variation of chemical element relationships with age. - Highlights: • 37 trace elements were determined in prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males by NAA. • Co, Fe, Hg, Sc, and Zn contents significantly increase with age. • Mn content significantly decreases with age. • All elemental contents in the sixth to ninth decades are near constant level. • There is a great disturbance of chemical element

  6. Mass spectrometric measurement of hydrogen isotope fractionation for the reactions of chloromethane with OH and Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keppler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloromethane (CH3Cl is an important provider of chlorine to the stratosphere but detailed knowledge of its budget is missing. Stable isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to constrain CH3Cl flux estimates. The largest degree of isotope fractionation is expected to occur for deuterium in CH3Cl in the hydrogen abstraction reactions with its main sink reactant tropospheric OH and its minor sink reactant Cl atoms. We determined the isotope fractionation by stable hydrogen isotope analysis of the fraction of CH3Cl remaining after reaction with hydroxyl and chlorine radicals in a 3.5 m3 Teflon smog chamber at 293 ± 1 K. We measured the stable hydrogen isotope values of the unreacted CH3Cl using compound-specific thermal conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The isotope fractionations of CH3Cl for the reactions with hydroxyl and chlorine radicals were found to be −264±45 and −280±11 ‰, respectively. For comparison, we performed similar experiments using methane (CH4 as the target compound with OH and obtained a fractionation constant of −205±6 ‰ which is in good agreement with values previously reported. The observed large kinetic isotope effects are helpful when employing isotopic analyses of CH3Cl in the atmosphere to improve our knowledge of its atmospheric budget.

  7. Laser based thermo-conductometry as an approach to determine ribbon solid fraction off-line and in-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedey, Raphael; Šibanc, Rok; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-06-06

    Ribbon solid fraction is one of the most important quality attributes during roll compaction/dry granulation. Accurate and precise determination is challenging and no in-line measurement tool has been generally accepted, yet. In this study, a new analytical tool with potential off-line as well as in-line applicability is described. It is based on the thermo-conductivity of the compacted material, which is known to depend on the solid fraction. A laser diode was used to punctually heat the ribbon and the heat propagation monitored by infrared thermography. After performing a Gaussian fit of the transverse ribbon profile, the scale parameter σ showed correlation to ribbon solid fraction in off-line as well as in-line studies. Accurate predictions of the solid fraction were possible for a relevant range of process settings. Drug stability was not affected, as could be demonstrated for the model drug nifedipine. The application of this technique was limited when using certain fillers and working at higher roll speeds. This study showed the potentials of this new technique and is a starting point for additional work that has to be done to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytotoxicity and Chemical Characterization of Compost Derived from Pig Slurry Solid Fraction for Organic Pellet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytotoxicity of four different composts obtained from pig slurry solid fraction composted by itself (SSFC and mixed with sawdust (SC, woodchips (WCC and wheat straw (WSC was tested with bioassay methods. For each compost type, the effect of water extracts of compost on seed germination and primary root growth of cress (Lepidium Sativum L. was investigated. Composts were also chemically analysed for total nitrogen, ammonium, electrical conductivity and heavy metal (Cu and Zn. The chemicals were correlated to phytotoxicity indices. The mean values of the germination index (GI obtained were 160.7, 187.9, 200.9 and 264.4 for WSC, WCC, SC and SSFC, respectively. Growth index (GrI ranged from the 229.4%, the highest value, for SSFC, followed by 201.9% for SC, and 193.1% for WCC, to the lowest value, 121.4%, for WSC. Electrical conductivity showed a significant and negative correlation with relative seed germination at the 50% and 75% concentrations. A strong positive correlation was found for water-extractable Cu with relative root growth and germination index at the 10% concentration. Water-extractable Zn showed a significant positive correlation with relative root growth and GI at the 10% concentration. These results highlighted that the four composts could be used for organic pellet production and subsequently distributed as a soil amendment with positive effects on seed germination and plant growth (GI > 80%.

  10. Pore-scale investigation of mass transport and electrochemistry in a solid oxide fuel cell anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, Wilson K.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The development and validation of a model for the study of pore-scale transport phenomena and electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode are presented in this work. This model couples mass transport processes with a detailed reaction mechanism, which is used to model the electrochemical oxidation kinetics. Detailed electrochemical oxidation reaction kinetics, which is known to occur in the vicinity of the three-phase boundary (TPB) interfaces, is discretely considered in this work. The TPB regions connect percolating regions of electronic and ionic conducting phases of the anode, nickel (Ni) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively; with porous regions supporting mass transport of the fuel and product. A two-dimensional (2D), multi-species lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to describe the diffusion process in complex pore structures that are representative of the SOFC anode. This diffusion model is discretely coupled to a kinetic electrochemical oxidation mechanism using localized flux boundary conditions. The details of the oxidation kinetics are prescribed as a function of applied activation overpotential and the localized hydrogen and water mole fractions. This development effort is aimed at understanding the effects of the anode microstructure within TPB regions. This work describes the methods used so that future studies can consider the details of SOFC anode microstructure. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Sastre, Herminio; Ordóñez, Salvador; González-LaFuente, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different periods of the year: November 2013 and April 2014. In order to characterize and classify these wastes as solid recovered fuels, they were separated into homogeneous fractions in order to determine different element components, such as plastics, cellulosic materials, packagings or textile compounds, and the elemental analysis (including chlorine content), heavy metal content and the heating value of each fraction were determined. The lower heating value of the waste fractions on wet basis varies between 10 MJ kg(-1) and 42 MJ kg(-1). One of the packaging wastes presents a very high chlorine content (6.3 wt.%) due to the presence of polyvinylchloride from pipe fragments, being the other wastes below the established limits. Most of the wastes analyzed meet the heavy metals restrictions, except the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste. In addition, none of the wastes exceed the mercury limit content, which is one of the parameters considered for the solid recovered fuels classification. A comparison among the experimental higher heating values and empirical models that predict the heating value from the elemental analysis data was carried out. Finally, from the three wastes measured, the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste was discarded for its use as solid recovered fuels due to the lower heating value and its high heavy metals content. From the point of view of the heating value, the end of life vehicles waste was the most suitable residue with a lower

  12. Modelling of interactions between variable mass and density solid particles and swirling gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardach-Święcicka, I; Kardaś, D; Pozorski, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the solid particles - gas interactions. For this purpose, numerical modelling was carried out by means of a commercial code for simulations of two-phase dispersed flows with the in-house models accounting for mass and density change of solid phase. In the studied case the particles are treated as spherical moving grains carried by a swirling stream of hot gases. Due to the heat and mass transfer between gas and solid phase, the particles are losing their mass and they are changing their volume. Numerical simulations were performed for turbulent regime, using two methods for turbulence modelling: RANS and LES.

  13. Mercury (Hg) in meteorites: Variations in abundance, thermal release profile, mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Cloquet, Christophe; Marty, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the concentration, isotopic composition and thermal release profiles of Mercury (Hg) in a suite of meteorites, including both chondrites and achondrites. We find large variations in Hg concentration between different meteorites (ca. 10 ppb to 14,000 ppb), with the highest concentration orders of magnitude above the expected bulk solar system silicates value. From the presence of several different Hg carrier phases in thermal release profiles (150-650 °C), we argue that these variations are unlikely to be mainly due to terrestrial contamination. The Hg abundance of meteorites shows no correlation with petrographic type, or mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Most carbonaceous chondrites show mass-independent enrichments in the odd-numbered isotopes 199Hg and 201Hg. We show that the enrichments are not nucleosynthetic, as we do not find corresponding nucleosynthetic deficits of 196Hg. Instead, they can partially be explained by Hg evaporation and redeposition during heating of asteroids from primordial radionuclides and late-stage impact heating. Non-carbonaceous chondrites, most achondrites and the Earth do not show these enrichments in vapor-phase Hg. All meteorites studied here have however isotopically light Hg (δ202Hg = ∼-7 to -1) relative to the Earth's average crustal values, which could suggest that the Earth has lost a significant fraction of its primordial Hg. However, the late accretion of carbonaceous chondritic material on the order of ∼2%, which has been suggested to account for the water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gas inventories of the Earth, can also contribute most or all of the Earth's current Hg budget. In this case, the isotopically heavy Hg of the Earth's crust would have to be the result of isotopic fractionation between surface and deep-Earth reservoirs.

  14. Fractionation and Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods Using Asymmetric-Flow Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao M. Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are of particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique size-dependent longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band in the visible to near-infrared. Purified GNRs are essential for the advancement of technologies based on these materials. Used in concert, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F and single particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry (spICP-MS provide unique advantages for fractionating and analyzing the typically complex mixtures produced by common synthetic procedures. A4F fractions collected at specific elution times were analyzed off-line by spICP-MS. The individual particle masses were obtained by conversion of the ICP-MS pulse intensity for each detected particle event, using a defined calibration procedure. Size distributions were then derived by transforming particle mass to length assuming a fixed diameter. The resulting particle lengths correlated closely with ex situ transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to our previously reported observations on the fractionation of low-aspect ratio (AR GNRs (AR < 4, under optimal A4F separation conditions the results for high-AR GNRs of fixed diameter (≈20 nm suggest normal, rather than steric, mode elution (i.e., shorter rods with lower AR generally elute first. The relatively narrow populations in late eluting fractions suggest the method can be used to collect and analyze specific length fractions; it is feasible that A4F could be appropriately modified for industrial scale purification of GNRs.

  15. Applications of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Sports Drug Testing Accounting for Isotope Fractionation in Analysis of Biological Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Thevis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in sports aiming at enhancing athletic performance has been a challenging matter for doping control laboratories for decades. While the presence of a xenobiotic AAS or its metabolite(s) in human urine immediately represents an antidoping rule violation, the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone necessitates comparably complex procedures. Concentration thresholds and diagnostic analyte ratios computed from urinary steroid concentrations of, e.g., testosterone and epitestosterone have aided identifying suspicious doping control samples in the past. These ratios can however also be affected by confounding factors and are therefore not sufficient to prove illicit steroid administrations. Here, carbon and, in rare cases, hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has become an indispensable tool. Importantly, the isotopic signatures of pharmaceutical steroid preparations commonly differ slightly but significantly from those found with endogenously produced steroids. By comparing the isotope ratios of endogenous reference compounds like pregnanediol to that of testosterone and its metabolites, the unambiguous identification of the urinary steroids' origin is accomplished. Due to the complex urinary matrix, several steps in sample preparation are inevitable as pure analyte peaks are a prerequisite for valid IRMS determinations. The sample cleanup encompasses steps such as solid phase or liquid-liquid extraction that are presumably not accompanied by isotopic fractionation processes, as well as more critical steps like enzymatic hydrolysis, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation, and derivatization of analytes. In order to exclude any bias of the analytical results, each step of the analytical procedure is optimized and validated to exclude, or at least result in constant, isotopic fractionation. These efforts are explained in detail. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The ATLAS3D project - XX. Mass-size and mass-σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    ) and dwarf irregulars (Im), respectively. We use dynamical models to analyse our kinematic maps. We show that σe traces the bulge fraction, which appears to be the main driver for the observed trends in the dynamical (M/L)JAM and in indicators of the (M/L)pop of the stellar population like Hβ and colour, as well as in the molecular gas fraction. A similar variation along contours of σe is also observed for the mass normalization of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which was recently shown to vary systematically within the ETGs' population. Our preferred relation has the form log _{10} [(M/L)_stars/(M/L)_Salp]=a+b× log _{10}({σ _e}/130 {km s^{-1}}) with a = -0.12 ± 0.01 and b = 0.35 ± 0.06. Unless there are major flaws in all stellar population models, this trend implies a transition of the mean IMF from Kroupa to Salpeter in the interval log _{10}({σ _e}/{km s}^{-1})≈ 1.9-2.5 (or {σ _e}≈ 90-290 km s-1), with a smooth variation in between, consistently with what was shown in Cappellari et al. The observed distribution of galaxy properties on the MP provides a clean and novel view for a number of previously reported trends, which constitute special two-dimensional projections of the more general four-dimensional parameters trends on the MP. We interpret it as due to a combination of two main effects: (i) an increase of the bulge fraction, which increases σe, decreases Re, and greatly enhance the likelihood for a galaxy to have its star formation quenched, and (ii) dry merging, increasing galaxy mass and Re by moving galaxies along lines of roughly constant σe (or steeper), while leaving the population nearly unchanged.

  17. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma (VS): Comparison between cystic-type and solid-type VS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Touru; Takeichi, Norihito; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Suzuki, Keishiro; Kagei, Kenji; Nishioka, Takashi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Sawamura, Yutaka; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness and complications of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for cystic-type vestibular schwannoma (VS) with those of solid-type VS. Methods and Materials: In 65 patients treated with fractionated SRT between 1991 and 1999, 20 were diagnosed with cystic VS, in which at least one-third of the tumor volume was a cystic component on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 45 were diagnosed with solid VS. Thirty-six Gy to 50 Gy in 20-25 fractions was administered to the isocenter and approximately 80% of the periphery of the tumor. All cystic and solid components were included in the gross tumor volume. The mean follow-up period was 37 months, ranging from 6 to 97 months. Results: The actuarial 3-year rate of no episode of enlargement greater than 2.0 mm was 55% for cystic-type and 75% for solid-type VS; the difference was statistically significant (p 0.023). The actuarial 3-year tumor-reduction (reduction in tumor size greater than 2.0 mm) rates were 93% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.0006). The overall actuarial tumor control rate (no tumor growth greater than 2.0 mm after 2 years or no requirement of salvage surgery) was 92% at 5 years in 44 patients with a follow-up period of 2 or more years. There was no difference in the class hearing preservation rate between cystic VS and solid VS. No permanent trigeminal or facial nerve palsy was observed in either group. Conclusion: Transient tumor enlargement occurs in cystic VS more frequently than in solid-type VS, but the subsequent tumor-reduction rate in cystic VS is better.

  18. Ozonolysis of α-pinene: parameterization of secondary organic aerosol mass fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pathak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing parameterizations tend to underpredict the α-pinene aerosol mass fraction (AMF or yield by a factor of 2–5 at low organic aerosol concentrations (<5 µg m−3. A wide range of smog chamber results obtained at various conditions (low/high NOx, presence/absence of UV radiation, dry/humid conditions, and temperatures ranging from 15–40°C collected by various research teams during the last decade are used to derive new parameterizations of the SOA formation from α-pinene ozonolysis. Parameterizations are developed by fitting experimental data to a basis set of saturation concentrations (from 10−2 to 104 µg m−3 using an absorptive equilibrium partitioning model. Separate parameterizations for α-pinene SOA mass fractions are developed for: 1 Low NOx, dark, and dry conditions, 2 Low NOx, UV, and dry conditions, 3 Low NOx, dark, and high RH conditions, 4 High NOx, dark, and dry conditions, 5 High NOx, UV, and dry conditions. According to the proposed parameterizations the α-pinene SOA mass fractions in an atmosphere with 5 µg m−3 of organic aerosol range from 0.032 to 0.1 for reacted α-pinene concentrations in the 1 ppt to 5 ppb range.

  19. Mass transfer between gas and particles in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    Gas-solids mass transfer was studied for counter-current flow of gas and millimetre-sized solid particles over an inert packing at dilute phase or trickle flow conditions. Experimental data were obtained from the adsorption of water vapour on 640 and 2200 ¿m diameter molecular sieve spheres at

  20. Solid foam packings for multiphase reactors: Modelling of liquid holdup and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemmet, C.P.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experimental and modeling results are presented of the liquid holdup and gas–liquid mass transfer characteristics of solid foam packings. Experiments were done in a semi-2D transparent bubble column with solid foam packings of aluminum in the range of 5–40 pores per inch (ppi). The

  1. PILOT STUDY: An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of theophylline: CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P20.e (Theophylline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Phillip, R.; Malz, F.; Shimizu, Y.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; DeVos, B.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Bedner, M.; Hancock, D.; Esker, J.

    2009-01-01

    uncertainties in the range 0.05% to 0.5% for solid organic compounds of high purity (mass fraction of main component >995 mg/g) and in the range 0.1% to 1% for compounds of lower purity (mass fraction of main component >980 mg/g). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM Working Group on Organic Analysis.

  2. Thermal pretreatment of the solid fraction of manure: Impact on the biogas reactor performance and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Z; Hartmann, H.; Kvist, T.

    2006-01-01

    Application of thermal treatment at 100-140 degrees C as a pretreatment method prior to anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle and swine manure was investigated. In a batch test, biogasification of manure with thermally pretreated solid fraction proceeded faster and resulted in the increase...... of methane yield. The performances of two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating manure with solid fraction pretreated for 40 minutes at 140 degrees C and non-treated manure were compared. The digester fed with the thermally pretreated manure had a higher methane productivity...... and butyrate - was low. The kinetic parameters of the VFA conversion revealed a reduced affinity of the microbial community from the CSTR fed with thermally pre-treated manure for acetate, propionate and butyrate. The bacterial and archaeal populations identified by t-RLFP analysis of 16S rRNA genes were found...

  3. Modelling the influence of the gas to melt ratio on the fraction solid of the surface in spray formed billets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini

    2006-01-01

    the atomisation stage taking thermal coupling into consideration and the deposition of the droplets at the surface of the billet taking geometrical aspects such as shading into account. The coupling between these two models is accomplished by ensuring that the total droplet size distribution of the spray......In this paper, the relationship between the Gas to Melt Ratio (GMR) and the solid fraction of an evolving billet surface is investigated numerically. The basis for the analysis is a recently developed integrated procedure for modelling the entire spray forming process. This model includes...... is the summation of “local” droplet size distributions along the r-axis of the spray cone. The criterion for a successful process has been a predefined process window characterised by a desired solid fraction range at a certain distance from the atomizer. Inside this process window, the gas and melt flows have...

  4. Composition variability of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and effects on hydrogen and methane production potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-02-01

    The composition of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) strongly depends on the place and time of collection for a specific municipality or area. Moreover synthetic food waste or organic waste from cafeterias and restaurants may not be representative of the overall OFMSW received at treatment facilities for source-separated waste. This work is aimed at evaluating the composition variability of OFMSW, the potential productions of hydrogen and methane from specific organic waste fractions typically present in MSW and the effects of waste composition on overall hydrogen and methane yields. The organic waste fractions considered in the study were: bread-pasta, vegetables, fruits, meat-fish-cheese and undersieve 20mm. Composition analyses were conducted on samples of OFMSW that were source segregated at household level. Batch tests for hydrogen and methane productions were carried out under mesophilic conditions on selected fractions and OFMSW samples. Results indicated that the highest production of hydrogen was achieved by the bread-pasta fraction while the lowest productions were measured for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The results indicated that the content of these two fractions in organic waste had a direct influence on the hydrogen production potentials of OFMSW. The higher the content of bread-pasta fraction, the higher the hydrogen yields were while the contrary was observed for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The definition of waste composition therefore represents fundamental information to be reported in scientific literature to allow data comparison. The variability of OFMSW and its effects on hydrogen potentials might also represents a problematic issue in the management of pilot or full-scale plants for the production of hydrogen by dark fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of inoculation dosing on the composting of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Gómez, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a commercial inoculum (MicroGest 10X, Brookside Agra L.C.) on the field-scale composting of the source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have been studied by following routine parameters of the composting process (temperature, oxygen content and moisture) and biologically-related tests such as the respirometric index and the maturity grade. The inoculum was added to composting piles of OFMSW at different levels: control (no added inoculum), treatment A...

  6. Isotopic distributions, element ratios, and element mass fractions from enrichment-meter-type gamma-ray measurements of MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Parker, J.L.; Haycock, D.L.; Dragnev, T.

    1991-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectra from ''infinitely'' thick mixed oxide samples have been measured. The plutonium isotopics, the U/Pu ratio, the high-Z mass fractions (assuming only plutonium, uranium, and americium), and the low-Z mass fraction (assuming the matrix is only oxygen) can be determined by carefully analyzing the data. The results agree well with the chemical determination of these parameters. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giudicianni, Paola, E-mail: giudicianni@irc.cnr.it [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Bozza, Pio, E-mail: pi.bozza@studenti.unina.it [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Sorrentino, Giancarlo, E-mail: g.sorrentino@unina.it [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Ragucci, Raffaele, E-mail: ragucci@irc.cnr.it [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione – C.N.R. Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A domestic scale prototype for the pre-treatment of OFMSW has been tested. • Two grinding techniques are compared and thermopress is used for the drying stage. • Increasing temperature up to 170 °C reduces energy consumption of the drying stage. • In the range 5–10 bar a reduction of 97% of the initial volume is obtained. • In most cases energy recovery from the dried waste matches energy consumption. - Abstract: In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of

  8. The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurso, Cettina; Verzera, Antonella; Romeo, Vincenza; Ziino, Marisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Ragusa, Salvatore

    2006-08-01

    The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) have been studied by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). Seventy components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards; the average composition (ppm) as single components and classes of substances is reported. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters, aromatic aldehydes, esters and ethers, furans, isothiocyanates and thiocyanates, sulfurated compounds, nitriles, terpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified. Leaf volatiles in Isatis tinctoria L. were characterized by a high amount of isothiocyanates which accounted for about 40 % of the total volatile fraction. Isothiocyanates are important and characteristic flavour compounds in Brassica vegetables and the cancer chemo-protective attributes are recently responsible for their growing interest.

  9. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladergroen, Marco R.; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods that involve solid-phase extraction (SPE) including affinity enrichment strategies have been automated. Obtained peptide and protein fractions can be mass analyzed by direct infusion into an electrospray ionization (ESI) source or by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) without further need of time-consuming liquid chromatography (LC) separations. PMID:25692071

  10. Incidental solid renal mass in a cadaveric donor kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Meyyappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients living with end-stage renal disease (ESRD is increasing in our country and demand for renal grafts is ever increasing. Cadaver renal transplantation is being established as a viable supplement to live transplantation. We present a case where a mass lesion was encountered in the donor kidney from a cadaver. Enucleation of the lesion was done and we proceeded with the grafting. Histopathological examination showed a ′Renomedullary interstitial cell tumour′, a rare benign lesion. Post transplant, the renal function recovered well and the patient is asymptomatic. Such incidental renal masses present an ethical dilemma to the operating surgeon.

  11. Mass spectrometric determination of magnesium isotopic ratios and its corrections for electron multiplier discrimination and mass fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongguo

    1989-01-01

    The mass spectrometric determination of magnesium isotopic ratios by the use of uranyl nitrate added to magnesium samples to act as a binding agent is reported. Prebaking empty filaments and preheating filaments with deposited magnesium samples on its surface in a vacuum are employed to reduce the Na signal from the thenium-ribbon. Methods for correcting magnesium isotopic ratios for electron multiplier discrimination and mass fractionation are described in detail. The results of the determination of natural magnesium isotopic ratios are 25 Mg/ 24 Mg = 0.12660 (1±0.01%) and 26 Mg/ 24 Mg = 0.13938 (1±0.10%). The magnesium isotopic ratios of rich - 26 Mg-2 sample and rich- 25 Mg-1 sample are 24 Mg/ 26 Mg = 0.003463 (1±0.2%), 25 Mg/ 26 Mg = 0.001656 (±0.2%) and 24 Mg/ 25 Mg = 0.006716 (1±0.2%), 26 Mg/ 25 Mg = 0.007264 (1±0.2%) respectively

  12. Characterization of isolated fractions of dissolved organic matter derived from municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minda; He, Xiaosong; Liu, Jiaomei; Wang, Yuefeng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao

    2018-04-14

    Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting. The high-MW humic substances and building blocks in the HA fraction degraded faster during composting than polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. Similarly, the low MW acid FA factions transformed faster than the low weight neutral fractions, followed by building blocks, and finally polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. The evolutions of HyI fractions during composting occurred first for building blocks, followed by low MW acids, and finally low weight neutrals. With the progress of composting, the hydrophobic properties of the HA and FA fractions were enhanced. The degradation/humification process of the hydrophilic and transphilic components was faster than that of the hydrophobic component. Compared with the FA and HyI fractions, the HA fraction exhibited a higher MW and increased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility analysis of municipal solid waste mass burning in the Region of East Macedonia--Thrace in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, C J; Tsalkidis, D A; Kalogirou, E; Voudrias, E A

    2015-06-01

    The present work conducts a preliminary techno-economic feasibility study for a single municipal solid waste mass burning to an electricity plant for the total municipal solid waste potential of the Region of Eastern Macedonia - Thrace, in Greece. For a certain applied and highly efficient technology and an installed capacity of 400,000 t of municipal solid waste per year, the available electrical power to grid would be approximately 260 GWh per year (overall plant efficiency 20.5% of the lower heating value). The investment for such a plant was estimated at €200m. Taking into account that 37.9% of the municipal solid waste lower heating value can be attributed to their renewable fractions, and Greek Law 3851/2010, which transposes Directive 2009/28/EC for Renewable Energy Sources, the price of the generated electricity was calculated at €53.19/MWhe. Under these conditions, the economic feasibility of such an investment depends crucially on the imposed gate fees. Thus, in the gate fee range of 50-110 € t(-1), the internal rate of return increases from 5% to above 15%, whereas the corresponding pay-out time periods decrease from 11 to about 4 years. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Mixture theory for a thermoelasto-plastic porous solid considering fluid flow and internal mass exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristinmaa, M.; Ottosen, N.S.; Johannesson, Björn

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelastic-plastic body consisting of two phases, a solid and a fluid, each comprising two constituents is considered where one constituent in one phase is allowed to exchange mass with another constituent (of the same substance) in the other phase. A large strain setting is adopted and the ......A thermoelastic-plastic body consisting of two phases, a solid and a fluid, each comprising two constituents is considered where one constituent in one phase is allowed to exchange mass with another constituent (of the same substance) in the other phase. A large strain setting is adopted......, and in particular, a general evolution law for the rate of deformation tensor related to mass exchange is proposed and this leads to general absorption and desorption evolution laws for mass exchange between two constituents (of the same substance), one belonging to the solid phase and the other to the fluid phase....... Equilibrium curves for absorption and desorption also emerge from the theory....

  15. Mass-Dependent and -Independent Fractionation of Mercury Isotopes in Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, B. A.; Joel, B. D.; Jude, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed and highly toxic pollutant. Although Hg is a proven health risk, much of the natural cycle of Hg is not well understood and new approaches are needed to track Hg and the chemical transformations it undergoes in the environment. Recently, we demonstrated that Hg isotopes exhibit two types of isotope fractionation: (1) mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and (2) mass independent fractionation (MIF) of only the odd isotopes (Bergquist and Blum, 2007). The observation of large MIF of Hg isotopes (up to 5 permil) is exciting because only a few other isotopic systems have been documented to display large MIF, the most notable of which are oxygen and sulfur. In both cases, the application of MIF has proven very useful in a variety of fields including cosmochemistry, paleoclimatology, physical chemistry, atmospheric chemistry, and biogeochemistry. Both MDF and MIF isotopic signatures are observed in natural samples, and together they open the door to a new method for tracing Hg pollution and for investigating Hg behavior in the environment. For example, fish record MDF that appears to be related to size and age. Additionally, fish display MIF signatures that are consistent with the photo-reduction of methylmercury (Bergquist and Blum, 2007). If the MDF and MIF in ecosystems can be understood, the signatures in fish could inform us about the sources and processes transforming Hg and why there are differences in the bioaccumulation of Hg in differing ecosystems and populations of fish. This requires sampling of a variety of ecosystems, the sampling of many components of the ecosystems, and the use of other tracers such as carbon and nitrogen isotopes. We have expanded our studies of aquatic ecosystems to include several lakes in North America. Similar to other isotopic systems used to study food web dynamics and structure (i.e., C and N), the MDF of Hg in fish appears to be related to size and age. The MDF recorded in fish likely reflects

  16. Solvent fractionation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. kernel fat for production of non-hydrogenated solid fat: Influence of time and solvent type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busakorn Mahisanunt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study performed isothermal (25 °C solvent fractionation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. kernel fat (RKF to obtain the fat fraction that had melting properties comparable to a commercial hydrogenated solid fat. The effect of two fractionation parameters, holding time (12, 18 and 24 h and solvent types (acetone and ethanol, on the properties of fractionated fat were investigated. The results showed that a fractionation time increase caused an increased yield and decreased iodine value for the high melting or stearin fractions. The thermal behaviors and solid fat index (SFI of these stearin fractions were different from the original fat, especially for stearin from acetone fractionation. The major fatty acid in this stearin fraction was arachidic acid (C20:0 consisting of more than 90%. Overall, we demonstrated that acetone fractionation of RKF at 25 °C for 24 h is effective for producing a solid fat fraction, which has comparable crystallizing and melting properties to commercial hydrogenated fat. The fractionated rambutan fat obtained by this process may lead to its potential use in specific food products.

  17. Effect of mixture ratio, solids concentration and hydraulic retention time on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongsatitkul, Prayoon; Elefsiniotis, Panagiotis; Wareham, David G

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes how the degradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is affected through codigestion with varying amounts of return activated sludge (RAS). Solid waste that had its inorganic fraction selectively removed was mixed with RAS in ratios of 100% OFMSW, 50% OFMSW/50% RAS, and 25% OFMSW/75% RAS. The total solids (TS) concentration was held at 8% and three anaerobic digester systems treating the mixtures were held (for the first run) at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 28 days. Increasing amounts of RAS did not however improve the mixture's digestability, as indicated by little change and/or a drop in the main performance indices [including percentage volatile solids (VS) removal and specific gas production]. The optimum ratio in this research therefore appeared to be 100% OFMSW with an associated 85.1 ± 0.6% VS removal and 0.72 ± 0.01 L total gas g(- 1) VS. In the second run, the effect of increasing percentage of TS (8, 12% and 15%) at a system HRT of 28 days was observed to yield no improvement in the main performance indices (i.e. percentage VS removal and specific gas production). Finally, during the third run, variations in the total system HRT were investigated at an 8% TS, again using 100% OFMSW. Of the HRTs explored (23, 28 and 33 days), the longest HRT yielded the best performance overall, particularly in terms of specific gas production (0.77 ± 0.01 L total gas g(-1) VS).

  18. The certification of the contents (mass fractions) of sulphur in six coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griepink, B; Maier, E A; Wilkinson, H C [CEC, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the preparation and the certification of the sulphur content of six coal reference materials: low volatile steam coal (CRM 331), high volatile industrial coal (CRM 332), coking steam coal (CRM 333), anthracite (CRM 334), flame coal (CRM 335) and high volatile steam coal (CRM 336), as well as the homogeneity and stability studies. The analytical work leading to certification is also presented. The certified mass fractions for total sulphur in CRMs 331, 332, 333, 334, 335 and 336 respectively are 4.99 mg/g, 9.61 mg/g, 13.44 mg/g, 16.09 mg/g, 50.8 mg/g and 32.90 mg/g.

  19. Prediction of mass fraction of agglomerated debris in a LWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, P.; Davydov, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ex-vessel termination of accident progression in Swedish type Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is contingent upon efficacy of melt fragmentation and solidification in a deep pool of water below reactor vessel. When liquid melt reaches the bottom of the pool it can create agglomerated debris and “cake” regions that increase hydraulic resistance of the bed and affect coolability of the bed. This paper discusses development and application of a conservative-mechanistic approach to quantify mass fractions of agglomerated debris. Experimental data from the DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation and Agglomeration) tests with high superheat of binary oxidic simulant material melt is used for validation of the methods. Application of the approach to plant accident analysis suggests that melt superheat has less significant influence on agglomeration of the debris than jet penetration depth. The paper also discusses the impact of the uncertainty in the jet disintegration and penetration behavior on the agglomeration mode map. (author)

  20. Mass fractionation during transonic escape and implications for loss of water from Mars and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.J.; Kasting, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a planetary atmosphere can remove heavier gases as well as hydrogen, provided that the escape rate is sufficiently large. Analytic approximations for the degree of mass fractionation of a trace species during hydrodynamic escape are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the case of transonic outflow. The analytic approximations are most accurate when the ratio of molecular weights of the heavier and lighter constituents is large so that nonlinear terms in the momentum equation for the heavy constituent become small. The simplest analytic formula is readily generalized to the case where a heavy constituent is also a major species. Application of the generalized formula to hypothetical episodes of hydrodynamic escape from Venus and Mars suggests that both hydrogen and oxygen could have escaped; thus, substantial quantities of water may have been lost without the need to oxidize large amounts of the crust. 29 references

  1. Environmental and agronomic aspects of municipal-solid-waste heavy fraction used for turfgrass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In a field plot experiment using Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), measurements of sod strength taken 8.5 and 9.5 months after seeding were greater for sod grown in topsoil amended with heavy fraction than for turf grown in topsoil only. In a container study, physical properties of a loam topsoil were altered 16 months after addition of heavy fraction. Bulk density and particle density were reduced and organic matter content increased by soil incorporation of this by-product. Total porosity and air porosity of the topsoil increased whereas water porosity decreased with increasing amount of applied heavy fraction. Soil fertility was enhanced and soil pH raised by addition of heavy fraction. Concentrations of extractable NH[sub 4]-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn in soil were increased by the application of heavy fraction, as were concentrations of K, Ca, S, Mg, and Mn in leachate collected in lysimeter studies. Improved fertility resulted in greater aesthetic quality, clipping yields, and tissue N content for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Lysimeter studies indicted that the greatest environmental concern associated with the use of heavy fraction for turfgrass production appears to be the potential for leaching of NO[sub 3]-N during turf establishment.

  2. Sample preparation and fractionation for proteome analysis and cancer biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2009-03-01

    Sample preparation and fractionation technologies are one of the most crucial processes in proteomic analysis and biomarker discovery in solubilized samples. Chromatographic or electrophoretic proteomic technologies are also available for separation of cellular protein components. There are, however, considerable limitations in currently available proteomic technologies as none of them allows for the analysis of the entire proteome in a simple step because of the large number of peptides, and because of the wide concentration dynamic range of the proteome in clinical blood samples. The results of any undertaken experiment depend on the condition of the starting material. Therefore, proper experimental design and pertinent sample preparation is essential to obtain meaningful results, particularly in comparative clinical proteomics in which one is looking for minor differences between experimental (diseased) and control (nondiseased) samples. This review discusses problems associated with general and specialized strategies of sample preparation and fractionation, dealing with samples that are solution or suspension, in a frozen tissue state, or formalin-preserved tissue archival samples, and illustrates how sample processing might influence detection with mass spectrometric techniques. Strategies that dramatically improve the potential for cancer biomarker discovery in minimally invasive, blood-collected human samples are also presented.

  3. Analysis on the Multiplication Factor with the Change of Corium Mass and Void Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Park, Chang Je; Song, Jin Ho; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The neutron absorbing materials and fuel rods would be separately arranged and relocated, since the control materials in metallic structures have lower melting points than that of the oxide fuel (UO{sub 2}) rod materials. In addition, core reflood for a BWR is normally accomplished by supplying unborated water unlikely for a PWR. Therefore, a potential for a recriticality event to occur may exist, if unborated coolant injection is initiated with this configuration in the reactor core. The re-criticality in this system, however, brings into question what the uranium mass is required to achieve a critical level. Furthermore, the additional decay heat from molten fuel (corium) will produce an increase of void and eventually results in under-moderation of neutrons. The prior verification of these consequential physical variations in criticality eigenvalue (effective multiplication factor, k{sub eff}) should be greatly contributed to control and termination of re-criticality. Therefore, this study addresses what uranium mass of corium could achieve re-criticality of an accident core, and how effect the coolant void fraction has on eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) and its reactivity. To analyze the critical mass and the effect on criticality upon changing coolant density, k{sub eff} values were calculated using the MCNPX 2.5.0 code, and the reactivity change was also investigated. As a result, a large change in corium mass leads to a little change in k{sub eff} value, nevertheless, only about 60 kg of uranium is necessary to achieve a critical level. Thus, the amounts to reach a re-criticality are not fairly large, considering the actual uranium quantities loaded in the reactor core. Based on the condition with k{sub eff} greater than unity, the absolute values of k{sub eff} decrease rate and the coolant density coefficient were gradually increased due to the steady increments of coolant void (i.e., decrease in coolant density). In addition, the k{sub eff} value approaches the

  4. Certification of Trace Element Mass Fractions in IAEA-457 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco (NAEL) is to help Member States understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is therefore of great concern to the IAEA and its Environment Laboratories. Given that marine pollution assessments of such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments, the NAEL has assisted national laboratories and regional laboratory networks through its Reference Products for Environment and Trade programme since the early 1970s. Quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. QC procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess reliability and comparability of measurement data. QA can be realized by participation in externally organized laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparisons, which compare and evaluate analytical performance and measurement capabilities of participating laboratories. Data that are not based on adequate QA/QC can be erroneous and their misuse can lead to incorrect environmental management decisions. A marine sediment sample with certified mass fractions for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr, V and Zn was recently produced by the NAEL in the frame of a project between the IAEA and the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, the material homogeneity and stability study, the selection of laboratories, the evaluation of results from the certification campaign and the assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, reference values for mass fractions and associated expanded

  5. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with the liquid fraction from hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia, M A; Villamil, J A; Rodriguez, J J; Borja, R; Mohedano, A F

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, the influence of substrate pre-treatment (grinding and sieving) on batch anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was first assessed, then followed by co-digestion experiments with the liquid fraction from hydrothermal carbonization (LFHTC) of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS). The methane yield of batch anaerobic digestion after grinding and sieving (20 mm diameter) the OFMSW was considerably higher (453 mL CH 4 STP g -1 VS added ) than that of untreated OFMSW (285 mL CH 4 STP g -1 VS added ). The modified Gompertz model adequately predicted process performance. The maximum methane production rate, R m , for ground and sieved OFMSW was 2.4 times higher than that of untreated OFMSW. The anaerobic co-digestion of different mixtures of OFMSW and LFHTC of DSS did not increase the methane yield above that of the anaerobic digestion of OFMSW alone, and no synergistic effects were observed. However, the co-digestion of both wastes at a ratio of 75% OFMSW-25% LFHTC provides a practical waste management option. The experimental results were adequately fitted to a first-order kinetic model showing a kinetic constant virtually independent of the percentage of LFHTC (0.52-0.56 d -1 ) and decreasing slightly for 100% LFHTC (0.44 d -1 ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of nitrogen in the liquid fraction and in vitro assessment of lysine bioavailability in the solid fraction of soybean meal hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Rhenals, D; Morawicki, R; Shi, Z; Ricke, S C

    2018-01-02

    Soybean meal (SBM) is a product generated from the manufacture of soybean oil and has the potential for use as a source of fermentable sugars for ethanol production or as a protein source for animal feeds. Knowing the levels of nitrogen available from ammonium is a necessary element of the ethanolic fermentation process while identifying the levels of essential amino acids such as lysine is important in determining usage as a feed source. As such the purpose of this study was to quantify total nitrogen and ammonium in the liquid fraction of hydrolyzed SBM and to evaluate total and bioavailable lysine in the solid fraction of the hydrolyzed SBM. The effects of acid concentration, cellulase and β-glucosidase on total and ammonium nitrogen were studied with analysis indicating that higher acid concentrations increased nitrogen compounds with ammonium concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 1.24 g L -1 while enzymatic treatments did not significantly increase nitrogen levels. Total and bioavailable lysine was quantified by use of an auxotrophic gfpmut3 E.coli whole-cell bioassay organism incapable of lysine biosynthesis. Acid and enzymatic treatments were applied with lysine bioavailability increasing from a base of 82% for untreated SBM to up to 97%. Our results demonstrated that SBM has the potential to serve in ethanolic fermentation and as an optimal source essential amino acid lysine.

  7. Trace and surface analysis of ceramic layers of solid oxide fuel cells by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Breuer, U; Westheide, J; Saprykin, A I; Holzbrecher, H; Nickel, H; Dietze, H J

    1996-06-01

    For the trace analysis of impurities in thick ceramic layers of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sensitive solid-state mass spectrometric methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and radiofrequency glow discharge mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) have been developed and used. In order to quantify the analytical results of LA-ICP-MS, the relative sensitivity coefficients of elements in a La(0.6)Sr(0.35)MnO(3) matrix have been determined using synthetic standards. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) - as a surface analytical method - has been used to characterize the element distribution and diffusion profiles of matrix elements on the interface of a perovskite/Y-stabilized ZrO(2) layer. The application of different mass spectrometric methods for process control in the preparation of ceramic layers for the SOFC is described.

  8. Mass transfer inside oblate spheroidal solids: modelling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. F. Carmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical solution of the unsteady diffusion equation describing mass transfer inside oblate spheroids, considering a constant diffusion coefficient and the convective boundary condition, is presented. The diffusion equation written in the oblate spheroidal coordinate system was used for a two-dimensional case. The finite-volume method was employed to discretize the basic equation. The linear equation set was solved iteratively using the Gauss-Seidel method. As applications, the effects of the Fourier number, the Biot number and the aspect ratio of the body on the drying rate and moisture content during the process are presented. To validate the methodology, results obtained in this work are compared with analytical results of the moisture content encountered in the literature and good agreement was obtained. The results show that the model is consistent and it may be used to solve cases such as those that include disks and spheres and/or those with variable properties with small modifications.

  9. The Effect of Fuel Mass Fraction on the Combustion and Fluid Flow in a Sulfur Recovery Unit Thermal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lang Yeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur recovery unit (SRU thermal reactors are negatively affected by high temperature operation. In this paper, the effect of the fuel mass fraction on the combustion and fluid flow in a SRU thermal reactor is investigated numerically. Practical operating conditions for a petrochemical corporation in Taiwan are used as the design conditions for the discussion. The simulation results show that the present design condition is a fuel-rich (or air-lean condition and gives acceptable sulfur recovery, hydrogen sulfide (H2S destruction, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and thermal reactor temperature for an oxygen-normal operation. However, for an oxygen-rich operation, the local maximum temperature exceeds the suggested maximum service temperature, although the average temperature is acceptable. The high temperature region must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period if there are oxygen-rich operations. If the fuel mass fraction to the zone ahead of the choke ring (zone 1 is 0.0625 or 0.125, the average temperature in the zone behind the choke ring (zone 2 is higher than the zone 1 average temperature, which can damage the downstream heat exchanger tubes. If the zone 1 fuel mass fraction is reduced to ensure a lower zone 1 temperature, the temperature in zone 2 and the heat exchanger section must be monitored closely and the zone 2 wall and heat exchanger tubes must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period. To determine a suitable fuel mass fraction for operation, a detailed numerical simulation should be performed first to find the stoichiometric fuel mass fraction which produces the most complete combustion and the highest temperature. This stoichiometric fuel mass fraction should be avoided because the high temperature could damage the zone 1 corner or the choke ring. A higher fuel mass fraction (i.e., fuel-rich or air-lean condition is more suitable because it can avoid deteriorations of both zone 1

  10. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste Management: II. Case Studies for Recovering Energy from the Organic Fraction of MSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery...

  11. Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass for the 1982 volcanic eruptions of El Chichon are investigated using data from balloon soundings at Laramie (41 deg N) and in southern Texas (27-29 deg N). The total stratospheric mass of these eruptions is estimated to be approximately 8 Tg about 6.5 months after the eruption with possibly as much as 20 Tg in the stratosphere about 45 days after the eruption. Observations of the aerosol in Texas revealed two primary layers, both highly volatile at 150 C. Aerosol in the upper layer at about 25 km was composed of an approximately 80 percent H2SO4 solution while the lower layer at approximately 18 km was composed of a 60-65 percent H2SO4 solution aerosol. It is calculated that an H2SO4 vapor concentration of at least 3 x 10 to the 7th molecules/cu cm is needed to sustain the large droplets in the upper layer. An early bi-modal nature in the size distribution indicates droplet nucleation from the gas phase during the first 3 months, while the similarity of the large particle profiles 2 months apart shows continued particle growth 6.5 months after the explosion.

  12. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2010-01-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been...... used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste...... fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal...

  13. Energy Recovery from the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste: A Real Options-Based Facility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ranieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, due to the strict regulations on waste landfilling, anaerobic digestion (AD of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW is increasingly considered a sustainable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. AD can reduce the volume of OFMSW going to landfill and produce, at the same time, biogas and compost, all at a profit. The uncertainty about the collected quantity of organic fraction, however, may undermine the economic-financial sustainability of such plants. While the flexibility characterizing some AD technologies may prove very valuable in uncertain contexts since it allows adapting plant capacity to changing environments, the investment required for building flexible systems is generally higher than the investment for dedicated equipment. Hence, an adequate justification of investments in these flexible systems is needed. This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating how different technologies may perform from technical, economic and financial standpoints, in presence of an uncertain organic fraction quantity to be treated. Focusing on two AD treatment plant configurations characterized by a technological process with different degree of flexibility, a real options-based model is developed and then applied to the case of the urban waste management system of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy. Results show the importance of pricing the flexibility of treatment plants, which becomes a critical factor in presence of an uncertain organic fraction. Hence, it has to be taken into consideration in the design phase of these plants.

  14. Operational strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Cui, J.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01

    Three operational strategies to reduce inhibition due to ammonia during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) rich in proteins were investigated. Feed was prepared by diluting SS-OFMSW (ratio of 1:4) with tap water or reactor process...... ammonium bicarbonate additions. Dilution of SS-OFMSW with fresh water showed a stable performance with volatile fatty acids of solids (VS). Use of recirculated process water after stripping ammonia showed even better performance with a methane yield...... of 0.43 m(3) kg(-1)VS. Recirculation of process water alone on the other hand, resulted in process inhibition at both TAN levels of 3.5 and 5.5 g-N l(-1). However, after a short period, the process recovered and adapted to the tested TAN levels. Thus, use of recirculated process water after stripping...

  15. Low density lesion in solid mass on CT: Pathologic change and housfield number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Lim, Joo Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ko, Young Tae; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic changes and housfield unit of the low density lesion in solid mass on CT. Pathologically proved solid mass was evaluated in regard to the shape and margin of the low density in the mass on the CT scans of 23 patient. The CT number of the low density lesion was correlated with the pathologic changes. Pathologic changes of the low density lesions were; necrosis (n=17), hemorrhage (n=13), cyst (n=4), myxoid degeneration (n=2), hyaline degeneration (n=1), fibrosis (n=1), and mixed cellularity (n=1). In 14 cases, more than 2 pathologic changes were seen. In 11 cases, necrosis was associated with hemorrhage. The CT number ranged from 11.5 to 44.9 Housfield unit(HU) (mean, 25.2 HU). The average CT number was 26.9 HU in hemorrhage and necrosis, 17.2 HU in cystic change, 20.9 HU in myxoid degeneration, 35.7 HU in hyaline de generation, 22.3 HU in fibrosis, and 21.4 HU in mixed cellularity. The hemorrhage and necrosis in 17 cases showed irregular margin, amorphous shape, and showed centrifugal distribution. The cystic change in 4 cases showed well defined margin, round shape, and peripheral location in solid mass. The low density lesions in solid mass on CT represented variable pathologic changes; necrosis, hemorrhage, cyst, myxoid degeneration, hyaline degeneration, fibrosis, and mixed cellularity. Pathologic changes would not be differentiated on the basis of CT number

  16. Cure of human ovarian carcinoma solid xenografts by fractionated [211At] alpha-radioimmunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäck, Tom A; Chouin, Nicolas; Lindegren, Sture

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate if targeted alpha therapy (TAT) could be used to successfully treat also macro tumors, in addition to its established role for treating micrometastatic and minimal disease. We used an intravenous (i.v.) fractionated regimen of alpha-radioimmunotherapy (α-...

  17. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Malherbe, Julien; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-03

    We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6-21% for pressed pellets and 3-21% for fused solids were obtained from n=3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the main advantages of the method over previously reported approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fractionated half body irradiation for palliation of multiple symptomatic bone metastases from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinya; Sunagawa, Yoshimitsu; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Nakazawa, Masanori; Yamashita, Takashi (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-06-01

    This was a phase I-II nonrandomized study that explored the toxicity and response of fractionated half-body irradiation (F-HBI) in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The patients had no premedication and received 10 Gy in 5 fractions with a dose rate of 15 cGy/min. At the Cancer Institute Hospital, 9 patients were treated by this technique (1 upper and lower F-HBI, 6 upper F-HBI, 2 lower F-HBI). All patients were female and had adenocarcinomas (8 breast and 1 lung). Adverse effects were myelosuppression, vomiting and partial alopecia. But hematologic toxicity was treated with blood transfusion or G-CSF. All toxicity was transient, and no pneumonitis nor radiation-related deaths occurred. When given as palliation, F-HBI was found to relieve pain in 80% of the patients. In 10% of the patients the pain relief was complete. The mean time to achieve pain relief in responders after F-HBI was 9 days. The pain relief was long-lasting and continued without need of reirradiation for 40% of the remaining patient's life. This treatment modality appears to be well tolerated and effective in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The optimal indications, dose and fractionation for F-HBI should be further explored in randomized trials. (author).

  20. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-456 Marine Sediment Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of prime concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of a reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess t h e reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. A marine sediment sample with certified mass amount contents for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, vanadium and zinc was recently produced by the IAEA Environment Laboratories. This publication presents the sample preparation methodology, including material homogeneity and the stability study, the selection of laboratories, the evaluation of results from the certification campaign, and the assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, certified values for mass fractions and associated expanded uncertainty were

  1. Effects of solid/liquid phase fractionation on pH and aqueous species molality in subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Galvez, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Metamorphic fluids are a crucial ingredient of geodynamic evolution, i.e. heat transfer, rock mechanics and metamorphic/metasomatic reactions. During crustal evolution at elevated P and T, rock forming components can be effectively fractionated from the reactive rock system by at least two processes: 1. extraction from porous rocks by liquid phases such as solute-bearing (e.g. Na+, Mg2+) aqueous fluids or partial melts. 2. isolation from effective bulk rock composition due to slow intragranular diffusion in high-P refractory phases such as garnet. The effect of phase fractionation (garnet, partial melt and aqueous species) on fluid - rock composition and properties remain unclear, mainly due to a high demand in quantitative computations of the thermodynamic interactions between rocks and fluids over a wide P-T range. To investigate this problem, we build our work on an approach initially introduced by Galvez et al., (2015) with new functionalities added in a MATLAB code (Rubisco). The fluxes of fractionated components in fluid, melt and garnet are monitored along a typical prograde P-T path for a model crustal pelite. Some preliminary results suggest a marginal effect of fractionated aqueous species on fluid and rock properties (e.g. pH, composition), but the corresponding fluxes are significant in the context of mantle wedge metasomatism. Our work provides insight into the role of high-P phase fractionation on mass redistribution between the surface and deep Earth in subduction zones. Existing limitations relevant to our liquid/mineral speciation/fractionation model will be discussed as well. ReferencesGalvez, M.E., Manning, C.E., Connolly, J.A.D., Rumble, D., 2015. The solubility of rocks in metamorphic fluids: A model for rock-dominated conditions to upper mantle pressure and temperature. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 430, 486-498.

  2. A coupled theory for chemically active and deformable solids with mass diffusion and heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhong, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the frequently encountered thermo-chemo-mechanical problems in chemically active material applications, we develop a thermodynamically-consistent continuum theory of coupled deformation, mass diffusion, heat conduction and chemical reaction. Basic balance equations of force, mass and energy are presented at first, and then fully coupled constitutive laws interpreting multi-field interactions and evolving equations governing irreversible fluxes are constructed according to the energy dissipation inequality and the chemical kinetics. To consider the essential distinction between mass diffusion and chemical reactions in affecting free energy and dissipations of a highly coupled system, we regard both the concentrations of diffusive species and the extent of reaction as independent state variables. This new formulation then distinguishes between the energy contribution from the diffusive species entering the solid and that from the subsequent chemical reactions occurring among these species and the host solid, which not only interact with stresses or strains in different manners and on different time scales, but also induce different variations of solid microstructures and material properties. Taking advantage of this new description, we further establish a specialized isothermal model to predict precisely the transient chemo-mechanical response of a swelling solid with a proposed volumetric constraint that accounts for material incompressibility. Coupled kinetics is incorporated to capture the volumetric swelling of the solid caused by imbibition of external species and the simultaneous dilation arised from chemical reactions between the diffusing species and the solid. The model is then exemplified with two numerical examples of transient swelling accompanied by chemical reaction. Various ratios of characteristic times of diffusion and chemical reaction are taken into account to shed light on the dependency on kinetic time scales of evolution patterns for

  3. A high throughput mass spectrometry screening analysis based on two-dimensional carbon microfiber fractionation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zou, Yilin; Xie, Xuan; Zhao, Jinhua; Piao, Xiangfan; Piao, Jingyi; Yao, Zhongping; Quinto, Maurizio; Wang, Gang; Li, Donghao

    2017-06-09

    A novel high-throughput, solvent saving and versatile integrated two-dimensional microscale carbon fiber/active carbon fiber system (2DμCFs) that allows a simply and rapid separation of compounds in low-polar, medium-polar and high-polar fractions, has been coupled with ambient ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS and ESI-QqQ-MS) for screening and quantitative analyses of real samples. 2DμCFs led to a substantial interference reduction and minimization of ionization suppression effects, thus increasing the sensitivity and the screening capabilities of the subsequent MS analysis. The method has been applied to the analysis of Schisandra Chinensis extracts, obtaining with a single injection a simultaneous determination of 33 compounds presenting different polarities, such as organic acids, lignans, and flavonoids in less than 7min, at low pressures and using small solvent amounts. The method was also validated using 10 model compounds, giving limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 0.3 to 30ngmL -1 , satisfactory recoveries (from 75.8 to 93.2%) and reproducibilities (relative standard deviations, RSDs, from 1.40 to 8.06%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a mass fraction approach in a geostatistical framework across North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jeanette M; Hubbard, Heidi F; Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Serre, Marc L

    2018-01-09

    Currently in the United States there are no regulatory standards for ambient concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of organic compounds with known carcinogenic species. As such, monitoring data are not routinely collected resulting in limited exposure mapping and epidemiologic studies. This work develops the log-mass fraction (LMF) Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) geostatistical prediction method used to predict the concentration of nine particle-bound PAHs across the US state of North Carolina. The LMF method develops a relationship between a relatively small number of collocated PAH and fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) samples collected in 2005 and applies that relationship to a larger number of locations where PM2.5 is routinely monitored to more broadly estimate PAH concentrations across the state. Cross validation and mapping results indicate that by incorporating both PAH and PM2.5 data, the LMF BME method reduces mean squared error by 28.4% and produces more realistic spatial gradients compared to the traditional kriging approach based solely on observed PAH data. The LMF BME method efficiently creates PAH predictions in a PAH data sparse and PM2.5 data rich setting, opening the door for more expansive epidemiologic exposure assessments of ambient PAH.

  5. Fractional statistics, exceptional preons, scalar dark matter, lepton number violation, neutrino masses, and hidden gauge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1985-09-01

    A brief review is given of the basics of fractional statistics, which is based on the Dirac-Bohm-Aharanov effect. Some group theoretic aspects of exceptional preons are breifly described, and a theory is proposed containing hypercolor and hyperflavor with G/sub HC/ x G/sub HF/ = E(6) x E(6) and preons in (27,27). It is also suggested that the dark matter in the universe is due to a scalar field which transforms as a singlet under SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and interacts only via the Higgs boson. Some speculation is made on the existence and physical consequences of a SU(2) singet charged scalar field which couples to two lepton doublet, necessarily violating electron, muon, and tauon numbers. The Majorana masses of neutrinos are discussed as the result of breaking the total lepton number. Abelian gauge field hidden inside non-abelian gauge theory is briefly described in analogy to the electromagnetic potential term. 20 refs

  6. Study of plasma parameters influencing fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäckle, M.; Merten, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methods permitting to test the influence of the matrix as well as of its local and temporal distribution on the plasma conditions in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are developed. For this purpose, the MS interface is used as plasma probe allowing to investigate the average plasma condition within the ICP zone observed in terms of temporal and spatial distribution of the matrix. Inserted matrix particles, particularly when being atomized and ionized, can cause considerable changes in both electron density and plasma temperature thus influencing the ionization equilibrium of the individual analytes. In this context, the plasma probe covers a region of the plasma for which no local thermodynamic equilibrium can be assumed. The differences in temperature, identified within the region of the plasma observed, amounted up to 3000 K. While in the central region conditions were detected that would not allow efficient atomization and ionization of the matrix, these conditions improve considerably towards the margin of the area observed. Depending on the nature as well as on the temporally and locally variable density of the matrix, this can lead to varying intensity ratios of the analytes and explain fractionation effects. By means of a derived equation it is shown that the deviation of the intensity ratio from the concentration ratio turns out to be more serious the higher the difference of the ionization potential of the analytes observed, the lower the plasma temperature and the higher the matrix concentration within the area observed.

  7. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-470 Oyster Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the production of the IAEA-470 certified reference material, which was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009, General Requirements for the Competence of Reference Materials Producers. A sample of approximately 10 kg of dried oysters was taken from oysters collected, dissected and freeze-dried by the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, and was further processed at the IAEA Environment Laboratories to produce a certified reference material. The sample contained certified mass fractions for arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, methyl mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, vanadium and zinc. The produced vials containing the processed oyster sample were carefully capped and stored for further certification studies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability during dispatch and storage were quantified in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006, Reference Materials - General and Statistical Principles for Certification. The material was characterized by laboratories with demonstrated competence and adhering to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Uncertainties of the certified values were calculated in compliance with the guide to the Expression of Uncerdainty in Measurement (JCGM 100:2008), including uncertainty associated with heterogeneity and instability of the material, and with the characterization itself. The material is intended for the quality control and assessment of method performance. As with any reference material, it can also be used for control charts or validation studies

  8. Series-, Parallel-, and Inter-Connection of Solid-State Arbitrary Fractional-Order Capacitors: Theoretical Study and Experimental Verification

    KAUST Repository

    Kartci, Aslihan

    2018-02-26

    In the paper, general analytical formulas are introduced for the determination of equivalent impedance, magnitude, and phase, i.e. order, for n arbitrary fractional-order capacitors (FoCs) connected in series, parallel, and their interconnection. The approach presented helps to evaluate these relevant quantities in the fractional domain since the order of each element has a significant effect on the impedance of each FoC and their equivalent capacitance cannot be considered. Three types of solid-state fractional-order passive capacitors of different orders, using ferroelectric polymer and reduced Graphene Oxide-percolated P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) composite structures, are fabricated and characterized. Using an impedance analyzer, the behavior of the devices was found to be stable in the frequency range 0.2MHz–20MHz, with a phase angle deviation of ±4 degrees. Multiple numerical and experimental case studies are given, in particular for two and three connected FoCs. The fundamental issues of the measurement units of the FoCs connected in series and parallel are derived. A MATLAB open access source code is given in Appendix sec:append for easy calculation of the equivalent FoC magnitude and phase. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions.

  9. Study of Bubble Size, Void Fraction, and Mass Transport in a Bubble Column under High Amplitude Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Mohagheghian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical vibration is known to cause bubble breakup, clustering and retardation in gas-liquid systems. In a bubble column, vibration increases the mass transfer ratio by increasing the residence time and phase interfacial area through introducing kinetic buoyancy force (Bjerknes effect and bubble breakup. Previous studies have explored the effect of vibration frequency (f, but minimal effort has focused on the effect of amplitude (A on mass transfer intensification. Thus, the current work experimentally examines bubble size, void fraction, and mass transfer in a bubble column under relatively high amplitude vibration (1.5 mm < A <9.5 mm over a frequency range of 7.5–22.5 Hz. Results of the present work were compared with past studies. The maximum stable bubble size under vibration was scaled using Hinze theory for breakage. Results of this work indicate that vibration frequency exhibits local maxima in both mass transfer and void fraction. Moreover, an optimum amplitude that is independent of vibration frequency was found for mass transfer enhancements. Finally, this work suggests physics-based models to predict void fraction and mass transfer in a vibrating bubble column.

  10. Robust Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Processing of Solid Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    The study is focused on combined heat and mass transfer during processing of solid foods such as baking and frying processes. Modelling of heat and mass transfer during baking and frying is a significant scientific challenge. During baking and frying, the food undergoes several changes...... in microstructure and other physical properties of the food matrix. The heat and water transport inside the food is coupled in a complex way, which for some food systems it is not yet fully understood. A typical example of the latter is roasting of meat in convection oven, where the mechanism of water transport...... is unclear. Establishing the robust mathematical models describing the main mechanisms reliably is of great concern. A quantitative description of the heat and mass transfer during the solid food processing, in the form of mathematical equations, implementation of the solution techniques, and the value...

  11. Reproducibility and diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography in evaluating breast solid mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun; Woo, Ok Hee; Shin, Hye Seon; Hwang, Soon-Young; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) was performed independently by two radiologists in 264 solid breast masses. The images were reviewed for color overlay pattern (COP) classification by the two radiologists, double blinded to any information. The interobserver agreement of the COP was almost perfect (κ=0.908) and high in E max (ICC=0.89). The AUC value of the COP (0.954) was significantly higher than that of E max (0.915) (p=0.002) but not significantly different from that of E max combined with COP (0.957) (p=0.098). The SWE color overlay pattern and E max of breast masses were highly reproducible. The COP had better diagnostic ability than E max , suggesting that COP may be a more reliable parameter for solid breast mass evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  13. CMR reference values for left ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction using computer-aided analysis : The Framingham Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Michael L.; Gona, Philimon; Hautvast, Gilion L.T.F.; Salton, Carol J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Manning, Warren J.

    Purpose To determine sex-specific reference values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (EF) in healthy adults using computer-aided analysis and to examine the effect of age on LV parameters. Materials and Methods We examined data from 1494 members of the Framingham Heart

  14. Determination of isotope fractionation effect using a double spike (242Pu+240Pu) during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Parab, A.R.; Khodade, P.S.; Jain, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope fractionation effect during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium has been investigated using a double spike ( 242 Pu+ 240 Pu) and the determination of concentration of plutonium in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is reported. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  15. The Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and P mass fractions in benign and malignant giant cell tumors of bone investigated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Zaichick; German Davydov; Tatyana Epatova; Sofia Zaichick

    2015-01-01

    The Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and P content and Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Ca/Na, Cl/Ca, and Cl/Na ratios in samples of intact bone, benign and malignant giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone were investigated by neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides. It was found that in GCT tissue the mass fractions of Cl and Na are higher and the mass fraction of Ca and P are lower than in normal bone tissues. Moreover, it was shown that higher Cl/Na mass fraction ratios as well as lower Ca/Cl, Ca/Mg, and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios are typical of the GCT tissue compared to intact bone. Finally, we propose to use the estimation of such parameters as the Cl mass fraction and the Ca/Cl mass fraction ratio as an additional test for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant GCT. (author)

  16. Lab-scale pyrolysis of the Automotive Shredder Residue light fraction and characterization of tar and solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Collina, Elena; Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina

    2017-06-01

    The general aim of this study is the recovery of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR). The ASR light fraction, or car fluff, that was collected at an Italian shredding plant was pyrolysed at various temperatures (500-800°C) in a lab-scale reactor. The condensable gases (tar) and solid residue yields increased with decreasing temperature, and these products were characterized to suggest a potential use to reclaim them. The higher heating value (HHV) of tar was 34-37MJ/kg, which is comparable with those of fossil fuels. Furthermore, the ash content was low (0.06-4.98%). Thus, tar can be used as an alternative fuel. With this prospect, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tar were determined. The toxicity of tar changes with temperature (1-5ng I-TEQ/g), and the PCDFs significantly contribute to tar toxicity, which was 75-100% with a maximum of 99.6% at 700°C. Regarding the characterization of the solid residue, the low HHV (2.4-3.3MJ/kg) does not make it suitable for energy recovery. Regarding material recovery, we considered its use as a filler in construction materials or a secondary source for metals. It shows a high metal concentration (280,000-395,000mg/kg), which is similar at different pyrolysis temperatures. At 500°C, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not detected in the solid residue, whereas the maximum total PAH concentration (19.41ng/g, 700°C) was lower than that in fly ash from MSWI. In conclusion, 500°C is a suitable pyrolysis temperature to obtain valuable tar and solid residue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  18. Fractionation analysis of oxyanion-forming metals and metalloids in leachates of cement-based materials using ion exchange solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Mesay; Wibetoe, Grethe; Engelsen, Christian J; Lund, Walter

    2009-05-15

    A simple and versatile solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed to determine the anionic species of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in leachates of cement mortar and concrete materials in the pH range 3-13. The anionic fractions of these elements were extracted using a strong anion exchanger (SAX) and their concentrations were determined as the difference in element concentration between the sample and the SAX effluent. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used off-line to analyse solutions before and after passing through the SAX. The extraction method has been developed by optimizing sorbent type, sorbent conditioning and sample percolation rate. Breakthrough volumes and effect of matrix constituents were also studied. It was found that a polymer-based SAX conditioned with a buffer close to the sample pH or in some cases deionised water gave the best retention of the analytes. Optimal conditions were also determined for the quantitative elution of analytes retained on the SAX. Extraction of the cement mortar and concrete leachates showed that most of the elements had similar distribution of anions in both leachate types, and that the distribution was strongly pH dependent. Cr, Mo and V exist in anionic forms in strongly basic leachates (pH>12), and significant fractions of anionic Se were also detected in these solutions. Cr, Mo, Se and V were not determined as anions by the present method in the leachates of pH<12. Anionic As and Sb were found in small fractions in most of the leachates.

  19. Impact of aging on the solid phase chemical fractionation of uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Sabyasachi; Ajay Kumar; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    A distinction should be made between persistence of total uranium (U) in soil and persistence of its bioavailable forms. As U age in soil, there is a change in bioavailability. The aging process is partially reversible if environmental parameters change, although a portion of the U ion will be securely entrapped in the soil particle lattice and not available to be re-solubilized. A study was carried out to reveals the impact of aging on chemical fractionation of U in amended soils from three different origin (Soil A: Metamorphic; Soil B: Sedimentary and Soil C: Ingenious basalt). For the study, 5g from each soil were amended with the 50 ml of water containing 100.0 mg/L of U in a falcon tube. After 7 days the supernatant was removed by centrifugation and the soil was allowed to air dry at room temperature

  20. Trapped Melt in IIIAB Irons: Solid/Liquid Elemental Partitioning During the Fractionation of the IIIAB Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Group IIIAB, the largest iron-meteorite group, shows compositional trends (including a three-order-of-magnitude It concentration range) indicating that it formed by fractional crystallization of a metallic magma. Because about 200 irons are available, and all degrees of crystallization are well represented, IIIAB offers an excellent set of samples for the study of crystallization at all depths of the asteroidal core. On log-log Ir-Au, and Ir-As diagrams IIIAB forms a broad band; the breadth represents real meteorite-to-meteorite variations, far outside experimental or sampling uncertainties. A successful model must explain the width of this band; I suggest that it mainly resulted from the trapping of parental magma within the crystallizing solid. Because S is essentially insoluble in metal, the abundance of FeS is a measure of the fraction of trapped liquid. The trapped-melt model is supported by the observation that irons having higher S contents plot closer to the inferred composition of the magmatic parental liquid. The lowest S values are found in the irons occupying the left envelope of the IIIAB Ir-Au or Ir-As compositional fields, thus it is this set of irons that should be interpreted as the solid products of a fractionating magma. This simplifies the modeling of the crystallization process and allows inferences regarding the distribution ratios for other elements in the evolved IIIAB system. The large (multiton) Cape York irons show wide variations in their trapped-melt fractions; their compositions seem best understood in terms of a low initial S content of the IIIAB magma, about 20 mg/g. The inferred initial IIIAB distribution coefficient for Ir, 4.6, is much higher than published values based on laboratory studies of low-S systems; I suggest that low-S (and low-P) partition-ratio measurements tend to err in the direction of unity. In IIIAB distribution coefficients for Au, As, and Ni were still < 1 when the most evolved IIIAB irons formed, another

  1. Automated headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction to analyse the volatile fraction of food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2004-01-23

    High concentration capacity headspace techniques (headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE)) are a bridge between static and dynamic headspace, since they give high concentration factors as does dynamic headspace (D-HS), and are as easy to apply and as reproducible as static headspace (S-HS). In 2000, Chromtech (Idstein, Germany) introduced an inside-needle technique for vapour and liquid sampling, solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE), also known as "the magic needle". In SPDE, analytes are concentrated on a 50 microm film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and activated carbon (10%) coated onto the inside wall of the stainless steel needle (5 cm) of a 2.5 ml gas tight syringe. When SPDE is used for headspace sampling (HS-SPDE), a fixed volume of the headspace of the sample under investigation is sucked up an appropriate number of times with the gas tight syringe and an analyte amount suitable for a reliable GC or GC-MS analysis accumulates in the polymer coating the needle wall. This article describes the preliminary results of both a study on the optimisation of sampling parameters conditioning HS-SPDE recovery, through the analysis of a standard mixture of highly volatile compounds (beta-pinene, isoamyl acetate and linalool) and of the HS-SPDE-GC-MS analyses of aromatic plants and food matrices. This study shows that HS-SPDE is a successful technique for HS-sampling with high concentration capability, good repeatability and intermediate precision, also when it is compared to HS-SPME.

  2. Certification of Trace Elements and Methylmercury Mass Fractions in Tuna Fish Flesh Homogenate IAEA-436A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioactive isotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is a primary concern for the IAEA. The Marine Environment Studies Laboratory, as a part of IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco, acts as the analytical support centre for Member State laboratories and is the pillar of the quality assurance programme for the determination of non-nuclear pollutants, trace elements and organic contaminants in the marine environment. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Good laboratory practice and quality assurance and control are essential components of the analytical process for the production of data. Quality control procedures are commonly based on analyses of certified reference materials to assess reproducibility and measurement biases and uncertainties. Certified reference materials are key tools for quality assurance. They are used to validate analytical methods and to establish traceability to internationally agreed references. They are cornerstones for laboratory accreditation and the correct implementation of national and international regulations. In the development and validation of new methods, certified reference materials play a vital role in state of the art technologies where measurements are critical. The IAEA supports the development and production of environmental certified reference materials for monitoring laboratories in Member States. The reference material IAEA-436, characterized for trace elements and methylmercury mass fractions in tuna fish flesh homogenate, was produced by the IAEA in Monaco in 2006. This publication describes the production of certified reference material IAEA-436A, which is based on the

  3. Certification of Trace Element Mass Fractions in IAEA-458 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) is to help Member States understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is therefore of great concern to the IAEA and its Environment Laboratories. Given that marine pollution assessments of such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments, the NAEL has assisted national laboratories and regional laboratory networks through its Reference Products for Environment and Trade programme since the early 1970s. Quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. QC procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess reliability and comparability of measurement data. QA can be realized by participation in externally organized laboratory performance studies, also known as interlaboratory comparisons, which compare and evaluate the analytical performance and measurement capabilities of participating laboratories. Data that are not based on adequate QA/QC can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to incorrect environmental management decisions. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity and stability study, selection of laboratories, evaluation of results from the certification campaign and assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. As a result, reference values for mass fractions and associated expanded uncertainty for 16 trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Sn, V and Zn) in marine sediment were established

  4. Determination of chiral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and sludge using microwave assisted extraction, solid-phase extraction and chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sian E; Davies, Paul; Lubben, Anneke; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-07-02

    This is the first study presenting a multi-residue method allowing for comprehensive analysis of several chiral pharmacologically active compounds (cPACs) including beta-blockers, antidepressants and amphetamines in wastewater and digested sludge at the enantiomeric level. Analysis of both the liquid and solid matrices within wastewater treatment is crucial to being able to carry out mass balance within these systems. The method developed comprises filtration, microwave assisted extraction and solid phase extraction followed by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to analyse the enantiomers of 18 compounds within all three matrices. The method was successfully validated for 10 compounds within all three matrices (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, venlafaxine, desmethylvenlafaxine, citalopram, metoprolol, propranolol and sotalol), 7 compounds validated for the liquid matrices only (mirtazapine, salbutamol, fluoxetine, desmethylcitalopram, atenolol, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine) and 1 compound (alprenolol) passing the criteria for solid samples only. The method was then applied to wastewater samples; cPACs were found at concentration ranges in liquid matrices of: 1.7 ng L(-1) (metoprolol) - 1321 ng L(-1) (tramadol) in influent, solid matrix digested sludge: 0.4 ng g(-1) (metoprolol) - 275 ng g(-1) (citalopram). Enantiomeric profiling revealed that studied compounds were present in analysed samples in non-racemic composition. Furthermore, enantiomeric composition of studied analytes differed in liquid and solid matrices. This demonstrates that not analysing the solid fraction of wastewater may lead to over-estimation of the removal rates of cPACs as well as possible misrepresentation of the enantiomeric fraction of the compounds as they leave the wastewater treatment plant. Consequently risks from cPACs entering the environment might be higher than

  5. Thermodiffusion Coefficient Analysis of n-Dodecane /n-Hexane Mixture at Different Mass Fractions and Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Ion; Bou-Ali, M. Mounir; Santamaría, C.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the thermodiffusion coefficient of n-dodecane/n-hexane binary mixture at 25 ∘C mean temperature was determined for several pressure conditions and mass fractions. The experimental technique used to determine the thermodiffusion coefficient was the thermograviational column of cylindrical configuration. In turn, thermophysical properties, such as density, thermal expansion, mass expansion and dynamic viscosity up to 10 MPa were also determined. The results obtained in this work showed a linear relation between the thermophysical properties and the pressure. Thermodiffusion coefficient values confirm a linear effect when the pressure increases. Additionally, a new correlation based on the thermodiffusion coefficient for n C12/n C6 binary mixture at 25 ∘C temperature for any mass fraction and pressures, which reproduces the data within the experimental error, was proposed.

  6. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    separation, in order to establish the overall costs. Key parameters are livestock density, transport distance, price of additional land and cost of separation. The conclusion is that unless land prices or prices on slurry agreements are very high, traditional handling of animal manure has the lowest costs......The purpose of this paper is to analyse different separation concepts in order to evaluate the overall costs based on a systems approach from stable to field. When livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas the distribution of manure without creating a surplus of nutrients is often....... Decanter separation can be the cheapest if area is limited and cooperation with neighbours is possible as large volumes reduce separation costs per tonne. Flocculation is the best if much P has to be removed from the farm in the solid fraction. Separation will in the future in many cases be combined...

  7. Numerical simulation of a fractional model of temperature distribution and heat flux in the semi infinite solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Choudhary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fractional model for the computation of temperature and heat flux distribution in a semi-infinite solid is discussed which is subjected to spatially decomposing, time-dependent laser source. The apt dimensionless parameters are identified and the reduced temperature and heat flux as a function of these parameters are presented in a numerical form. Some special cases of practical interest are also discussed. The solution is derived by the application of the Laplace transform, the Fourier sine transform and their derivatives. Also, we developed an alternative solution of it by using the Sumudu transform, the Fourier transform and their derivatives. These results are received in compact and graceful forms in terms of the generalized Mittag-Leffler function, which are suitable for numerical computation.

  8. Enhancing the hydrolysis process of a two-stage biogas technology for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Zeeshan; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    The Danish company Solum A/S has developed a two-stage dry anaerobic digestion process labelled AIKAN® for the biological conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into biogas and compost. In the AIKAN® process design the methanogenic (2nd) stage is separated from...... the hydrolytic (1st) stage, which enables pump-free feeding of the waste into the 1st stage (processing module), and eliminates the risk for blocking of pumps and pipes by pumping only the percolate from the 1st stage into the 2nd stage (biogas reactor tank). The biogas yield of the AIKAN® two-stage process......, however, has shown to be only about 60% of the theoretical maximum. Previous monitoring of the hydrolytic and methanogenic activity in the two stages of the process revealed that the bottleneck of the whole degradation process is rather found in the hydrolytic first stage while the methanogenic second...

  9. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes IV: Geochemical, thermal and mass consequences of energy-constrained recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-RAFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendy A. Bohrson Department of Geological Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington, 98926, USA; Frank J. Spera Institute for Crustal Studies and Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106, USA

    2003-01-01

    A wealth of geochemical and petrological data provide evidence that the processes of fractional crystallization, assimilation, and magma recharge (replenishment) dominate the chemical signatures of many terrestrial igneous rocks. Previous work [Spera and Bohrson, 2001 ; Bohrson and Spera, 2001] has established the importance of integrating energy, species and mass conservation into simulations of complex magma chamber processes. An extended version of the energy-constrained formulation, Energy-Constrained Recharge, Assimilation, Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC), tracks mass and compositional variations of melt, cumulates, and enclaves in a magma body undergoing simultaneous recharge, assimilation, and fractional crystallization [Spera and Bohrson, 2002]. Because many EC-RAFC results are distinct from those predicted by extant RAFC formulations, the primary goal of this paper is to present a range of geochemical and mass relationships for selected cases that highlight issues relevant to modern petrology. Among the plethora of petrologic problems that have important, well-documented analogues in nature are the geochemical distinctions that arise when a magma body undergoes continuous versus episodic recharge, the connection between erupted magmas and associated cumulate bodies, the behavior of recharge-fractionation dominated systems (RFC), thermodynamic conditions that promote the formation of enclaves versus cumulates, and the conditions under which magma bodies may be described as chemically homogeneous. Investigation of the effects of continuous versus episodic recharge for mafic magma undergoing RAFC in the lower crust indicates that the resulting geochemical trends for melt and solids are sensitive to the intensity and composition of recharge, suggesting that EC-RAFC may be used as a tool to distinguish the nature of the recharge events. Compared to the record preserved in melts, the geochemical and mass characteristics of solids associated with particular

  10. Symmetry-adapted configurational modelling of fractional site occupancy in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau-Crespo, R [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Hamad, S [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Catlow, C R A [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Leeuw, N H de [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-27

    A methodology is presented, which reduces the number of site-occupancy configurations to be calculated when modelling site disorder in solids, by taking advantage of the crystal symmetry of the lattice. Within this approach, two configurations are considered equivalent when they are related by an isometric operation; a trial list of possible isometric transformations is provided by the group of symmetry operators in the parent structure, which is used to generate all configurations via atomic substitutions. We have adapted the equations for configurational statistics to operate in the reduced configurational space of the independent configurations. Each configuration in this space is characterized by its reduced energy, which includes not only its energy but also a contribution from its degeneracy in the complete configurational space, via an entropic term. The new computer program SOD (site-occupancy disorder) is presented, which performs this analysis in systems with arbitrary symmetry and any size of supercell. As a case study we use the distribution of cations in iron antimony oxide FeSbO{sub 4}, where we also introduce some general considerations for the modelling of site-occupancy disorder in paramagnetic systems.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  12. The ATLAS(3D) project - XX. Mass-size and mass-Sigma distributions of early-type galaxies : bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    In the companion Paper XV of this series, we derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)(JAM) approximate to (M/L)(r = R-e) within a sphere of radius r = R-e centred on the galaxy, as well as stellar (M/L)(stars) (with the dark matter removed) for the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected

  13. Municipal solid waste management planning for Xiamen City, China: a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Guohe; Zhao, Shan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui; Zhu, Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based waste management planning (SFIWP) model was developed and applied for supporting long-term planning of the municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Xiamen City, the special economic zone of Fujian Province, China. In the SFIWP model, the techniques of inventory model, stochastic linear fractional programming, and mixed-integer linear programming were integrated in a framework. Issues of waste inventory in MSW management system were solved, and the system efficiency was maximized through considering maximum net-diverted wastes under various constraint-violation risks. Decision alternatives for waste allocation and capacity expansion were also provided for MSW management planning in Xiamen. The obtained results showed that about 4.24 × 10 6  t of waste would be diverted from landfills when p i is 0.01, which accounted for 93% of waste in Xiamen City, and the waste diversion per unit of cost would be 26.327 × 10 3  t per $10 6 . The capacities of MSW management facilities including incinerators, composting facility, and landfills would be expanded due to increasing waste generation rate.

  14. A review of the applications to solids of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzemius, R.J.; Capellen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The review is intended to provide a panoramic view of the broadening applications of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry. In these applications a laser beam has been used to excite a solid specimen to the ionized state or to the vaporized state in the ion source of a mass spectrometer. The review is divided into two main sections: Analytical features and applications. The analytical features section has been subdivided into five areas: Detection sensitivity, ionisation efficiency, collection efficiency, quantification, and crater-depth analysis. Applications have been separated into ten different areas: Biological, carbon, fossil fuels, gaseous impurities, geological, inorganics, isotopic analysis, metals, organics and polymers. (EBE)

  15. Static secondary ion mass spectrometry for organic and inorganic molecular analysis in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Rita van; Vaeck, Luc van; Adriaens, Annemie; Adams, Freddy

    2003-01-01

    The use of mass spectra in secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS) to characterise the molecular composition of inorganic and organic analytes at the surface of solid samples is investigated. Methodological aspects such as mass resolution, mass accuracy, precision and accuracy of isotope abundance measurements, influence of electron flooding and sample morphology are addressed to assess the possibilities and limitations that the methodology can offer to support the structural assignment of the detected ions. The in-sample and between-sample reproducibility of relative peak intensities under optimised conditions is within 10%, but experimental conditions and local hydration, oxidation or contamination can drastically affect the mass spectra. As a result, the use of fingerprinting for identification becomes compromised. Therefore, the preferred way of interpretation becomes the deductive structural approach, based on the use of the empirical desorption-ionisation model. This approach is shown to allow the molecular composition of inorganic and organic components at the surface of solids to be characterised. Examples of inorganic speciation and identification of organic additives with unknown composition in inorganic salt mixtures are given. The methodology is discussed in terms of foreseen developments with respect to the use of polyatomic primary ions

  16. Quantitative shear wave ultrasound elastography: initial experience in solid breast masses

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Andrew; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Denis; Brauer, Katrin; Purdie, Colin; Jordan, Lee; Baker, Lee; Thompson, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Shear wave elastography is a new method of obtaining quantitative tissue elasticity data during breast ultrasound examinations. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (2) to correlate the elasticity values of a series of solid breast masses with histological findings and (3) to compare shear wave elastography with greyscale ultrasound for benign/malignant classification. Methods Using the Aixplorer® ultrasound system (SuperSoni...

  17. Identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density fraction by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walikonis, R S; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Our understanding of the organization of postsynaptic signaling systems at excitatory synapses has been aided by the identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction, a subcellular fraction enriched in structures with the morphology of PSDs. In this study, we have completed...... not previously known to be constituents of the PSD fraction and 24 that had previously been associated with the PSD by other methods. The newly identified proteins include the heavy chain of myosin-Va (dilute myosin), a motor protein thought to be involved in vesicle trafficking, and the mammalian homolog...

  18. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plawski Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equation, while the remaining components according to the first-order equation. The kinetic rate constants and maximum recovery of the studied components decreased with increasing solids mass in the flotation cell, regardless of the capacity of the cell. The best results were obtained for tests using a 1.0 dm3 cell, while the less favorable kinetics results were observed in the test with the smallest cell of 0.75 dm3 volume. The obtained results can be helpful in choosing the most appropriate methodology of upgrading the sulfide copper ore from Poland in order to obtain the best kinetics results.

  19. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on biogas generation yield from organic fraction of municipal solid waste under medium solids concentration circumstance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasapoor, Mazdak; Ajabshirchi, Yahya; Adl, Mehrdad; Abdi, Reza; Gharibi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic pretreatment improved biogas yields at lower TS content samples. • Time of ultrasonication was significantly effective on maximum biogas yields. • Ultrasonic pretreatment can cause the release of TVFA content before digestion. • Specific energy between 5000 kJ/kg TS and 10,000 kJ/kg TS improved biogas yields. - Abstract: Hydrolysis is the most rate limiting step in almost all anaerobic digestion systems. To tackle long time duration, ultrasonic pretreatment proved that it can effectively improve biogas yield efficiency by effecting on soluble particles. In this study, the effect of three different ultrasonic power densities (0.2 W/mL, 0.4 W/mL and 0.6 W/mL) at three different times (10 min, 20 min and 30 min) on biogas yield of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at three different total solid content (6%, 8% and 10%) were analyzed. Results showed significant (p < 0.01) effect of both sonication density and time of sonication on biogas final yield and biogas yield after 72 h digestion with the 6% TS content. Parameters like specific energy input and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) content were also evaluated to find the best sonication treatments for OFMSW. For lower TS contents (6% and 8%), sonication treatment significantly (p < 0.01) increased TVFA concentration before digesting. It is also proved that specific energy input between 5000 kJ/kg TS and 10,000 kJ/kg TS can effectively increase the biogas yields, especially for 6% TS content, and caused maximum biogas yield produced after 72 h of digestion.

  20. Certification of Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-461 Clam (Gafrarium tumidum) Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioisotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the environment. In this context, the major impact exerted by large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is an issue of primary concern for the IAEA and the IAEA Environment Laboratories. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. The IAEA Environment Laboratories has been assisting national laboratories and regional laboratory networks since the early 1970s through the provision of reference material programme for the analysis of radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine samples. Quality assurance, quality control and associated good laboratory practice are essential components of all marine environmental monitoring studies. Quality control procedures are commonly based on the analysis of certified reference materials and reference samples in order to validate analytical methods used in monitoring studies and to assess the reliability and comparability of measurement data. Data that are not based on adequate quality assurance and quality control can be erroneous, and their misuse can lead to poor environmental management decisions. This publication describes the production of the IAEA-461 certified reference material, which was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009, General Requirements for the Competence of Reference Material Producers. A sample of approximately 60 kg of clams (Gafrarium tumidum) was collected in Noumea, New Caledonia, and processed at the IAEA Environment Laboratories to produce a certified reference material of marine biota. The sample contained certified mass fractions for arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, methyl mercury, manganese, nickel, selenium, vanadium and zinc. The produced vials

  1. The Organic Matter Molecular Characteristics of Pyrogenic Solids and Their Aqueous Leachable Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (Py-OM), or black carbon (BC), derives from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass and is recognized for its impacts on soil chemistry, pollutant transport, climate, and regional and global carbon cycling. In fact, Py-OM is commonly applied to agricultural plots, in the form of "biochars," with the intention of enhancing agricultural production and the expectation of a carbon sequestration side benefit due to Py-OM's refractory and immobile nature. However, several studies of riverine, estuarine, and oceanic waters have detected tracers of dissolved Py-OM in appreciable quantities suggesting that it is more mobile in the environment than previously expected. The quantities and impacts of Py-OM released to aqueous systems are likely dependent on Py-OM molecular characteristics which in turn likely depend on initial combustion conditions and environmental processing. Yet, very little is known about the detailed molecular composition of these materials, let alone their relationships with combustion and environmental processing. Here, pyrophosphate extractable and water leachable components of a range of Py-OM materials (natural charcoals aged in the environment for variable lengths of time, oak and grass combusted over a range of temperatures) are examined by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The molecular characteristics of the dissolved and pyrophosphate extractable Py-OM is then compared in the context of production conditions. Results of this study will greatly improve our understanding of Py-OM cycling between watersheds and the oceans.

  2. A direct measurement of the baryonic mass function of galaxies & implications for the galactic baryon fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Cattaneo, Andrea; Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2012-01-01

    We use both an HI-selected and an optically-selected galaxy sample to directly measure the abundance of galaxies as a function of their "baryonic" mass (stars + atomic gas). Stellar masses are calculated based on optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and atomic gas masses are

  3. Evidence for mass-independent and mass-dependent fractionation of the stable isotopes of mercury by natural processes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Togwell A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Evans, Marlene S.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical analyses were performed on crustaceans, forage fish, top predator fish, and sediment cores from Lake Ontario and two boreal forest lakes to investigate fractionation of the stable isotopes of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. Multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to determine Hg isotope abundances. The Hg isotope data for all three lakes showed mass-independent variation in the organisms but only mass-dependent variation in the sediments. The mass-independent isotope effect was characterised by (1) selective enrichment in isotopes of odd mass number ( 199 Hg and 201 Hg), (2) enrichment in 201 Hg relative to 199 Hg, (3) an inverse relationship between isotopes of odd and even mass number in fish, and (4) a positive correlation with methylHg (CH 3 Hg + ) concentration, and hence with trophic level (although lake whitefish were consistently anomalous, possibly owing to biochemical demethylation). Isotope signatures of species at the same trophic level varied with habitat and diet, differentiating between planktonic and benthic crustaceans and their predators, and between fish that frequent deep, cold water and fish of similar diet that prefer warmer, shallower water, because of corresponding differences in CH 3 Hg + and inorganic Hg content. Isotopic analysis of CH 3 Hg + and inorganic Hg extracted from lake trout proved that the mass-independent isotope effect was due to anomalously high abundances of 199 Hg and 201 Hg in CH 3 Hg + , as implied by the data for whole organisms, suggesting mass-independent fractionation during microbial methylation of Hg. The purely mass-dependent variation in the sediments is attributable to the fact that Hg in sediments is mostly inorganic. The mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes can be explained by effects of nuclear spin or nuclear field shift, or both, and penetration of the inner electron shells of Hg by valence electrons of Hg-binding ligands. The results of the research

  4. Molar mass fractionation in aqueous two-phase polymer solutions of dextran and poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziliang; Li, Qi; Ji, Xiangling; Dimova, Rumiana; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-06-24

    Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in phase separated aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) of these two polymers, with a broad molar mass distribution for dextran and a narrow molar mass distribution for PEG, were separated and quantified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Tie lines constructed by GPC method are in excellent agreement with those established by the previously reported approach based on density measurements of the phases. The fractionation of dextran during phase separation of ATPS leads to the redistribution of dextran of different chain lengths between the two phases. The degree of fractionation for dextran decays exponentially as a function of chain length. The average separation parameters, for both dextran and PEG, show a crossover from mean field behavior to Ising model behavior, as the critical point is approached. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of gas double-dynamic on mass distribution in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2014-05-10

    The mass distribution regularity in substrate of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has rarely been reported due to the heterogeneity of solid medium and the lack of suitable instrument and method, which limited the comprehensive analysis and enhancement of the SSF performance. In this work, the distributions of water, biomass, and fermentation product in different medium depths of SSF were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the developed models. Based on the mass distribution regularity, the effects of gas double-dynamic on heat transfer, microbial growth and metabolism, and product distribution gradient were systematically investigated. Results indicated that the maximum temperature of substrate and the maximum carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) were 39.5°C and 2.48mg/(hg) under static aeration solid-state fermentation (SASSF) and 33.9°C and 5.38mg/(hg) under gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSSF), respectively, with the environmental temperature for fermentation of 30±1°C. The fermentation production (cellulase activity) ratios of the upper, middle, and lower levels were 1:0.90:0.78 at seventh day under SASSF and 1:0.95:0.89 at fifth day under GDSSF. Therefore, combined with NIRS analysis, gas double-dynamic could effectively strengthen the solid-state fermentation performance due to the enhancement of heat transfer, the stimulation of microbial metabolism and the increase of the homogeneity of fermentation products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of Muscle Protein Fractional Synthetic Rate by Capillary Gas Chromatography/Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J.; Bier, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rate using an infusion of (1-13C)leucine and measuring the isotopic abundance of the tracer in skeletal muscle protein by preparative gas chromatography (GC)/ninhydrin isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is laborious and subject to errors owing to contamination by 12C. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle (13C)leucine enrichment measured with the conventional preparative GC/ninhydrin IRMS approach to a new, continuo...

  7. The distinction between chondroma and chondrosarcoma using chemical element mass fractions in tumors determined by neutron activation analysis as diagnostic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and P content and Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Ca/Na, Cl/Ca, and Cl/Na ratios in tissue of intact bone, chondroma and chondrosarcoma were investigated by neutron activation analysis. It was shown that higher mass fraction of Cl and Na and also Cl/Na mass fraction ratio as well as lower Ca/Cl and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios are typical of the chondrosarcoma tissue compared to chondroma. Finally, it was proposed to use the estimation of such parameters as the Cl mass fraction and the Ca/Cl and Ca/Na mass fraction ratios as an additional test for differential diagnosis between chondroma and chondrosarcoma. (author)

  8. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  9. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan; Yan Yong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  10. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindmark, Johan; Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. • Digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion at three mixing intensities were evaluated. • Mixing performed at 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally intermittently. • Increased biogas production rates and yields at lower mixing intensities. - Abstract: Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8 N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3 N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process

  11. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Johan, E-mail: Johan.lindmark@mdh.se; Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva, E-mail: Eva.Thorin@mdh.se

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. • Digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion at three mixing intensities were evaluated. • Mixing performed at 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally intermittently. • Increased biogas production rates and yields at lower mixing intensities. - Abstract: Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8 N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3 N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  12. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  13. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thermal and chemical treatments, mechanical maceration and freezing and thawing on recovering the remaining methane potential of the > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure - which accounted for 30% of the original potential of digested cow manure - were studied in laboratory...

  14. Quantification and chemical composition of mixed bacteria harvested from solid fractions of rumen digesta: Effects of detachment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Orue, S.M.; Balcells, J.; Zakraoui, F.; Castrillo, C.

    1999-01-01

    Four ewes were given two diets made up with two ratios of rolled barley grain and ammonia treated straw (80/20, diet C and 20/80, diet R). The animals were fed twice a day. Two microbial markers, purine bases (PB) and 15 N, were used as internal and external markers, respectively. Ruminal bacteria from the liquid (LAB) and solid (SAB) fractions of digesta were harvested from samples obtained at 1 and 6 h after feeding. Bacteria were separated from the particulate material by cooling plus homogenisation (B), by applying tertiary butanol (TB) or methylcellulose (M), or by changes of temperature (CHT). The most effective procedures to remove bacteria from the solid phase were M and CHT treatments. CHT, however, showed the highest level of losses and the lowest total recovery of the bacterial pellet. There were no differences between B and TB treatments in either detaching efficiency or total recovery ratio of adherent bacteria. Ratio of recovery of detached material as a bacterial pellet was 32.0, 32.2, 33.3 and 27.8% for B, TB, M and CHT treatments, respectively. Diet did not interact with detaching efficiency of the experimental treatments although concentration of total N (g/100g OM) and PB (μmol/g OM) were higher in pellets obtained with diet C (9.11 and 125) than with diet R (8.20 and 107), respectively (P < 0.05). Postpandrial differences were not significant. Bacterial samples extracted from the liquid phase contained significantly (P < 0.001) more total N (9.21 vs 8.51), PB (160.5 vs 104.3) and PB/N (1.73 vs 1.23 μmol/mg) than those samples extracted from the solid phase. There were no differences in the chemical composition of the microbial sample after detachment by B, TB and M treatments but the bacterial extract obtained after CHT treatment showed significant changes in PB, N content and PB/N ratio (P < 0.01). (author)

  15. Quantification and chemical composition of mixed bacteria harvested from solid fractions of rumen digesta: Effects of detachment procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Orue, S M; Balcells, J; Zakraoui, F; Castrillo, C [Departamento de Produccion Animal y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Four ewes were given two diets made up with two ratios of rolled barley grain and ammonia treated straw (80/20, diet C and 20/80, diet R). The animals were fed twice a day. Two microbial markers, purine bases (PB) and {sup 15}N, were used as internal and external markers, respectively. Ruminal bacteria from the liquid (LAB) and solid (SAB) fractions of digesta were harvested from samples obtained at 1 and 6 h after feeding. Bacteria were separated from the particulate material by cooling plus homogenisation (B), by applying tertiary butanol (TB) or methylcellulose (M), or by changes of temperature (CHT). The most effective procedures to remove bacteria from the solid phase were M and CHT treatments. CHT, however, showed the highest level of losses and the lowest total recovery of the bacterial pellet. There were no differences between B and TB treatments in either detaching efficiency or total recovery ratio of adherent bacteria. Ratio of recovery of detached material as a bacterial pellet was 32.0, 32.2, 33.3 and 27.8% for B, TB, M and CHT treatments, respectively. Diet did not interact with detaching efficiency of the experimental treatments although concentration of total N (g/100g OM) and PB ({mu}mol/g OM) were higher in pellets obtained with diet C (9.11 and 125) than with diet R (8.20 and 107), respectively (P < 0.05). Postpandrial differences were not significant. Bacterial samples extracted from the liquid phase contained significantly (P < 0.001) more total N (9.21 vs 8.51), PB (160.5 vs 104.3) and PB/N (1.73 vs 1.23 {mu}mol/mg) than those samples extracted from the solid phase. There were no differences in the chemical composition of the microbial sample after detachment by B, TB and M treatments but the bacterial extract obtained after CHT treatment showed significant changes in PB, N content and PB/N ratio (P < 0.01). (author) 38 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient composting process for the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) using lab-scale systems. We first evaluated the factors affecting the SFDM composting process using different thermophilic phase durations (TPD, 6 or 3days) and aeration rates (AR, 0.4 or 0.2 lmin(-1)kg(-1)-total solid (TS)). Results indicated that a similar volatile total solid (VTS) degradation efficiency (approximately 60%) was achieved with a TPD of 6 or 3days and an AR of 0.4 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called higher AR), and a TPD of 3days resulted in less N loss caused by ammonia stripping. N loss was least when AR was decreased to 0.2 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called lower AR) during the SFDM composting process. However, moisture content (MC) in the composting pile increased at the lower AR because of water production by VTS degradation and less water volatilization. Reduced oxygen availability caused by excess water led to lower VTS degradation efficiency and inhibition of nitrification. Adding sawdust to adjust the C/N ratio and decrease the MC improved nitrification during the composing processes; however, the addition of increasing amounts of sawdust decreased NO3(-) concentration in matured compost. When an improved composting reactor with a condensate removal and collection system was used for the SFDM composting process, the MC of the composting pile was significantly reduced, and nitrification was detected 10-14days earlier. This was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Highly matured compost could be generated within 40-50days. The VTS degradation efficiency reached 62.0% and the final N content, NO3(-) concentration, and germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process were 3.3%, 15.5×10(3)mg kg(-1)-TS, and 112.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Collection Schemes of Municipal Solid Waste Metallic Fraction: The Impacts on Global Warming Potential for the Case of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Heiskanen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research article the sustainability of different practices to collect the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland is examined. The study is carried out by calculating and comparing the greenhouse gas reduction potential of optional practices for collecting the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. In order to locate the greenhouse gas reduction potential of the separate collection of the metallic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW collected from residential sources, a comparative carbon footprint analysis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA on six different waste management scenarios is carried out. The modeled system consisted of a waste collection system, transportation, and different waste management alternatives, including on-site separation, separation at the waste management facility as well as metallurgical recovery of separated scrap. The results show that, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, separate collection and recycling of the metallic fraction of solid MSW at residential properties is the preferable option compared to a scenario with no source sorting and incineration of everything. According to this research scenario where the metal fraction of solid household waste was not source-separated or collected separately have clearly higher greenhouse gas emissions compared to all the other scenarios with separate collection for metals. In addition, metal recycling by regional collection points has considerably lower greenhouse gas emission potential than metal recycling by collection directly from residential properties.

  18. Solid Sampling with a Diode Laser for Portable Ambient Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yeni P; Wickramasinghe, Raveendra; Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Veryovkin, Igor V; Hanley, Luke

    2017-07-18

    A hand-held diode laser is implemented for solid sampling in portable ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Specifically, a pseudocontinuous wave battery-powered surgical laser diode is employed for portable laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) at 940 nm and compared with nanosecond pulsed laser ablation at 2940 nm. Postionization is achieved in both cases using atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). The laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI) and LDTD-APPI mass spectra of sage leaves (Salvia officinalis) using a field-deployable quadrupole ion trap MS display many similar ion peaks, as do the mass spectra of membrane grown biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results indicate that LDTD-APPI method should be useful for in-field sampling of plant and microbial communities, for example, by portable ambient MS. The feasibility of many portable MS applications is facilitated by the availability of relatively low cost, portable, battery-powered diode lasers. LDTD could also be coupled with plasma- or electrospray-based ionization for the analysis of a variety of solid samples.

  19. First Solid Evidence for a Rocky Exoplanet - Mass and density of smallest exoplanet finally measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The longest set of HARPS measurements ever made has firmly established the nature of the smallest and fastest-orbiting exoplanet known, CoRoT-7b, revealing its mass as five times that of Earth's. Combined with CoRoT-7b's known radius, which is less than twice that of our terrestrial home, this tells us that the exoplanet's density is quite similar to the Earth's, suggesting a solid, rocky world. The extensive dataset also reveals the presence of another so-called super-Earth in this alien solar system. "This is science at its thrilling and amazing best," says Didier Queloz, leader of the team that made the observations. "We did everything we could to learn what the object discovered by the CoRoT satellite looks like and we found a unique system." In February 2009, the discovery by the CoRoT satellite [1] of a small exoplanet around a rather unremarkable star named TYC 4799-1733-1 was announced one year after its detection and after several months of painstaking measurements with many telescopes on the ground, including several from ESO. The star, now known as CoRoT-7, is located towards the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn) at a distance of about 500 light-years. Slightly smaller and cooler than our Sun, CoRoT-7 is also thought to be younger, with an age of about 1.5 billion years. Every 20.4 hours, the planet eclipses a small fraction of the light of the star for a little over one hour by one part in 3000 [2]. This planet, designated CoRoT-7b, is only 2.5 million kilometres away from its host star, or 23 times closer than Mercury is to the Sun. It has a radius that is about 80% greater than the Earth's. The initial set of measurements, however, could not provide the mass of the exoplanet. Such a result requires extremely precise measurements of the velocity of the star, which is pulled a tiny amount by the gravitational tug of the orbiting exoplanet. The problem with CoRoT-7b is that these tiny signals are blurred by stellar activity in the form of

  20. Evaluation of pretreatment methods on harvesting hydrogen producing seeds from anaerobic digested organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhenhong, Yuan; Yongming, Sun; Longlong, Ma [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-08-15

    In order to harvest high-efficient hydrogen producing seeds, five pretreatment methods (including acid, heat, sonication, aeration and freeze/thawing) were performed on anaerobic digested sludge (AS) which was collected from a batch anaerobic reactor for treating organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The hydrogen production tests were conducted in serum bottles containing 20 gVS/L (24.8 g COD/L) mixture of rice and lettuce powder at 37 C. The experimental results showed that the heat and acid pretreatment completely repressed the methanogenic activity of AS, but acid pretreatment also partially repressed hydrogen production. Sonication, freeze/thawing and aeration did not completely suppress the methanogen activity. The highest hydrogen yields were 119.7, 42.2, 26.0, 23.0, 22.7 and 22.1 mL/gVS for heated, acidified, freeze/thawed, aerated, sonicated and control AS respectively. A pH of about 4.9 was detected at the end of hydrogen producing fermentation for all tests. The selection of an initial pH can markedly affect the hydrogen producing ability for heated and acidified AS. The higher initial pH generated higher hydrogen yield and the highest hydrogen yield was obtained with initial pH 8.9 for heated AS. (author)

  1. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Flohr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3 induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h=2.21%. A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min=12.08%. All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2 induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method.

  2. A new qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastograghy for solid breast mass evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rui; Li, Jing; Guo, Song

    2017-02-01

    To examine the efficacy of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in the classification and evaluation of solid breast masses, and to compare this method with conventional ultrasonograghy (US), quantitative SWE parameters and qualitative SWE classification proposed before. From April 2015 to March 2016, 314 consecutive females with 325 breast masses who decided to undergo core needle biopsy and/or surgical biopsy were enrolled. Conventional US and SWE were previously performed in all enrolled subjects. Each mass was classified by two different qualitative classifications. One was established in our study, herein named the Qual1. Qual1 could classify the SWE images into five color patterns by the visual evaluations: Color pattern 1 (homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 2 (comparative homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 3 (irregularly heterogeneous pattern); Color pattern 4 (intralesional echo pattern); and Color pattern 5 (the stiff rim sign pattern). The second qualitative classification was named Qual2 here, and included a four-color overlay pattern classification (Tozaki and Fukuma, Acta Radiologica, 2011). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performances of conventional US, SWE parameters, and combinations of US and SWE parameters were compared. With pathological results as the gold standard, of the 325 examined breast masses, 139 (42.77%) samples were malignant and 186 (57.23%) were benign. The Qual1 showed a higher Az value than the Qual2 and quantitative SWE parameters (all Pbreast mass diagnoses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Measurement of the $B^0 \\to K^{*0}e^+e^-$ branching fraction at low dilepton mass

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The branching fraction of the rate decay $B^0 \\rightarrow K^{*0}e^+e^-$ in the dilepton mass region from 30 to 1000 MeV$/c^2$ has been measured by the LHCb experiment, using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The decay mode $B^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi(e^+e^-) K^{*0}$ is utilized as a normalization channel. The branching fraction $B^0 \\rightarrow K^{*0}e^+e^-$ is measured to be $$ B(B^0 \\rightarrow K^{*0}e^+e^-)^{30-1000 MeV/c^2}= (3.1\\, ^{+0.9\\mbox{} +0.2}_{-0.8\\mbox{}-0.3} \\pm 0.2)\\times 10^{-7}, $$ where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third comes from the uncertainties on the $B^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0}$ and $J/\\psi \\rightarrow e^+e^- $ branching fractions.

  4. Enhanced Peptide Detection Toward Single-Neuron Proteomics by Reversed-Phase Fractionation Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam B.; Lombard-Banek, Camille; Muñoz-LLancao, Pablo; Manzini, M. Chiara; Nemes, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The ability to detect peptides and proteins in single cells is vital for understanding cell heterogeneity in the nervous system. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) provides high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with trace-level sensitivity, but compressed separation during CE challenges protein identification by tandem HRMS with limited MS/MS duty cycle. Here, we supplemented ultrasensitive CE-nanoESI-HRMS with reversed-phase (RP) fractionation to enhance identifications from protein digest amounts that approximate to a few mammalian neurons. An 1 to 20 μg neuronal protein digest was fractionated on a RP column (ZipTip), and 1 ng to 500 pg of peptides were analyzed by a custom-built CE-HRMS system. Compared with the control (no fractionation), RP fractionation improved CE separation (theoretical plates 274,000 versus 412,000 maximum, resp.), which enhanced detection sensitivity (2.5-fold higher signal-to-noise ratio), minimized co-isolation spectral interferences during MS/MS, and increased the temporal rate of peptide identification by up to 57%. From 1 ng of protein digest (organization. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)

  6. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  7. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, M.E.; Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66 Zn/ 63 Cu, 208 Pb/ 238 U, 232 Th/ 238 U, 66 Zn/ 232 Th and 66 Zn/ 208 Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to femtosecond laser ablation of NIST 610 and Brass

  8. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinski, Slawomir; Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m 3 /h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold

  9. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  10. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  11. Vaporization study on vanadium-oxygen solid solution by mass spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, W.; Matsui, Tsuneo; Naito, Keiji

    1986-01-01

    The vapor pressures over vanadium-oxygen solid solution (0.001 ≤ O/V ≤ 0.145) were measured by mass-spectrometric method in the temperature range of 1,855 ∼ 2,117 K. The main vapor species were observed to be V(g) and VO(g). The vapor pressure of V(g) is higher than that of VO(g) over the solid solutions with all O/V ratios except for O/V = 0.145. The vapor pressure of V(g) is nearly independent of O/V ratio. The vapor pressure of VO(g) decreases with decreasing O/V ratio. The oxygen partial pressure was calculated as a function of temperature and O/V ratio from the vapor pressures of V(g) and VO(g), from which the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of oxygen in the solid solution were determined. The partial molar enthalpy of oxygen was observed to be independent of composition, suggesting the presence of very weak interaction between interstitial oxygens. The compositional dependence of the partial molar entropy of oxygen can be explained by assuming the occupation of the octahedral site in bcc vanadium lattice by the interstitial oxygens. The excess partial molar entropy of oxygen was compared with the value derived from the sum of the contributions from the volume expansion, electronic heat capacity and vibrational terms. (author)

  12. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  13. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.N.; Xie, Z.Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L.B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  14. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorous in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the pa......Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified...... by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorous in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase...... associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the 3 steps of the Hietjles-Litjkema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH4Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents...

  15. Efficient use of sugar cane bagasse by means of the separation of its component fractions in a new type of pneumatic classifier for polydisperse solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Alarcon, Guillermo A.; Perez, Luis E. Brossard [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Olivares Gomez, Edgardo; Cortez, Luis A. Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    This paper highlights the importance of pneumatic classification to improve the performance of any process using solid polydisperse materials. It is presented a physical model, based on which, it is proposed an installation with new characteristics for the separation of solid materials into three fractions, whose main part is a classification column. The fractions classified will be designated as: coarse, medium and fine. The classification column of the pneumatic installation allows establishing the appropriate flow regimes during the classification process. To evaluate the process there were defined the following indicators: the purity index, the classification efficiency and the degree of separation. These magnitudes are experimentally determined and serve as a measure of the percentage of separation and homogeneity of any of the three fractions mentioned before. The bagasse fractions can be obtained with definite particles size ranges that can improve the practical applications of bagasse in processes such as acid or enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol's obtaining, for combustion purposes and in general for classification of any solid polydisperse material of different size, shape and density. (author)

  16. Biomass ash reutilisation as an additive in the composting process of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquer, Carla; Cappai, Giovanna; De Gioannis, Giorgia; Muntoni, Aldo; Piredda, Martina; Spiga, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In this work the effects of selected types of biomass ash on the composting process and final product quality were studied by conducting a 96-day long experiment where the source separated organic fraction of municipal waste, mixed with wood prunings that served as bulking agent, was added with 0%, 2%, 4% and 8% wt/wt of biomass ash. The evolution over time of the main process parameters was observed, and the final composts were characterised. On the basis of the results, both the composting process and the quality of the final product were improved by ash addition. Enhanced volatile solids reduction and biological stability (up to 32% and 52%, respectively, as compared to the unamended product) were attained when ash was added, since ash favored the aerobic degradation by acting asa physical conditioner. In the final products, higher humification of organic matter (expressed in terms of the humification index, that was 2.25 times higher in the most-enriched compost than in the unamended one) and total Ca, K, Mg and P content were observed when ash was used. The latter aspect may influence the composts marketability positively, particularly with regards to potassium and phosphorus. The heavy metals content, that is regarded as the main environmental disadvantage when using ash asa composting additive, did not negatively affect the final composts quality. However, some other controversial effects of ash, related to the moisture and temperature values attained during the process, pH (8.8-9.2 as compared to 8.2 of the unamended compost) and electrical conductivity levels (up to 53% higher as compared to the unamended compost) in the final composts, were also observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing biochar and compost from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste on nutrient availability and plant growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regkouzas, Panagiotis; Manolikaki, Ioanna; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2017-04-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is determined by types of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Inorganic compounds, such as N, P, K and Ca, retained in biochar could be released and become available to plants. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of biochar and compost addition, derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes at two different pyrolysis temperatures 3000C (BC300) and 6000C (BC600), on phosphorus availability and plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in an alkaline loam soil. This type of soil is widely available in Greece, leading us to investigate ways to increase its fertility. A 39 d growth period of lettuce was studied in a greenhouse in triplicate. Treatments comprised of control soils (no addition of biochar or compost), soils treated only with compost (5%) or biochar (5%), and combinations of biochar (5%) plus compost (5%). No fertilization was added to any of the treatments. One biomass cut was obtained. Plant shoot yield and height were determined along with elemental concentration (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu) and uptake of shoots. Results showed that BC300 combined with compost significantly increased P uptake of lettuce. On the other hand, BC600 plus compost, along with the two biochar-only treatments, significantly decreased Ca and Mg uptake of lettuce. N, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu uptakes were not affected by the application of biochar, compost or the combined treatments. Despite the significant increase of P uptake, plant height and shoot yield were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments.

  18. Nitrogen fractionation in high-mass star-forming cores across the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, L.; Fontani, F.; Rivilla, V. M.; Sánchez-Monge, A.; Testi, L.; Beltrán, M. T.; Caselli, P.

    2018-04-01

    The fractionation of nitrogen (N) in star-forming regions is a poorly understood process. To put more stringent observational constraints on the N-fractionation, we have observed with the IRAM-30m telescope a large sample of 66 cores in massive star-forming regions. We targeted the (1-0) rotational transition of HN13C, HC15N, H13CN and HC15N, and derived the 14N/15N ratio for both HCN and HNC. We have completed this sample with that already observed by Colzi et al. (2018), and thus analysed a total sample of 87 sources. The 14N/15N ratios are distributed around the Proto-Solar Nebula value with a lower limit near the terrestrial atmosphere value (˜272). We have also derived the 14N/15N ratio as a function of the Galactocentric distance and deduced a linear trend based on unprecedented statistics. The Galactocentric dependences that we have found are consistent, in the slope, with past works but we have found a new local 14N/15N value of ˜400, i.e. closer to the Prosolar Nebula value. A second analysis was done, and a parabolic Galactocentric trend was found. Comparison with Galactic chemical evolution models shows that the slope until 8 kpc is consistent with the linear analysis, while the flattening trend above 8 kpc is well reproduced by the parabolic analysis.

  19. Solid/solution Cu fractionations/speciation of a Cu contaminated soil after pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation and their relationships with soil microbial and enzyme activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Li Lianzhen; Wang Peng

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed metal speciation/fractionations of a Cu contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic remediation as well as their relationships with the soil microbial and enzyme activities. Significant changes in the exchangeable and adsorbed-Cu fractionations occurred after electrokinetic treatment, while labile soil Cu in the solution had a tendency to decrease from the anode to the cathode, and the soil free Cu 2+ ions were mainly accumulated in the sections close to the cathode. The results of regression analyses revealed that both the soil Cu speciation in solution phase and the Cu fractionations in solid phase could play important roles in the changes of the soil microbial and enzyme activities. Our findings suggest that the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and their ecotoxicological effects on the soil biota before and after electroremediation can be better understood in terms of their chemical speciation and fractionations. - The assessment of the roles of soil solution speciation and solid-phase fractionations in metal bioavailability after electrokinetic remediation deserves close attention.

  20. Intratumoral Macroscopic Fat and Hemorrhage Combination Useful in the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Solid Renal Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Xing, Zhaoyu; Xing, Wei; Zheng, Linfeng; Chen, Jie; Fan, Min; Chen, Tongbing; Zhang, Zhuoli

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the value of combining the detection of intratumoral macroscopic fat and hemorrhage in the differentiation of the benign from malignant solid renal masses.Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chemical shift (CS)-MRI, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed in 152 patients with 152 solid renal masses, including 48 benign and 104 malignant masses all pathologically confirmed. The presence of macroscopic fat detected by CS-MRI and hemorrhage detected by susceptibility-weighted imaging were evaluated in all masses. The rates of macroscopic fat and hemorrhage observed between benign and malignant masses were compared by a χ test. All masses found to contain macroscopic fat with or without hemorrhage were considered to be benign. The remaining masses (without macroscopic fat) found not to contain hemorrhage were considered to be benign. Only those found to contain hemorrhage alone were considered to be malignant. The evaluation indexes for differentiating and forecasting the benign and malignant masses were calculated.Significant differences in the rate of macroscopic fat (observed in 85.42% of benign masses vs. 0% of malignant masses) and hemorrhage (observed in 4.17% of benign masses vs. 95.19% of malignant masses) were measured in the benign and malignant groups (P benign and malignant masses were 96.05%, 95.19%, and 97.92%, respectively, and the accuracy and error rate of forecasting the benign and malignant masses were 95.39% and 4.61%, respectively.Combining the detection intratumoral macroscopic fat and hemorrhage can be used to differentiate the benign from malignant solid renal masses.

  1. Testing a low molecular mass fraction of a mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract formulated as an oral rinse in a cohort of volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signoretto, C.; Burlacchini, G.; Marchi, A.; Grillenzoni, M.; Cavalleri, G.; Ciric, L.; Lingström, P.; Pezzati, E.; Daglia, M.; Zaura, E.; Pratten, J.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Canepari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM) fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been

  2. An open-source library for the numerical modeling of mass-transfer in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaresio, Valerio; García-Camprubí, María; Izquierdo, Salvador; Asinari, Pietro; Fueyo, Norberto

    2012-01-01

    the simulation of the steady state mass and momentum transport in a multi-species gas mixture, possibly in a porous medium. The software is particularly designed to be used as the mass-transport library for the modeling of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). When supplemented with other sub-models, such as thermal and charge-transport ones, it allows the prediction of the cell polarization curve and hence the cell performance. Solution method: Standard finite volume method (FVM) is used for solving all the conservation equations. The pressure-velocity coupling is solved using the SIMPLE algorithm (possibly adding a porous drag term if required). The mass transport can be calculated using different alternative models, namely Fick, Maxwell-Stefan or dusty gas model. The code adopts a segregated method to solve the resulting linear system of equations. The different regions of the SOFC, namely gas channels, electrodes and electrolyte, are solved independently, and coupled through boundary conditions. Restrictions: When extremely large species fluxes are considered, current implementation of the Neumann and Robin boundary conditions do not avoid negative values of molar and/or mass fractions, which finally end up with numerical instability. However this never happened in the documented runs. Eventually these boundary conditions could be reformulated to become more robust. Running time: From seconds to hours depending on the mesh size and number of species. For example, on a 64 bit machine with Intel Core Duo T8300 and 3 GBytes of RAM, the provided test run requires less than 1 second.

  3. Updating the MACHO fraction of the Milky Way dark halo with improved mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcino, Josh; García-Bellido, Juan; Davis, Tamara M.

    2018-05-01

    Recent interest in primordial black holes as a possible dark matter candidate has motivated the reanalysis of previous methods for constraining massive astrophysical compact objects in the Milky Way halo and beyond. In order to derive these constraints, a model for the dark matter distribution around the Milky Way must be used. Previous microlensing searches have assumed a semi-isothermal density sphere for this task. We show this model is no longer consistent with data from the Milky Way rotation curve, and test two replacement models, namely NFW and power-law. The power-law model is the most flexible as it can break spherical symmetry, and best fits the data. Thus, we recommend the power-law model as a replacement, although it still lacks the flexibility to fully encapsulate all possible shapes of the Milky Way halo. We then use the power-law model to rederive some previous microlensing constraints in the literature, while propagating the primary halo-shape uncertainties through to our final constraints. Our analysis reveals that the microlensing constraints towards the Large Magellanic Cloud weaken somewhat for MACHO masses around 10 M⊙ when this uncertainty is taken into account, but the constraints tighten at lower masses. Exploring some of the simplifying assumptions of previous constraints we also study the effect of wide mass distributions of compact halo objects, as well as the effect of spatial clustering on microlensing constraints. We find that both effects induce a shift in the constraints towards smaller masses, and can effectively remove the microlensing constraints from M ˜ 1 - 10M⊙ for certain MACHO populations.

  4. A High Mass & Low Envelope Fraction for the Warm Neptune K2-55b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney; Sinukoff, Evan; Fulton, Benjamin; Lopez, Eric; Beichman, Charles; Howard, Andrew; Knutson, Heather; Werner, Michael; Schlieder, Joshua; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Isaacson, Howard; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik; Akeson, Rachel; Batygin, Konstantin; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Crepp, Justin; Jasmine Gonzales, Erica; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Hirsch, Lea; Kosiarek, Molly; Weiss, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. One of the planets detected by K2 is K2-55b, a warm Neptune in a short-period orbit (2.8 days) around a late K dwarf. We previously obtained near-infrared spectra from IRTF/SpeX to characterize the system and found that the host star K2-55 has a radius of 0.715 (+0.043/-0.040) solar radii, a mass of 0.668 (+/- 0.069) solar masses, and an effective temperature of 4300K (+100/-107). We then combined our updated stellar properties with new fits to the K2 photometry to estimate a planet radius of 4.38 (+0.29/-0.25) Earth radii, confirmed the transit ephemeris using Spitzer/IRAC (GO 11026, PI Werner), and embarked on radial velocity observations with Keck/HIRES to measure the planet mass. Our RV data suggest that K2-55b is much more massive than expected, indicating that the planet has a high density despite having a relatively high mass. The lack of a significant volatile envelope tests current theories of gas giant formation and indicates that K2-55b may have avoided runaway accretion by migration, delayed formation, or inefficient core accretion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Sagan Fellowship Program and the NASA K2 Guest Observer Program. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  5. An Update on the Non-Mass-Dependent Isotope Fractionation under Thermal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard; Liu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Mass flow and compositional gradient (elemental and isotope separation) occurs when flu-id(s) or gas(es) in an enclosure is subjected to a thermal gradient, and the phenomenon is named thermal diffusion. Gas phase thermal diffusion has been theoretically and experimentally studied for more than a century, although there has not been a satisfactory theory to date. Nevertheless, for isotopic system, the Chapman-Enskog theory predicts that the mass difference is the only term in the thermal diffusion separation factors that differs one isotope pair to another,with the assumptions that the molecules are spherical and systematic (monoatomic-like structure) and the particle collision is elastic. Our previous report indicates factors may be playing a role because the Non-Mass Dependent (NMD) effect is found for both symmetric and asymmetric, linear and spherical polyatomic molecules over a wide range of temperature (-196C to +237C). The observed NMD phenomenon in the simple thermal-diffusion experiments demands quantitative validation and theoretical explanation. Besides the pressure and temperature dependency illustrated in our previous reports, efforts are made in this study to address issues such as the role of convection or molecular structure and whether it is a transient, non-equilibrium effect only.

  6. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over ∼2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 ± 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 ± 0.5 per mille amu –1 for Ne and 2.6 ± 0.5 per mille amu –1 for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  7. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Bochsler, Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bern, Sidlerstasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); McKeegan, Kevin D. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Neugebauer, Marcia [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Reisenfeld, Daniel B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: heber@ess.ucla.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  8. Sewage sludges compost and organic fraction urban solid waste from selective collection; Compostaje de lodos de depuradora y FORSU procedente de recogida selectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, A.; Diaz, M. M.; Mohedo, J.

    2001-07-01

    The organic fraction of urban solid waste (FORSU) from selective collection has been analysed to make a good quality compost for soils an agricultural use. Different mixtures of FORSU, sludge from the municipal water treatment plant, and pruning garden has been composted in turned windrow. The composting process and the obtained refined compost were characterised. The results on evolution of pH, conductivity, C/N relation, P, metals,-organic matter and recovery yield were related. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreove...

  10. Exploring the Largest Mass Fraction of the Solar System: the Case for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.; Boyce, J.

    2017-01-01

    Why explore planetary interiors: The typical image that comes to mind for planetary science is that of a planet surface. And while surface data drive our exploration of evolved geologic processes, it is the interiors of planets that hold the key to planetary origins via accretionary and early differentiation processes. It is that initial setting of the bulk planet composition that sets the stage for all geologic processes that follow. But nearly all of the mass of planets is inaccessible to direct examination, making experimentation an absolute necessity for full planetary exploration.

  11. High-temperature, Knudsen cell-mass spectroscopic studies on lanthanum oxide/uranium dioxide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; McEachern, R.; LeBlanc, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Knudsen cell-mass spectroscopic experiments were carried out with lanthanum oxide/uranium oxide solid solutions (1%, 2% and 5% (metal at.% basis)) to assess the volatilization characteristics of rare earths present in irradiated nuclear fuel. The oxidation state of each sample used was conditioned to the 'uranium dioxide stage' by heating in the Knudsen cell under an atmosphere of 10% CO 2 in CO. The mass spectra were analyzed to obtain the vapour pressures of the lanthanum and uranium species. It was found that the vapour pressure of lanthanum oxide follows Henry's law, i.e., its value is directly proportional to its concentration in the solid phase. Also, the vapour pressure of lanthanum oxide over the solid solution, after correction for its concentration in the solid phase, is similar to that of uranium dioxide. (authors)

  12. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Mass Dependency of Isotope Fractionation of Gases Under Thermal Gradient and Its Possible Implications for Planetary Atmosphere Escaping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Physical processes that unmix elements/isotopes of gas molecules involve phase changes, diffusion (chemical or thermal), effusion and gravitational settling. Some of those play significant roles for the evolution of chemical and isotopic compositions of gases in planetary bodies which lead to better understanding of surface paleoclimatic conditions, e.g. gas bubbles in Antarctic ice, and planetary evolution, e.g. the solar-wind erosion induced gas escaping from exosphere on terrestrial planets.. A mass dependent relationship is always expected for the kinetic isotope fractionations during these simple physical processes, according to the kinetic theory of gases by Chapman, Enskog and others [3-5]. For O-bearing (O16, -O17, -O18) molecules the alpha O-17/ alpha O-18 is expected at 0.5 to 0.515, and for S-bearing (S32,-S33. -S34, -S36) molecules, the alpha S-33/ alpha S-34 is expected at 0.5 to 0.508, where alpha is the isotope fractionation factor associated with unmixing processes. Thus, one isotope pair is generally proxied to yield all the information for the physical history of the gases. However, we recently] reported the violation of mass law for isotope fractionation among isotope pairs of multiple isotope system during gas diffusion or convection under thermal gradient (Thermal Gradient Induced Non-Mass Dependent effect, TGI-NMD). The mechanism(s) that is responsible to such striking observation remains unanswered. In our past studies, we investigated polyatomic molecules, O2 and SF6, and we suggested that nuclear spin effect could be responsible to the observed NMD effect in a way of changing diffusion coefficients of certain molecules, owing to the fact of negligible delta S-36 anomaly for SF6.. On the other hand, our results also showed that for both diffusion and convection under thermal gradient, this NMD effect is increased by lower gas pressure, bigger temperature gradient and lower average temperature, which indicate that the nuclear spin effect may

  14. All-solid-state deep ultraviolet laser for single-photon ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengqian; Liu, Xianhu; Zeng, Chenghui; Zhang, Hanyu; Jia, Meiye; Wu, Yishi; Luo, Zhixun; Fu, Hongbing; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-02-01

    We report here the development of a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer utilizing single-photon ionization based on an all-solid-state deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser system. The DUV laser was achieved from the second harmonic generation using a novel nonlinear optical crystal KBe2BO3F2 under the condition of high-purity N2 purging. The unique property of this laser system (177.3-nm wavelength, 15.5-ps pulse duration, and small pulse energy at ∼15 μJ) bears a transient low power density but a high single-photon energy up to 7 eV, allowing for ionization of chemicals, especially organic compounds free of fragmentation. Taking this advantage, we have designed both pulsed nanospray and thermal evaporation sources to form supersonic expansion molecular beams for DUV single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (DUV-SPI-MS). Several aromatic amine compounds have been tested revealing the fragmentation-free performance of the DUV-SPI-MS instrument, enabling applications to identify chemicals from an unknown mixture.

  15. Solid-Gas Coupling Model for Coal-Rock Mass Deformation and Pressure Relief Gas Flow in Protection Layer Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhuohui; Feng, Tao; Yuan, Zhigang; Xie, Donghai; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The solid-gas coupling model for mining coal-rock mass deformation and pressure relief gas flow in protection layer mining is the key to determine deformation of coal-rock mass and migration law of pressure relief gas of protection layer mining in outburst coal seams. Based on the physical coupling process between coal-rock mass deformation and pressure-relief gas migration, the coupling variable of mining coal-rock mass, a part of governing equations of gas seepage field and deformation fiel...

  16. Characterization of taste-active fractions in red wine combining HPLC fractionation, sensory analysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2010-07-19

    Five Tempranillo wines exhibiting marked differences in taste and/or astringency were selected for the study. In each wine the non-volatile extract was obtained by freeze-drying and further liquid extraction in order to eliminate remaining volatile compounds. This extract was fractionated by semipreparative C18-reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (C18-RP-HPLC) into nine fractions which were freeze-dried, reconstituted with water and sensory assessed for taste attributes and astringency by a specifically trained sensory panel. Results have shown that wine bitterness and astringency cannot be easily related to the bitter and astringent character of the HPLC fractions, what can be due to the existence of perceptual and physicochemical interactions. While the bitter character of the bitterest fractions may be attributed to some flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and their glycosides) the development of a sensitive UPLC-MS method to quantify astringent compounds present in wines has made it possible to demonstrate that proanthocyanidins monomers, dimers, trimers and tetramers, both galloylated or non-galloylated are not relevant compounds for the perceived astringency of the fractions, while cis-aconitic acid, and secondarily vainillic, and syringic acids and ethyl syringate, are the most important molecules driving astringency in two of the fractions (F5 and F6). The identity of the chemicals responsible for the astringency of the third fraction could be assigned to some proanthocyanidins (higher than the tetramer) capable to precipitate with ovalbumin. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Major- and minor-metal composition of three distinct solid material fractions associated with Juan de Fuca hydrothermal fluids (northeast Pacific), and calculation of dilution fluid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, T.K.; Seeley, J.L.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1988-01-01

    Three distinct types of solid material are associated with each sample of the hydrothermal fluid that was collected from the vents of the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The solid materials appear to be representative of deposits on ocean floors near mid-ocean ridges, and interpretation of the chemistry of the hydrothermal solutions requires understanding of them. Sr isotopic evidence indicates that at least two and probably all three of these solid materials were removed from the solution with which they are associated, by precipitation or adsorption. This occurred after the "pure" hydrothermal fluid was diluted and thoroughly mixed with ambient seawater. The three types of solid materials, are, respectively, a coarse Zn- and Fe-rich material with small amounts of Na and Ca; a finer material also rich in Zn and Fe, but with alkali and alkaline-earth metals; and a scum composed of Ba or Zn, with either considerable Fe or Si, and Sr. Mineral identification is uncertain because of uncertain anion composition. Only in the cases of Ba and Zn were metal masses greater in solid materials than in the associated fluids. For all other metals measured, masses in fluids dwarf those in solids. The fluids themselves contain greater concentrations of all metals measured, except Mg, than seawater. We discuss in detail the relative merits of two methods of determining the mixing proportions of "pure" hydrothermal solution and seawater in the fluids, one based on Sr isotopes, and another previously used method based on Mg concentrations. Comparison of solute concentrations in the several samples shows that degree of dilution of "pure" hydrothermal solutions by seawater, and amounts of original solutes that were removed from it as solid materials, are not related. There is no clear evidence that appreciable amounts of solid materials were not conserved (lost) either during or prior to sample collection. ?? 1988.

  18. The effect of age on Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, and Na mass fraction in pediatric and young adult prostate glands investigated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    The effect of age on chemical element mass fractions in intact prostate of 50 apparently healthy 0–30 year old males was investigated by neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for mass fraction (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis) of chemical elements before the time of puberty and in the period of puberty and post-puberty were: Br 46.0±6.7, Ca 1151±140, Cl 14572±700, K 10147±700, Mg 771±131, Mn 2.13±0.25, Na 9880±659 and Br 29.0±4.6, Ca 2049±364, Cl 11518±1121, K 13029±542, Mg 1186±134, Mn 1.74±0.16, Na 9887±716, respectively. A tendency of age-related increase in Ca, K, and Mg mass fraction and of age-related decrease in Br mass fraction was observed in period of life from 0 to 30 years. This new data indicates that of the elements studied, only the Ca, K, and Mg mass fraction in prostate tissue is an androgen-dependent parameter

  19. Extraction estimation and gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis of the non polar fraction of the pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The non-polar compounds of the Pistia stratiotes were extracted using n-hexane as solvent. The extraction yields were determined both for the cold and hot extraction procedure as 8.50 +- 0.05% and 12.00 +- 0.05%, respectively. The extract was analyzed and separated into its components using GC equipped with FID and GC mass in separate experiments. The most important compounds identified in n-hexane extract of leaves of P. stratiotes are long chain compound of the nitrogenous nature and oxygenated compounds of mixed functional groups. The antibacterial activity of this fraction was investigated against eight pathogenic bacteria using disc diffusion method. Larger zones of inhibition were observed for Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens as compared to Klebsiella pneumoniaee and Staphylococcus aureus where the activity was relatively less. No activity was observed against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus atrophaeus. (author)

  20. A mass-energy preserving Galerkin FEM for the coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyu; Huang, Chengming; Li, Meng

    2018-04-01

    We consider the numerical simulation of the coupled nonlinear space fractional Schrödinger equations. Based on the Galerkin finite element method in space and the Crank-Nicolson (CN) difference method in time, a fully discrete scheme is constructed. Firstly, we focus on a rigorous analysis of conservation laws for the discrete system. The definitions of discrete mass and energy here correspond with the original ones in physics. Then, we prove that the fully discrete system is uniquely solvable. Moreover, we consider the unconditionally convergent properties (that is to say, we complete the error estimates without any mesh ratio restriction). We derive L2-norm error estimates for the nonlinear equations and L^{∞}-norm error estimates for the linear equations. Finally, some numerical experiments are included showing results in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  1. Certification of Mass Fractions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Organochlorines and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in IAEA-459 Marine Sediment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication describes the production of certified reference material IAEA-459, which is produced following ISO Guides 34:2009 and 35:2006. This certified reference material is a sediment sample with certified mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The assigned final values and their associated uncertainties were derived from robust statistics on the results provided by selected laboratories with demonstrated technical and quality competence, following the guidance given in the ISO Guides. The material is used for quality control and assessment of method performance for a number of organic analytes listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants as well as other pollutants listed as priority substances included in many environment monitoring programmes.

  2. Using Gas Chromatography/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Fractionation Factor for H2 Production by Hydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui; Ghandi, H.; Shi, Liang; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible formation of H2, and they are key enzymes in the biological cycling of H2. H isotopes should be a very useful tool in quantifying proton trafficking in biological H2 production processes, but there are several obstacles that have thus far limited the use of this tool. In this manuscript, we describe a new method that overcomes some of these barriers and is specifically designed to measure isotopic fractionation during enzyme-catalyzed H2 evolution. A key feature of this technique is that purified hydrogenases are employed, allowing precise control over the reaction conditions and therefore a high level of precision. A custom-designed high-throughput gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometer is employed to measure the isotope ratio of the H2. Using this method, we determined that the fractionation factor of H2 production by the (NiFe)-hydrogenase from Desulfivibrio fructosovran is 0.27. This result indicates that, as expected, protons are highly favored over deuterons during H2 evolution. Potential applications of this new method are discussed.

  3. A new qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastograghy for solid breast mass evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Rui, E-mail: congrui2684@163.com; Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@sj-hospital.org; Guo, Song, E-mail: 21751735@qq.com

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Qualitative SWE classification proposed here was significantly better than quantitative SWE parameters. • Qualitative classification proposed here was better than the classification proposed before. • Qualitative classification proposed here could obtain higher specificity without a loss of sensitivity. - Abstract: Objectives: To examine the efficacy of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in the classification and evaluation of solid breast masses, and to compare this method with conventional ultrasonograghy (US), quantitative SWE parameters and qualitative SWE classification proposed before. Methods: From April 2015 to March 2016, 314 consecutive females with 325 breast masses who decided to undergo core needle biopsy and/or surgical biopsy were enrolled. Conventional US and SWE were previously performed in all enrolled subjects. Each mass was classified by two different qualitative classifications. One was established in our study, herein named the Qual1. Qual1 could classify the SWE images into five color patterns by the visual evaluations: Color pattern 1 (homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 2 (comparative homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 3 (irregularly heterogeneous pattern); Color pattern 4 (intralesional echo pattern); and Color pattern 5 (the stiff rim sign pattern). The second qualitative classification was named Qual2 here, and included a four-color overlay pattern classification (Tozaki and Fukuma, Acta Radiologica, 2011). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performances of conventional US, SWE parameters, and combinations of US and SWE parameters were compared. Results: With pathological results as the gold standard, of the 325 examined breast masses, 139 (42.77%) samples were malignant and 186 (57.23%) were benign. The Qual1 showed a higher Az value than the Qual2 and quantitative SWE parameters (all P < 0.05). When applying Qual1

  4. A new qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastograghy for solid breast mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Rui; Li, Jing; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Qualitative SWE classification proposed here was significantly better than quantitative SWE parameters. • Qualitative classification proposed here was better than the classification proposed before. • Qualitative classification proposed here could obtain higher specificity without a loss of sensitivity. - Abstract: Objectives: To examine the efficacy of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in the classification and evaluation of solid breast masses, and to compare this method with conventional ultrasonograghy (US), quantitative SWE parameters and qualitative SWE classification proposed before. Methods: From April 2015 to March 2016, 314 consecutive females with 325 breast masses who decided to undergo core needle biopsy and/or surgical biopsy were enrolled. Conventional US and SWE were previously performed in all enrolled subjects. Each mass was classified by two different qualitative classifications. One was established in our study, herein named the Qual1. Qual1 could classify the SWE images into five color patterns by the visual evaluations: Color pattern 1 (homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 2 (comparative homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 3 (irregularly heterogeneous pattern); Color pattern 4 (intralesional echo pattern); and Color pattern 5 (the stiff rim sign pattern). The second qualitative classification was named Qual2 here, and included a four-color overlay pattern classification (Tozaki and Fukuma, Acta Radiologica, 2011). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performances of conventional US, SWE parameters, and combinations of US and SWE parameters were compared. Results: With pathological results as the gold standard, of the 325 examined breast masses, 139 (42.77%) samples were malignant and 186 (57.23%) were benign. The Qual1 showed a higher Az value than the Qual2 and quantitative SWE parameters (all P < 0.05). When applying Qual1

  5. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill. PMID:28044139

  6. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  7. On mass in 4π solid angle around song CsI scintillator aboard coronas-I satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucik, R.; Kudela, K.

    2003-01-01

    The complex geometric setup around the SONG CsI scintillator aboard the CORONAS-1 satellite has been modelled, to evaluate the mass thickness passed through by the cosmic ray particle striking the detector. The analytic functional form giving the amount of matter traversed in absorbers for an arbitrary incident directions is present. The population mean and variance of the mass thickness are estimated by random sampling of the uniformly distributed particle trajectories in the several solid angles (Authors)

  8. Measurement of Mechanical Coherency Temperature and Solid Volume Fraction in Al-Zn Alloys Using In Situ X-ray Diffraction During Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Mireux, Bastien; Kurtuldu, Güven; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2015-09-01

    During solidification of metallic alloys, coalescence leads to the formation of solid bridges between grains or grain clusters when both solid and liquid phases are percolated. As such, it represents a key transition with respect to the mechanical behavior of solidifying alloys and to the prediction of solidification cracking. Coalescence starts at the coherency point when the grains begin to touch each other, but are unable to sustain any tensile loads. It ends up at mechanical coherency when the solid phase is sufficiently coalesced to transmit macroscopic tensile strains and stresses. Temperature at mechanical coherency is a major input parameter in numerical modeling of solidification processes as it defines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. This temperature has been determined for Al-Zn alloys using in situ X-ray diffraction during casting in a dog-bone-shaped mold. This setup allows the sample to build up internal stress naturally as its contraction is prevented. The cooling on both extremities of the mold induces a hot spot at the middle of the sample which is irradiated by X-ray. Diffraction patterns were recorded every 0.5 seconds using a detector covering a 426 × 426 mm2 area. The change of diffraction angles allowed measuring the general decrease of the lattice parameter of the fcc aluminum phase. At high solid volume fraction, a succession of strain/stress build up and release is explained by the formation of hot tears. Mechanical coherency temperatures, 829 K to 866 K (556 °C to 593 °C), and solid volume fractions, ca. 98 pct, are shown to depend on solidification time for grain refined Al-6.2 wt pct Zn alloys.

  9. Quantitative shear wave ultrasound elastography: initial experience in solid breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Denis; Brauer, Katrin; Purdie, Colin; Jordan, Lee; Baker, Lee; Thompson, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Shear wave elastography is a new method of obtaining quantitative tissue elasticity data during breast ultrasound examinations. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (2) to correlate the elasticity values of a series of solid breast masses with histological findings and (3) to compare shear wave elastography with greyscale ultrasound for benign/malignant classification. Using the Aixplorer® ultrasound system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France), 53 solid breast lesions were identified in 52 consecutive patients. Two orthogonal elastography images were obtained of each lesion. Observers noted the mean elasticity values in regions of interest (ROI) placed over the stiffest areas on the two elastography images and a mean value was calculated for each lesion. A sub-set of 15 patients had two elastography images obtained by an additional operator. Reproducibility of observations was assessed between (1) two observers analysing the same pair of images and (2) findings from two pairs of images of the same lesion taken by two different operators. All lesions were subjected to percutaneous biopsy. Elastography measurements were correlated with histology results. After preliminary experience with 10 patients a mean elasticity cut off value of 50 kilopascals (kPa) was selected for benign/malignant differentiation. Greyscale images were classified according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). BI-RADS categories 1-3 were taken as benign while BI-RADS categories 4 and 5 were classified as malignant. Twenty-three benign lesions and 30 cancers were diagnosed on histology. Measurement of mean elasticity yielded an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 for two observers assessing the same pairs of elastography images. Analysis of images taken by two independent operators gave an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.80. Shear wave elastography versus

  10. An investigation of inorganic antimony species and antimony associated with soil humic acid molar mass fractions in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steely, Sarah; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antimony compounds is often suspected in the soil of apple orchards contaminated with lead arsenate pesticide and in the soil of shooting ranges. Nitric acid (1 M) extractable Sb from the shooting range (8300 μg kg -1 ) and the apple orchard (69 μg kg -1 ) had considerably higher surface Sb levels than the control site ( -1 ), and Sb was confined to the top ∼30 cm soil layer. Sb(V) was the principal species in the shooting range and the apple orchard surface soils. Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) analysis of humic acids isolated from the two contaminated soils demonstrated that Sb has complexed to humic acid molar mass fractions. The results also indicate that humic acids have the ability to arrest the mobility of Sb through soils and would be beneficial in converting Sb(III) to a less toxic species, Sb(V), in contaminated areas. - The soil surface and depth distribution Sb(V) and Sb(III) species in a contaminated apple orchard and a shooting range, and the effect soil humic acids on inorganic antimony species is reported

  11. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Kimberly; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-01-01

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind 'tightly' to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil. - The distribution of arsenic species [i.e., As (III), As (V), and methylated arsenic species (DMA, MMA)] on the soil surface and in a depth profile as well as those associated with humic acids is discussed

  12. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassee, Flemming R; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Kelly, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution.

  13. Solid phase extraction for removal of matrix effects in lipophilic marine toxin analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; McElhinney, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bire, R.; Hess, P.; Boer, de J.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up has been assessed to reduce matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC¿MS/MS) analysis of lipophilic marine toxins. A large array of ion-exchange, silica-based, and mixed-function

  14. Solid phase extraction for removal of matrix effects in lipophilic marine toxin analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; McElhinney, A. M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bire, L.; Hess, P.; de Boer, J.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up has been assessed to reduce matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of lipophilic marine toxins. A large array of ion-exchange, silica-based, and mixed-function

  15. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, A.; Ooms, B.; Lagemaat, D. van de; Vreeken, R.; Dongen, W.D. van

    2003-01-01

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS

  16. A New Approach to Determine the Density of Liquids and Solids without Measuring Mass and Volume: Introducing the "Solidensimeter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriktas, Halit; Sahin, Mehmet; Eslek, Sinan; Kiriktas, Irem

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to design a mechanism with which the density of any solid or liquid can be determined without measuring its mass and volume in order to help students comprehend the concept of density more easily. The "solidensimeter" comprises of two scaled and nested glass containers (graduated cylinder or beaker) and sufficient water.…

  17. Magnetic solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometrical analysis of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; NguyenVan, Manh; Wang, Lijia; Cai, Qingyun

    2015-08-07

    Fluorenyl functionalized superparamagnetic core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, Fe3O4@SiO2@Flu) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The MNPs having an average diameter of 200nm were then used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples designated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The main influencing parameters, including sorbent amount, desorption solvent, sample volume and extraction time were optimized. Analyses were performed on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels. Limit of detection ranging from 0.5 to 4.0ng/L were obtained. The repeatability was investigated by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 13.1%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in water samples with the recoveries in the range of 96.0-106.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of fragrance allergens in baby bathwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, J Pablo; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2009-07-01

    A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of fragrance allergens in water samples. This is the first study devoted to this family of cosmetic ingredients performed by SPME. The influence of parameters such as fibre coating, extraction and desorption temperatures, salting-out effect and sampling mode on the extraction efficiency has been studied by means of a mixed-level factorial design, which allowed the study of the main effects as well as two-factor interactions. Excluding desorption temperature, the other parameters were, in general, very important for the achievement of high response. The final procedure was based on headspace sampling at 100 degrees C, using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fibres. The method showed good linearity and precision for all compounds, with detection limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.3 ng mL(-1). Reliability was demonstrated through the evaluation of the recoveries in different real water samples, including baby bathwater and swimming pool water. The absence of matrix effects allowed the use of external standard calibration to quantify the target compounds in the samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of allergens in several real samples. All the target compounds were found in the samples, and, in some cases, at quite high concentrations. The presence and the levels of these chemicals in baby bathwater should be a matter of concern.

  19. Determination of aromatic fragment content in phenol-containing fractions of solid fuel conversion products using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitskaya, L.V.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    Optimum conditions are determined for obtaining quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 13/C spectra of fragments in phenol-containing fraction of coal products. Causes are analyzed of residual signals in spectra of un-protonized carbon atoms. The tests were carried out on: low-temperature carbonization tar and phenol fraction obtained during medium-temperature coking of Cherenkhovskii coal (which contains 84.13% C; 9.68% H; 1.23% S; 4.96% O); products of tar hydrogenation with various phenol content; standard phenol mixture. It was found that quantitative determination of aromatic fraction content in coal conversion products and other phenol- and amine-containing complex mixtures, using NMR spectroscopy requires the addition of dimethylsulfide or acetone in order to suppress specific interactions of phenols (amines) with relaxants and obtain quantitative subspectra of Tertiary and Quaternary aromatic carbon atoms. 16 references.

  20. Solid state CP/MAS 13C n.m.r. analysis of particle size and density fractions of soil incubated with uniformly labelled 13C-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, J.A.; Oades, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A soil incubated for 34 days in the absence (control) and presence (treated) of uniformly labelled 13 C-glucose was dispersed using an ultrasonic probe and fractionated by sedimentation in water and a polytungstate solution of density 2.0 Mg m -3 . Solid state CP/MAS 13 C n.m.r. (cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of the native soil organic carbon and the residual substrate carbon in the fractions of the control and treated soils. To obtain quantitative results it was essential to determine the spin lattice relaxation time in a rotating frame of the individual carbon types in the spectra as the relaxation behaviour of the native organic material in the clay fraction was different from that of the residual substrate carbon. The residual substrate carbon was found to accumulate in predominantly alkyl and O-alkyl structures in both fractions. However, significant amounts of acetal and carboxyl carbon were also observed in the clay fraction. Little if any aromatic or phenolic carbon was synthesized by the soil microorganisms utilizing substrate carbon. Dipolar dephasing CP/MAS 13 C n.m.r. experiments were also performed and allowed the proportion of each type of carbon which was protonated and nonprotonated to be estimated. Essentially all of the O-alkyl and acetal carbon, 25-40% of the aromatic carbon and 66-80% of the alkyl carbon was protonated in the fractions isolated from the treated soil. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Measurement of Muscle Protein Fractional Synthetic Rate by Capillary Gas Chromatography/Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J.; Bier, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rate using an infusion of (1-13C)leucine and measuring the isotopic abundance of the tracer in skeletal muscle protein by preparative gas chromatography (GC)/ninhydrin isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is laborious and subject to errors owing to contamination by 12C. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle (13C)leucine enrichment measured with the conventional preparative GC/ninhydrin IRMS approach to a new, continuous-flow technique using capillary GC/combustion IRMS. Quadriceps muscles were removed from four Sprague–Dawley rats after each was infused at a different rate with (1-13C)leucine for 6–8 h. Muscle leucine enrichment (at.% excess) measured by both methods differed by less than 4%, except at low (13C)leucine enrichments (IRMS was used to assess muscle (13C)leucine enrichment and fractional muscle protein synthesis rate in ten normal young men and women infused with (1,2-13C2)leucine for 12–14 h. This approach reduced the variability of the isotope abundance measure and gave estimates of muscle protein synthesis rate (0.050 ± 0.011% h−1 (mean ± SEM); range = 0.023–0.147% h−1) that agree with published values determined using the standard analytical approach. The measurement of (13C)leucine enrichment from skeletal muscle protein by capillary GC/combustion IRMS provides a simple, acceptable and practical alternative to preparative GC/ninhydrin IRMS. PMID:1420371

  2. Is the non-isothermal double β-model incompatible with no time evolution of galaxy cluster gas mass fraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the depletion factor γ(z), the ratio by which the measured baryon fraction in galaxy clusters is depleted with respect to the universal mean. We use exclusively galaxy cluster data, namely, X-ray gas mass fraction (fgas) and angular diameter distance measurements from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect plus X-ray observations. The galaxy clusters are the same in both data set and the non-isothermal spherical double β-model was used to describe their electron density and temperature profiles. In order to compare our results with those from recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we suppose a possible time evolution for γ(z), such as, γ(z) =γ0(1 +γ1 z) . As main conclusions we found that: the γ0 value is in full agreement with the simulations. On the other hand, although the γ1 value found in our analysis is compatible with γ1 = 0 within 2σ c.l., our results show a non-negligible time evolution for the depletion factor, unlike the results of the simulations. However, we also put constraints on γ(z) by using the fgas measurements and angular diameter distances obtained from the flat ΛCDM model (Planck results) and from a sample of galaxy clusters described by an elliptical profile. For these cases no significant time evolution for γ(z) was found. Then, if a constant depletion factor is an inherent characteristic of these structures, our results show that the spherical double β-model used to describe the galaxy clusters considered does not affect the quality of their fgas measurements.

  3. The occurrence of recruitment supported from the finding of an increase in radiosensitivity of quiescent cells in solid tumors after fractionated irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    We examined the behavior of quiescent cells in solid tumors irradiated twice at various intervals with X-rays, using our recently developed method for selectively detecting the response of quiescent cells in solid tumors. To determine the labeling indices of tumors at the second irradiation, each mouse group included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted before the first irradiation. Radiosensitivity of total tumor cells at the second irradiation decreased in proportion to the increase in interval time. However, radiosensitivity of quiescent cells was raised with increase in the interval time. In addition, the labeling index at the second irradiation was higher than that at the first irradiation. These findings supported the occurrence of recruitment from quiescent to proliferating state during fractionated irradiation. (author)

  4. Stimulation of the anaerobic digestion of the dry organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with carbon-based conductive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Sun, Dezhi; Woodard, Trevor L; Wang, Li-Ying; Nevin, Kelly P; Holmes, Dawn E

    2017-08-01

    Growth of bacterial and archaeal species capable of interspecies electron exchange was stimulated by addition of conductive materials (carbon cloth or granular activated carbon (GAC)) to anaerobic digesters treating dog food (a substitute for the dry-organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)). Methane production (772-1428mmol vs carbon cloth than controls. OFMSW degradation was also significantly accelerated and VFA concentrations were substantially lower in reactors amended with conductive materials. These results suggest that both conductive materials (carbon cloth and GAC) can promote conversion of OFMSW to methane even in the presence of extremely high VFA concentrations (∼500mM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid-Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid - Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS

  6. Sequential injection system incorporating a micro extraction column for automatic fractionation of metal ions in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomchoei, Roongrat; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    as to the kinetics of the leaching processes and chemical associations in different soil geological phases. Special attention is also paid to the potentials of the microcolumn flowing technique for automatic processing of solid materials with variable homogeneity, as demonstrated with the sewage amended CRM483 soil...

  7. Higher mass-independent isotope fractionation of methylmercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Baikal (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Vincent; Pastukhov, Mikhail V; Epov, Vladimir N; Husted, Søren; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David

    2012-06-05

    Mercury undergoes several transformations that influence its stable isotope composition during a number of environmental and biological processes. Measurements of Hg isotopic mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) in food webs may therefore help to identify major sources and processes leading to significant bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg). In this work, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, concentration of Hg species (MeHg, inorganic Hg), and stable isotopic composition of Hg were determined at different trophic levels of the remote and pristine Lake Baikal ecosystem. Muscle of seals and different fish as well as amphipods, zooplankton, and phytoplankton were specifically investigated. MDF during trophic transfer of MeHg leading to enrichment of heavier isotopes in the predators was clearly established by δ(202)Hg measurements in the pelagic prey-predator system (carnivorous sculpins and top-predator seals). Despite the low concentrations of Hg in the ecosystem, the pelagic food web reveals very high MIF Δ(199)Hg (3.15-6.65‰) in comparison to coastal fish (0.26-1.65‰) and most previous studies in aquatic organisms. Trophic transfer does not influence MIF signature since similar Δ(199)Hg was observed in sculpins (4.59 ± 0.55‰) and seal muscles (4.62 ± 0.60‰). The MIF is suggested to be mainly controlled by specific physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the water column. The higher level of MIF in pelagic fish of Lake Baikal is mainly due to the bioaccumulation of residual MeHg that is efficiently turned over and photodemethylated in deep oligotrophic and stationary (i.e., long residence time) freshwater columns.

  8. Re-fermentation os spent solids from dark fermentation allows for a substantial increase of hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Paez, K. M.; Pareja-Camacho, J.; Rios-Leal, E.; Valdez-Vazquez, I.; Poggi Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 10 years, interest on bio hydrogen has resurrected, particularly the research on dark fermentation of solid wastes. In effect, in a context of scarce and expensive fossil fuels, hydrogen can be considered the best energy alternative because it can be produced by biological means, it has the highest energy density, it is versatile since can be used both as a primary or secondary energy source, it is compatible with electrochemical and combustion-based energy conversion processes, and it is environmentally-friendly since water is its main combustion product and no aggressive pollutants are generated. (Author)

  9. Re-fermentation os spent solids from dark fermentation allows for a substantial increase of hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Paez, K. M.; Pareja-Camacho, J.; Rios-Leal, E.; Valdez-Vazquez, I.; Poggi Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    In the last 10 years, interest on bio hydrogen has resurrected, particularly the research on dark fermentation of solid wastes. In effect, in a context of scarce and expensive fossil fuels, hydrogen can be considered the best energy alternative because it can be produced by biological means, it has the highest energy density, it is versatile since can be used both as a primary or secondary energy source, it is compatible with electrochemical and combustion-based energy conversion processes, and it is environmentally-friendly since water is its main combustion product and no aggressive pollutants are generated. (Author)

  10. The influence of magnetic field on the cold neutral medium mass fraction and its alignment with density structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran, M. A.; Gazol, A.

    2018-06-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the magnetic field's influence on the segregation of cold neutral medium (CNM) in the solar neighbourhood we analyse magnetohydrodynamic simulations that include the main physical characteristics of the local neutral atomic interstellar medium. The simulations have a continuous solenoidal Fourier forcing in a periodic box of 100 pc per side and an initial uniform magnetic field (B_0) with intensities ranging between ˜0.4 and ˜8 μG. Our main results are as follows. (i) The CNM mass fraction diminishes with the increase in magnetic field intensity. (ii) There is a preferred alignment between CNM structures and B in all our B0 range but the preference weakens as B0 increases. It is worth noticing that this preference is also present in two-dimensional projections making an extreme angle (0 or π / 2) with respect to B_0 and it is only lost for the strongest magnetic field when the angle of projection is perpendicular to B_0. (iii) The aforementioned results are prevalent despite the inclusion of self-gravity in our continuously forced simulations with a mean density similar to the average value of the solar neighbourhood. (iv) Given a fixed B0 and slightly higher mean densities, up to double, the effects of self-gravity are still not qualitatively significant.

  11. Development of sedimentation field-flow fractionation-inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry for the characterization of environmental colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranville, J.F.; Shanks, F.; Morrison, R.J.S.; Harris, T.; Doss, F.; Beckett, R.; Chittleborough, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    A relatively new hyphenated technique for the simultaneous size separation and elemental analysis of colloids has been further developed and applied to the characterization of soil colloids. Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) was directly interfaced to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to provide high-resolution sizing and elemental analysis of colloids in the range 0.05-1.0 μm. For this work our existing SdFFF instrument was modified by addition of an upgraded motor and software for centrifuge speed control and data collection. Analytical techniques were developed for the calibration and drift correction of the ICP-MS data collected during on-line SdFFF-ICP-MS analyses. Software was developed to allow off-line computation of drift-corrected, elemental concentrations across the colloid size range. SdFFF-ICP-MS examination of two colloid samples isolated from surface soil horizons showed significant enrichment in iron-containing phases in both the smaller and larger colloids relative to intermediate particle sizes (∼0.3 0.3 μm). These results demonstrate the utility of SdFFF-ICP-MS for examination of soil chemistry and mineralogy and suggests the technique will have application to other environmental and geochemical studies. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-08-19

    Dynamic molecular evolution at solid/liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe/observe the solid/liquid interface under reaction conditions, which in essence appears to be similarly true for all the fields involving solid/liquid phases, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization, We use in-situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to deplete the salt anion and with low concentration of Li+ ions, which essentially leads to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributes to the overpotential of the cell. This unprecedented molecular level dynamic observation at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface provides vital chemical information that is needed for designing of better battery chemistry for enhanced performance, and ultimately opens new avenues for using liquid SIMS to probe molecular evolution at solid/liquid interface in general.

  13. One Sample, One Shot - Evaluation of sample preparation protocols for the mass spectrometric proteome analysis of human bile fluid without extensive fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megger, Dominik A; Padden, Juliet; Rosowski, Kristin; Uszkoreit, Julian; Bracht, Thilo; Eisenacher, Martin; Gerges, Christian; Neuhaus, Horst; Schumacher, Brigitte; Schlaak, Jörg F; Sitek, Barbara

    2017-02-10

    The proteome analysis of bile fluid represents a promising strategy to identify biomarker candidates for various diseases of the hepatobiliary system. However, to obtain substantive results in biomarker discovery studies large patient cohorts necessarily need to be analyzed. Consequently, this would lead to an unmanageable number of samples to be analyzed if sample preparation protocols with extensive fractionation methods are applied. Hence, the performance of simple workflows allowing for "one sample, one shot" experiments have been evaluated in this study. In detail, sixteen different protocols implying modifications at the stages of desalting, delipidation, deglycosylation and tryptic digestion have been examined. Each method has been individually evaluated regarding various performance criteria and comparative analyses have been conducted to uncover possible complementarities. Here, the best performance in terms of proteome coverage has been assessed for a combination of acetone precipitation with in-gel digestion. Finally, a mapping of all obtained protein identifications with putative biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) revealed several proteins easily detectable in bile fluid. These results can build the basis for future studies with large and well-defined patient cohorts in a more disease-related context. Human bile fluid is a proximal body fluid and supposed to be a potential source of disease markers. However, due to its biochemical composition, the proteome analysis of bile fluid still represents a challenging task and is therefore mostly conducted using extensive fractionation procedures. This in turn leads to a high number of mass spectrometric measurements for one biological sample. Considering the fact that in order to overcome the biological variability a high number of biological samples needs to be analyzed in biomarker discovery studies, this leads to the dilemma of an unmanageable number of

  14. Glass bottle sampling solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry for breath analysis of drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Niu, Wenqi; Zou, Xue; Shen, Chengyin; Xia, Lei; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2017-05-05

    Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach which may be applied to disease diagnosis and pharmacokinetic study. In the case of offline analysis, the exhaled gas needs to be collected and the sampling bag is often used as the storage vessel. However, the sampling bag usually releases some extra compounds, which may interfere with the result of the breath test. In this study, a novel breath sampling glass bottle was developed with a syringe needle sampling port for solid phase microextraction (SPME). Such a glass bottle scarcely liberates compounds and can be used to collect exhaled gas for ensuing analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS analysis was carried out to investigate the breath metabolites of myrtol, a multicompound drug normally used in the treatment of bronchitis and sinusitis. Four compounds, α-pinene, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole were found in the exhaled breath of all eight volunteers who had taken the myrtol. While for other ten subjects who had not used the myrtol, these compounds were undetectable. In the SPME-GC-MS analysis of the headspace of myrtol, three compounds were detected including α-pinene, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole. Comparing the results of breath and headspace analysis, it indicates that 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole in the breath is the metabolite of 1,8-cineole. It is the first time that this metabolite was identified in human breath. The study demonstrates that the glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS method is applicable to exhaled gas analysis including breath metabolites investigation of drugs like myrtol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heat and mass transfer analysis intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timurkutluk, B.; Mat, M. M.; Kaplan, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered as next generation energy conversion system due to their high efficiency, clean and quite operation with fuel flexibility. To date, yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes have been mainly used for SOFC applications at high temperatures around 1000 degree C because of their high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good mechanical properties. However, such a high temperature is undesirable for fuel cell operations in the viewpoint of stability. Moreover, high operation temperature necessitates high cost interconnect and seal materials. Thus, the reduction in the operation temperature of SOFCs is one of the key issues in the aspects of the cost reduction and the long term operation without degradation as well as commercialization of the SOFC systems. With the reducing temperature, not only low cost stainless steels and glass materials can be used as interconnect and sealing materials respectively but the manufacturing technology will also extend. Therefore, the design of complex geometrical SOFC component will also be possible. One way to reduce the operation temperature of SOFC is use of an alternative electrolyte material to YSZ showing acceptable properties at intermediate temperatures (600-800 degree C). As being one of IT-SOFC electrolyte materials, gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) has been taken great deals. In this study, a mathematical model for mass and heat transfer for a single cell GDC electrolyte SOFC system was developed and numerical solutions were evaluated. In order to verify the mathematical model, set of experiments were performed by taking species from four different samples randomly and five various temperature measurements. The numerical results reasonably agree with experimental data

  16. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  17. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  18. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountadar Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  19. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, Hans; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bemmel, van Greet; Herrera Rivera, Zahira; Wagner, Stephan; Kammer, von der Frank; Tromp, Peter C.; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass

  20. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, M.E.M. van; Rivera, Z.E.H.; Wagner, S.; Kammer, F. von der; Tromp, P.C.; Hofmann, T.; Weigel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

  1. Water deuterium fractionation in the high-mass star-forming region G34.26+0.15 based on Herschel/HIFI data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutens, Audrey; Vastel, C.; Hincelin, U.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding water deuterium fractionation is important for constraining the mechanisms of water formation in interstellar clouds. Observations of HDO and H_2^{18}O transitions were carried out towards the high-mass star-forming region G34.26+0.15 with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far...... to an age of ˜105 yr after the infrared dark cloud stage....

  2. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  3. Effects of fruit and vegetable low molecular mass fractions on gene expression in gingival cells challenged with Prevotella intermedia and Actinomyces naeslundii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canesi, L.; Borghi, C.; Stauder, M.; Lingström, P.; Papetti, A.; Pratten, J.; Signoretto, C.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Zaura, E.; Pruzzo, C.

    2011-01-01

    Low molecular mass (LMM) fractions obtained from extracts of raspberry, red chicory, and Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to be an useful source of specific antibacterial, antiadhesion/coaggregation, and antibiofilm agent(s) that might be used for protection towards caries and gingivitis. In this

  4. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 o C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO 2 g VS -1 day -1 . Sanitization of the digestate at 65 o C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L -1 d -1 and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO 2 at a rate lower than 25 mg CO 2 g VS -1 d -1 after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO 2 g VS -1 d -1 . The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  5. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid-supported enzymatic synthesis of pectic oligogalacturonides and their analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Sterling, J.D.; Jensen, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Solid-phase biosynthetic reactions, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF), was used to gain insight into the biosynthesis of pectin oligomers. Sepharose supports bearing long pectic oligogalacturonides (OGAs) anchored through...... into the liquid phases by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In time course studies conducted with an immobilized (alpha-D-GalA)(14) and limiting amounts of the glycosyl donor, the predominant product was an OGA extended by one GalA residue at the non-reducing end (i.e., (GalA)(15)). When UDP-GalA was added...

  7. Automatisation of reading and interpreting photographically recorded spark source mass spectra for the quantitative analysis in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudin, Guy.

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative analysis in solids by spark source mass spectrometry involves the study of photographic plates by means of a microdensitometer. After a graphic treatment of data from the plate, a scientific program is used to calculate the concentrations of isotopes. The automatisation of the three parts has been realised by using a program for computer. This program has been written in the laboratory for a small computer (Multi 8, Intertechnique) [fr

  8. A new approach to determine the density of liquids and solids without measuring mass and volume: introducing the solidensimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriktaş, Halit; Şahin, Mehmet; Eslek, Sinan; Kiriktaş, İrem

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to design a mechanism with which the density of any solid or liquid can be determined without measuring its mass and volume in order to help students comprehend the concept of density more easily. The solidensimeter comprises of two scaled and nested glass containers (graduated cylinder or beaker) and sufficient water. In this method, the density measurement was made using the Archimedes’ principle stating that an object fully submerged in a liquid displaces the same amount of liquid as its volume, while an object partially submerged or floating displaces the same amount of liquid as its mass. Using this method, the density of any solids or liquids can be determined using a simple mathematical ratio. At the end of the process a mechanism that helps students to comprehend the density topic more easily was designed. The system is easy-to-design, uses low-cost equipment and enables one to determine the density of any solid or liquid without measuring its mass and volume.

  9. Contribution of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain to adverse neonatal outcomes: population attributable fractions for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Susie; Fahey, John; Kirby, Russell S; Tough, Suzanne C; Chalmers, Beverley; Heaman, Maureen I; Bartholomew, Sharon; Biringer, Anne; Darling, Elizabeth K; Lee, Lily S; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-02-05

    Low or high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and inadequate or excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. This study estimates the contribution of these risk factors to preterm births (PTBs), small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) births in Canada compared to the contribution of prenatal smoking, a recognized perinatal risk factor. We analyzed data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. A sample of 5,930 women who had a singleton live birth in 2005-2006 was weighted to a nationally representative population of 71,200 women. From adjusted odds ratios, we calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the contribution of BMI, GWG and prenatal smoking to PTB, SGA and LGA infants overall and across four obstetric groups. Overall, 6% of women were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)) and 34.4% were overweight or obese (≥25.0 kg/m(2)). More than half (59.4%) gained above the recommended weight for their BMI, 18.6% gained less than the recommended weight and 10.4% smoked prenatally. Excess GWG contributed more to adverse outcomes than BMI, contributing to 18.2% of PTB and 15.9% of LGA. Although the distribution of BMI and GWG was similar across obstetric groups, their impact was greater among primigravid women and multigravid women without a previous PTB or pregnancy loss. The contributions of BMI and GWG to PTB and SGA exceeded that of prenatal smoking. Maternal weight, and GWG in particular, contributes significantly to the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes in Canada. Indeed, this contribution exceeds that of prenatal smoking for PTB and SGA, highlighting its public health importance.

  10. Diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses: determination of the most discriminatory parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Frederick Wing-Fai; Ghai, Sandeep; Moshonov, Hadas; Kahn, Harriette; Brennan, Cressida; Dua, Hemi; Crystal, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses and to determine the most discriminatory parameter. B-mode ultrasound and shear wave elastography were performed before core biopsy of 123 masses in 112 women. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound and quantitative shear wave elastography parameters (mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio) were compared. The added effect of shear wave elastography on the performance of ultrasound was determined. The mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio were 24.8 kPa, 30.3 kPa, and 1.90, respectively, for 79 benign masses and 130.7 kPa, 154.9 kPa, and 11.52, respectively, for 44 malignant masses (p shear wave elastography parameter was higher than that of ultrasound (p shear wave elastography parameters to the evaluation of BI-RADS category 4a masses, about 90% of masses could be downgraded to BI-RADS category 3. The numbers of downgraded masses were 40 of 44 (91%) for mean elasticity, 39 of 44 (89%) for maximum elasticity, and 42 of 44 (95%) for elasticity ratio. The numbers of correctly downgraded masses were 39 of 40 (98%) for mean elasticity, 38 of 39 (97%) for maximum elasticity, and 41 of 42 (98%) for elasticity ratio. There was improvement in the diagnostic performance of ultrasound of mass assessment with shear wave elastography parameters added to BI-RADS category 4a masses compared with ultrasound alone. Combined ultrasound and elasticity ratio had the highest improvement, from 35.44% to 87.34% for specificity, from 45.74% to 80.77% for positive predictive value, and from 57.72% to 90.24% for accuracy (p shear wave elastography parameters of benign and malignant solid breast masses. By adding shear wave elastography parameters to BI-RADS category 4a masses, we found that about 90% of them could be correctly downgraded to BI-RADS category 3, thereby avoiding biopsy. Elasticity ratio

  11. Continuous fraction collection of gas chromatographic separations with parallel mass spectrometric detection applied to cell-based bioactivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Willem; Zwart, Nick; Stockl, Jan B.; de Koning, Sjaak; Schaap, Jaap; Lamoree, Marja H.; Somsen, Govert W.; Hamers, Timo; Kool, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a GC-MS fractionation platform that combines high-resolution fraction collection of full chromatograms with parallel MS detection. A y-split at the column divides the effluent towards the MS detector and towards an inverted y-piece where vaporized trap

  12. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

  13. Stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for Solid Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, A.K.; Paliwal, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    The AAPM Task Group 21 protocol provides tables of ratios of average restricted stopping powers and ratios of mean energy-absorption coefficients for different materials. These values were based on the work of Cunningham and Schulz. We have calculated these quantities for Solid Water (manufactured by RMI), using the same x-ray spectra and method as that used by Cunningham and Schulz. These values should be useful to people who are using Solid Water for high-energy photon calibration

  14. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of all fPOM and oPOM fractions are dominated by signals assignable to O-alkyl C followed by resonance lines of alkyl C. The spectra indicate that fPOM is mainly composed of undecomposed plant debris whereas oPOM is rich in unsubstituted-aliphatic material. The lack of intensity in the chemical shift region from 160 to140 ppm in the spectra of the small size fractions reveals the absence of lignin residues. This, their low C/N ratios and the clear 13C-signal attributed to carboxylic C allows the conclusion that this fraction mainly composed of microbial residues. Former studies evidenced that aromaticity of the burnt bulk soil decreased with elapsing time after the fire. The present investigation revealed that most of the remaining aromatic C accumulated in the POM fractions, which is in contrast to other studies showing a preferential recovery of BC in the fine particle size fractions. Possibly, the poor interaction between Py

  15. Method for the quantification of vanadyl porphyrins in fractions of crude oils by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Flow Injection-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandekoken, Flávia G.; Duyck, Christiane B.; Fonseca, Teresa C. O.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2016-05-01

    High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated by flow injection to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-FI-ICP-MS) was used to investigate V linked to porphyrins present in fractions of crude oil. First, the crude oil sample was submitted to fractionation by preparative liquid chromatography with UV detection, at the porphyrin Soret band wavelength (400 nm). The obtained porphyrin fractions were then separated in a 250 mm single column, in the HPLC, and eluted with different mobile phases (methanol or methanol:toluene (80:20; v:v)). The quantification of V-porphyrins in the fractions eluted from HPLC was carried out by online measuring the 51V isotope in the ICP-MS, against vanadyl octaethylporphine standard solutions (VO-OEP), prepared in the same solvent as the mobile phase, and injected post-column directly into the plasma. A 20 μg L- 1 Ge in methanol was used as internal standard for minimizing non-spectral interference, such as short-term variations due to injection. The mathematical treatment of the signal based on Fast Fourier Transform smoothing algorithm was employed to improve the precision. The concentrations of V as V-porphyrins were between 2.7 and 11 mg kg- 1 in the fractions, which were close to the total concentration of V in the porphyrin fractions of the studied crude oil.

  16. A comparative study of composting the solid fraction of dairy manure with or without bulking material: Performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Ma, Shi-Chun; Wang, Shi-Peng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Deng, Yu; Kida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The present study compared the development of various physicochemical properties and the composition of microbial communities involved in the composting process in the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) with a sawdust-regulated SFDM (RDM). The changes in several primary physicochemical properties were similar in the two composting processes, and both resulted in mature end-products within 48days. The bacterial communities in both composting processes primarily comprised Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Firmicutes were predominant in the thermophilic phase, whereas Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Nitrospirae were more abundant in the final mature phase. Furthermore, the succession of bacteria in both groups proceeded in a similar pattern, suggesting that the effects of the bulking material on bacterial dynamics were minor. These results demonstrate the feasibility of composting using only the SFDM, reflected by the evolution of physicochemical properties and the microbial communities involved in the composting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical spectroscopy of GaAs in the extreme quantum limit: Integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, and onset of the electron solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.G.; Ford, R.A.; Haynes, S.R.; Ryan, J.F.; Turberfield, A.J.; Wright, P.A. (Clarendon Lab., Univ. of Oxford (UK)); Williams, F.I.B.; Deville, G.; Glattli, D.C. (CEN de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Mallett, J.R.; Oswald, P.M.W. (Clarendon Lab., Univ. of Oxford (UK) Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Burgt, M. van der; Herlach, F. (Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J. (Philips Research Labs., Redhill (UK))

    1991-02-01

    Our recent optical detection of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects in GaAs, by intrinsic band-gap photoluminescence at dilution refrigerator temperatures, is reviewed. This work has been extended to the extreme quantum limit where a photoluminescence peak develops close to Landau level filling factor {nu}=1/5 which correlates both with the onset of threshold behaviour in current-voltage characteristics of the two-dimensional electron system and a resonant radio-frequency absorption; the latter are quantitatively accounted for by a model of crystalline electronic structure broken up into domains. Preliminary mK transport experiments in intense, pulsed magnetic fields are also described, which establish a basis to access the electron solid phase transition in a hitherto unattainable region of the (B,T) plane. (orig.).

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evren Ersahin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE⋅day; XSS-OFMSW=50 g TS/PE⋅day.

  20. Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  1. Solid phase extraction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the determination of palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranaw Kumar; Telmore, Vijay M.; Jaison, P.G.; Sarkar, Arnab; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum group of element (PGEs) are extensively used as a catalyst and anticancer reagent. Due to the soft nature of PGEs, sulphur based donar ligands are used for the separation of these elements. Studies on the formation of different species are helpful for obtaining the ideas about separation of these elements from the complex matrices. Palladium (Pd) is studied as a representative element which is also formed by nuclear fission of fissile nuclides. In view of the relatively small amount of solvent required for separation, solid phase extraction is preferred over most of the separation methods. Solid phase extraction method using DPX as a stationary phase was previously reported for the separation of Pd in SHLLW using benzoylthiourea as a ligand. However, in case of large volume samples manual extraction by DPX is tedious task. In the present studies, the feasibility of extraction using benzoylthiourea on automated solid phase extraction system was carried out for the extraction of Pd

  2. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  3. Energy Contribution of OFMSW (Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy-Environmental Sustainability in Urban Areas at Small Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Matteo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban waste management is one of the most challenging issues in energy planning of medium and large cities. In addition to the traditional landfill method, many studies are investigating energy harvesting from waste, not as a panacea but as a foreseeable solution. Thermo-chemical conversion to biogas, or even bio-methane under certain conditions, could be an option to address this challenge. This study focuses on municipal solid waste conversion to biogas as a local energy supply for the cities. Three urban models and their subdivision into urban areas were identified along with a typical Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW matrix for each urban area. Then, an energy analysis was carried out to provide an optimization map for an informed choice by urban policy-makers and stakeholders. The results highlighted how the urban context and its use could affect the opportunity to produce energy from waste or to convert it in fuel. So, in this case, sustainability means waste turning from a problem to a renewable resource.

  4. Symposium on fast atom and ion induced mass spectrometry of nonvolatile organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeal, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of molecular and fragment ion production and the various parameters affecting ion yields were discussed by 6 invited speakers from Europe, Canada, and the US at this symposium. The work reported was almost equally divided between that using low-energy (keV) primary ion (or atom) beams, e.g. fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and that using high energy (MeV) particles, e.g. heavy ion induced mass spectrometry (HIIDMS) and 252 Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry ( 252 Cf-PDMS). Both theoretical foundations and observed experimental results for both techniques are included

  5. Mycoestrogen determination in cow milk: Magnetic solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; La Barbera, Giorgia; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-12-01

    Recently, magnetic solid-phase extraction has gained interest because it presents various operational advantages over classical solid-phase extraction. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles are easy to prepare, and various materials can be used in their synthesis. In the literature, there are only few studies on the determination of mycoestrogens in milk, although their carryover in milk has occurred. In this work, we wanted to develop the first (to the best of our knowledge) magnetic solid-phase extraction protocol for six mycoestrogens from milk, followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Magnetic graphitized carbon black was chosen as the adsorbent, as this carbonaceous material, which is very different from the most diffuse graphene and carbon nanotubes, had already shown selectivity towards estrogenic compounds in milk. The graphitized carbon black was decorated with Fe 3 O 4 , which was confirmed by the characterization analyses. A milk deproteinization step was avoided, using only a suitable dilution in phosphate buffer as sample pretreatment. The overall process efficiency ranged between 52 and 102%, whereas the matrix effect considered as signal suppression was below 33% for all the analytes even at the lowest spiking level. The obtained method limits of quantification were below those of other published methods that employ classical solid-phase extraction protocols. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  7. Fractional quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Laskin, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Fractional quantum mechanics is a recently emerged and rapidly developing field of quantum physics. This is the first monograph on fundamentals and physical applications of fractional quantum mechanics, written by its founder. The fractional Schrödinger equation and the fractional path integral are new fundamental physical concepts introduced and elaborated in the book. The fractional Schrödinger equation is a manifestation of fractional quantum mechanics. The fractional path integral is a new mathematical tool based on integration over Lévy flights. The fractional path integral method enhances the well-known Feynman path integral framework. Related topics covered in the text include time fractional quantum mechanics, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional classical mechanics and the α-stable Lévy random process. The book is well-suited for theorists, pure and applied mathematicians, solid-state physicists, chemists, and others working with the Schrödinger equation, the path integral technique...

  8. Two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction study of liquid/solid fraction and solid particle size in Fe-C binary system with an electrostatic levitator furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, M; Okada, J; Ishikawa, T; Nanao, S; Watanabe, Y; Shobu, T; Toyokawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Liquid state provides functions such as matter transport or a reaction field and plays an important role in manufacturing processes such as refining, forging or welding. However, experimental procedures are significantly difficult for an observation of solidification process of iron and iron-based alloys in order to identify rapid transformations subjected to fast temperature evolution. Therefore, in order to study the solidification in iron and iron-based alloys, we considered a combination of high energy X-ray diffraction measurements and an electrostatic levitation method (ESL). In order to analyze the liquid/solid fraction, the solidification of melted spherical specimens was measured at a time resolution of 0.1 seconds during rapid cooling using the two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the observation of particle sizes and phase identification was performed on a trial basis using X-ray small angle scattering with X-ray diffraction.

  9. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  10. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loge, G.

    1994-09-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U3O8. Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF6. This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid.

  11. Sample handling and contamination encountered when coupling offline normal phase high performance liquid chromatography fraction collection of petroleum samples to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Nicole E; Whittal, Randy M; Lucy, Charles A

    2012-09-05

    Normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate a gas oil petroleum sample, and the fractions are collected offline and analyzed on a high resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). The separation prior to MS analysis dilutes the sample significantly; therefore the fractions need to be prepared properly to achieve the best signal possible. The methods used to prepare the HPLC fractions for MS analysis are described, with emphasis placed on increasing the concentration of analyte species. The dilution effect also means that contamination in the MS spectra needs to be minimized. The contamination from molecular sieves, plastics, soap, etc. and interferences encountered during the offline fraction collection process are described and eliminated. A previously unreported MS contamination of iron formate clusters with a 0.8 mass defect in positive mode electrospray is also described. This interference resulted from the stainless steel tubing in the HPLC system. Contamination resulting from what has tentatively been assigned as palmitoylglycerol and stearoylglycerol was also observed; these compounds have not previously been reported as contaminant peaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  13. Dynamic leaching and fractionation of trace elements from environmental solids exploiting a novel circulating-flow platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Nakano, Koji; Sasaki, Masaya; Shinozaki, Haruka; Suzuki, Shiho; Okawara, Chitose; Miró, Manuel; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    A dynamic flow-through microcolumn extraction system based on extractant re-circulation is herein proposed as a novel analytical approach for simplification of bioaccessibility tests of trace elements in sediments. On-line metal leaching is undertaken in the format of all injection (AI) analysis, which is a sequel of flow injection analysis, but involving extraction under steady-state conditions. The minimum circulation times and flow rates required to determine the maximum bioaccessible pools of target metals (viz., Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) from lake and river sediment samples were estimated using Tessier's sequential extraction scheme and an acid single extraction test. The on-line AIA method was successfully validated by mass balance studies of CRM and real sediment samples. Tessier's test in on-line AI format demonstrated to be carried out by one third of extraction time (6h against more than 17 h by the conventional method), with better analytical precision (15% by the conventional method) and significant decrease in blank readouts as compared with the manual batch counterpart. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Algorithm Preserving Mass Fraction Maximum Principle for Multi-component Flows%多组份流动质量分数保极值原理算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐维军; 蒋浪; 程军波

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for compressible multi⁃component flows with Mie⁃Gruneisen equation of state based on mass fraction. The model preserves conservation law of mass, momentum and total energy for mixture flows. It also preserves conservation of mass of all single components. Moreover, it prevents pressure and velocity from jumping across interface that separate regions of different fluid components. Wave propagation method is used to discretize this quasi⁃conservation system. Modification of numerical method is adopted for conservative equation of mass fraction. This preserves the maximum principle of mass fraction. The wave propagation method which is not modified for conservation equations of flow components mass, cannot preserve the mass fraction in the interval [0,1]. Numerical results confirm validity of the method.%对基于质量分数的Mie⁃Gruneisen状态方程多流体组份模型提出了新的数值方法。该模型保持混合流体的质量、动量、和能量守恒,保持各组份分质量守恒,在多流体组份界面处保持压力和速度一致。该模型是拟守恒型方程系统。对该模型系统的离散采用波传播算法。与直接对模型中所有守恒方程采用相同算法不同的是,在处理分介质质量守恒方程时,对波传播算法进行了修正,使之满足质量分数保极值原理。而不作修改的算法则不能保证质量分数在[0,1]范围。数值实验验证了该方法有效。

  15. Mass dependent fractionation of stable chromium isotopes in mare basalts: Implications for the formation and the differentiation of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, Pierre; Parkinson, Ian J.; Anand, Mahesh

    2016-02-01

    We present the first stable chromium isotopic data from mare basalts in order to investigate the similarity between the Moon and the Earth's mantle. A double spike technique coupled with MC-ICP-MS measurements was used to analyse 19 mare basalts, comprising high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP-rich varieties. Chromium isotope ratios (δ53Cr) for mare basalts are positively correlated with indices of magmatic differentiation such as Mg# and Cr concentration which suggests that Cr isotopes were fractionated during magmatic differentiation. Modelling of the results provides evidence that spinel and pyroxene are the main phases controlling the Cr isotopic composition during fractional crystallisation. The most evolved samples have the lightest isotopic compositions, complemented by cumulates that are isotopically heavy. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this fractionation: (i) equilibrium fractionation where heavy isotopes are preferentially incorporated into the spinel lattice and (ii) a difference in isotopic composition between Cr2+ and Cr3+ in the melt. However, both processes require magmatic temperatures below 1200 °C for appreciable Cr3+ to be present at the low oxygen fugacities found in the Moon (IW -1 to -2 log units). There is no isotopic difference between the most primitive high-Ti, low-Ti and KREEP basalts, which suggest that the sources of these basalts were homogeneous in terms of stable Cr isotopes. The least differentiated sample in our sample set is the low-Ti basalt 12016, characterised by a Cr isotopic composition of -0.222 ± 0.025‰, which is within error of the current BSE value (-0.124 ± 0.101‰). The similarity between the mantles of the Moon and Earth is consistent with a terrestrial origin for a major fraction of the lunar Cr. This similarity also suggests that Cr isotopes were not fractionated by core formation on the Moon.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste: study of biological stabilization by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, María José; Gómez, Xiomar; Otero, Marta; Morán, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) along with thermogravimetric analysis together with mass spectrometry (TG-MS analysis) were employed to study the organic matter transformation attained under anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste and to establish the stability of the digestates obtained when compared with fresh wastes. Digestate samples studied were obtained from successful digestion and failed systems treating slaughterhouse waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. The FTIR spectra and TG profiles from well stabilized products (from successful digestion systems) showed an increase in the aromaticity degree and the reduction of volatile content and aliphatic structures as stabilization proceeded. On the other hand, the FTIR spectra of non-stable reactors showed a high aliphaticity degree and fat content. When comparing differential thermogravimetry (DTG) profiles of the feed and digestate samples obtained from all successful anaerobic systems, a reduction in the intensity of the low-temperature range (approximately 300 degrees C) peak was observed, while the weight loss experienced at high-temperature (450-550 degrees C) was variable for the different systems. Compared to the original waste, the intensity of the weight loss peak in the high-temperature range decreased in the reactors with higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) whereas its intensity increased and the peak was displaced to higher temperatures for the digesters with lower HRT.

  17. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adahchour, M; Vreuls, R J; van der Heijden, A; Brinkman, U A

    1999-06-04

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water fraction are collected by off-line SPE on cartidges packed with a copolymer sorbent. After desorption with 500 microliters of methyl acetate, 1-microliter aliquots are quantified and/or identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was tested with respect to recovery, linearity and limit of detection in real-life samples using five polar model analytes. It allows the characterisation of polar flavour compounds in butter prior to and after heat treatment at 170 degrees C. From the five model compounds, vanillin, traces of diacetyl and maltol were found to be present in the butter samples. After heat treatment 500-1000-fold increased concentration of maltol, and substantial amounts of furaneol were detected.

  18. A side-by-side comparison of two systems of sequencing coupled reactors for anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana M; Pérez-Hernández, Antonino; Nevarez-Morillón, Virginia G; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the performance of two laboratory-scale, mesophilic systems aiming at the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The first system consisted of two coupled reactors packed with OFMSW (PBR1.1-PBR1.2) and the second system consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) coupled to a packed reactor (UASB2.1-PBR2.2). For the start-up phase, both reactors PBR 1.1 and the UASB 2.1 (also called leading reactors) were inoculated with a mixture of non-anaerobic inocula and worked with leachate and effluent full recirculation, respectively. Once a full methanogenic regime was achieved in the leading reactors, their effluents were fed to the fresh-packed reactors PBR1.2 and PBR2.2, respectively. The leading PBR 1.1 reached its full methanogenic regime after 118 days (Tm, time to achieve methanogenesis) whereas the other leading UASB 2.1 reactor reached its full methanogenesis regime after only 34 days. After coupling the leading reactors to the corresponding packed reactors, it was found that both coupled anaerobic systems showed similar performances regarding the degradation of the OFMSW. Removal efficiencies of volatile solids and cellulose and the methane pseudo-yield were 85.95%, 80.88% and 0.109 NL CH4 g(-1) VS(fed) in the PBR-PBR system; and 88.75%, 82.61% and 0.115 NL CH4 g(-1) VS(fed0 in the UASB-PBR system [NL, normalized litre (273 degrees K, 1 ata basis)]. Yet, the second system UASB-PBR system showed a faster overall start-up.

  19. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of Shear Wave Elastography for Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Solid Breast Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi-Jiang; Deng, Zhu-Jun; Gao, Jian; Xie, Yan; Yin, Tian-Sheng; Ying, Li; Tang, Kai-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To perform a meta-analysis assessing the ability of shear wave elastography (SWE) to identify malignant breast masses. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses. The diagnostic accuracy of SWE was evaluated according to sensitivity, specificity, and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves. An analysis was also performed according to the SWE mode used: supersonic shear imaging (SSI) and the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique. The clinical utility of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses was evaluated using analysis of Fagan plot. Results A total of 9 studies, including 1888 women and 2000 breast masses, were analyzed. Summary sensitivities and specificities were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88–0.94) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75–0.87) by SSI and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81–0.94) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84–0.95) by ARFI, respectively. The HSROCs for SSI and ARFI were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93–0.97), respectively. SSI and ARFI were both very informative, with probabilities of 83% and 91%, respectively, for correctly differentiating between benign and malignant breast masses following a “positive” measurement (over the threshold value) and probabilities of disease as low as 10% and 11%, respectively, following a “negative” measurement (below the threshold value) when the pre-test probability was 50%. Conclusions SWE could be used as a good identification tool for the classification of breast masses. PMID:24204613

  1. Performance of shear wave elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant solid breast masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To perform a meta-analysis assessing the ability of shear wave elastography (SWE to identify malignant breast masses. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses. The diagnostic accuracy of SWE was evaluated according to sensitivity, specificity, and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC curves. An analysis was also performed according to the SWE mode used: supersonic shear imaging (SSI and the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique. The clinical utility of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses was evaluated using analysis of Fagan plot. RESULTS: A total of 9 studies, including 1888 women and 2000 breast masses, were analyzed. Summary sensitivities and specificities were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.94 and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.87 by SSI and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94 and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95 by ARFI, respectively. The HSROCs for SSI and ARFI were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94 and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-0.97, respectively. SSI and ARFI were both very informative, with probabilities of 83% and 91%, respectively, for correctly differentiating between benign and malignant breast masses following a "positive" measurement (over the threshold value and probabilities of disease as low as 10% and 11%, respectively, following a "negative" measurement (below the threshold value when the pre-test probability was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: SWE could be used as a good identification tool for the classification of breast masses.

  2. Performance of shear wave elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant solid breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiling; Li, De-Wei; Fang, Yu-Xiao; Song, Yi-Jiang; Deng, Zhu-Jun; Gao, Jian; Xie, Yan; Yin, Tian-Sheng; Ying, Li; Tang, Kai-Fu

    2013-01-01

    To perform a meta-analysis assessing the ability of shear wave elastography (SWE) to identify malignant breast masses. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses. The diagnostic accuracy of SWE was evaluated according to sensitivity, specificity, and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves. An analysis was also performed according to the SWE mode used: supersonic shear imaging (SSI) and the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique. The clinical utility of SWE for identifying malignant breast masses was evaluated using analysis of Fagan plot. A total of 9 studies, including 1888 women and 2000 breast masses, were analyzed. Summary sensitivities and specificities were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.94) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.87) by SSI and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95) by ARFI, respectively. The HSROCs for SSI and ARFI were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-0.97), respectively. SSI and ARFI were both very informative, with probabilities of 83% and 91%, respectively, for correctly differentiating between benign and malignant breast masses following a "positive" measurement (over the threshold value) and probabilities of disease as low as 10% and 11%, respectively, following a "negative" measurement (below the threshold value) when the pre-test probability was 50%. SWE could be used as a good identification tool for the classification of breast masses.

  3. Detection of negative ions in glow discharge mass spectrometry for analysis of solid specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Molchan, Igor S.; Tauziede, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new method is presented for elemental and molecular analysis of halogen-containing samples by glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry, consisting of detection of negative ions from a pulsed RF glow discharge in argon. Analyte signals are mainly extracted from the afterglow regime...... be used to study the distribution of a tantalum fluoride layer within the anodized tantala layer. Further, comparison is made with data obtained using glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, where elemental fluorine can only be detected using a neon plasma. The ionization mechanisms responsible...... for the formation of negative ions in glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry are briefly discussed....

  4. Determination of alpha activity and fissile mass content in solid waste by systems using neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Lacruche, G.; Berne, R.; Auge, J.; Martin Deidier, L.; Butez, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Quantitative control (determination of heavy nuclides and alpha activity) of alpha radioactive wastes is necessary, particularly to determine if the waste is in accordance with the surface storage limits. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the alpha activity resulting from unknown isotopic composition, inhomogeneity of heavy nuclides in the matrix, combination of several methods is necessary. In the paper we present the Cadarache development work in the NDA of solid waste using the Californium shuffler, 14 Mev neutron generator, and also passive techniques such as neutron emission measurement and gamma spectrometry. Experimental systems combining active and passive methods are presented (COSAC, BANCO, DANAIDE, PROMETHEE)

  5. Automated solid-phase extraction of herbicides from water for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    An automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration of chloroacetanilide and triazine herbicides, and two triazine metabolites from 100-ml water samples. Breakthrough experiments for the C18 SPE cartridge show that the two triazine metabolites are not fully retained and that increasing flow-rate decreases their retention. Standard curve r2 values of 0.998-1.000 for each compound were consistently obtained and a quantitation level of 0.05 ??g/l was achieved for each compound tested. More than 10,000 surface and ground water samples have been analyzed by this method.

  6. Mass and energy deposition effects of implanted ions on solid sodium formate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiangqin E-mail: clshao@mail.ipp.ac.cn; Shao Chunlin; Yao Jianming; Yu Zengliang

    2000-07-01

    Solid sodium formate was implanted by low energy N{sup +}, H{sup +}, and Ar{sup +} ions. Measured with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), it was observed that new -CH{sub 2}-, -CH{sub 3}- groups and COO{sup -} radical ion were produced in the implanted sodium formate. Analyzing with the highly sensitive ninhydrin reaction, it was found that a new -NH{sub 2} functional group was formed upon N{sup +} ion implantation, and its yield increased along with implantation dose but decreased with the ion's energy.

  7. Isotopic abundance measurements on solid nuclear-type samples by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, M.; Rasmussen, G.; Koch, L.

    1996-01-01

    A double-focusing glow discharge mass spectrometer (GDMS) installed in a glovebox for nuclear sample screening has been employed for isotopic measurements. Isotopic compositions of zirconium, silicon, lithium, boron, uranium and plutonium which are elements of nuclear concern have been determined. Interferences arising from the matrix sample and the discharge gas (Ar) for each of these elements are discussed. The GDMS results are compared with those from thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). For boron and lithium at μg/g-ng/g levels, the two methods gave results in good agreement. In samples containing uranium the isotopic composition obtained by GDMS was in agreement with those from TIMS independently of the enrichment. Attempts for the determination of plutonium isotopic composition were also made. In this case, due to the interferences of uranium at mass 238 and americium at mass 241, the GDMS raw data are complementary with those values obtained from physical non-destructive techniques. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Analysis of humic colloid borne trace elements by flow field-flow fractionation, gel permeation chromatography and icp-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Manh Thang; Beck, H.P; Geckeis, H.; Kim, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater samples containing aquatic humic substances are analyzed by flow field- flow fractionation (FFFF) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Natural concentrations of U, Th and rare earth elements (REE) in a size-fractionated groundwater sample are analyzed by on-line coupling of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to either FFFF or GPC. The uranium, thorium, and REE are found to be quantitatively attached to colloidal species in the investigated groundwater sample. Their distribution in different colloid size fractions, however, is quite heterogeneous. Both, FFFF and GPC reveal that Th and REE are preferentially located in the size fraction > 50 kDalton. U is also attached to low molecular weight humic acid, similar to Fe and Al. This finding could be qualitatively reproduced by sequential ultrafiltration. The results are interpreted in terms of different binding mechanisms for the individual elements in the heterogeneous humic macromolecules. The inclusion of actinides into larger aggregates of aquatic humic acid might explain the considerable kinetic hindrance of actinide-humic acid dissociation reactions described in the literature. (authors)

  9. Influence of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in cyclone heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothilal, T.; Pitchandi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%

  10. Influence of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in cyclone heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothilal, T. [T. J. S. Engineering College, Gummidipoond (India); Pitchandi, K. [Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur (India)

    2015-10-15

    Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%.

  11. Solid H2 in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füglistaler, A.; Pfenniger, D.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Condensation of H2 in the interstellar medium (ISM) has long been seen as a possibility, either by deposition on dust grains or thanks to a phase transition combined with self-gravity. H2 condensation might explain the observed low efficiency of star formation and might help to hide baryons in spiral galaxies. Aims: Our aim is to quantify the solid fraction of H2 in the ISM due to a phase transition including self-gravity for different densities and temperatures in order to use the results in more complex simulations of the ISM as subgrid physics. Methods: We used molecular dynamics simulations of fluids at different temperatures and densities to study the formation of solids. Once the simulations reached a steady state, we calculated the solid mass fraction, energy increase, and timescales. By determining the power laws measured over several orders of magnitude, we extrapolated to lower densities the higher density fluids that can be simulated with current computers. Results: The solid fraction and energy increase of fluids in a phase transition are above 0.1 and do not follow a power law. Fluids out of a phase transition are still forming a small amount of solids due to chance encounters of molecules. The solid mass fraction and energy increase of these fluids are linearly dependent on density and can easily be extrapolated. The timescale is below one second, the condensation can be considered instantaneous. Conclusions: The presence of solid H2 grains has important dynamic implications on the ISM as they may be the building blocks for larger solid bodies when gravity is included. We provide the solid mass fraction, energy increase, and timescales for high density fluids and extrapolation laws for lower densities.

  12. On the first crossing distributions in fractional Brownian motion and the mass function of dark matter haloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiotelis, Nicos [1st Lyceum of Athens, Ipitou 15, Plaka, 10557, Athens (Greece); Popolo, Antonino Del, E-mail: adelpopolo@oact.inaf.it, E-mail: hiotelis@ipta.demokritos.gr [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, University Of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We construct an integral equation for the first crossing distributions for fractional Brownian motion in the case of a constant barrier and we present an exact analytical solution. Additionally we present first crossing distributions derived by simulating paths from fractional Brownian motion. We compare the results of the analytical solutions with both those of simulations and those of some approximated solutions which have been used in the literature. Finally, we present multiplicity functions for dark matter structures resulting from our analytical approach and we compare with those resulting from N-body simulations. We show that the results of analytical solutions are in good agreement with those of path simulations but differ significantly from those derived from approximated solutions. Additionally, multiplicity functions derived from fractional Brownian motion are poor fits of the those which result from N-body simulations. We also present comparisons with other models which are exist in the literature and we discuss different ways of improving the agreement between analytical results and N-body simulations.

  13. Carbon nanotubes as adsorbent of solid-phase extraction and matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chensong; Xu, Songyun; Zou, Hanfa; Guo, Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Baochuan

    2005-02-01

    A method with carbon nanotubes functioning both as the adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to analyze small molecules in solution has been developed. In this method, 10 microL suspensions of carbon nanotubes in 50% (vol/vol) methanol were added to the sample solution to extract analytes onto surface of carbon nanotubes because of their dramatic hydrophobicity. Carbon nanotubes in solution are deposited onto the bottom of tube with centrifugation. After removing the supernatant fluid, carbon nanotubes are suspended again with dispersant and pipetted directly onto the sample target of the MALDI-MS to perform a mass spectrometric analysis. It was demonstrated by analysis of a variety of small molecules that the resolution of peaks and the efficiency of desorption/ionization on the carbon nanotubes are better than those on the activated carbon. It is found that with the addition of glycerol and sucrose to the dispersant, the intensity, the ratio of signal to noise (S/N), and the resolution of peaks for analytes by mass spectrometry increased greatly. Compared with the previously reported method by depositing sample solution onto thin layer of carbon nanotubes, it is observed that the detection limit for analytes can be enhanced about 10 to 100 times due to solid-phase extraction of analytes in solution by carbon nanotubes. An acceptable result of simultaneously quantitative analysis of three analytes in solution has been achieved. The application in determining drugs spiked into urine has also been realized.

  14. Diagnostic performances of shear wave elastography: which parameter to use in differential diagnosis of solid breast masses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate which shear wave elastography (SWE) parameter proves most accurate in the differential diagnosis of solid breast masses. One hundred and fifty-six breast lesions in 139 consecutive women (mean age: 43.54 ± 9.94 years, range 21-88 years), who had been scheduled for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy, were included. Conventional ultrasound and SWE were performed in all women before biopsy procedures. Ultrasound BI-RADS final assessment and SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performance of each SWE parameter was calculated and compared with those obtained when applying cut-off values of previously published data. Performance of conventional ultrasound and ultrasound combined with each parameter was also compared. Of the 156 breast masses, 120 (76.9 %) were benign and 36 (23.1 %) malignant. Maximum stiffness (Emax) with a cut-off of 82.3 kPa had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) value compared with other SWE parameters, 0.860 (sensitivity 88.9 %, specificity 77.5 %, accuracy 80.1 %). Az values of conventional ultrasound combined with each SWE parameter showed lower (but not significantly) values than with conventional ultrasound alone. Maximum stiffness (82.3 kPa) provided the best diagnostic performance. However the overall diagnostic performance of ultrasound plus SWE was not significantly better than that of conventional ultrasound alone. • SWE offers new information over and above conventional breast ultrasound • Various SWE parameters were explored regarding distinction between benign and malignant lesions • An elasticity of 82.3 kPa appears optimal in differentiating solid breast masses • However, ultrasound plus SWE was not significantly better than conventional ultrasound alone.

  15. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation – Economic and energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The cost and energy demand for dark fermentation using OFMSW were established. • Dark fermentation using OFMSW can produce a carbon source for bioprocesses of about 330 USD/t COD . • A maximum purification cost of VFAs from dark fermentation using OFMSW was established to 15 USD/m 3 . • Replacing fossil fuel based products by dark fermentation will probably lead to net energy savings. - Abstract: Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H 2 . The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15 USD/m 3 effluent . With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/t COD , DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H 2 . This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform

  16. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  17. Impact of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Melkania, Uma

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of furan derivatives (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) and phenolic compounds (vanillin and syringaldehyde) on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. The inhibitors were applied in the concentration ranges of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5g/L each. Inhibition coefficients of phenolic compounds were higher than those of furan derivatives and vanillin exhibited maximum inhibition coefficients correspondingly lowest hydrogen yield among all inhibitors. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural addition resulted in an average decrease of 26.99% and 37.16% in hydrogen yield respectively, while vanillin and syringaldehyde resulted in 49.40% and 42.26% average decrease in hydrogen yield respectively. Further analysis revealed that Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were completely degraded up to concentrations of 1g/L, while vanillin and syringaldehyde were degraded completely up to the concentration of 0.5g/L. Volatile fatty acid generation decreased with inhibitors addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electricity generation and microbial community structure of air-cathode microbial fuel cells powered with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and inoculated with different seeds

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2014-08-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), normally exceeding 60% of the waste stream in developing countries, could constitute a valuable source of feed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tested the start-up of two sets of OFMSW-fed air-cathode MFCs inoculated with wastewater sludge or cattle manure. The maximum power density obtained was 123±41mWm-2 in the manure-seeded MFCs and 116±29mWm-2 in the wastewater-seeded MFCs. Coulombic efficiencies ranged between 24±5% (manure-seeded MFCs) and 23±2% (wastewater-seeded MFCs). Chemical oxygen demand removal was >86% in all the MFCs and carbohydrate removal >98%. Microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing demonstrated the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes (67%) on the anode suggesting the possible role of members of this phylum in electricity generation. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the microbial community structure in replicate MFCs converged regardless of the inoculum source. This study demonstrates efficient electricity production coupled with organic treatment in OFMSW-fueled MFCs inoculated with manure or wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Biosurfactant-enhanced hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste using co-culture of E. coli and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Melkania, Uma

    2017-11-01

    The effect of biosurfactants (surfactin and saponin) on the hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. The biosurfactants were applied in the concentration ranges of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 5.0% each. Cumulative hydrogen production (P), maximum hydrogen production rate (Rmax) and lag phases (λ) were analyzed using modified Gompertz model. Results revealed that both the biosurfactants were effective in hydrogen production enhancement. The maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 743.5±14.4ml and 675.6±12.1ml and volumetric hydrogen production of 2.12L H2 /L substrate and 1.93L H2 /L substrate was recorded at 3.5% surfactin and 3.0% saponin respectively. Corresponding highest hydrogen yields were 79.2mlH 2 /gCarbo initial and 72.0mlH 2 /gCarbo initial respectively. Lag phase decreased from 12.5±2.0h at control to a minimum of 9.0±2.8h and 9.5±2.1h at 3.5% surfactin and 3.0% saponin respectively. Volatile fatty acid generation was increased with biosurfactants addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation – Economic and energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonk, Fabian, E-mail: fbonk@masdar.ac.ae; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo, E-mail: jbastidas@masdar.ac.ae; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye, E-mail: jschmidt@masdar.ac.ae

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The cost and energy demand for dark fermentation using OFMSW were established. • Dark fermentation using OFMSW can produce a carbon source for bioprocesses of about 330 USD/t{sub COD}. • A maximum purification cost of VFAs from dark fermentation using OFMSW was established to 15 USD/m{sup 3}. • Replacing fossil fuel based products by dark fermentation will probably lead to net energy savings. - Abstract: Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H{sub 2}. The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15 USD/m{sup 3}{sub effluent}. With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/t{sub COD}, DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H{sub 2}. This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform.

  2. Electricity generation and microbial community structure of air-cathode microbial fuel cells powered with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and inoculated with different seeds

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Rao, Hari Ananda; Li, Dong; Ghanimeh, Sophia A.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), normally exceeding 60% of the waste stream in developing countries, could constitute a valuable source of feed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tested the start-up of two sets of OFMSW-fed air-cathode MFCs inoculated with wastewater sludge or cattle manure. The maximum power density obtained was 123±41mWm-2 in the manure-seeded MFCs and 116±29mWm-2 in the wastewater-seeded MFCs. Coulombic efficiencies ranged between 24±5% (manure-seeded MFCs) and 23±2% (wastewater-seeded MFCs). Chemical oxygen demand removal was >86% in all the MFCs and carbohydrate removal >98%. Microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing demonstrated the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes (67%) on the anode suggesting the possible role of members of this phylum in electricity generation. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the microbial community structure in replicate MFCs converged regardless of the inoculum source. This study demonstrates efficient electricity production coupled with organic treatment in OFMSW-fueled MFCs inoculated with manure or wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Impact of heavy metals on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and E. Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Melkania, Uma

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of heavy metals (lead, mercury, copper, and chromium) on the hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. Heavy metals were applied at concentration range of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/L. The results revealed that lead, mercury, and chromium negatively affected hydrogen production for the range of concentrations applied. Application of copper slightly enhanced hydrogen production at low concentration and resulted in the hydrogen yield of 36.0 mLH 2 /gCarbo initial with 10 mg/L copper supplementation as compared to 24.2 mLH 2 /gCarbo initial in control. However, the higher concentration of copper (>10 mg/L) declined hydrogen production. Hydrogen production inhibition potential of heavy metals can be arranged in the following increasing order: Cu 2+  metal addition. Thus, the present study reveals that the presence of heavy metals in the feedstock is detrimental for the hydrogen production. Therefore, it is essential to remove the toxic heavy metals prior to anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of the pore filling fraction of carbazole-based hole-transporting materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Ben Manaa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbazole-based molecular glasses have emerged as a promising alternative to the widely used hole-transporting materials (HTM spiro-OMeTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The pore filling fraction (PFF of the mesoporous TiO2 layer by the HTM appears as a key parameter determining the final efficiency of a DSSC. In this work, the pore-filling properties of a family of carbazole-based HTMs are investigated for the first time and the photovoltaic behavior of DSSC devices (fabricated using the D102 dye is discussed in light of the present findings. It is found that N-aryl substituted 3,6-bis(diphenylaminyl-carbazole derivatives exhibit relatively low PFF of ca. 60%. Methoxy groups on the diphenylamine moieties have little influence on the PFF, indicating that the strong enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE is not related to an improved filling of the pores by the HTM. N-alkylated HTMs lead to higher PFF, increasing with the alkyl chain length, up to 78%.

  5. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation--Economic and energy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-06-01

    Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H2. The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15USD/m(3)(effluent). With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/tCOD, DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H2. This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computational Modelling of the Structural Integrity following Mass-Loss in Polymeric Charred Cellular Solids

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. M. Whitty; J. Francis; J. Howe; B. Henderson

    2014-01-01

    A novel computational technique is presented for embedding mass-loss due to burning into the ANSYS finite element modelling code. The approaches employ a range of computational modelling methods in order to provide more complete theoretical treatment of thermoelasticity absent from the literature for over six decades. Techniques are employed to evaluate structural integrity (namely, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratios, and compressive brittle strength) of honeycomb systems known to approximate t...

  7. Mass dependence of spectral and angular distributions of Cherenkov radiation from relativistic isotopes in solid radiators and its possible application as mass selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, O. V.; Rozhkova, E. I.; Pivovarov, Yu. L.; Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, N.

    2018-02-01

    The first proof of principle experiment with a prototype of a Time-of-Flight (TOF) - Cherenkov detector of relativistic heavy ions (RHI) exploiting a liquid Iodine Naphthalene radiator has been performed at Cave C at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). A conceptual design for a liquid Cherenkov detector was proposed as a prototype for the future TOF measurements at the Super-FRS by detection of total number of Cherenkov photons. The ionization energy loss of RHI in a liquid radiator decreases only slightly this number, while in a solid radiator changes sufficiently not the total number of ChR photons, but ChR angular and spectral distributions. By means of computer simulations, we showed that these distributions are very sensitive to the isotope mass, due to different stopping powers of isotopes with initial equal relativistic factors. The results of simulations for light (Li, Be) and heavy (Xe) isotopes at 500-1000 MeV/u are presented indicating the possibility to use the isotopic effect in ChR of RHI as the mass selector.

  8. Branching fractions of the CN + C3H6 reaction using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry: evidence for the 3-cyanopropene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevitt, Adam J; Soorkia, Satchin; Savee, John D; Selby, Talitha S; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A; Leone, Stephen R

    2011-11-24

    The gas-phase CN + propene reaction is investigated using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry (SPIMS) over the 9.8-11.5 eV photon energy range. Experiments are conducted at room temperature in 4 Torr of He buffer gas. The CN + propene addition reaction produces two distinct product mass channels, C(3)H(3)N and C(4)H(5)N, corresponding to CH(3) and H elimination, respectively. The CH(3) and H elimination channels are measured to have branching fractions of 0.59 ± 0.15 and 0.41 ± 0.10, respectively. The absolute photoionization cross sections between 9.8 and 11.5 eV are measured for the three considered H-elimination coproducts: 1-, 2-, and 3-cyanopropene. Based on fits using the experimentally measured photoionization spectra for the C(4)H(5)N mass channel and contrary to the previous study (Int. J. Mass. Spectrom.2009, 280, 113-118), where it was concluded that 3-cyanopropene was not a significant product, the new data suggests 3-cyanopropene is produced in significant quantity along with 1-cyanopropene, with isomer branching fractions from this mass channel of 0.50 ± 0.12 and 0.50 ± 0.24, respectively. However, similarities between the 1-, 2-, and 3-cyanopropene photoionization spectra make an unequivocal assignment difficult based solely on photoionization spectra. The CN + CH(2)CHCD(3) reaction is studied and shows, in addition to the H-elimination product signal, a D-elimination product channel (m/z 69, consistent with CH(2)CHCD(2)CN), providing further evidence for the formation of the 3-cyanopropene reaction product.

  9. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  10. On the feasibility of using satellite gravity observations for detecting large-scale solid mass transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peidou, Athina C.; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2017-10-01

    The main focus of this paper is to assess the feasibility of utilizing dedicated satellite gravity missions in order to detect large-scale solid mass transfer events (e.g. landslides). Specifically, a sensitivity analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field solutions in conjunction with simulated case studies is employed to predict gravity changes due to past subaerial and submarine mass transfer events, namely the Agulhas slump in southeastern Africa and the Heart Mountain Landslide in northwestern Wyoming. The detectability of these events is evaluated by taking into account the expected noise level in the GRACE gravity field solutions and simulating their impact on the gravity field through forward modelling of the mass transfer. The spectral content of the estimated gravity changes induced by a simulated large-scale landslide event is estimated for the known spatial resolution of the GRACE observations using wavelet multiresolution analysis. The results indicate that both the Agulhas slump and the Heart Mountain Landslide could have been detected by GRACE, resulting in {\\vert }0.4{\\vert } and {\\vert }0.18{\\vert } mGal change on GRACE solutions, respectively. The suggested methodology is further extended to the case studies of the submarine landslide in Tohoku, Japan, and the Grand Banks landslide in Newfoundland, Canada. The detectability of these events using GRACE solutions is assessed through their impact on the gravity field.

  11. Mass Transfer Process by Magneto-convection at a Solid-liquid Interface in a Heterogeneous Vertical Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Morisaki, Shigeyoshi; Aogaki, Ryoichi

    2003-08-01

    When an external magnetic field is vertically imposed on a solid-liquid interface, the mass transfer process of a solute dissolving from or depositing on the interface was theoretically examined. In a heterogeneous vertical magnetic field, a material receives a magnetic force in proportion to the product of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetic flux density B and its gradient (dB/dz). As the reaction proceeds, a diffusion layer of the solute with changing susceptibility is formed at the interface because of the difference of the the magnetic susceptibility on the concentration of the solute. In the case of an unstable condition where the dimensionless number of magneto-convection S takes a positive value, the magnetic force is applied to the layer and induces numerous minute convection cells. The mass transfer of the solute is thus accelerated, so that it is predicted that the mass flux increases with the 1/3rd order of B(dB/dz) and the 4/3rd order of the concentration. The experiment was then performed by measuring the rate of the dissolution of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal in water.

  12. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  13. Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in seawater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarab, P; Williams, D; Dean, J R; Ludkin, E; Perry, J J

    2011-02-04

    A method for the simultaneous determination of two biocidal quaternary ammonium compounds; didecyldimethylammonium chloride (didecyldimethyl quat) and dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (benzyl quat), in seawater by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed. The optimised procedure utilised off-line extraction of the analytes from seawater using polymeric (Strata-X) SPE cartridges. Recoveries ranged from 80 to 105%, with detection limits at the low parts-per-trillion (ng/l) level for both analytes. To demonstrate sensitivity, environmental concentrations were measured at three different locations along the North East coast of England with measured values in the range 120-270ng/l. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellen, Anniek; Ooms, Bert; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Vreeken, Rob; van Dongen, William D

    2003-05-25

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS system were optimized in an integrated approach to maximize the application range and minimize the method development time. The optimized generic SPE-LC-MS/MS protocol was evaluated for 11 drugs with different physicochemical properties. Good quantification for 10 out of 11 of the pharmaceuticals in serum or plasma could be readily achieved. The quantitative assays gave recoveries better than 95%, lower quantification limits of 0.2-2.0 ng/ml, acceptable precision and accuracy and good linearity over 2-4 orders of magnitude. Carry-over was determined to be in the range of 0.02-0.10%, without optimization.

  15. Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

  16. Enhanced mass transfer during solid-liquid extraction of gamma-irradiated red beetroot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Chetan A.; Chethana, S.; Rastogi, N.K.; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure to gamma-irradiation pretreatment increases cell wall permeabilization, resulting in loss of turgor pressure, which led to the increase of extractability of betanin from red beetroot. The degree of extraction of betanin was investigated using gamma irradiation as a pretreatment prior to the solid-liquid extraction process and compared with control beetroot samples. The beetroot subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kGy) and control was dipped in an acetic acid medium (1% v/v) to extract the betanin. The diffusion coefficients for betanin as well as ionic component were estimated considering Fickian diffusion. The results indicated an increase in the diffusion coefficient of betanin (0.302x10 -9 -0.463x10 -9 m 2 /s) and ionic component (0.248x10 -9 -0.453x10 -9 m 2 /s) as the dose rate increased (from 2.5 to 10.0 kGy). The degradation constant was found to increase (0.050-0.079 min -1 ) with an increase gamma-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy), indicating lower stability of the betanin as compared to control sample at 65 deg. C

  17. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. [Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in leather products by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Wan, Xin; Li, Lixia; Wang, Chengyun; Jin, Shupei; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the additives frequently used in the leather production in China, but they have been put into the list of forbidden chemicals issued by European Union recently. In fact, there is not a commonly recognized method for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products due to the serious matrix interferences from the leather products and the complex chemical structures of the SCCPs. A method of solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) was established for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products after the optimization of the SPE conditions. It was found that the interferences from the leather products were thor- oughly separated from the analyte of the SCCPs on a home-made solid phase extraction (SPE) column filled with silica packing while eluted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). With this method, the recoveries for the SCCPs spiked in the real leather samples varied from 90.47% to 99.00% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.7%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.069 and 0.110 mg/kg. This method is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCCPs in the leather products.

  19. Subtype Differentiation of Small (≤ 4 cm) Solid Renal Mass Using Volumetric Histogram Analysis of DWI at 3-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anqin; Xing, Wei; Li, Haojie; Hu, Yao; Hu, Daoyu; Li, Zhen; Kamel, Ihab R

    2018-05-29

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the utility of volumetric histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from reduced-FOV DWI for small (≤ 4 cm) solid renal mass subtypes at 3-T MRI. This retrospective study included 38 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 16 papillary RCCs, 18 chromophobe RCCs, 13 minimal fat angiomyolipomas (AMLs), and seven oncocytomas evaluated with preoperative MRI. Volumetric ADC maps were generated using all slices of the reduced-FOV DW images to obtain histogram parameters, including mean, median, 10th percentile, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, 90th percentile, and SD ADC values, as well as skewness, kurtosis, and entropy. Comparisons of these parameters were made by one-way ANOVA, t test, and ROC curves analysis. ADC histogram parameters differentiated eight of 10 pairs of renal tumors. Three subtype pairs (clear cell RCC vs papillary RCC, clear cell RCC vs chromophobe RCC, and clear cell RCC vs minimal fat AML) were differentiated by mean ADC. However, five other subtype pairs (clear cell RCC vs oncocytoma, papillary RCC vs minimal fat AML, papillary RCC vs oncocytoma, chromophobe RCC vs minimal fat AML, and chromophobe RCC vs oncocytoma) were differentiated by histogram distribution parameters exclusively (all p histogram parameters yielded the highest AUC (0.851; sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 86.1%). Quantitative volumetric ADC histogram analysis may help differentiate various subtypes of small solid renal tumors, including benign and malignant lesions.

  20. Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianli; Kang, Haiyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    Given the potential risks of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the analysis of their presence in water is very urgent. We have developed a novel procedure for determining chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extraction parameters of solid-phase extraction were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed wide linear ranges (1.0-1000 ng/L) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9952 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.591 and 0.045-1.502 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 82.5 to 102.6% with relative standard deviations below 9.2%. The obtained method was applied successfully to the determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. Most of the chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and 1-monochloropyrene was predominant in the studied water samples. This is the first report of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples in China. The toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied tap water were 9.95 ng the toxic equivalency quotient m(-3) . 9,10-Dichloroanthracene and 1-monochloropyrene accounted for the majority of the total toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daniele Z., E-mail: daniele.dzs@dpf.gov.br [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Superintendencia Regional do Departamento de Policia Federal no Rio Grande do Sul, 1365 Ipiranga Avenue, Azenha, Zip Code 90160-093 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2752 Ipiranga Avenue, Santana, Zip Code 90610-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Boehl, Paula O.; Comiran, Eloisa; Mariotti, Kristiane C. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2752 Ipiranga Avenue, Santana, Zip Code 90610-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pechansky, Flavio [Centro de Pesquisa em Alcool e Drogas (CPAD), Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2350, Ramiro Barcelos Street, Zip Code 90035-903 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Duarte, Paulina C.A.V. [Secretaria Nacional de Politicas sobre Drogas (SENAD), Esplanada dos Ministerios, Block ' A' , 5th floor, Zip Code 70050-907 Brasilia, Distrito Federal (Brazil); De Boni, Raquel [Centro de Pesquisa em Alcool e Drogas (CPAD), Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2350, Ramiro Barcelos Street, Zip Code 90035-903 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Froehlich, Pedro E.; Limberger, Renata P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2752 Ipiranga Avenue, Santana, Zip Code 90610-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Propylchloroformate derivatization of amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid. > Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. > Linear range 2(4)-256 ng mL{sup -1}, detection limits 0.5-2 ng mL{sup -1}. > Accuracy 98-112%, precision <15% of RSD, recovery 77-112%. > Importance of residual evaluation in checking model goodness-of-fit. - Abstract: A method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), fenproporex (FEN), diethylpropion (DIE) and methylphenidate (MPH) in oral fluid collected with Quantisal{sup TM} device has been developed and validated. Thereunto, in-matrix propylchloroformate derivatization followed by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed. Deuterium labeled AMP was used as internal standard for all the stimulants and analysis was performed using the selected ion monitoring mode. The detector response was linear for the studied drugs in the concentration range of 2-256 ng mL{sup -1} (neat oral fluid), except for FEN, whereas the linear range was 4-256 ng mL{sup -1}. The detection limits were 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} (MET), 1 ng mL{sup -1} (MPH) and 2 ng mL{sup -1} (DIE, AMP, FEN), respectively. Accuracy of quality control samples remained within 98.2-111.9% of the target concentrations, while precision has not exceeded 15% of the relative standard deviation. Recoveries with Quantisal{sup TM} device ranged from 77.2% to 112.1%. Also, the goodness-of-fit concerning the ordinary least squares model in the statistical inference of data has been tested through residual plotting and ANOVA. The validated method can be easily automated and then used for screening and confirmation of amphetamine-type stimulants in drivers' oral fluid.

  2. Determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daniele Z.; Boehl, Paula O.; Comiran, Eloisa; Mariotti, Kristiane C.; Pechansky, Flavio; Duarte, Paulina C.A.V.; De Boni, Raquel; Froehlich, Pedro E.; Limberger, Renata P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → Propylchloroformate derivatization of amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid. → Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. → Linear range 2(4)-256 ng mL -1 , detection limits 0.5-2 ng mL -1 . → Accuracy 98-112%, precision TM device has been developed and validated. Thereunto, in-matrix propylchloroformate derivatization followed by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed. Deuterium labeled AMP was used as internal standard for all the stimulants and analysis was performed using the selected ion monitoring mode. The detector response was linear for the studied drugs in the concentration range of 2-256 ng mL -1 (neat oral fluid), except for FEN, whereas the linear range was 4-256 ng mL -1 . The detection limits were 0.5 ng mL -1 (MET), 1 ng mL -1 (MPH) and 2 ng mL -1 (DIE, AMP, FEN), respectively. Accuracy of quality control samples remained within 98.2-111.9% of the target concentrations, while precision has not exceeded 15% of the relative standard deviation. Recoveries with Quantisal TM device ranged from 77.2% to 112.1%. Also, the goodness-of-fit concerning the ordinary least squares model in the statistical inference of data has been tested through residual plotting and ANOVA. The validated method can be easily automated and then used for screening and confirmation of amphetamine-type stimulants in drivers' oral fluid.

  3. FIRST MEASUREMENTS OF {sup 15}N FRACTIONATION IN N{sub 2}H{sup +} TOWARD HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontani, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Caselli, P.; Bizzocchi, L. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Palau, A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Ceccarelli, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first measurements of the isotopic ratio {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N in N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward a statistically significant sample of high-mass star-forming cores. The sources belong to the three main evolutionary categories of the high-mass star formation process: high-mass starless cores, high-mass protostellar objects, and ultracompact H ii regions. Simultaneous measurements of the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in CN have been made. The {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios derived from N{sub 2}H{sup +} show a large spread (from ∼180 up to ∼1300), while those derived from CN are in between the value measured in the terrestrial atmosphere (∼270) and that of the proto-solar nebula (∼440) for the large majority of the sources within the errors. However, this different spread might be due to the fact that the sources detected in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} isotopologues are more than those detected in the CN ones. The {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio does not change significantly with the source evolutionary stage, which indicates that time seems to be irrelevant for the fractionation of nitrogen. We also find a possible anticorrelation between the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N (as derived from N{sub 2}H{sup +}) and the H/D isotopic ratios. This suggests that {sup 15}N enrichment could not be linked to the parameters that cause D enrichment, in agreement with the prediction by recent chemical models. These models, however, are not able to reproduce the observed large spread in {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N, pointing out that some important routes of nitrogen fractionation could be still missing in the models.

  4. Mass Dependent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes in Source Rocks, Mineral Deposits and Spring Waters of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. N.; Kesler, S. E.; Blum, J. D.; Rytuba, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of Hg in rocks, ore deposits, and active hydrothermal systems from the California Coast Ranges, one of Earth's largest Hg-depositing systems. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of Hg deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (<300 m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to greater depths (200 to 1000 m), as well as active springs and geothermal systems that release Hg to the present surface. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of Hg than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean Hg isotope compositions for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate Hg deposits have similar average isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although δ202Hg values for the Hg deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from dilute spring and saline thermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean δ202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate there is little or no isotopic fractionation during release of Hg from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of Hg in deposits, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids is likely the most important process causing of the observed Hg isotope fractionation. This should result in the release of Hg with low δ202Hg values into the atmosphere from the top of these hydrothermal systems and a

  5. A fully automated mass spectrometer for the analysis of organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillig, H.; Kueper, H.; Riepe, W.

    1979-01-01

    Automation of a mass spectrometer-computer system makes it possible to process up to 30 samples without attention after sample loading. An automatic sample changer introduces the samples successively into the ion source by means of a direct inlet probe. A process control unit determines the operation sequence. Computer programs are available for the hardware support, system supervision and evaluation of the spectrometer signals. The most essential precondition for automation - automatic evaporation of the sample material by electronic control of the total ion current - is confirmed to be satisfactory. The system operates routinely overnight in an industrial laboratory, so that day work can be devoted to difficult analytical problems. The cost of routine analyses is halved. (Auth.)

  6. Wavelets analysis for differentiating solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Bino; Hwang, Darryl; Mohamed, Passant; Cen, Steven; Deng, Christopher; Chang, Michael; Duddalwar, Vinay

    2017-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate potential use of wavelets analysis in discriminating benign and malignant renal masses (RM) Materials and Methods: Regions of interest of the whole lesion were manually segmented and co-registered from multiphase CT acquisitions of 144 patients (98 malignant RM: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 46 benign RM: oncocytoma, lipid-poor angiomyolipoma). Here, the Haar wavelet was used to analyze the grayscale images of the largest segmented tumor in the axial direction. Six metrics (energy, entropy, homogeneity, contrast, standard deviation (SD) and variance) derived from 3-levels of image decomposition in 3 directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) respectively, were used to quantify tumor texture. Independent t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test depending on data normality were used as exploratory univariate analysis. Stepwise logistic regression and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis were used to select predictors and assess prediction accuracy, respectively. Results: Consistently, 5 out of 6 wavelet-based texture measures (except homogeneity) were higher for malignant tumors compared to benign, when accounting for individual texture direction. Homogeneity was consistently lower in malignant than benign tumors irrespective of direction. SD and variance measured in the diagonal direction on the corticomedullary phase showed significant (p<0.05) difference between benign versus malignant tumors. The multivariate model with variance (3 directions) and SD (vertical direction) extracted from the excretory and pre-contrast phase, respectively showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.78 (p < 0.05) in discriminating malignant from benign. Conclusion: Wavelet analysis is a valuable texture evaluation tool to add to a radiomics platforms geared at reliably characterizing and stratifying renal masses.

  7. Quantum statistical effects in the mass transport of interstitial solutes in a crystalline solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C. H.; Wen, Haohua

    2017-09-01

    The impact of quantum statistics on the many-body dynamics of a crystalline solid at finite temperatures containing an interstitial solute atom (ISA) is investigated. The Mori-Zwanzig theory allows the many-body dynamics of the crystal to be formulated and solved analytically within a pseudo-one-particle approach using the Langevin equation with a quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) based on the Debye model. At the same time, the many-body dynamics is also directly solved numerically via the molecular dynamics approach with a Langevin heat bath based on the quantum FDR. Both the analytical and numerical results consistently show that below the Debye temperature of the host lattice, quantum statistics significantly impacts the ISA transport properties, resulting in major departures from both the Arrhenius law of diffusion and the Einstein-Smoluchowski relation between the mobility and diffusivity. Indeed, we found that below one-third of the Debye temperature, effects of vibrations on the quantum mobility and diffusivity are both orders-of-magnitude larger and practically temperature independent. We have shown that both effects have their physical origin in the athermal lattice vibrations derived from the phonon ground state. The foregoing theory is tested in quantum molecular dynamics calculation of mobility and diffusivity of interstitial helium in bcc W. In this case, the Arrhenius law is only valid in a narrow range between ˜300 and ˜700 K. The diffusivity becomes temperature independent on the low-temperature side while increasing linearly with temperature on the high-temperature side.

  8. Characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses in harmonic 3D power Doppler imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Y.-H.; Huang, Y.-L.; Kuo, S.-J.; Liang, W.-M.; Chen, S.-T.; Chen, D.-R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed the characteristics of benign and malignant solid breast tumors in harmonic three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler imaging and proposed decision models to classify benign and malignant breast tumors. Materials and methods: A total of 86 malignant and 97 benign harmonic 3D power Doppler US images were analyzed. All the harmonic 3D power Doppler images were obtained using a Voluson730 US system (GE, Zipf, Austria) equipped with a RSP 6-12 transducer and tissue harmonic imaging modalities. Imaging analysis was performed using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL)-imaging program. Histogram indices, the vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI), were calculated for the intra-tumor and for shells with an outside thickness of 3 mm surrounding the breast tumors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to estimate the diagnostic performances. Results: The results revealed that the choice of decision model comprised the parameters of patient age, intra-tumor VI, and tumor volume to classify benign and malignant breast tumors. The area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.910, accuracy was 81.4%, and sensitivity and specificity were 81.4% and 81.4%, respectively. The parameter intra-tumor VI was the choice for all of the histogram indices in differentiating between malignant and benign lesions. Conclusion: The decision model, which was composed of patient age, tumor volume and intra-tumor VI, and a cut-off value for intra-tumor VI at the upper end of patient age and tumor volume, was recommended in clinical application.

  9. SO2 photoexcitation mechanism links mass-independent sulfur isotopic fractionation in cryospheric sulfate to climate impacting volcanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattori, Shohei; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Natural climate variation, such as that caused by volcanoes, is the basis for identifying anthropogenic climate change. However, knowledge of the history of volcanic activity is inadequate, particularly concerning the explosivity of specific events. Some material is deposited in ice cores......, but the concentration of glacial sulfate does not distinguish between tropospheric and stratospheric eruptions. Stable sulfur isotope abundances contain additional information, and recent studies show a correlation between volcanic plumes that reach the stratosphere and mass-independent anomalies in sulfur isotopes...... plume chemistry, allowing the production and preservation of a mass-independent sulfur isotope anomaly in the sulfate product. The model accounts for the amplitude, phases, and time development of Δ(33)S/δ(34)S and Δ(36)S/Δ(33)S found in glacial samples. We are able to identify the process controlling...

  10. SO2 photoexcitation mechanism links mass-independent sulfur isotopic fractionation in cryospheric sulfate to climate impacting volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shohei; Schmidt, Johan A.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Yamada, Akinori; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Natural climate variation, such as that caused by volcanoes, is the basis for identifying anthropogenic climate change. However, knowledge of the history of volcanic activity is inadequate, particularly concerning the explosivity of specific events. Some material is deposited in ice cores, but the concentration of glacial sulfate does not distinguish between tropospheric and stratospheric eruptions. Stable sulfur isotope abundances contain additional information, and recent studies show a correlation between volcanic plumes that reach the stratosphere and mass-independent anomalies in sulfur isotopes in glacial sulfate. We describe a mechanism, photoexcitation of SO2, that links the two, yielding a useful metric of the explosivity of historic volcanic events. A plume model of S(IV) to S(VI) conversion was constructed including photochemistry, entrainment of background air, and sulfate deposition. Isotopologue-specific photoexcitation rates were calculated based on the UV absorption cross-sections of 32SO2, 33SO2, 34SO2, and 36SO2 from 250 to 320 nm. The model shows that UV photoexcitation is enhanced with altitude, whereas mass-dependent oxidation, such as SO2 + OH, is suppressed by in situ plume chemistry, allowing the production and preservation of a mass-independent sulfur isotope anomaly in the sulfate product. The model accounts for the amplitude, phases, and time development of Δ33S/δ34S and Δ36S/Δ33S found in glacial samples. We are able to identify the process controlling mass-independent sulfur isotope anomalies in the modern atmosphere. This mechanism is the basis of identifying the magnitude of historic volcanic events. PMID:23417298

  11. Analysis of a rhenium-osmium solid-solution spike by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.M.; Dickin, A.P.; McNutt, R.H.; McAndrew, J.I.; Beneteau, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The rhenium-osmium decay scheme ( 187 Re → 187 Os) offers a unique opportunity to investigate the genesis of, and directly date, ultramafic rock, sulphide and platinum ore deposits. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a viable method for Os isotopic analysis as it provides the high temperatures necessary to ionise Os. The sample can be introduced into the ICP mass spectrometer either by conventional nebulisation or by distillation using an Os ''generator''. Generator-mode analysis is superior to nebulisation because (i) the total number of counts is two orders of magnitude higher for a given sample size and (ii) Os oxidises readily to volatile OsO 4 , which has a boiling-point lower than most Re compounds, so that Os can be efficiently separated from 187 Re. The importance of Os loss during sample preparation was minimised by combining the sample powder with a powdered Re-Os isotopic spike prior to any chemical treatment. The spike is in a nickel sulphide matrix and was made by a thioacetamide co-precipitation of Os, Re and Ni followed by a fire assay. The 190 Os/ 192 Os ratio in this preparation is 51.5 ± 0.9, the 187 Os 188 Os ratio is 0.063 ± 0.006 and the 185 Re/ 187 Re ratio is 17.04 - + 0.41. These values are within the error limits quoted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Techsnabexport, the suppliers of the metallic spikes. Parameters that significantly influence the Os analyses include the oxidising agent and the run temperature. The oxidising agent H 5 IO 6 is preferred to H 2 O 2 or HNO 3 as it has the highest electrode potential, provides a prolonged, consistent reaction and is more stable when stored. Chilling the sample and the H 5 IO 6 , initially retards uncontrolled OsO 4 emission. Heat applied later in the run releases OsO 4 and helps maintain a high count rate. Thus, OsO 4 can be generated in a steady, controllable and reproducible manner. (author)

  12. Physicochemical effects of cosmic rays in solids: analyses by mass spectrometry and by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Enio F. da

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Cosmic Rays (CR) are studied since their discovery by Victor Hess in the years 1911-1913. Interestingly, the beginning of research in Physics in Brazil started with experiments on CR. B. Gross (INT/ Rio), G. Wataghin and G. Occhialini (USP) started their investigation on CR in 1934. F.X. Roser, the founder of the Physics Institute of PUC-Rio, worked with Hess when he got the Nobel Prize in 1936. C. Lattes got in 1947 the experimental data in Chacaltaya that conducted to the discovery of the meson pi (C. Powell, Nobel Prize in 1950). Nowadays, the Auger Project deals with extremely high energy extragalactic particles. Except for these ones, the origin, the energy and mass distributions of CR constituents and their capability of producing elementary particles are well known. Nevertheless, there is an enormous lack of information on the effects caused by the CR on inorganic and biological materials. This motivates measurements of relevant physicochemical data, such as sputtering yields, cross sections for inducing chemical reactions and crystalline structure parameters. A fascinating question about CR is if they are/were the responsible for the transformation of inorganic into organic material, synthesizing therefore pre-biotic molecules in whole Universe. Nuclear Physics instrumentation is well suited to answer this question, providing ion sources and ion accelerators from keV to GeV. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR infrared spectroscopy are techniques able to monitor the physicochemical modifications induced by the RC beam analogs. Data obtained in the GANIL (France) and Van de Graaff (PUC-Rio) accelerators are presented. Abundant inorganic molecular species in space, such as H 2 O, CO, CO 2 and NH 3 , are condensed in laboratory and bombarded by H to Fe ions, from 10 -3 to 10 3 MeV/u, covering the CR range. New chemical species are identified; sputtering yields (Y), formation (σf ) and destruction (σd) cross sections are measured. An

  13. Top-down and bottom-up lipidomic analysis of rabbit lipoproteins under different metabolic conditions using flow field-flow fractionation, nanoflow liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Ju Yong; Chung, Bong Chul; Seo, Hong Seog; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-07-31

    This study demonstrated the performances of top-down and bottom-up approaches in lipidomic analysis of lipoproteins from rabbits raised under different metabolic conditions: healthy controls, carrageenan-induced inflammation, dehydration, high cholesterol (HC) diet, and highest cholesterol diet with inflammation (HCI). In the bottom-up approach, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the low density lipoproteins (LDL) were size-sorted and collected on a semi-preparative scale using a multiplexed hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (MxHF5), followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-ESI-MS/MS (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis of the lipids extracted from each lipoprotein fraction. In the top-down method, size-fractionated lipoproteins were directly infused to MS for quantitative analysis of targeted lipids using chip-type asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (cAF4-ESI-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The comprehensive bottom-up analysis yielded 122 and 104 lipids from HDL and LDL, respectively. Rabbits within the HC and HCI groups had lipid patterns that contrasted most substantially from those of controls, suggesting that HC diet significantly alters the lipid composition of lipoproteins. Among the identified lipids, 20 lipid species that exhibited large differences (>10-fold) were selected as targets for the top-down quantitative analysis in order to compare the results with those from the bottom-up method. Statistical comparison of the results from the two methods revealed that the results were not significantly different for most of the selected species, except for those species with only small differences in concentration between groups. The current study demonstrated that top-down lipid analysis using cAF4-ESI-MS/MS is a powerful high-speed analytical platform for targeted lipidomic analysis that does not require the extraction of lipids from blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  14. Partition coefficients for Ni, Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide liquid and the formation of compositionally zoned Ni-Cu sulfide bodies by fractional crystallization of sulfide liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, S.J.; Makovicky, E.; Makovicky, M.

    1996-01-01

    of the system. There is a positive correlation between the partition coefficients and sulfur content of the monosulfide solid solution and between the partition coefficients and the sulfur content of the liquid. In sulfur-saturated and sulfur-over-saturated experimental systems, the metals behave in a manner...... (Alexo, Abitibi Greenstone Belt) and a zoned tholeiite-related ore (Oktyabr'sky, Noril'sk region, Siberia). In both cases, the experimental partition coefficients numerically model the composition zones of the actual ores. This supports the model of fractional crystallization of a monosulfide solid...

  15. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  16. Measurement of non-enteric emission fluxes of volatile fatty acids from a California dairy by solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis, Phillip; Sorenson, Mark; Beene, Matt; Krauter, Charles; Shamp, Brian; Hasson, Alam S.

    Dairies are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's San Joaquin Valley; a region that experiences high ozone levels during summer. Short-chain carboxylic acids, or volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are believed to make up a large fraction of VOC emissions from these facilities, although there are few studies to substantiate this. In this work, a method using a flux chamber coupled to solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibers followed by analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed to quantify emissions of six VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid) from non-enteric sources. The technique was then used to quantify VFA fluxes from a small dairy located on the campus of California State University Fresno. Both animal feed and animal waste are found to be major sources of VFAs, with acetic acid contributing 70-90% of emissions from the sources tested. Measured total acid fluxes during spring (with an average temperature of 20 °C) were 1.84 ± 0.01, 1.06 ± 0.08, (1.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -2, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -2 and (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -2 g m -2 h -1 from silage, total mixed rations, flushing lane, open lot and lagoon sources, respectively. VFA emissions from the sources tested total 390 ± 80 g h -1. The data indicate high fluxes of VFAs from dairy facilities, but differences in the design and operation of dairies in the San Joaquin Valley as well as seasonal variations mean that additional measurements must be made to accurately determine emissions inventories for the region.

  17. Peptidome profiling of human serum of uveal melanoma patients based on magnetic bead fractionation and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To find new biomarkers for uveal melanoma (UM by analyzing the serum peptidome profile. METHODS: Proteomic spectra in patients with UM before and after operation were analyzed and compared with those of healthy controls. Magnetic affinity beads were used to capture serum peptides and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used to compile serum peptide profiles. RESULTS: A panel of 49 peptides were differentially expressed between UM patients and controls, of which 33 peptides were of higher intensities in patient group and 16 peptides were of higher intensities in control group. Based on combined use of these potential markers, peptides with mean molecular masses of 1467 and 9289.0 Da provide high sensitivity (83.3%, specificity (100% and accuracy rate (93.0% together to differentiate melanoma patients from healthy controls. At the time point of 6mo postoperatively, the levels of many peptides differentially expressed before surgery showed no more statistical difference between the patients and the control group. Fibrinogen α-chain precursors were identified as potential UM markers. CONCLUSION: We have shown that a convenient and fast proteomic technique, affinity bead separation and MALDI-TOF analysis combined with bioinformatic software, facilitates the identification of novel biomarkers for UM.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  19. Derivatisation/solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of phenoxy acid herbicides in aqueous samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben; Baglio, Daniela; Galdo-Miguez, Isabel

    1998-01-01

    Different combinations of derivatisation and solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were optimised and evaluated for the analysis of phenoxy acid herbicides in water. The most successful derivatisation approach was aqueous-phase derivatisation with benzyl...

  20. Determination of phenolic derivatives of antipyrine in plasma with solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, S.A.J.; Ligor, T.; Lieshout, van H.P.M.; Huf, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This manuscript describes a method to determine antipyrine and its phenolic derivatives in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC–MS). The sample pretreatment consisted of a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), to remove the salts and proteins. The

  1. Data correlation in on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-atomic emission/mass spectrometric detection of unknown microcontaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankemeier, Th.; Rozenbrand, J.; Abhadur, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is described for the (non-target) screening of hetero-atom-containing compounds in tap and waste water by correlating data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) using atomic emission (AED) and mass selective (MS) detection. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was coupled on-line to both GC

  2. Dispersive solid phase extraction combined with ion-pair ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of nucleotides in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magdenoska, Olivera; Martinussen, Jan; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    solid phase extraction with charcoal and subsequent analysis with ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was established for quantification of intracellular pools of the 28 most important nucleotides. The method can handle extracts where cells leak...

  3. Isocratic Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC) Interfaced to High-Performance Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Protein Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Ole B; Kjeldsen, Frank; Theodorsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    the isocratic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography (SPE-LC) technology for rapid separation ( approximately 8 min) of simple peptide samples. We now extend these studies to demonstrate the potential of SPE-LC separation in combination with a hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometer...

  4. Influence of liquid viscosity and surface tension on the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient for solid foam packings in co-current two-phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemmet, C.P.; Bartelds, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The gas–liquid mass transfer coefficient and other hydrodynamic parameters such as liquid holdup and frictional pressure drop are presented for gas and liquid moving in co-current upflow and downflow through solid foam packings of 10 and of 40 pores per linear inch (ppi). The effect of increasing

  5. METHOD 544. DETERMINATION OF MICROCYSTINS AND NODULARIN IN DRINKING WATER BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY (LC/MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensi...

  6. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. [Estimation of the population attributable fraction due to obesity in hospital admissions for flu valued according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and CUN-BAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Batista, V; Carriedo, D; Díez, F; Pueyo Bastida, A; Martínez Durán, B; Martin, V

    2018-03-01

    The obesity pandemic together with the influenza pandemic could lead to a significant burden of disease. The body mass index (BMI) does not discriminate obesity appropriately. The CUN-BAE has recently been used as an estimate of body fatness for Caucasians, including BMI, gender, and age. The aim of this study is to assess the population attributable fraction of hospital admissions due to influenza, due to the body fatness measured with the BMI, and the CUN-BAE. A multicentre study was conducted using matched case-controls. Cases were hospital admissions with the influenza confirmed by the RT-PCR method between 2009 and 2011. The risk of hospital admission and the population attribuible fraction were calculated using the BMI or the CUN-BAE for each adiposity category in a conditional logical regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables. The analyzes were estimated in the total sample, in unvaccinated people, and those less than 65 years-old. A total of 472 hospitalised cases and 493 controls were included in the study. Compared to normal weight, the aOR of influenza hospital admissions increases with each level of BMI (aOR=1.26; 2.06 and 11.64) and CUN-BAE (aOR=2.78; 4.29; 5.43 and 15.18). The population attributable fraction of influenza admissions using CUN-BAE is 3 times higher than that estimated with BMI (0,72 vs. 0,27), with the differences found being similar the non-vaccinated and under 65 year-olds. The BMI could be underestimating the burden of disease attributable to obesity in individuals hospitalised with influenza. There needs to be an appropriate assessment of the impact of obesity and vaccine recommendation criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with light-scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection for characterization of nanoclay used in biopolymer nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Petersen, Jens Højslev; Koch, C. Bender

    2009-01-01

    mechanical and barrier properties and be more suitable for a wider range of food-packaging applications. Natural or synthetic clay nanofillers are being investigated for this purpose in a project called NanoPack funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council. In order to detect and characterize the size...... of clay nanoparticulates, an analytical system combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with multi-angle light-scattering detection (MALS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is presented. In a migration study, we tested a biopolymer nanocomposite consisting...... of polylactide (PLA) with 5% Cloisite®30B (a derivatized montmorillonite clay) as a filler. Based on AF4-MALS analyses, we found that particles ranging from 50 to 800 nm in radius indeed migrated into the 95% ethanol used as a food simulant. The full hyphenated AF4-MALS-ICP-MS system showed, however, that none...

  9. Rapid analysis of the skin irritant p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in henna products using atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyang; Nkosi, Thobile A N; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Cartwright-Jones, Catherine

    2016-09-05

    Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is applied to stain keratin, present in hair, skin and fingernails, a red-orange or rust colour. Producers of temporary tattoos mix the aromatic amine compound, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) into natural henna to create 'black henna' that rapidly stains the skin black. However, PPD may cause severe delayed hypersensitivity reactions following skin contact. This study proposes a rapid direct-analysis method to detect and identify PPD using an atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) coupled to a Q-ToF mass spectrometer (MS). Since laborious, multistep methods of analysis to determine PPD are undesirable, due to the instability of the compound in solution, a screening method involving no sample preparation steps was developed. Experiments were carried out to optimise the corona current, sample cone voltage, source temperature, and desolvation gas temperature to determine ideal ASAP-Q-ToF-MS analysing conditions. Eleven of the 109 henna samples, originating from various countries, tested positive for PPD when henna products were screened using ASAP-MS, without any form of sample preparation other than grinding. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) was subsequently used to confirm the results from ASAP and to determine the concentrations of PPD in henna products. The allergen was detected in the same eleven samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.05-4.21% (w/w). It can be concluded that the sensitivity of the ASAP-MS technique is sufficient (limit of detection=0.025% w/w) to allow screening of henna samples for the presence of PPD. This relatively new technique can be applied to commercial products without extraction, sample treatment or chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing a Low Molecular Mass Fraction of a Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Extract Formulated as an Oral Rinse in a Cohort of Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Signoretto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been found to exert these activities in in vitro experiments against potential oral pathogens. We therefore conducted a clinical trial in which we tested an LMM fraction of shiitake mushroom extract formulated in a mouthrinse in 30 young volunteers, comparing the results with those obtained in two identical cohorts, one of which received water (placebo and the other Listerine. Plaque index, gingival index and bacterial counts in plaque samples were determined in all volunteers over the 11 days of the clinical trial. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were obtained for the plaque index on day 12 in subjects treated with mushroom versus placebo, while for the gingival index significant differences were found for both mushroom versus placebo and mushroom versus Listerine. Decreases in total bacterial counts and in counts of specific oral pathogens were observed for both mushroom extract and Listerine in comparison with placebo. The data suggest that a mushroom extract may prove beneficial in controlling dental caries and/or gingivitis/periodontitis.

  11. Proteome-wide muscle protein fractional synthesis rates predict muscle mass gain in response to a selective androgen receptor modulator in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Shearer, Todd W; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; King, Chelsea; Wong, Po-Yin Anne; Shen, Ying; Turnbull, Philip S; Kramer, Fritz; Clifton, Lisa; Russell, Alan; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2016-03-15

    Biomarkers of muscle protein synthesis rate could provide early data demonstrating anabolic efficacy for treating muscle-wasting conditions. Androgenic therapies have been shown to increase muscle mass primarily by increasing the rate of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that the synthesis rate of large numbers of individual muscle proteins could serve as early response biomarkers and potentially treatment-specific signaling for predicting the effect of anabolic treatments on muscle mass. Utilizing selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) treatment in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat, we applied an unbiased, dynamic proteomics approach to measure the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of 167-201 individual skeletal muscle proteins in triceps, EDL, and soleus. OVX rats treated with a SARM molecule (GSK212A at 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg) for 10 or 28 days showed significant, dose-related increases in body weight, lean body mass, and individual triceps but not EDL or soleus weights. Thirty-four out of the 94 proteins measured from the triceps of all rats exhibited a significant, dose-related increase in FSR after 10 days of SARM treatment. For several cytoplasmic proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 3, creatine kinase M-type (CK-M), pyruvate kinase, and aldolase-A, a change in 10-day FSR was strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.90-0.99) to the 28-day change in lean body mass and triceps weight gains, suggesting a noninvasive measurement of SARM effects. In summary, FSR of multiple muscle proteins measured by dynamics of moderate- to high-abundance proteins provides early biomarkers of the anabolic response of skeletal muscle to SARM. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Determination of Parabens by Injection-Port Derivatization Coupled With Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djatmika, Rosalina; Ding, Wang-Hsien; Sulistyarti, Hermin

    2018-01-01

    A rapid determination of four parabens preservatives (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, and butyl paraben) in marketed seafood is presented. Analytes were extracted and purified using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) method, followed by Injection port acylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with acetic anhydride reagent. In this method, acylation of parabens was performed by acetic anhydride at GC injection-port generating reduction of the time-consuming sample-processing steps, and the amount of toxic reagents and solvents. The parameters affecting this method such as injection port temperature, purge-off time and acylation (acetic anhydride) volume were studied. In addition, the MSPD influence factors (including the amount of dispersant and clean-up co-sorbent, as well as the volume of elution solvent) were also investigated. After MSPD method and Injection port acylation applied, good linearity of analytes was achieved. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.2 to 1.0 ng/g (dry weight). Compared with offline derivatization commonly performed, injection port acylation employs a rapid, simple, low-cost and environmental-friendly derivatization process. The optimized method has been successfully applied for the analysis of parabens in four kind of marketed seafood. Preliminary results showed that the total concentrations of four selected parabens ranged from 16.7 to 44.7 ng/g (dry weight).

  13. Comparison of the multicomponent mass transfer models for the prediction of the concentration overpotential for solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vural, Yasemin; Ma, Lin; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed [Centre for Computational Fluid Dynamics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    In this study, multicomponent mass diffusion models, namely the Stefan-Maxwell model (SMM), the Dusty Gas model (DGM) and the Binary Friction model (BFM) have been compared in terms of their predictive capabilities of the concentration polarization of an anode supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. The results show that other than the pore diameter, current density and concentration of reactants, which have a high importance in concentration polarization predictions, the tortuosity (or porosity/tortuosity) term, has a substantial effect on the model predictions. Contrary to the previous discussions in the literature, for the fitted value of tortuosities, SMM and DGM predictions are similar, even for an average pore radius as small as 2.6e-07 and current density as high as 1.5 A cm{sup -2}. Also it is shown that the BFM predictions are similar to DGM for the case investigated in this study. Moreover, in this study, the effect of the pressure gradient term in the DGM and the BFM has been investigated by including and excluding this term from the model equations. It is shown that for the case investigated and model assumptions used in this study, the terms including the pressure coefficient have an insignificant effect on the predictions of both DGM and BFM and therefore they can be neglected. (author)

  14. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Simultaneous detection of nine cyanotoxins in drinking water using dual solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hung-Kai; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2011-08-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed to concentrate and detect nine cyanotoxins simultaneously, including six microcystins (MCs) congeners, nodularin (NOD), anatoxin-a (ATX) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), in pure and natural waters. A dual cartridge SPE assembly was tested for the operating parameters of cyanotoxin extraction. A surrogate standard (SS), 1,9-diaminononane, was spiked in all the samples before the SPE extraction, and an internal standard (IS), 2,3,5-trimethylphenyl methyl carbamate, was spiked before LC/MS analysis. The method detection limit (MDL) was 2-100 ng/L for nine cyanotoxins in pure water and was increased by a factor of three to ten in a more complicated water matrix. The recoveries based on SS were between 83 and 104%, while those based on IS were 80-120%. The developed method was successfully employed in analyzing 33 water samples collected from eutrophic lakes, water treatment plants and distribution taps. MCs, NOD, and CYN were detected in the reservoir water, with concentrations as high as 36 μg/L. In addition, for the first time in Taiwan's tap water, CYN was detected at concentrations as high as 8.6 μg/L. Quality control data for the field samples shows that the analytical scheme developed is appropriate for monitoring cyanotoxins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry for the determination of biogenic amines in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Lambropoulou, Dimitra; Morrison, Calum; Namieśnik, Jacek; Płotka-Wasylka, Justyna

    2018-06-01

    A direct method based on immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) was optimized and validated for the determination of 16 biogenic amines in Polish wines. In the analysis two internal standards were used: 1,7-diaminoheptane and bis-3-aminopropylamine. The method allows for simultaneous extraction and derivatization, providing a simple and fast mode of extraction and enrichment. Different parameters which affect the extraction procedure were studied and optimized including ionic strength (0-25%), fiber materials (PDMS/DVB, PDMS/DVD + OC, Polyacrylate, Carboxen/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS) and timings of the extraction, derivatization and desorption processes. Validation studies confirmed the linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the method. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 44 wine samples originating from several regions of Poland and 3 wine samples from other countries. Analysis showed that many of the samples contained all examined biogenic amines. The method, assessed using an Eco-Scale tool with satisfactory results, was found to be green in terms of hazardous chemicals and solvents usage, energy consumption and production of waste. Therefore the proposed method can be safely used in the wine industry for routine analysis of BAs in wine samples with a minimal detrimental impact on human health and the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DETERMINATION OF MUSHROOM TOXIN ALPHA-AMANITIN IN SERUM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY AFTER SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vujović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-amanitin is a cyclic peptide which belongs to a large group of mushroom toxins known as amatoxins. Being responsible for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings, they require rapid detection and excretion from the body fluids. In accordance with these requirements, a simple and an accurate method was developed for successful identification and quantification of alpha-amanitin in serum with electrospray liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS after collision-induced dissociation. The method conforms to the established International Conference on Harmonization Q2A/Q2B 1996 guidelines on the validation of analytical methods. Linearity, precision, extraction recovery and stability test on blank serum spiked with alpha-amanitin and stored in different conditions met the acceptance criteria. The obtained calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 5-100 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ of 5 ng/mL and limit of detection (LOD of 2.5 ng/mL. The mean intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were 6.05% and less than ±15% of nominal values, respectively. The neutral solid phase extraction with copolymer hydrophilic–lipophilic balance cartridges was found optimal for sample preparation with the mean recovery of 91.94%. The proposed method demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity which can be useful both for clinical and forensic toxicology analysis of alpha-amanitin at low concentrations.

  18. [Determination of flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Zhang, Aixia; Li, Shaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yuzong; Xing, Guosheng

    2017-11-08

    To comprehensively understand flavor compounds and aroma characteristics of foxtail millet wine, extraction conditions were optimized with 85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm carboxen (CAR)/PDMS and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers. The flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and the odor characteristics and intensity were analyzed by odor active values (OAVs). The samples of 8 mL were placed in headspace vials with 1.5 g NaCl, then the headspace vials were heated at 60℃ for 40 min. Using HS-SPME with different fibers, a total of 55 flavor compounds were identified from the samples, including alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, phenols and heterocycle compounds. The main flavor compounds were alcohols compounds. According to their OAVs, phenylethyl alcohol, styrene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-methoxy-phenol were established to be odor-active compounds. Phenylethyl alcohol and benzeneacetaldehyde were the most prominent odor-active compounds. PA and PDMS fibers had good extraction effect for polar and nonpolar compounds, respectively. CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS provided a similar compounds profile for moderate polar compounds. This research comprehensively determined flavor compounds of foxtail millet wine, and provided theoretical basis for product development and quality control.

  19. Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS, has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera, Tokushima (Ulva prolifera, and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza. Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera. Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum. Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  20. Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

  1. Development of near-field laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sub-micrometric analysis of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Chirelle

    2016-01-01

    A near field laser ablation method was developed for chemical analysis of solid samples at sub-micrometric scale. This analytical technique combines a nanosecond laser Nd:YAG, an atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). In order to improve the spatial resolution of the laser ablation process, the near-field enhancement effect was applied by illuminating, by the laser beam, the apex of the AFM conductive sharp tip maintained at a few nanometers (5 to 30 nm) above the sample surface. The interaction between the illuminated tip and the sample surface enhances locally the incident laser energy and leads to the ablation process. By applying this technique to conducting gold and tantalum samples, and semiconducting silicon sample, a lateral resolution of 100 nm and depths of a few nanometers were demonstrated. Two home-made numerical codes have enabled the study of two phenomena occurring around the tip: the enhancement of the laser electrical field by tip effect, and the induced laser heating at the sample surface. The influence of the main operating parameters on these two phenomena, amplification and heating, was studied. an experimental multi-parametric study was carried out in order to understand the effect of different experimental parameters (laser fluence, laser wavelength, number of laser pulses, tip-to-sample distance, sample and tip nature) on the near-field laser ablation efficiency, crater dimensions and amount of ablated material. (author) [fr

  2. Determination of organoarsenicals in the environment by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostek, B.; Aldstadt, J. H.; Environmental Research

    1998-05-22

    The development of a method for the analysis of organoarsenic compounds that combines dithiol derivatization with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sample preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. Optimization focused on a SPME-GC-MS procedure for determination of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid (CVAA), the primary decomposition product of the chemical warfare agent known as Lewisite. Two other organoarsenic compounds of environmental interest, dimethylarsinic acid and phenylarsonic acid, were also studied. A series of dithiol compounds was examined for derivatization of the arsenicals, and the best results were obtained either with 1,3-propanedithiol or 1,2-ethanedithiol. The derivatization procedure, fiber type, and extraction time were optimized. For CVAA, calibration curves were linear over three orders of magnitude and limits-of-detection were <6x10{sup -9} M in solution, the latter a more than 400x improvement compared to conventional solvent extraction GC-MS methods. A precision of <10% R.S.D. was typical for the SPME-GC-MS procedure. The method was applied to a series of water samples and soil/sediment extracts, as well as to aged soil samples that had been contaminated with Lewisite.

  3. Solid-phase microextraction for gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of dimethoate in human biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, E; Barroso, M; Margalho, C; Cruz, A; Vieira, D N; López-Rivadulla, M

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple and rapid procedure for the determination of dimethoate in urine and blood samples was developed using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This technique required only 0.1 mL of sample, and ethion was used as internal standard. Two types of coated fibre were compared (100 microm polydimethylsiloxane, and 65 microm Carbowax/divinylbenzene). Other parameters, such as extraction temperature, adsorption and desorption time, salt addition, agitation and pH, were optimized to enhance the sensitivity of the method. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were 50 and 100 ng/mL for urine and 200 and 500 ng/mL for blood, respectively. The method was found to be linear between the LOQ and 40 microg/mL for urine, and between the LOQ and 50 microg/mL for blood, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9923-0.9996. Precision (intra- and interday) and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. The mean absolute recoveries of dimethoate were 1.24 and 0.50% for urine and blood, respectively. Because of its simplicity and the fact that small volumes of sample are used, the described method can be successfully used in the diagnosis of poisoning by this pesticide, namely in those situations where the sample volume is limited, as frequently occurs in forensic toxicology. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Direct Analysis of Amphetamine Stimulants in a Whole Urine Sample by Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevelin, Eduardo J.; Salami, Fernanda H.; Alves, Marcela N. R.; De Martinis, Bruno S.; Crotti, Antônio E. M.; Moraes, Luiz A. B.

    2016-05-01

    Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are among illicit stimulant drugs that are most often used worldwide. A major challenge is to develop a fast and efficient methodology involving minimal sample preparation to analyze ATS in biological fluids. In this study, a urine pool solution containing amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, sibutramine, and fenfluramine at concentrations ranging from 0.5 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL was prepared and analyzed by atmospheric solids analysis probe tandem mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). A urine sample and saliva collected from a volunteer contributor (V1) were also analyzed. The limit of detection of the tested compounds ranged between 0.002 and 0.4 ng/mL in urine samples; the signal-to-noise ratio was 5. These results demonstrated that the ASAP-MS/MS methodology is applicable for the fast detection of ATS in urine samples with great sensitivity and specificity, without the need for cleanup, preconcentration, or chromatographic separation. Thus ASAP-MS/MS could potentially be used in clinical and forensic toxicology applications.

  5. Prediction by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN of the diffusivity, mass, moisture, volume and solids on osmotically dehydrated yacon (Smallantus sonchifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rojas Naccha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The predictive ability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN on the effect of the concentration (30, 40, 50 y 60 % w/w and temperature (30, 40 y 50°C of fructooligosaccharides solution, in the mass, moisture, volume and solids of osmodehydrated yacon cubes, and in the coefficients of the water means effective diffusivity with and without shrinkage was evaluated. The Feedforward type ANN with the Backpropagation training algorithms and the Levenberg-Marquardt weight adjustment was applied, using the following topology: 10-5 goal error, 0.01 learning rate, 0.5 moment coefficient, 2 input neurons, 6 output neurons, one hidden layer with 18 neurons, 15 training stages and logsig-pureline transfer functions. The overall average error achieved by the ANN was 3.44% and correlation coefficients were bigger than 0.9. No significant differences were found between the experimental values and the predicted values achieved by the ANN and with the predicted values achieved by a statistical model of second-order polynomial regression (p > 0.95.

  6. Determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniele Z; Boehl, Paula O; Comiran, Eloisa; Mariotti, Kristiane C; Pechansky, Flavio; Duarte, Paulina C A V; De Boni, Raquel; Froehlich, Pedro E; Limberger, Renata P

    2011-06-24

    A method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), fenproporex (FEN), diethylpropion (DIE) and methylphenidate (MPH) in oral fluid collected with Quantisal™ device has been developed and validated. Thereunto, in-matrix propylchloroformate derivatization followed by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed. Deuterium labeled AMP was used as internal standard for all the stimulants and analysis was performed using the selected ion monitoring mode. The detector response was linear for the studied drugs in the concentration range of 2-256 ng mL(-1) (neat oral fluid), except for FEN, whereas the linear range was 4-256 ng mL(-1). The detection limits were 0.5 ng mL(-1) (MET), 1 ng mL(-1) (MPH) and 2 ng mL(-1) (DIE, AMP, FEN), respectively. Accuracy of quality control samples remained within 98.2-111.9% of the target concentrations, while precision has not exceeded 15% of the relative standard deviation. Recoveries with Quantisal™ device ranged from 77.2% to 112.1%. Also, the goodness-of-fit concerning the ordinary least squares model in the statistical inference of data has been tested through residual plotting and ANOVA. The validated method can be easily automated and then used for screening and confirmation of amphetamine-type stimulants in drivers' oral fluid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants in plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Schuh, Roselena S; Ferranti, Priscila; Ortiz, Rafael S; Souza, Daniele Z; Pechansky, Flavio; Froehlich, Pedro E; Limberger, Renata P

    2014-09-01

    Brazil is considered one of the countries with the highest number of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users worldwide, mainly diethylpropion (DIE) and fenproporex (FEN). The use of ATS is mostly linked to diverted prescription stimulants and this misuse is widely associated with (ab)use by drivers. A validated method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of amphetamine (AMP), DIE and FEN in plasma samples employing direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis. Trichloroacetic acid 10% was used for plasma deproteinization. In situ derivatization with propylchloroformate was employed. The linear range of the method covered from 5.0 to 100 ng/mL. The detection limits were 1.0 (AMP), 1.5 (DIE) and 2.0 ng/mL (FEN). The accuracy assessment of the control samples was within 85.58-108.33% of the target plasma concentrations. Recoveries ranged from 46.35 to 84.46% and precision was <15% of the value of relative standard deviation. This method is appropriate for screening and confirmation in plasma forensic toxicology analyses of these basic drugs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Rapid Determination of Clenbuterol in Pork by Direct Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Diru; Wu, Susu; Xu, Jianqiao; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-02-01

    Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid analysis of clenbuterol in pork for the first time. In this work, a low-cost homemade 44 µm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber was employed to extract clenbuterol in pork. After extraction, derivatization was performed by suspending the fiber in the headspace of the 2 mL sample vial saturated with a vapor of 100 µL hexamethyldisilazane. Lastly, the fiber was directly introduced to GC-MS for analysis. All parameters that influenced absorption (extraction time), derivatization (derivatization reagent, time and temperature) and desorption (desorption time) were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the method offered a wide linear range (10-1000 ng g(-1)) and a low detection limit (3.6 ng g(-1)). Finally, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of pork from the market, and recoveries of the method for spiked pork were 97.4-105.7%. Compared with the traditional solvent extraction method, the proposed method was much cheaper and fast. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Magnetic solid phase extraction and static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; Wang, Lijia; NguyenVan, Manh; Cai, Qingyun

    2016-01-15

    A magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) protocol combining a static headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method has been developed for extraction, and determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water samples. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and modified by cholesterol chloroformate. Transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the cholesterol-functionalized sorbents, and the main parameters affecting the extraction as well as HS sampling, such as sorbent amount, extraction time, oven temperature and equilibration time have been investigated and established. Combination with HS sampling, the MSPE procedure was simple, fast and environmentally friendly, without need of any organic solvent. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels obtaining the limit of detection (S/N=3) ranging from 0.20 to 7.8 ng/L. Good values for intra and inter-day precision were obtained (RSDs ≤ 9.9%). The proposed method was successfully applied to drinking water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Probing the Conformation of an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody in Lyophilized Solids Using Solid-State Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometric Analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ehab M; Singh, Satish K; Kimmel, Michael; Nema, Sandeep; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2018-02-05

    Therapeutic proteins are often formulated as lyophilized products to improve their stability and prolong shelf life. The stability of proteins in the solid-state has been correlated with preservation of native higher order structure and/or molecular mobility in the solid matrix, with varying success. In the studies reported here, we used solid-state hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) to study the conformation of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in lyophilized solids and related the extent of ssHDX to aggregation during storage in the solid phase. The results demonstrate that the extent of ssHDX correlated better with aggregation rate during storage than did solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (ssFTIR) spectroscopic measurements. Interestingly, adding histidine to sucrose at different formulation pH conditions decreased aggregation of the mAb, an effect that did not correlate with structural or conformational changes as measured by ssFTIR or ssHDX-MS. Moreover, peptide-level ssHDX-MS analysis in four selected formulations demonstrated global changes across the structure of the mAb when lyophilized with sucrose, trehalose, or mannitol, whereas site-specific changes were observed when lyophilized with histidine as the sole excipient.

  11. Chapter 3. Determination of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Burbank, Teresa L.; Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 38 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semivolatile organic compounds in solid samples is described. Samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from the solid sample twice at 13,800 kilopascals; first at 120 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (50:50, volume-to-volume ratio), and then the sample is extracted at 200 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio). The compounds are isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing divinylbenzene-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer resin. The cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted from the SPE material using a dichloromethane/diethyl ether mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio) and passed through a sodium sulfate/Florisil SPE cartridge to remove residual water and to further clean up the extract. The concentrated extract is solvent exchanged into ethyl acetate and the solvent volume reduced to 0.5 milliliter. Internal standard compounds are added prior to analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Comparisons of PAH data for 28 sediment samples extracted by Soxhlet and the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method described in this report produced similar results. Extraction of PAH compounds from standard reference material using this method also compared favorably with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of PAHs less than molecular weight 202 (pyrene or fluoranthene) are higher by up to 20 percent using this ASE method, whereas the recoveries of PAHs greater than or equal to molecular weight 202 are equivalent. This ASE method of sample extraction of solids has advantages over conventional Soxhlet extraction by increasing automation of the extraction process, reducing extraction time, and using less solvent. Extract cleanup also is greatly simplified because SPE replaces

  12. Mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for 0.4-10 MeV gamma rays in elemental solids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)], E-mail: ogurler@uludag.edu.tr; Oz, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); NCCPM, Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    The mass energy absorption, the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 and 10 MeV in nitrogen, silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  13. Mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for 0.4-10 MeV gamma rays in elemental solids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurler, O.; Oz, H.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.

    2009-01-01

    The mass energy absorption, the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 and 10 MeV in nitrogen, silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass absorption and mass energy transfer coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature

  14. Differentiation and characterization of isotopically modified silver nanoparticles in aqueous media using asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation coupled to optical detection and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigault, Julien [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8520, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Hackley, Vincent A., E-mail: vince.hackley@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8520, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States)

    2013-02-06

    Highlights: ► Isotopically modified and unmodified AgNPs characterization by A4F-DAD-MALS–DLS-ICP-MS. ► Size-resolved characterization and speciation in simple or complex media. ► Capacity to detect stable isotope enriched AgNPs in a standard estuarine sediment. ► New opportunities to monitor and study fate and transformations of AgNPs. -- Abstract: The principal objective of this work was to develop and demonstrate a new methodology for silver nanoparticle (AgNP) detection and characterization based on asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F) coupled on-line to multiple detectors and using stable isotopes of Ag. This analytical approach opens the door to address many relevant scientific challenges concerning the transport and fate of nanomaterials in natural systems. We show that A4F must be optimized in order to effectively fractionate AgNPs and larger colloidal Ag particles. With the optimized method one can accurately determine the size, stability and optical properties of AgNPs and their agglomerates under variable conditions. In this investigation, we couple A4F to optical absorbance (UV–vis spectrometer) and scattering detectors (static and dynamic) and to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. With this combination of detection modes it is possible to determine the mass isotopic signature of AgNPs as a function of their size and optical properties, providing specificity necessary for tracing and differentiating labeled AgNPs from their naturally occurring or anthropogenic analogs. The methodology was then applied to standard estuarine sediment by doping the suspension with a known quantity of isotopically enriched {sup 109}AgNPs stabilized by natural organic matter (standard humic and fulvic acids). The mass signature of the isotopically enriched AgNPs was recorded as a function of the measured particle size. We observed that AgNPs interact with different particulate components of the sediment, and also self-associate to form

  15. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Quantitative characterization of gold nanoparticles by field-flow fractionation coupled online with light scattering detection and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Loeschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Mortensen, Alicja; Sloth, Jens J; Koch, Christian Bender; Larsen, Erik H

    2011-04-01

    An analytical platform coupling asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF(4)) with multiangle light scattering (MALS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was established and used for separation and quantitative determination of size and mass concentration of nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous suspension. Mixtures of three polystyrene (PS) NPs between 20 and 100 nm in diameter and mixtures of three gold (Au) NPs between 10 and 60 nm in diameter were separated by AF(4). The geometric diameters of the separated PS NPs and the hydrodynamic diameters of the Au and PS NPs were determined online by MALS and DLS, respectively. The three separated Au NPs were quantified by ICPMS and recovered at 50-95% of the injected masses, which ranged between approximately 8-80 ng of each nanoparticle size. Au NPs adhering to the membrane in the separation channel was found to be a major cause for incomplete recoveries. The lower limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.02 ng Au and 0.4 ng Au, with increasing LOD by increasing nanoparticle diameter. The analytical platform was applied to characterization of Au NPs in livers of rats, which were dosed with 10 nm, 60 nm, or a mixture of 10 and 60 nm nanoparticles by intravenous injection. The homogenized livers were solubilized in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), and the recovery of Au NPs from the livers amounted to 86-123% of their total Au content. In spite of successful stabilization with bovine serum albumin even in alkaline medium, separation of the Au NPs by AF(4) was not possible due to association with undissolved remains of the alkali-treated liver tissues as demonstrated by electron microscopy images.

  17. Comparison of echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging measurements of functional single ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (from the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, Renee; Schwartz, Marcy L; Prakash, Ashwin; Wruck, Lisa; Colan, Steven D; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Timothy J; Fogel, Mark A; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Marcus, Edward; Powell, Andrew J; Printz, Beth F; Puchalski, Michael D; Rychik, Jack; Shirali, Girish; Williams, Richard; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Geva, Tal

    2009-08-01

    Assessment of the size and function of a functional single ventricle (FSV) is a key element in the management of patients after the Fontan procedure. Measurement variability of ventricular mass, volume, and ejection fraction (EF) among observers by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and their reproducibility among readers in these patients have not been described. From the 546 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study (mean age 11.9 +/- 3.4 years), 100 echocardiograms and 50 CMR studies were assessed for measurement reproducibility; 124 subjects with paired studies were selected for comparison between modalities. Interobserver agreement for qualitative grading of ventricular function by echocardiography was modest for left ventricular (LV) morphology (kappa = 0.42) and weak for right ventricular (RV) morphology (kappa = 0.12). For quantitative assessment, high intraclass correlation coefficients were found for echocardiographic interobserver agreement (LV 0.87 to 0.92, RV 0.82 to 0.85) of systolic and diastolic volumes, respectively. In contrast, intraclass correlation coefficients for LV and RV mass were moderate (LV 0.78, RV 0.72). The corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients by CMR were high (LV 0.96, RV 0.85). Volumes by echocardiography averaged 70% of CMR values. Interobserver reproducibility for the EF was similar for the 2 modalities. Although the absolute mean difference between modalities for the EF was small (<2%), 95% limits of agreement were wide. In conclusion, agreement between observers of qualitative FSV function by echocardiography is modest. Measurements of FSV volume by 2-dimensional echocardiography underestimate CMR measurements, but their reproducibility is high. Echocardiographic and CMR measurements of FSV EF demonstrate similar interobserver reproducibility, whereas measurements of FSV mass and LV diastolic volume are more reproducible by CMR.

  18. The effect of different pyrolysis temperatures on the speciation and availability in soil of P in biochar produced from the solid fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Harmer, Sarah L; Bekiaris, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    was produced at different temperatures from digestate solids. The primary species of P in digestate solids were simple calcium phosphates. However, a high co-occurrence of magnesium (Mg) and P, indicated that struvite or other magnesium phosphates may also be important species. At low temperatures, pyrolysis......, which gradually decreases because of oxidation of the biochar surfaces or changes in pH around the biochar particles....

  19. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Li; Huo, Zhipeng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang; Yang, Shangfeng; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T gel ) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J sc ) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J sc of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T gel is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated

  20. Combined solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry used for determination of chloropropanols in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula; Racamonde, Inés; Carro, Antonia M; Lorenzo, Rosa A

    2011-10-01

    A sensitive and rapid derivatization method for the simultaneous determination of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) and 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in water samples has been developed. The aim was to research the optimal conditions of the derivatization process for two selected reagents. A central composite design was used to determine the influence of derivatization time, derivatization temperature and reagent volume. A global desirability function was applied for multi-response optimization. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During the optimization of the extraction procedure, four different types of solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were tested. It was demonstrated that the Oasis HLB cartridge produced the best recoveries of the target analytes. The pH value and the salinity were investigated using a Doehlert design. The best results for the SPE of both analytes were obtained with 1.5 g of NaCl and pH 6. The proposed method provides high sensitivity, good linearity (R(2)≥0.999) and repeatability (relative standard deviations % between 2.9 and 3.4%). Limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 1.4-11.2 ng/mL and 4.8-34.5 ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries obtained for water samples were ca. 100% for 1,3-DCP and 3-MCPD. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of different samples including commercially bottled water, an influent and effluent sewage. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Li [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huo, Zhipeng, E-mail: zhipenghuo@163.com [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Dai, Songyuan, E-mail: sydai@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yang, Shangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi [Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T{sub gel}) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J{sub sc} of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T{sub gel} is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated.

  2. Mass-Dependent and -Independent Fractionation of Mercury Isotope during Gas-Phase Oxidation of Elemental Mercury Vapor by Atomic Cl and Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyi; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang; Yin, Runsheng; Fu, Xuewu; Shang, Lihai

    2016-09-06

    This study presents the first measurement of Hg stable isotope fractionation during gas-phase oxidation of Hg(0) vapor by halogen atoms (Cl(•), Br(•)) in the laboratory at 750 ± 1 Torr and 298 ± 3 K. Using a relative rate technique, the rate coefficients for Hg(0)+Cl(•) and Hg(0)+Br(•) reactions are determined to be (1.8 ± 0.5) × 10(-11) and (1.6 ± 0.8) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. Results show that heavier isotopes are preferentially enriched in the remaining Hg(0) during Cl(•) initiated oxidation, whereas being enriched in the product during oxidation by Br(•). The fractionation factors for (202)Hg/(198)Hg during the Cl(•) and Br(•) initiated oxidations are α(202/198) = 0.99941 ± 0.00006 (2σ) and 1.00074 ± 0.00014 (2σ), respectively. A Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg ratio of 1.64 ± 0.30 (2σ) during oxidation of Hg(0) by Br atoms suggests that Hg-MIF is introduced by the nuclear volume effect (NVE). In contrast, the Hg(0) + Cl(•) reaction produces a Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg-slope of 1.89 ± 0.18 (2σ), which in addition to a high degree of odd-mass-number isotope MIF suggests impacts from MIF effects other than NVE. This reaction also exhibits significant MIF of (200)Hg (Δ(200)Hg, up to -0.17‰ in the reactant) and is the first physicochemical process identified to trigger (200)Hg anomalies that are frequently detected in atmospheric samples.

  3. Decoding mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in modern atmosphere using cosmogenic 35S: A five-isotope approach and possible implications for Archean sulfur isotope records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Huang, X.; Chen, K.; Zhang, Z.; Tao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The signature of sulfur isotopic mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) observed in Archean sediments have been interpreted as a proxy of the origins and evolution of atmospheric oxygen and early life on Earth [1]. Photochemistry of SOx in the short (negative Δ36S. After eliminating combustion impacts, the obtained Δ36S/Δ33S slope of -4.0 in the modern atmosphere is close to the Δ36S/Δ33S slope (-3.6) in some records from Paleoarchean [4], an era probably with active volcanism [5]. The significant role of volcanic OCS in the Archean atmosphere has been called for in terms of its ability to provide a continual SO2 high altitude source for photolysis [2]. The strong but previously underappreciated stratospheric signature of S-MIF in tropospheric sulfates suggests that a more careful investigation of wavelength-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation at different altitudes are required. The combustion-induced negative Δ36S may be linked to recombination reactions of elemental sulfur [6], and relevant experiments are being conducted to test the isotope effect. Although combustion is unlikely in Archean, recombination reactions may occur in other previously unappreciated processes such as volcanism and may contribute in part to the heavily depleted 36S in some Paleoarchean records [5,7]. The roles of both photochemical and non-photochemical reactions in the variability of Archean S-MIF records require further analysis in the future. Refs: [1] Farquhar et al., Science 2000; [2] Shaheen et al., PNAS 2014; [3] Lin et al., PNAS 2016; [4] Wacey et al., Precambrian Res 2015; [5] Muller et al., PNAS 2016; [6] Babikov, PNAS 2017; [7] Shen et al., EPSL, 2009.

  4. Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yong; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-01-20

    Oxidized phospholipids (Ox-PLs) are oxidatively modified PLs that are produced during the oxidation of lipoproteins; oxidation of low density lipoproteins especially is known to be associated with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, different lipoprotein classes (high density, low density, and very low density lipoproteins) from pooled plasma of CAD patients and pooled plasma from healthy controls were size-sorted on a semipreparative scale by multiplexed hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (MxHF5), and Ox-PLs that were extracted from each lipoprotein fraction were quantified by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). The present study showed that oxidation of lipoproteins occurred throughout all classes of lipoproteins with more Ox-PLs identified from CAD patient lipoproteins: molecular structures of 283 unique PL species (including 123 Ox-PLs) from controls and 315 (including 169 Ox-PLs) from patients were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation experiments. It was shown that oxidation of PLs occurred primarily with hydroxylation of PL; in particular, a saturated acyl chain such as 16:0, 18:0, or even 18:1 at the sn-1 location of the glycerol backbone along with sn-2 acyl chains with at least two double bonds were identified. The acyl chain combinations commonly found for hydroxylated Ox-PLs in the lipoproteins of CAD patients were 16:0/18:2, 16:0/20:4, 18:0/18:2, and 18:0/20:4.

  5. Graphene deposited onto aligned zinc oxide nanorods as an efficient coating for headspace solid-phase microextraction of gasoline fractions from oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Congying; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Wangbo; Li, Zizhou; Duan, Wei; Li, Yulong; Zhou, Jie; Li, Xiyou; Zeng, Jingbin

    2017-12-29

    The content of gasoline fraction in oil samples is not only an important indicator of oil quality, but also an indispensable fundamental data for oil refining and processing. Before its determination, efficient preconcentration and separation of gasoline fractions from complicated matrices is essential. In this work, a thin layer of graphene (G) was deposited onto oriented ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) as a SPME coating. By this approach, the surface area of G was greatly enhanced by the aligned ZNRs, and the surface polarity of ZNRs was changed from polar to less polar, which were both beneficial for the extraction of gasoline fractions. In addition, the ZNRs were well protected by the mechanically and chemically stable G, making the coating highly durable for use. With headspace SPME (HS-SPME) mode, the G/ZNRs coating can effectively extract gasoline fractions from various oil samples, whose extraction efficiency achieved 1.5-5.4 and 2.1-8.2 times higher than those of a G and commercial 7-μm PDMS coating respectively. Coupled with GC-FID, the developed method is sensitive, simple, cost effective and easily accessible for the analysis of gasoline fractions. Moreover, the method is also feasible for the detection of gasoline markers in simulated oil-polluted water, which provides an option for the monitoring of oil spill accident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The comparison of fossil carbon fraction and greenhouse gas emissions through an analysis of exhaust gases from urban solid waste incineration facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Kang, Seongmin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, in order to understand accurate calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities, which are major waste incineration facilities, and problems likely to occur at this time, emissions were calculated by classifying calculation methods into 3 types. For the comparison of calculation methods, the waste characteristics ratio, dry substance content by waste characteristics, carbon content in dry substance, and (12)C content were analyzed; and in particular, CO2 concentration in incineration gases and (12)C content were analyzed together. In this study, 3 types of calculation methods were made through the assay value, and by using each calculation method, emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities were calculated then compared. As a result of comparison, with Calculation Method A, which used the default value as presented in the IPCC guidelines, greenhouse gas emissions were calculated for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B at 244.43 ton CO2/day and 322.09 ton CO2/day, respectively. Hence, it showed a lot of difference from Calculation Methods B and C, which used the assay value of this study. It is determined that this was because the default value as presented in IPCC, as the world average value, could not reflect the characteristics of urban solid waste incineration facilities. Calculation Method B indicated 163.31 ton CO2/day and 230.34 ton CO2/day respectively for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B; also, Calculation Method C indicated 151.79 ton CO2/day and 218.99 ton CO2/day, respectively. This study intends to compare greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content default value provided by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) with greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content and waste assay value that can reflect the characteristics of the target urban solid waste incineration facilities. Also, the concentration and (12)C content

  7. Compostagem da fração sólida da água residuária de suinocultura Solid fraction composting of residual water from pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar o desenvolvimento do processo de compostagem utilizando como substrato à fração sólida da água residuária de suinocultura foi o objetivo deste trabalho. Para a obtenção da fração sólida, a água residuária de suinocultura foi submetida ao peneiramento, utilizando-se de peneira com malha de 1 milímetro. Após separação, a fração sólida foi utilizada para a confecção de três leiras de compostagem, em pátio com piso de concreto e cobertura plástica. Durante a compostagem da fração sólida da água residuária de suinocultura, foram avaliados: temperatura, reduções de sólidos totais (ST, sólidos voláteis (SV, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, carbono orgânico, matéria orgânica compostável (MOC, matéria orgânica resistente à compostagem (MORC, números mais prováveis (NMPs de coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes, além do volume e dos teores de nutrientes no composto. A compostagem mostrou-se eficiente no tratamento da fração sólida da água residuária de suinocultura devido à elevada minimização do poder poluente dos dejetos, observando-se reduções de 71,24% nos teores de ST, 64,55% no volume, 56,89% no teor de DQO e 56,89% na MOC. Foram verificadas reduções de 100% nos NMPs de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, o que possibilita seu uso como adubo orgânico.This work aimed to evaluate the development of the composting process by using the solid fraction of residual water from a pig farm. To obtain the solid fraction, the residual water was sewed in a 1mm screen sew. After separation, the solid fraction was used to form three composting piles, on a patio with concrete floor and plastic cover. During composting the solid fraction of residual water from pig farms was monitored: temperature, total solids reduction (TS, volatile solids (VS chemical demand for oxygen (CDO, organic carbon, compostable organic matter (COM, organic matter resistant to composting (OMRC, most probable

  8. Rapid determination of trace nitrophenolic organics in water by combining solid-phase extraction with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C; Shiea, J; Sunner, J

    2000-01-01

    A rapid technique for the screening of trace compounds in water by combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) with activated carbon surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry is demonstrated. Activated carbon is used both as the sorbent in SPE and as the solid in the SALDI matrix system. This eliminates the need for an SPE elution process. After the analytes have been adsorbed on the surfaces of the activated carbon during SPE extraction, the activated carbon is directly mixed with the SALDI liquid and mass spectrometric analysis is performed. Trace phenolic compounds in water were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The detection limit for these compounds is in the ppb to ppt range. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  10. Heat and Mass Transfer during Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of n-Alkanes in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Rune

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this project has been to study heat and mass transfer during solid-liquid phase transition of n-alkanes in the in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} range. Phase transitions of both mixtures and pure components have been investigated. All experiments and simulations have been performed without any convection. Thermal conductivities have been determined at the melting point for solid and liquid unbranched alkanes ranging from C{sub 16} to C{sub 19}. An assessment of the error of the method has been performed. The measurements of solid conductivities are in accordance with measurements reported previously and confirm the applicability of the method. Liquid conductivities are higher than extrapolated values from the literature. The enhanced conductivity is believed to be caused by structural changes close to the melting point which is not taken into account when extrapolating values from the literature. Experiments have been performed for the purpose of investigating the freezing of mixtures of n-alkanes in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 19} range. The positions of the solid-liquid interfaces have been measured as freezing occurred. Calculations of the ratio of liquid and solid conductivities show that the solid structure of mixtures of the investigated n-alkanes is predominantly in a rotator structure at the temperatures investigated. There are indications of a transformation into an orthorhombic structure at lower temperatures. The temperatures on the solid-liquid interface have been measured, and compared with calculated values from chapter 4. The temperature of the interface is represented better by the measured interfacial temperatures than by the calculated interfacial temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion of heat is the limiting mechanism of phase transition. This result in a homogeneous liquid composition. A numerical model has been developed in order to simulate the experimental freezing of mixtures. The model represents the results

  11. Differentiation of benign and malignant solid pancreatic masses using magnetic resonance elastography with spin-echo echo planar imaging and three-dimensional inversion reconstruction. A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yu; Yu, Bing; Liu, Yanqing; Guo, Qiyong [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shenyang (China); Gao, Feng [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Tumour Surgery, Shenyang (China); Li, Yue [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Pathology, Shenyang (China); Tao, Shengzhen; Glaser, Kevin J.; Ehman, Richard L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Liu, Zaiyi [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong (China)

    2018-03-15

    To determine the diagnostic performance of MR elastography (MRE) and compare it with serum CA19-9 in differentiating malignant from benign pancreatic masses, with emphasis on differentiating between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and mass-forming pancreatitis (MFP). We performed a prospective, consecutive, 24-month study in 85 patients with solid pancreatic masses confirmed by histopathologic examinations. The mass stiffness and stiffness ratio (calculated as the ratio of mass stiffness to the parenchymal stiffness) were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy was analysed by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). The final diagnosis included 54 malignant tumours (43 patients with PDAC) and 31 benign masses (24 patients with MFP). The stiffness ratio showed better diagnostic performance than the mass stiffness and serum CA19-9 for the differentiation between malignant and benign masses (AUC: 0.912 vs. 0.845 vs. 0.702; P = 0.026, P < 0.001) and, specifically, between PDAC and MFP (AUC: 0.955 vs. 0.882 vs. 0.745; P = 0.026, P = 0.003). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of stiffness ratio for the differentiation of PDAC and MFP were all higher than 0.9. MRE presents an effective and quantitative strategy for non-invasive differentiation between PDAC and MFP based on their mechanical properties. (orig.)

  12. Association between circulating fibroblast growth factor 23, α-Klotho, and the left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular mass in cardiology inpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Shibata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, with its co-receptor Klotho, plays a crucial role in phosphate metabolism. Several recent studies suggested that circulating FGF23 and α-Klotho concentrations might be related to cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with advanced renal failure. PURPOSE: Using data from 100 cardiology inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis, the association of circulating levels of FGF23, α-Klotho, and other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related parameters with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and left ventricular mass (LVM was analyzed. METHODS AND RESULTS: LVEF was measured using the modified Simpson method for apical 4-chamber LV images and the LVM index (LVMI was calculated by dividing the LVM by body surface area. Univariate analysis showed that log transformed FGF23, but not that of α-Klotho, was significantly associated with LVEF and LVMI with a standardized beta of -0.35 (P<0.001 and 0.26 (P<0.05, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D as covariates into the statistical model, log-transformed FGF23 was found to be a statistically positive predictor for decreased left ventricular function and left ventricular hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: In cardiology department inpatients, circulating FGF23 concentrations were found to be associated with the left ventricular mass and LVEF independent of renal function and other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related parameters. Whether modulation of circulating FGF23 levels would improve cardiac outcome in such a high risk population awaits further investigation.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Johannes P F G; Peters, Ruud J B; van Bemmel, Margaretha E M; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Wagner, Stephan; von der Kammer, Frank; Tromp, Peter C; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for chemical characterization. The aF4-ICPMS conditions were optimised and validated for linearity, limit of detection, recovery, repeatability and reproducibility, all indicating good performance. Multi-element detection with aF4-ICPMS showed that some commercial pigments contained zirconium co-eluting with titanium in aF4. The other two TiMs, NM103 and NM104, contained aluminium as integral part of the titanium peak eluting in aF4. The materials were characterised using various size determination techniques: retention time in aF4, aF4 hyphenated with multi-angle laser light spectrometry (MALS), single particle ICPMS (spICPMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle tracking analysis (PTA). PTA appeared inappropriate. For the other techniques, size distribution patterns were quite similar, i.e. high polydispersity with diameters from 20 to >700 nm, a modal peak between 200 and 500 nm and a shoulder at 600 nm. Number-based size distribution techniques as spICPMS and SEM showed smaller modal diameters than aF4-UV, from which mass-based diameters are calculated. With aF4-MALS calculated, light-scattering-based "diameters of gyration" (Øg) are similar to hydrodynamic diameters (Øh) from aF4-UV analyses and diameters observed with SEM, but much larger than with spICPMS. A Øg/Øh ratio of about 1 indicates that the TiMs are oblate spheres or fractal aggregates. SEM observations confirm the latter structure. The rationale for differences in modal peak diameter is discussed.

  14. Determination of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) and synthetic cathinones in urine using solid phase micro-extraction fibre tips and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Alsenedi, Khalid A.; Morrison, Calum

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of stimulant drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPSs) have caused concern in scientific communities and therefore innovative methods to extract compounds from complex biological samples are required. This work is aimed at developing and validating a clean, convenient and straightforward extraction procedure with microliter amounts of organic solvent using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction tips (SPME tips) and analysis using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrom...

  15. Analysis of lignans in Magnoliae Flos by turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Chen, Cen; Ye, Xiaolan; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Fuhai

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a method coupling turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for analyzing the lignans in Magnoliae Flos. By the online pretreatment of turbulent flow chromatography solid-phase extraction, the impurities removal and analytes concentration were automatically processed, and the lignans were separated rapidly and well. Seven lignans of Magnoliae Flos including epieudesmin, magnolin, 1-irioresinol-B-dimethyl ether, epi-magnolin, fargesin aschantin, and demethoxyaschantin were identified by comparing their retention behavior, UV spectra, and mass spectra with those of reference substances or literature data. The developed method was validated, and the good results showed that the method was not only automatic and rapid, but also accurate and reliable. The turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method holds a high potential to become an effective method for the quality control of lignans in Magnoliae Flos and a useful tool for the analysis of other complex mixtures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Direct determination of cadmium in foods by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten coil trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Min; Qian, Yongzhong; Gao, Chengling; Qi, Yuehan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a solid sampling device consisting of a tungsten coil trap, porous carbon vaporizer and on-line ashing furnace of a Ni-Cr coil was interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A modified double gas circuit system was employed that was composed of carrier and supplemental gas lines controlled by separate gas mass flow controllers. For Cd determination in food samples using the assembled solid sampling ICP-MS, the optimal ashing and vaporization conditions, flow rate of the argon-hydrogen (Ar/H2) (v:v = 24:1) carrier gas and supplemental gas, and minimum sampling mass were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of quantification was 0.5 pg and the relative standard deviation was within a 10.0% error range (n = 10). Furthermore, the mean spiked recoveries for various food samples were 99.4%-105.9% (n = 6). The Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were all within the certified values of the reference materials or were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of the microwave digestion ICP-MS method, demonstrating the good accuracy and precision of the solid sampling ICP-MS method for Cd determination in food samples.

  17. Analysis of the unresolved organic fraction in atmospheric aerosols with ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: organosulfates as photochemical smog constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gelencsér, Andras; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Kiss, Gyula; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Hong, Yang; Gebefügi, Istvan

    2010-10-01

    Complementary molecular and atomic signatures obtained from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectra and NMR spectra provided unequivocal attribution of CHO, CHNO, CHOS, and CHNOS molecular series in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and high-resolution definition of carbon chemical environments. Sulfate esters were confirmed as major players in SOA formation and as major constituents of its water-soluble fraction (WSOC). Elevated concentrations of SO(2), sulfate, and photochemical activity were shown to increase the proportion of SOA sulfur-containing compounds. Sulfonation of CHO precursors by means of heterogeneous reactions between carbonyl derivatives and sulfuric acid in gas-phase photoreactions was proposed as a likely formation mechanism of CHOS molecules. In addition, photochemistry induced oligomerization processes of CHOS molecules. Methylesters found in methanolic extracts of a SOA subjected to strong photochemical exposure were considered secondary products derived from sulfate esters by methanolysis. The relative abundance of nitrogen-containing compounds (CHNO and CHNOS series) appeared rather dependent on local effects such as biomass burning. Extensive aliphatic branching and disruption of extended NMR spin-systems by carbonyl derivatives and other heteroatoms were the most significant structural motifs in SOA. The presence of heteroatoms in elevated oxidation states suggests a clearly different SOA formation trajectory in comparison with established terrestrial and aqueous natural organic matter.

  18. Assessment of Mass Fraction and Melting Temperature for the Application of Limestone Concrete and Siliceous Concrete to Nuclear Reactor Basemat Considering Molten Core–Concrete Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojae Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe accident scenarios in nuclear reactors, such as nuclear meltdown, reveal that an extremely hot molten core may fall into the nuclear reactor cavity and seriously affect the safety of the nuclear containment vessel due to the chain reaction caused by the reaction between the molten core and concrete. This paper reports on research focused on the type and amount of vapor produced during the reaction between a high-temperature molten core and concrete, as well as on the erosion rate of concrete and the heat transfer characteristics at its vicinity. This study identifies the mass fraction and melting temperature as the most influential properties of concrete necessary for a safety analysis conducted in relation to the thermal interaction between the molten core and the basemat concrete. The types of concrete that are actually used in nuclear reactor cavities were investigated. The H2O content in concrete required for the computation of the relative amount of gases generated by the chemical reaction of the vapor, the quantity of CO2 necessary for computing the cooling speed of the molten core, and the melting temperature of concrete are evaluated experimentally for the molten core–concrete interaction analysis.

  19. Assessment of mass fraction and melting temperature for the application of limestone concrete and siliceous concrete to nuclear reactor basemat considering molten core-concrete interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jae; Kim, Do Gyeum [Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Leon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eui Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (