Sample records for solids content ssc

  1. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen;


    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6...

  2. [Dynamic QTL and correlated characters of tomato soluble solid content.].

    Jia, Jun-Zhong; Tian, Li-Ping; Xue, Lin; Wei, Yi-Nong


    Two hundred and six F2:3 families from the cross between TD22 and HT-1-1-1-1 were used for dynamic QTL research of tomato soluble solid content and correlative traits, and correlation analysis of soluble solid content (SSC) with fruit weight (FW), fruit shape index (FSI), soluble sugar, vitamin C (VC), and organic acid at three different development stages. The results showed that there were differences in QTL loci for soluble solid content during the three stages of tomato fruit development. Four and eight QTLs were detected in green ripe stage and red ripe stage, respectively. These QTLs showed dynamic changes, and two markers LEaat006 and Tomato|TC162363 were detected in two stages, which might be useful in molecular-marker assisted selection (MAS). The result also showed that there was extremely significant difference in SSC at the three different stages, and its main correlative traits were different at different stages. Soluble solid content was positively correlated with soluble sugar, but negatively correlated with FW at green ripe stage; SSC was positively correlated with soluble sugar and organic acid at yellow ripe stage; SSC was positively correlated with soluble sugar and organic acid, but negatively correlated with fruit weight at red ripe stage. Based on correlation analysis of these traits, linear regression model was constructed. Non-tested varieties were used to test the fitness, and the result showed that it is well fitted, and the fitness is above 95%.

  3. Nondestructive Estimation of Moisture Content, pH and Soluble Solid Contents in Intact Tomatoes Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Anisur Rahman; Lalit Mohan Kandpal; Santosh Lohumi; Kim, Moon S.; Hoonsoo Lee; Changyeun Mo; Byoung-Kwan Cho


    The objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to evaluate chemical components such as moisture content (MC), pH, and soluble solid content (SSC) in intact tomatoes by using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 1000–1550 nm. The mean spectra of the 95 matured tomato samples were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and multivariate calibration models were built by using partial least squares (PLS) regression with different preprocessing spectra. The results showed tha...

  4. Ultraviolet-visible transmittance techniques for rapid analysis of sugar content and soluble solids content of fresh navel orange juices

    Liu, Yande; Ouyang, Aiguo; Luo, Ji; Ying, Yibin


    Sugar content (SC) and soluble solids content (SSC) are very important factors of navel orange internal quality and can be measured non-invasively by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The feasibility and methods of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques for rapid quantifying SC and SSC of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by its spectral transmittance. A total 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Different spectra correction algorithms (constant, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) were compared in our work. Three different kinds of mathematical spectra treatments (original, first derivative and second derivative) of spectra in the range of 200-800 nm and two kinds of reference standards were also investigated. Three kinds of models including partial least square regression (PLSR), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principle component regression (PCR) were evaluated for the determination of SC and SSC in navel orange juice. Calibration models based on the different spectral ranges were also compared. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of prediction set of samples. The correlation coefficients of calibration models for SC and SSC were 0.965 and 0.961, the correlation coefficients of prediction models for SC and SSC were 0.857 and 0.888, and the corresponding RMSEP were 0.562 and 0.492 respectively. The results show that ultraviolet-visible transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-invasive estimation of fruit juice SC and SSC.

  5. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan


    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  6. [Determination of soluble solids content in Nanfeng Mandarin by Vis/NIR spectroscopy and UVE-ICA-LS-SVM].

    Sun, Tong; Xu, Wen-Li; Hu, Tian; Liu, Mu-Hua


    The objective of the present research was to assess soluble solids content (SSC) of Nanfeng mandarin by visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with new variable selection method, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin. A total of 300 Nanfeng mandarin samples were used, the numbers of Nanfeng mandarin samples in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 150, 75 and 75, respectively. Vis/NIR spectra of Nanfeng mandarin samples were acquired by a QualitySpec spectrometer in the wavelength range of 350-1000 nm. Uninformative variables elimination (UVE) was used to eliminate wavelength variables that had few information of SSC, then independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract independent components (ICs) from spectra that eliminated uninformative wavelength variables. At last, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used to develop calibration models for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin using extracted ICs, and 75 prediction samples that had not been used for model development were used to evaluate the performance of SSC model of Nanfeng mandarin. The results indicate t hat Vis/NIR spectroscopy combinedwith UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is suitable for assessing SSC o f Nanfeng mandarin, and t he precision o f prediction ishigh. UVE--ICA is an effective method to eliminate uninformative wavelength variables, extract important spectral information, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model. The SSC model developed by UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is superior to that developed by PLS, PCA-LS-SVM or ICA-LS-SVM, and the coefficient of determination and root mean square error in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 0.978, 0.230%, 0.965, 0.301% and 0.967, 0.292%, respectively.

  7. [Application of characteristic NIR variables selection in portable detection of soluble solids content of apple by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Li, Jiang-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Zhaq, Chun-Jiang


    In order to detect the soluble solids content(SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly, a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple. Different wavelength variable selection methods, including unin- formative variable elimination (UVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro- posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS. The back interval LS- SVM (BiLS-SVM) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM. Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model, respectively. The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962, 0.403°Brix respectively for SSC. The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detection model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision. The study can provide a reference for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer.

  8. Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits

    LU Hui-shan; XU Hui-rong; YING Yi-bin; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan; TIAN Hai-qing


    Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79°Brix.

  9. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    Mohd Zubir MatJafri


    Full Text Available This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2 = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  10. Nondestructive Estimation of Moisture Content, pH and Soluble Solid Contents in Intact Tomatoes Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Anisur Rahman


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to evaluate chemical components such as moisture content (MC, pH, and soluble solid content (SSC in intact tomatoes by using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 1000–1550 nm. The mean spectra of the 95 matured tomato samples were extracted from the hyperspectral images, and multivariate calibration models were built by using partial least squares (PLS regression with different preprocessing spectra. The results showed that the regression model developed by PLS regression based on Savitzky–Golay (S–G first-derivative preprocessed spectra resulted in better performance for MC, pH, and the smoothing preprocessed spectra-based model resulted in better performance for SSC in intact tomatoes compared to models developed by other preprocessing methods, with correlation coefficients (rpred of 0.81, 0.69, and 0.74 with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.63%, 0.06, and 0.33% Brix respectively. The full wavelengths were used to create chemical images by applying regression coefficients resulting from the best PLS regression model. These results obtained from this study clearly revealed that hyperspectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for the nondestructive prediction of chemical components in intact tomatoes.

  11. Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Xia-ping FU; Jian-ping LI; Ying ZHOU; Yi-bin YING; Li-juan XIE; Xiao-ying NIU; Zhan-ke YAN; Hai-yan YU


    The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation,fast response,and non-destructiveness.We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats.Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun'an,Zhejiang,China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm.A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study.Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of ioquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method.Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives,multiple scatter correction (MSC),and the standard normal variate (SNV).Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800-2500 nm),short NIR (800~1100 nm),and long NIR (1100~2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options.The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats,with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21,1.00,0.965,and 1.16 °Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao,Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong,Chun'an-Dahongpao,and Chun'an-Jiajiaozhong,respectively.The acidity prediction was not satisfactory,with the RMSEP of 0.382,0.194,0.388,and 0.361 for the above four loquats,respectively.The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit.

  12. [Characteristic wavelengths selection of soluble solids content of pear based on NIR spectral and LS-SVM].

    Fan, Shu-xiang; Huang, Wen-qian; Li, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Zhang, Bao-hua


    To improve the precision and robustness of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) on pear. The total number of 160 pears was for the calibration (n=120) and prediction (n=40). Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used before further analysis. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select most effective wavelengths after uninformative variable elimination (UVE) from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra respectively. The selected variables were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to build models for de- termining the SSC of pear. The results indicated that LS-SVM model built using SNVE-UVE-GA-SPA on 30 characteristic wavelengths selected from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.956, 0.271 for SSC. The model is reliable and the predicted result is effective. The method can meet the requirement of quick measuring SSC of pear and might be important for the development of portable instruments and online monitoring.

  13. SSC RESTful Web Services API

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Situation Center (SSC) web services allow a software developer to use portions of the SSC software in their own applications. SSC is a system to cast...

  14. Energy content of municipal solid waste bales.

    Ozbay, Ismail; Durmusoglu, Ertan


    Baling technology is a preferred method for temporary storage of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to final disposal. If incineration is intended for final disposal of the bales, the energy content of the baled MSW gains importance. In this study, nine cylindrical bales containing a mix of different waste materials were constructed and several parameters, including total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, moisture content, loss on ignition, gross calorific value and net calorific value (NCV) were determined before the baling and at the end of 10 months of storage. In addition, the relationships between the waste materials and the energy contents of the bales were investigated by the bivariate correlation analyses. At the end, linear regression models were developed in order to forecast the decrease of energy content during storage. While the NCVs of the waste materials before the baling ranged between 6.2 and 23.7 MJ kg(-1) dry basis, they ranged from 1.0 to 16.4 MJ kg(-1) dry basis at the end of the storage period. Moreover, food wastes exhibited the highest negative correlation with NCVs, whereas plastics have significant positive correlation with both NCVs and TCs. Similarly, TOCs and carbon/nitrogen ratios decreased with the increase in food amounts inside the bales. In addition, textile, wood and yard wastes increase the energy content of the bales slightly over the storage period.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solid content in strawberry by near infrared spectroscopy

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiu; Peng, Yankun

    This paper indicates the feasibility to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithms as a rapid nondestructive method to estimate the soluble solid content (SSC) in strawberry. Spectral preprocessing methods were optimized selected by cross-validation in the model calibration. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression model. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated according to root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (R2 c) in calibration set, and tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R2 p) in prediction set. The optimal siPLS model was obtained with after first derivation spectra preprocessing. The measurement results of best model were achieved as follow: RMSEC = 0.2259, R2 c = 0.9590 in the calibration set; and RMSEP = 0.2892, R2 p = 0.9390 in the prediction set. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and siPLS with efficient spectral preprocessing is a useful tool for nondestructively evaluation SSC in strawberry.

  16. SSC Safety Review Document

    Toohig, T.E. [ed.


    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  17. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of {sup 60}Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  18. Shielding calculations for SSC

    Van Ginneken, A.


    Monte Carlo calculations of hadron and muon shielding for SSC are reviewed with emphasis on their application to radiation safety and environmental protection. Models and algorithms for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic showers, and for production and transport of muons in the TeV regime are briefly discussed. Capabilities and limitations of these calculations are described and illustrated with a few examples. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Total Suspended Solid Content in Raha Waters, Northeast of Celebes



    Full Text Available Measurement on Total Suspended Solid (TSS in Raha waters were carried out in May 2001. The results showed that the content of total suspended solid varied between 74,8 – 78,9 ppm with averages content is 76,5 ppm. This content is still suited to the threshold value stated by government decree in 1988 for fishery and sea conservation park, but not suitable for recreation (swimming, diving activity.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSC471 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC471 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16339-1 SSC471E (Link to Original site) SSC...471F 448 SSC471Z 246 SSC471P 694 SSC471E 665 Show SSC471 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...nal site URL Representative seq. ID SSC...471E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC471 (SSC471Q) /CSM/SS/SSC4-C/SSC...SGFT KIDDPKFIGTVEYLEKKLRRGKYIIQSPDSVSASTTFTLYYISCIAKMGRKEEARELFEN ILNDCTPLGLISQDV

  1. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  2. Certification of primary standards for solid fat content (SFC) determination

    Bernreuther, A.; Schimmel, H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.


    Spreadability of fat containing food products can be easily assessed by the solid fat content (SFC). Usually, SFC is determined by direct methods based on low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. A system of primary and secondary reference materials is required to calculate so-called

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSC418 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC418 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01562-1 SSC418E (Link to Original site) SSC...418F 448 - - SSC418P 545 SSC418E 443 Show SSC418 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC... URL Representative seq. ID SSC...418E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC418 (SSC418Q) /CSM/SS/SSC4-A/SSC4...fygkklvnyfqlvmn*iykknkn*nkillifx** scnitffnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk Frame B: fke**y*se

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSC172 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC172 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15618-1 SSC172P (Link to Original site) SSC...172F 288 SSC172Z 529 SSC172P 817 - - Show SSC172 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC... URL Representative seq. ID SSC...172P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC172 (SSC172Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-C/SSC1...HIEENLNSTQISYRRNFYVFDCKTL CPRNETINFEIEVCKVNGMDMYGIKFKRLSGDAWSYSSSCIKIVESLKL*lkkkk

  5. Dicty_cDB: SSC190 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC190 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01589-1 SSC190P (Link to Original site) SSC...190F 599 SSC190Z 469 SSC190P 1068 - - Show SSC190 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...e URL Representative seq. ID SSC...190P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC190 (SSC190Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-D/SSC...fwfknpw*p**fyfqinrfrkn*ksqryfvwkgnq*sscng*n* ket*kl*skvflys*prynhiiihgy*sl*cfnylc

  6. Dicty_cDB: SSC252 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC252 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16560-1 SSC252Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC252Z 516 - - - - Show SSC252 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC252 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC25...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC252 (SSC252Q) /CSM/SS/SSC2-C/SSC252Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...5-B/SSE525Q.Seq.d/ 898 0.0 SSC252 (SSC252Q) /CSM/SS/SSC2-C/SSC252Q.Seq.d/ 898 0.0 SSC150 (SSC150Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-C/SSC


    Cottrell, Dinna L.


    The Stennis Space Center (SSC) Records Retention Facility is a centralized location for all SSC records, Records Management staff, and the SSC History Office. The building is a storm resistant facility and provides a secure environment for records housing. The Records Retention Facility was constructed in accordance with The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) requirements for records storage, making it the first NARA compliant facility in the agency. Stennis Space Center's Records Retention Facility became operational in May 2010. The SSC Records Retention Facility ensures that the required federal records are preserved, managed and accessible to all interested personnel. The facility provides 20,000 cubic feet of records storage capacity for the purpose of managing the centers consolidated records within a central, protected environment. Records housed in the facility are in the form of paper, optical, film and magnetic media. Located within the SSC Records Retention Facility, the Records Management Office provides comprehensive records management services in the form of: a) Storage and life-cycle management of inactive records of all media types; b) Digitizing/scanning of records and documents; c) Non-textual/digital electronic records media storage, migration and transfer; d) Records Remediation.

  8. Summer Science Camps Program (SSC).

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The Summer Science Camps (SSC) Program supports residential and commuter enrichment projects for seventh through ninth grade minority students who are underrepresented in science, engineering, and mathematics. Eligible organizations include school districts, museums, colleges, universities, and nonprofit youth-centered and/or community-based…

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSC733 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC733 (Link to dictyBase) - G02125 DDB0216410 Contig-U04767-1 SSC...733E (Link to Original site) - - - - - - SSC733E 564 Show SSC733 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...riginal site URL ...Representative seq. ID SSC733E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC733 (SSC733Q) /CSM/SS/SSC7-B/SSC...niikeng*nkmeisrs*ic*kgrsqt*ktrrr*rs*rrs*rrrwck*rkwwre kescskki*ntnyiiiiiiiivihq**

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSC707 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC707 (Link to dictyBase) - G23635 DDB0189725 Contig-U16533-1 SSC...707F (Link to Original site) SSC707F 721 - - - - - - Show SSC707 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...riginal site URL ...Representative seq. ID SSC707F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC707 (SSC707Q) /CSM/SS/SSC7-A/SSC... Frames) Frame A: kkkkkkkkkknlfiy*ftyi**ylliyxxiyththallvifsnniflfiiyiiyphflyi hnfqik*realhf*vysc

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSC446 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC446 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14332-1 SSC446F (Link to Original site) SSC...446F 303 - - - - - - Show SSC446 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC446 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC44...6F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC446 (SSC446Q) /CSM/SS/SSC4-B/SSC446Q.Seq.d/ TAAAA...d Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: *kh*kktivf*kiiyyiiylnknfhcqifkilk*nviqiiksiiqlfiiinefiisckfi ini

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSC336 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC336 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14396-1 SSC336E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSC336E 521 Show SSC336 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC336 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC33...6E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC336 (SSC336Q) /CSM/SS/SSC3-B/SSC336Q.Seq.d/*iikfkneiiisfiissfnifsigti*rslfcfknlsrq*fyfqin*frkntksqr yfvwkgn*rsscng*n*kvk*rl*skvflsy*pryshifqygh*sl*cy

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSC193 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC193 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10256-1 SSC193F (Link to Original site) SSC...193F 589 - - - - - - Show SSC193 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC193 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC19...3F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC193 (SSC193Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-D/SSC193Q.Seq.d/ GTTGT...nce (All Frames) Frame A: vvlldnlllffkflqffvlnitqt*nknglnqkkikqrriicsfr*rtsc*ikrsf*tl* *rknwfh*kgclknhl*tiwc

  14. Dicty_cDB: SSC302 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC302 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16354-1 SSC302Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC302Z 640 - - - - Show SSC302 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC302 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC30...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC302 (SSC302Q) /CSM/SS/SSC3-A/SSC302Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...lxixlfkffxk*nl*mxinnygiwnnklfivlgdfgi**rtpevhtw lrichylypih*rnfqqs*veqlhldcfylpncilhpmrsfhpyqchslsrscyrcc*lp

  15. Dicty_cDB: SSC494 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC494 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13836-1 SSC494Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC494Z 580 - - - - Show SSC494 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC494 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC49...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC494 (SSC494Q) /CSM/SS/SSC4-D/SSC494Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...SLCYLSLGRNG NALQNLPPTLETLKYYGEVQTDLNIKSIPHVKNLLIPFNNHSIIIDTIPPTVKYLAWGKL KDLEAIETLKNLPPSVNDLTFSCPPDVFDKIQRKH

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSC343 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC343 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16259-1 SSC343Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC343Z 671 - - - - Show SSC343 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC343 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC34...3Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC343 (SSC343Q) /CSM/SS/SSC3-B/SSC343Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...e 1997.11.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---tlv*KXWLEIHSCDSLTIVDTQTLTCSAPPGSGIKNAVSFMVKDAESKLSPPLFLDY SPP

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSC388 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC388 (Link to dictyBase) - G20828 DDB0168913 Contig-U04577-1 SSC...388Z (Link to Original site) - - SSC388Z 721 - - - - Show SSC388 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...riginal site URL ...Representative seq. ID SSC388Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC388 (SSC388Q) /CSM/SS/SSC3-D/SSC...*k*lvfqmli* cmlii*v*clvqic*rrhqilk*mqfqcwmlvik*sly*lkiiiyfmiini**lid*k** *ie Frame B: ---ixsllghskevdqlvttsc

  18. Dicty_cDB: SSC760 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC760 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16310-1 SSC760Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC760Z 608 - - - - Show SSC760 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC760 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC76...0Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC760 (SSC760Q) /CSM/SS/SSC7-C/SSC760Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---tikryqrisfccqri*hpi*n*rcpkyfiirslknstnlikqsc*yrscftr

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSC144 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC144 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15118-1 SSC144F (Link to Original site) SSC...144F 703 - - - - - - Show SSC144 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC144 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC14...4F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC144 (SSC144Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-B/SSC144Q.Seq.d/ ATTAG...thc*rkpnqifhw*fiiwwccwcnlitlclpirfcpys fsc*cwywfsssihwfr*lylfnlqerrfnrfipwfwcicrrylclqscflwwlryc*rn fir*kqqesfilgfmgyrtsc

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSC228 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC228 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01537-1 SSC228Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC228Z 516 - - - - Show SSC228 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC228 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC22...8Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC228 (SSC228Q) /CSM/SS/SSC2-B/SSC228Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...s producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SSC228 (SSC228Q) /CSM/SS/SSC2-B/SSC2

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSC819 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC819 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12197-1 SSC819F (Link to Original site) SSC...819F 341 - - - - - - Show SSC819 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC819 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC81...9F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC819 (SSC819Q) /CSM/SS/SSC8-A/SSC819Q.Seq.d/ CAAAA...g significant alignments: (bits) Value SSC819 (SSC819Q) /CSM/SS/SSC8-A/SSC819Q.Seq.d/ 331 4e-90 VHP762 (VHP7

  2. Effect of the solid content on anaerobic digestion of meat and bone meal.

    Wu, Guangxue; Healy, Mark Gerard; Zhan, Xinmin


    The effect of the solid content on anaerobic digestion of meat and bone meal (MBM) was investigated in batch reactors at MBM solid contents of 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%. There was no significant difference in the specific methane (CH(4)) production potential with respect to the total volatile MBM solids (TVS) applied at these solid contents, which ranged from 351 to 381 ml CH(4)/g TVS. However, the highest CH(4) yield with respect to the removed volatile MBM solids (RVS) was 482 ml CH(4)/g RVS at the MBM solid content of 5%; the CH(4) yields were 384-448 ml CH(4)/g RVS at the other MBM solid contents. The lag time of CH(4) production rose with the increase in the solid content. The longer lag time at MBM solid contents of 5% and 10% was due to inhibition caused by high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and free ammonia in the reactors, but the inhibition was reversible. The production of VFAs during the digestion varied with solid contents: at the solid content of 1%, only acetic acid was detected; at 2%, both acetic and propionic acids were detected; and at 5% and 10%, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids were detected. After 93-day digestion, the volatile MBM solid reduction was 92%, 91%, 79% and 80% at MBM solid contents of 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively.

  3. Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross.

    Sun, Y D; Liang, Y; Wu, J M; Li, Y Z; Cui, X; Qin, L


    Fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content are important factors determining fruit quality of tomatoes; however, the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lycopene and soluble solid content have not been well studied. We mapped the chromosomal regions controlling these traits in different periods in F(2:3) families derived from a cross between the domestic and wild tomato species Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Fifteen QTLs for lycopene and soluble solid content and other related traits analyzed at three different fruit ripening stages were detected with a composite interval mapping method. These QTLs explained 7-33% of the individual phenotypic variation. QTLs detected in the color-changing period were different from those detected in the other two periods. On chromosome 1, the soluble solid content QTL was located in the same region during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. On chromosome 4, the same QTL for lycopene content was found during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. The QTL for lycopene content on chromosome 4 co-located with the QTL for soluble solid content during the full-ripe period. Co-location of lycopene content QTL and soluble solid content QTLs may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or a cluster of genes via physiological relationships among traits. On chromosome 9, the same two QTLs for lycopene content at two different fruit ripening periods may reflect genes controlling lycopene content that are always expressed in tomato fruit development.

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSC523 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC523 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11366-1 SSC523F (Link to Original site) SSC...523F 570 - - - - - - Show SSC523 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC523 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC52...3F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC523 (SSC523Q) /CSM/SS/SSC5-A/SSC523Q.Seq.d/ ATTAT...*rylghnkv--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SSC523 (SSC523Q) /CSM/SS/SSC

  5. Dicty_cDB: SSC317 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available oideum slug cDNA, clone SSC561. 971 0.0 2 ( BJ375299 ) Dictyostelium disc...SS (Link to library) SSC317 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15332-1 SSC317P (Link to Original site) SSC...317F 554 SSC317Z 162 SSC317P 716 - - Show SSC317 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC... URL Representative seq. ID SSC...317P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC317 (SSC317Q) /CSM/SS/SSC3-A/SSC3

  6. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Wu Gao; Yunmin Chen; Liangtong Zhan; Xuecheng Bian


    Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) depend largely on the waste’s initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW). After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW), the following findings were obtained: (1) HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC) than LKWC MSW, but the field ca-pacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2) the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3) compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG) generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4) the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5) the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  7. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Wu Gao


    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  8. Dicty_cDB: SSC770 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ene for emp24/gp25... 307 2e-84 2 ( AU071934 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSC...770. 307 2e-84 2 ( AU071932 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSC765. 307 4e-83 2 ( AU2...SS (Link to library) SSC770 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U04772-1 SSC770F (Link to Original site) SSC...770F 195 - - - - - - Show SSC770 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC770 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC77

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSC470 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available C84194 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSC470. 930 0.0 1 ( C84184 ) Dictyostelium disc...oideum slug cDNA, clone SSC453. 930 0.0 1 ( AY171066 ) Dictyostelium discoideum extrachromo...SS (Link to library) SSC470 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16581-1 SSC470E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSC470E 523 Show SSC470 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC470 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC47

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSC290 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC290 (Link to dictyBase) ssc290 G20821 DDB0230026 Contig-U09317-1 SSC2...90P (Link to Original site) SSC290F 464 SSC290Z 194 SSC290P 658 - - Show SSC290 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC2...90 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID ssc290 NBRP ID G20821 dictyBase ID DDB0230026 Link t...o Contig Contig-U09317-1 Original site URL Representative seq. ID SSC290P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC290 (SSC2

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSC307 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC307 (Link to dictyBase) - G20822 DDB0191445 Contig-U09318-1 SSC...307P (Link to Original site) SSC307F 533 SSC307Z 179 SSC307P 712 - - Show SSC307 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...ontig-U09318-1 Original site URL Representative seq. ID SSC307P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC307 (SSC307Q) /CSM/SS/SSC...3-A/SSC307Q.Seq.d/ GGATATTCAAAAATTTTAAAAAAAGATCCACAATCATGGATGTGGATAATTGCACCATTC ATTTTATA

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSC451 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC451 (Link to dictyBase) - G00637 DDB0205938 Contig-U13400-1 SSC...451P (Link to Original site) SSC451F 480 SSC451Z 149 SSC451P 629 - - Show SSC451 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...ontig-U13400-1 Original site URL Representative seq. ID SSC451P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC451 (SSC451Q) /CSM/SS/SSC...4-C/SSC451Q.Seq.d/ CAACAAACAAAAAAAAAAAAAATTTAAATTTTTTACAAAAAAATGGCAGCATTAGAAAAT TTTTTAAT

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSC665 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC665 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16581-1 SSC665F (Link to Original site) SSC...665F 381 - - - - - - Show SSC665 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC665 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC66...5F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC665 (SSC665Q) /CSM/SS/SSC6-C/SSC665Q.Seq.d/ ATATA...e-78 SSG321 (SSG321Q) /CSM/SS/SSG3-A/SSG321Q.Seq.d/ 291 4e-78 SSF109 (SSF109Q) /CSM/SS/SSF1-A/SSF109Q.Seq.d/ 291 4e-78 SSC665 (SSC

  14. Dicty_cDB: SSC166 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC166 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10142-1 SSC166P (Link to Original site) SSC...166F 609 SSC166Z 531 SSC166P 1140 - - Show SSC166 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...e URL Representative seq. ID SSC...166P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC166 (SSC166Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-C/SSC...sf*nk*k***lvsfn*iik* ********nn*yy**kcsinnwc*tinnfk*k*ttttttttkrinys*tscksrrikksl *kg*cccslw*fsycnhciv*y---

  15. The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce


    TECHNICAL REPORT 1971 August 2008 The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for... Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SSC San Diego San Diego, CA 92152-5001 SB...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08–2008 Final THE FUTURE SSC PACIFIC CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J

  16. SSC 40 mm short model construction experience

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Dickey, C.E.; Gonczy, I.; Koska, W.A.; Strait, J.B.


    Several short model SSC magnets have been built and tested at Fermilab. They establish a preliminary step toward the construction of SSC long models. Many aspects of magnet design and construction are involved. Experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained. Design of tooling and magnet components not previously incorporated into SSC magnets are described. 14 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSC771 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available s) Value N ( C92009 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSC771. 375 0.0 3...SS (Link to library) SSC771 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12865-1 SSC771Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC771Z 520 - - - - Show SSC771 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC771 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC77...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC771 (SSC771Q) /CSM/SS/SSC7-C/SSC771Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX

  18. Dicty_cDB: SSC482 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available oideum slug cDNA, clone SSC482. 906 0.0 1 ( AU284498 ) Dictyostelium discoideum gamete cDNA clone:...SS (Link to library) SSC482 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16310-1 SSC482Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC482Z 585 - - - - Show SSC482 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC482 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC48...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC482 (SSC482Q) /CSM/SS/SSC4-D/SSC482Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSC879 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC879 (Link to dictyBase) - G00650 DDB0231447 Contig-U04510-1 SSC...879E (Link to Original site) SSC879F 634 SSC879Z 660 SSC879P 1294 SSC879E 938 Show SSC879 Library SS (Li...nk to library) Clone ID SSC879 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G00650 dictyBase ID DDB0231447 Link to... Contig Contig-U04510-1 Original site URL Representative seq. ID SSC879E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC879 (SSC

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSC604 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC604 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16255-1 SSC604Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC604Z 674 - - - - Show SSC604 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC604 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC60...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC604 (SSC604Q) /CSM/SS/SSC6-A/SSC604Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...klfxxxk****fnn*slssiitl*yyfnnntffnxqrlyk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SSC

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSC765 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ( C92861 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSF515. 969 0.0 1 ( AU071932 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSC...765. 414 e-114 2 ( AU071934 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSC...SS (Link to library) SSC765 (Link to dictyBase) - G20269 DDB0215345 Contig-U04772-1 SSC...765F (Link to Original site) SSC765F 655 - - - - - - Show SSC765 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC...riginal site URL

  2. Dicty_cDB: SSC660 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC660 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15495-1 SSC660E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSC660E 553 Show SSC660 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC660 (Link Representative seq. ID SSC66...0E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC660 (SSC660Q) /CSM/SS/SSC6-C/SSC660Q.Seq.d/ AAAAA...nwcrtfsrsnfrck*wwclg*iiry* yy*trr*wyscfiqkss*gic*gcfdwwsxiygy*g*ptkylw*kgsnwlcsc*nrpsnh cwhl***sptrisctyc*kv

  3. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.


    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  4. Detector problems at the SSC

    Wojcicki, S.G.


    During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ at a hadron-hadron high energy collider. As a result of these concerns, a considerable amount of work has been done recently in trying to understand the nature of potential difficulties and the required R and D that needs to be performed. A lot of this work has been summarized in the 1984 DPF Summer Study at Snowmass. This paper attempts to review some of these results. This work is limited to the discussion of detector problems associated with the study of high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We shall start with the discussion of the desirable features of the detectors and of the SSC environment in which they will have to work. After a brief discussion of the model 4..pi.. detectors, we shall discuss specific detector aspects: lepton identification, tracking, calorimetry and computing and triggering. We shall end with some remarks about possible future course of events. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Heavy-metal contents in suspended solids of Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake and its environmental significances

    ZHU Guang-wei; CHI Qiao-qiao; QIN Bo-qiang; WANG Wen-min


    Surface water was taken from river mouth to the central area of Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large shallow eutrophic lake in China. Suspended solids were condensed by centrifugation 25 L surface water samples from each selected site. Suspended solids and surface sediments were further freeze-dried and microwave digested before determining the metals by ICP-AES. Among the metals analyzed in suspended solids and sediments, contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in suspended solids were significantly higher than those in sediments while contents of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Pb, and V in suspended solids were 10%-30% higher than those in sediments. Sr and Ti contents in suspended solids and sediments were very similar. Na content in suspended solids was lower than that in sediments. Heavy metals were significantly accumulated in suspended solids. From the river mouth to the center of Meiliang Bay,contents of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in suspended solids showed a gradual decreasing trend indicating the river(Zhihugang River) still discharged large quantity of heavy metalsto Meiliang Bay. The study suggests that the geochemical behaviors and ecological effects of heavy metals in suspended solids may serve as a good indicator for the pollution of lake.

  6. SSC San Diego Strategic Plan. Revision 3


    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SSC San Diego Strategic Plan. Rev 3 5a...Business Improvement Group ( CBIG ), will be composed of the team members listed above, and will be responsible for monitoring the planning and...implementation of these objectives. The CBIG will charter sub-groups as necessary. Improve Corporate IT infrastructure Much of the SSC San Diego IT service

  7. Beam instability studies for the SSC

    Chou, W.


    Beam instability studies of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) during the period 1989--1993 are briefly reviewed in this paper. Various topics are covered: single bunch and multi-bunch, single beam and beam-beam, parasitic heating and active feedback, etc. Although the SSC will not be built, many of the results obtained from these studies remain as useful references to the accelerator community.

  8. Dicty_cDB: SSC463 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC463 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U04467-1 SSC463Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC463Z 612 - - - - Show SSC463 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC463 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U04467-1 Original site URL http://dict...IMXFXCSNNQVISSSLVSXNNCIYTVEMSGNIFCPTPTPTPTPT PTPTPNPTSNVPCKSSNGISITXSDIITCIGYGQSICTTSSGYSCEPNQTNGVLKCISPD NS...XCSNNQVISSSLVSXNNCIYTVEMSGNIFCPTPTPTPTPT PTPTPNPTSNVPCKSSNGISITXSDIITCIGYGQSICTTSSGYSCEPNQTNGVLKCISPD NSISCI

  9. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary


    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  10. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.


    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures.

  11. SSC/BCD data acquisition system proposal

    Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Swoboda, C. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States)


    The proposed new data acquisition system architecture takes event fragments off a detector over fiber optics and to a parallel event building switch. The parallel event building switch concept, taken from the telephone communications industry, along with expected technology improvements in fiber-optic data transmission speeds over the next few years, should allow data acquisition system rates to increase dramatically and exceed those rates needed for the SSC. This report briefly describes the switch architecture and fiber optics for a SSC data acquisition system.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of sludge differing in inorganic solids content: performance comparison and the effect of inorganic suspended solids content on degradation.

    Duan, Nina; Dai, Xiaohu; Dong, Bin; Dai, Lingling


    High inorganic suspended solids (ISS) content of sludge in many areas (especially with combined sewage systems) results in low VS/TS (volatile solids, VS; total solids, TS) levels and raises concerns about its effect on anaerobic digestion. The performances of sludge anaerobic digestion with different feeding VS/TS levels as well as the effect of ISS content on the anaerobic degradation process were investigated in completely stirred tank reactors by semi-continuous and batch experiments. In semi-continuous experiment with sludge at VS/TS of 61.4%, 45.0, 30.0% and 15.0%, biogas yield, VS reduction and methane content decreased logarithmically with the feeding VS/TS decreasing; slightly higher volatile fatty acid concentration was observed at VS/TS 15%. Results of the batch experiments suggested that acetogenesis and methanogenesis are obviously affected by high ISS addition, while hydrolysis is less affected. The retardment of substrate conversion rate is probably attributed to decreased mass transfer efficiency at high ISS content.

  13. Time measurment system at the SSC

    Arai, Yasuo [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)


    A proposal of time measurement system at the SSC experiment is described. An example of a possible scheme for central tracking chambers is shown. Designs of a preamp/shaper/discri chip and a time digitizer chip are described. A method to distribute system clock and power/cooling problems are also discussed.

  14. [Near-infrared spectra combining with CARS and SPA algorithms to screen the variables and samples for quantitatively determining the soluble solids content in strawberry].

    Li, Jiang-bo; Guo, Zhi-ming; Huang, Wen-qian; Zhang, Bao-hua; Zhao, Chun-jiang


    In using spectroscopy to quantitatively or qualitatively analyze the quality of fruit, how to obtain a simple and effective correction model is very critical for the application and maintenance of the developed model. Strawberry as the research object, this research mainly focused on selecting the key variables and characteristic samples for quantitatively determining the soluble solids content. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm was firstly proposed to select the spectra variables. Then, Samples of correction set were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA), and 98 characteristic samples were obtained. Next, based on the selected variables and characteristic samples, the second variable selection was performed by using SPA method. 25 key variables were obtained. In order to verify the performance of the proposed CARS algorithm, variable selection algorithms including Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and SPA were used as the comparison algorithms. Results showed that CARS algorithm could eliminate uninformative variables and remove the collinearity information at the same time. Similarly, in order to assess the performance of the proposed SPA algorithm for selecting the characteristic samples, SPA algorithm was compared with classical Kennard-Stone algorithm Results showed that SPA algorithm could be used for selection of the characteristic samples in the calibration set. Finally, PLS and MLR model for quantitatively predicting the SSC (soluble solids content) in the strawberry were proposed based on the variables/samples subset (25/98), respectively. Results show that models built by using the 0.59% and 65.33% information of original variables and samples could obtain better performance than using the ones obtained by using all information of the original variables and samples. MLR model was the best with R(pre)2 = 0.9097, RMSEP=0.3484 and RPD = 3.3278.

  15. Effect of solid content variations on PZT slip for tape casting

    Gang Jian


    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT particles with pure tetragonal structure were synthesized by solid-state reaction method and used for preparation of slurries with different solid contents (34–80 wt.%. Then, PZT thick films were fabricated by the nonaqueous tape casting method. It was shown that the slurry prepared from ball-milled particles exhibited better rheology properties than slurry from particles which were not ball-milled. Measurement of sedimentation volumes and zeta potentials indicated particle aggregation, resulting in weak stability of the slurries with high solid contents. The microstructure, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT sintered films were investigated in terms of solid contents. Ceramic films prepared from the slurry with solid contents of 73 wt.% had the optimal structure and properties. After poling at 200 °C with an applied field of 1.2 kV/cm, a d33 of 294 pC/N was achieved; typical ferroelectric properties were also observed with a Ps of 38 μC/cm2.

  16. [Characteristics of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of high-solids-content waste].

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xi-hui


    Based on the experiments of digestion of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge in both mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) with 20, 10, 7.5, 5d hydraulic retention time (HRT), operating characteristics of ASBR for treatment of high-solids-content waste were investigated. ASBR can efficiently accumulates suspended solids and keep high concentration solids, however there exists a "critical point" of ASBR, which means the maximum capability to accumulate suspended solids without negative effects on ASBR stability, and beyond which the performance deteriorates. Under steady condition, ASBR can sustains high solid retention time (SRT) and mean cell retention time (MCRT), the SRT and MCRT is 2.53 approximately 3.73 and 2.03 approximately 3.14 times of hydraulic retention time (HRT) when treating thermo-hydrolyzed sludge, respectively. Therefore, compared to traditional continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR), the efficiency of ASBR enhances about 7.13% approximately 34.68%.

  17. Application of principal component regression and artificial neural network in FT-NIR soluble solids content determination of intact pear fruit

    Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yande; Fu, Xiaping; Lu, Huishan


    The artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used successfully in applications such as pattern recognition, image processing, automation and control. However, majority of today's applications of ANNs is back-propagate feed-forward ANN (BP-ANN). In this paper, back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) were applied for modeling soluble solid content (SSC) of intact pear from their Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectra. One hundred and sixty-four pear samples were used to build the calibration models and evaluate the models predictive ability. The results are compared to the classical calibration approaches, i.e. principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and non-linear PLS (NPLS). The effects of the optimal methods of training parameters on the prediction model were also investigated. BP-ANN combine with principle component regression (PCR) resulted always better than the classical PCR, PLS and Weight-PLS methods, from the point of view of the predictive ability. Based on the results, it can be concluded that FT-NIR spectroscopy and BP-ANN models can be properly employed for rapid and nondestructive determination of fruit internal quality.

  18. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  19. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu


    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352


    Miloš Matúš


    Full Text Available The moisture content of densified biomass is a limit parameter influencing the quality of the solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as the production process of this biofuel. The paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of moisture content of densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs. Experiments based on the single-axis densification of spruce sawdust were realized by hydraulic piston press, where the densified logs were produced under room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the quality properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, were studied. The results show the necessary moisture ranges for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel.

  1. Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-303 Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Mission and Description 6 Executive Summary 7 Threshold Breaches 8 Schedule 9 Performance 11 Track to Budget 16 Cost and...Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense Acquisition Executive DAMIR - Defense Acquisition

  2. Longitudinal matching between SFC and SSC

    Yin, Q.M.; Tang, J.Y.; Wang, S.L. [Institute of Modern Physics, China Academy of Science, Lanzhou (China)


    In order to increase the beam current and to enhance the beam quality, an upgrading program of HIRFL is going on at HIRFL. As a part of this program, the longitudinal matching between injector SFC and main machine SSC will be improved. It consists of beam energy measurement, compensation of energy loss due to stripper and a new rebuncher system. In this paper, the study results are presented. (author)

  3. New insight into the SSC8 genetic determination of fatty acid composition in pigs

    Revilla, M.; Ramayo-Caldas, Y.; Castello, A.; Corominas, J.; Puig-Oliveras, A.; Ibanez-Escriche, N.; Munoz, M.; Ballester, M.; Folch, J.M.


    BACKGROUND: Fat content and fatty acid composition in swine are becoming increasingly studied because of their effect on sensory and nutritional quality of meat. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) for fatty acid composition in backfat was previously detected on porcine chromosome 8 (SSC8) in an Iberia

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSC323 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC323 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16278-1 SSC323E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSC323E 765 Show SSC323 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC323 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16278-1 Original site URL http://dict... Amino Acid sequence xxnxitnxxnrliips*ilifsqq*FFLICTMGLAFGKLFSRFFGKKDMRILMVGLDAAG... Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: xxnxitnxxnrliips*ilifsqq*FFLICTMGLAFGKLFSRFF

  5. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  6. Model for on-line moisture-content control during solid-state fermentation

    Nagel, F.J.J.I.; Tramper, J.; Bakker, M.S.N.; Rinzema, A.


    In this study we describe a model that estimates the extracellular (nonfungal) and overall water contents of wheat grains during solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae, using on-line measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase. The model uses elemental ba

  7. Adhesive performance of washed cottonseed meal at high solid contents and low temperatures

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising biobased wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WSCM in a pilot scale for promoting its industrial application. In this work, we tested the adhesive strength and viscosity of the adhesive preparation with high solid contents (up to 30%...

  8. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  9. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.


    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  10. Effect of Oxidizing Medium on Synthesis Gas Content at Solid Fuel Gasification

    Korotkikh Alexander


    Full Text Available Solid fuel gasification is promising technology in sphere of clean energy. The synthesis gas content for air-blown fixed bed gasification may be defined using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The minimization procedure was realized via steepest descent method. The feed consisted of steam, air and coal at standard conditions. The temperature and gas content were calculated at different ratios of coal/steam/air. It was found that optimal syngas content resulted at component ratio of 1.0/0.5/2.2 with the ambient temperature of 1300 K and syngas heating power of 7.7 kJ/m3.

  11. Influence of municipal solid waste compost application on heavy metal content in soil.

    Yuksel, Orhan


    Municipal solid waste composts (MSWC) are widely used over agricultural lands as organic soil amendment and fertilizer. However, MSWC use may result in various adverse impacts over agricultural lands. Especially, heavy metal contents of MSWC should always be taken into consideration while using in agricultural practices. The present study was conducted to find out heavy metal contents of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and to investigate their effects on soils. Experiments were carried out in three replications as field experiments for 2 years. Dry-based MSWC was applied to each plot at the ratios of 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 t ha(-1). Results revealed that heavy metal content of MSWC was within the allowable legal limits. Compost treatments significantly increased Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Pb content of soils (p compost doses. Although compost treatments significantly increased soil heavy metal contents, the final contents were still within the allowable legal limits. Results showed that MSWC doses over 10 t ha(-1) may create a heavy metal risk in long term for soils with pH ≥ 7. Therefore, in MSWC use over agricultural lands, heavy metal contents should always be taken into consideration and excessive uses should be avoided.

  12. [Effect of moisture content on anaerobic methanization of municipal solid waste].

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Bouchez, Théodore


    Biogas production, gas and liquid characteristics were investigated for comparing the effect of moisture content on methanization process of MSW with different compositions of food waste and cellulosic waste. Batch reactors were used to study the anaerobic methanization of typical Chinese and French municipal solid waste (MSW) and cellulosic waste with different moisture content, as 35%, field capacity (65%-70%), 80%, and saturated state (> 95%). The results showed that for the typical Chinese and French waste, which contained putrescible waste, the intermediate product, VFA, was diluted by high content of water, which helped to release the VFA inhibition on hydrolysis and methanization. Mass amount of methane was produced only when the moisture content of typical French waste was higher than 80%, while higher content of moisture was needed when the content of putrescible waste was higher in MSW, as > 95% for typical Chinese waste. Meanwhile the methane production rate and the ultimate cumulated methane production were increased when moisture content was leveled up. The ultimate cumulated methane production of the typical French waste with saturated state was 0.6 times higher than that of the waste with moisture content of 80%. For cellulosic waste, high moisture content of cellulosic materials contributed to increase the attachment area of microbes and enzyme on the surface of the materials, which enhance the waste hydrolysis and methanization. When the moisture content of the cellulosic materials increased from field capacity (65%) to saturated state (> 95%), the ultimate cumulated methane production increased for 3.8 times.

  13. Speckle tracking and speckle content based composite strain imaging for solid and fluid filled lesions.

    Rabbi, Md Shifat-E; Hasan, Md Kamrul


    Strain imaging though for solid lesions provides an effective way for determining their pathologic condition by displaying the tissue stiffness contrast, for fluid filled lesions such an imaging is yet an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel speckle content based strain imaging technique for visualization and classification of fluid filled lesions in elastography after automatic identification of the presence of fluid filled lesions. Speckle content based strain, defined as a function of speckle density based on the relationship between strain and speckle density, gives an indirect strain value for fluid filled lesions. To measure the speckle density of the fluid filled lesions, two new criteria based on oscillation count of the windowed radio frequency signal and local variance of the normalized B-mode image are used. An improved speckle tracking technique is also proposed for strain imaging of the solid lesions and background. A wavelet-based integration technique is then proposed for combining the strain images from these two techniques for visualizing both the solid and fluid filled lesions from a common framework. The final output of our algorithm is a high quality composite strain image which can effectively visualize both solid and fluid filled breast lesions in addition to the speckle content of the fluid filled lesions for their discrimination. The performance of our algorithm is evaluated using the in vivo patient data and compared with recently reported techniques. The results show that both the solid and fluid filled lesions can be better visualized using our technique and the fluid filled lesions can be classified with good accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  15. Experimental Operation of SSC RF Cavities at Higher Voltage


    For many years,SSC RF cavities were operated at about half of its designing voltages,which are from 100 kV at 6.5 MHz to 250 kV at 14.5 MHz respectively.But,with the construction of new project HIRFL-CSR,high intensity beams are required to be extracted from SSC.Therefore,in order to achieve this aim,SSC Dee voltages must be enhanced to higher operation level.

  16. SSC San Diego Command History Calendar Year 2005


    SSC San Diego from Capt. Tim Flynn on 18 August 2005. Capt. Unetic joined the Center from SPAWAR Headquarters where he was Executive Assistant to...communications. Rear Adm. Tim Flynn Rear Adm. Tim Flynn served as SSC San Diego Commanding Officer beginning 2 May 2002. Before joining SSC San Diego, he was...Steven Short, Arleen Simbulan, Robert Smith, Gleason Snashall, Dow Street, Weden Teng, Deborah Tharp , Tine Thompson, Viet Tran, Thomas Tucker, Rob Turner

  17. [Determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry].

    Yao, Jian-Zhen; Hao, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Rui-Ling; Li, Xiao-Jing; Li, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Qin


    A method for the determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry was presented. The dedicated high content tin spectrum standard series was developed. K2S2O7, NaF, Al2O3 and carbon powder were used as buffers and Ge was used as internal standard, and the ratio of sample/matrix/buffer is 1 : 1 : 2. A weak sensitive line (Sn 242. 170 0 nm) was used as the analytical line. The technologies of vertical electrodes, AC arc overlap spectrograph, interception of the exposure, quantitative computer translation spectrum and background correction were used. The determination range is 100-22 350 microg x g(-1), the detection limit is 16.64 microg x g(-1), and the precision is (RSD, n = 12) 4.11%-6.46%. The accuracy of the method has been verified by determination of high content of tin in national geochemical standard samples and the results are in agreement with certified value. The method can be used for measurement directly without dilution of high content of tin in geochemical samples, and it greatly improved the detection upper limit for the determination of tin with solid emission spectroscopy and has certain practical value.

  18. Quantification of the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber cultured on solid surfaces.

    Chysirichote, Teerin; Reiji, Takahashi; Asami, Kazuhiro; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa


    We evaluated whether the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber NBRC 32318, cultured on a solid surface (agar) containing different carbon and nitrogen sources, could be used as a measure of biomass. The relationship between the amounts of glucosamine and biomass was independent of the cultivation period, but was dependent on the carbon source (D-glucose, D-fructose, maltose, sucrose, or rice starch) and the nitrogen source (ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, or yeast extract) in the agar; it was also dependent on the culture method (solid-surface culture or submerged culture). We concluded that the amount of glucosamine extracted from M. ruber is a useful index for the fungal biomass when the relationship between M. ruber biomass and glucosamine content has previously been calibrated for the carbon and nitrogen sources used. Examination of microphotographs of M. ruber hyphae in conjunction with quantification of the glucosamine and biomass contents indicated that the variation in the glucosamine content per unit biomass affects the hyphal morphology of the fungus, and especially the hyphal diameter.

  19. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution, and their relationship with heavy metal content

    S H R Sadeghi; M Kiani Harchegani; H A Younesi


    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) estimation by using predictor variables of heavy metal concentration (HMC, viz., iron, chromium, zinc and nickel) transported in solution and solid. The study was conducted in the Research and Educational Forest Watershed of the Tarbiat Modares University (Kojour) which comprises an area of ca. 50000 ha. For this study, suspended sediment samples were collected from the left bank of the Kojour River twice a week, as well as during runoff events from November 2007 to June 2008. The samples were then prepared through direct digestion and finally analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The relationship between SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) were correlated with HMC by using bivariate and multivariate regression models. Proposed models were then selected based on statistical criteria. The results showed high correlation between dissolved and particulate chromium content with efficiency coefficients beyond 77% ( > 0.001). However, a lower relationship was found between SSC and nickel content. From these results, it is clearly shown that the HMC can practically be estimated by SSC in watersheds with different accuracy and vice versa. It is also understood that heavy metal pollution can be easily managed by controlling SSC.

  20. 40 CFR 35.6805 - Contents of an SSC.


    ... political subdivision is providing the actual cost share, the State must guarantee payment of the cost share in the event of default by the political subdivision. (j) Cost share conditions, which include: (1... political subdivision may not provide this assurance. (4) Real property acquisition. When real property...

  1. A degradation model for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste.

    Chen, Yunmin; Guo, Ruyang; Li, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hailong; Zhan, Tony Liangtong


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has a high content of kitchen waste (KW), and therefore contains large quantities of water and non-hollocellulose degradable organics. The degradation of high KW content MSW cannot be well simulated by the existing degradation models, which are mostly established for low KW content MSW in developed countries. This paper presents a two-stage anaerobic degradation model for high KW content MSW with degradations of hollocellulose, sugars, proteins and lipids considered. The ranges of the proportions of chemical compounds in MSW components are summarized with the recommended values given. Waste components are grouped into rapidly or slowly degradable categories in terms of the degradation rates under optimal water conditions for degradation. In the proposed model, the unionized VFA inhibitions of hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis are considered as well as the pH inhibition of methanogenesis. Both modest and serious VFA inhibitions can be modeled by the proposed model. Default values for the parameters in the proposed method can be used for predictions of degradations of both low and high KW content MSW. The proposed model was verified by simulating two laboratory experiments, in which low and high KW content MSW were used, respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured data of the experiments. The results show that under low VFA concentrations, the pH inhibition of methanogenesis is the main inhibition to be considered, while the inhibitions of both hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis caused by unionized VFA are significant under high VFA concentrations. The model is also used to compare the degradation behaviors of low and high KW content MSW under a favorable environmental condition, and it shows that the gas potential of high KW content MSW releases more quickly.

  2. Multiple photon effects in $pp$ scattering at SSC energies

    Delaney, D B; Shio, C; Siopsis, G; Ward, B F L


    The Monte Carlo program SSCYFS2 is used in conjunction with available parton distribution functions to calculate the effects of multiple photon radiation on pp scattering at SSC energies. Effects relevant to precision SSC physics such as Higgs discovery and exploration are illustrated.


    Fei Yang; Chuanshan Zhao


    Surface sizing can improve the surface performances of paper. In this article we used surfacing sizing and ultra fine talcum powder to improve the quality of base paper. The results showed that the optimal formulation is: sodium hexametaphosphate 0.4 parts,PC-01 25 parts and 100 parts ultra fine talcum powder. The solids content of coating is 18%. Surface sizing and low solids coating can improve brightness,opacity, IGT Pick resistance, and breaking length which were improved by 3.4%, 6.5%, 2.07m/sec and 700m separately than uncoated paper respectively. K and N ink absorption value was reduced from 62.1 to 34.6. The method can be used to produce base paper for art paper and ultra low weight coated paper (ULWC). It can reduce the cost of art paper.

  4. Fast characterization of solid organic waste content with near infrared spectroscopy in anaerobic digestion.

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Jimenez, Julie; Lemoine, Margaux; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe


    The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand. We built a Partial Least Square regression model with 295 samples and validated it with an independent set of 46 samples across a wide range of solid wastes found in anaerobic digestion units. The standard errors of cross-validation were 90mgO2⋅gTS(-1) carbohydrates, 2.5∗10(-2)g⋅gTS(-1) lipids, 7.2∗10(-3)g⋅gTS(-1) nitrogen and 99mgO2⋅gTS(-1) chemical oxygen demand. The standard errors of prediction were 53mgO2⋅gTS(-1) carbohydrates, 3.2∗10(-2)g⋅gTS(-1) lipids, 8.6∗10(-3)g⋅gTS(-1) nitrogen and 83mgO2⋅gTS(-1) chemical oxygen demand. These results show that near infrared spectroscopy is a new fast and cost-efficient way to characterize solid wastes content and improve their anaerobic digestion monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid-liquid reactions: The effect of Cu content on Sn-Ag-Cu interconnects

    Lu, Henry Y.; Balkan, Haluk; Simon, K. Y.


    The impact of copper content on the Sn-Ag-y%Cu (Ag=constant=3.5; y=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0) interconnects was investigated in this study. The copper content and solid-liquid (S-L) reactions were used as inputs, and the outputs were the interfacial microstructure evolution and joint macro-performance. Surface microetching microscopy, cross-section microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, shear test, and differential scanning calorimetry were used in the studies. It was discovered that as-soldered Sn-Ag-y%Cu interconnects could have different interfacial microstructures depending on copper content; no Ag3Sn plates were observed for any alloy groups. After the S-L reactions, Ag3Sn plates occurred for all groups. The magnitude of the Ag3Sn plate growth depended on copper content. This and other effects of copper content on Sn-Ag-Cu interconnects are discussed in this article.

  6. Cultivation Methods for Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with High Soluble Solids Content Using the Vertically Split Root System

    HAYASHI, Hiroyuki; TOYOFUKU, Kyoko; TAGUCHI, Takiko; OGAWA, Atsushi


    For the cultivation of tomatoes with high soluble solids content, the root system was split vertically and irrigation to the upper part of the root system was stopped to create split vertically (SR treatment...

  7. The Solid Phase Curing Time Effect of Asbuton with Texapon Emulsifier at the Optimum Bitumen Content

    Sarwono, D.; Surya D, R.; Setyawan, A.; Djumari


    Buton asphalt (asbuton) could not be utilized optimally in Indonesia. Asbuton utilization rate was still low because the processed product of asbuton still have impracticable form in the term of use and also requiring high processing costs. This research aimed to obtain asphalt products from asbuton practical for be used through the extraction process and not requiring expensive processing cost. This research was done with experimental method in laboratory. The composition of emulsify asbuton were 5/20 grain, premium, texapon, HCl, and aquades. Solid phase was the mixture asbuton 5/20 grain and premium with 3 minutes mixing time. Liquid phase consisted texapon, HCl and aquades. The aging process was done after solid phase mixing process in order to reaction and tie of solid phase mixed become more optimal for high solubility level of asphalt production. Aging variable time were 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes. Solid and liquid phase was mixed for emulsify asbuton production, then extracted for 25 minutes. Solubility level of asphalt, water level, and asphalt characteristic was tested at extraction result of emulsify asbuton with most optimum ashphal level. The result of analysis tested data asphalt solubility level at extract asbuton resulted 94.77% on 120 minutes aging variable time. Water level test resulted water content reduction on emulsify asbuton more long time on occurring of aging solid phase. Examination of asphalt characteristic at extraction result of emulsify asbuton with optimum asphalt solubility level, obtain specimen that have rigid and strong texture in order that examination result have not sufficient ductility and penetration value.

  8. B&W Vertical Test Facility for SSC collider quadrupole magnets

    Dixon, K.D.; Billingsly, A.L.; Boyes, D.W.; Cantor, B.I.; Hlasnicek, P.; Kelley, J.P.; Leamon, C.K.; Maloney, J.E.; Pare, G.; Rey, C.M. [Babcock & Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)] [and others


    Developmental or {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} SSC quadrupole cold masses and collared coils are successfully being tested at the Vertical Test Facility (VTF) in Lynchburg, Virginia. Within this facility, a vertical dewar maintains a pool boiling liquid helium environment of 3.85 K to 4.5 K in order to observe the quenching and magnetic field characteristics of these coils. A description of the facility performance and its contents, including the dewar and ancillary equipment, is described hereafter.

  9. Evaluation of SSC resistance on super 13Cr stainless steel in sour applications

    Ueda, Masakatsu; Kushida, Takahiro [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan). Iron and Steel Research Labs.; Mori, Tomoki [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works


    The super 13Cr martensitic stainless steel consists of low C content below 0.03mass%, 13mass% Cr 5.5mass% Ni and 2mass% Mo and has good resistance of both sulfide stress cracking(SSC) at room temperature and localized corrosion at elevated temperatures compared with conventional 13Cr steel(AISI 420). The buffer solution containing CH{sub 3}COONa-CH{sub 3}COOH with high buffer power has been developed in order to carry out a more exact experiment under a constant pH between 3.0 and 5.5 The effect of H{sub 2}S partial pressure and pH on SSC resistance of the super 13Cr stainless steel was evaluated in the newly developed buffer solution by constant strain method, slow strain rate technique(SSRT) and the cyclic SSRT in which the tensile and compression tests were repeated 15 times at the strain rate of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} s{sup {minus}1} between 0.95 and 0.60 {times} yield strength. The SSC resistance was characterized and quantified by means of correlating H{sub 2}S partial pressure and solution pH. SSRT gave the most severe evaluation for the SSC resistance of all the methods tested because SCC susceptibility in SSRT was evaluated under the plastic deformation condition up to failure. The constant strain tests which are 4 point bent beam test with notch and NACE tensile test according to NACE TM0177-90, and the cyclic SSRT showed almost the same evaluation result. Therefore, the cyclic SSRT was recommended as a very effective quick evaluation method for the SSC resistance of the super 13Cr stainless steel.

  10. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar


    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  11. [Application of solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry to mensuration of brain iron content in rats].

    Zhang, Nan; Sheng, Qing-hai; Shi, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Zhi-guo; Duan, Xiang-lin; Chang, Yan-zhong


    In the present study, the authors performed the solid sampling and detected the iron levels in cortex, hippocampus and striatum of rat brain by GFAAS. The authors' results showed that there are no remarkable difference between the data obtained by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption and liquid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption. Compared to liquid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption, the sample pre-treatment stage was obviously simplified, the cost was reduced significantly, and the time was shortened significantly in the solid sampling GFAAS. This study will be beneficial to the mensuration of iron content in micro-tissue of animal by solid sampling GFASS.

  12. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content].

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e


    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique.

  13. Superconductor procurement and R and D for SSC

    Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.; Hannaford, R.; Horler, D.


    We describe the results of superconductor procurements for SSC dipole model magnets. Most results will pertain to LBL procurements for the LBL-BNL collaboration; however, where appropriate to complete the SSC data base, reference will be made to material purchased by FNAL and TAC. Also, most of the results to be presented will relate to the conventional SSC conductors, i.e., with filament sizes in the range of 15 to 25 Some information on fine filament NbTi material, such as quantities and delivery schedules, will be presented here; fine filament NbTi R and D is described in another section.




    Full Text Available The process of protein enrichment of cactus pear (Nopalea cochenillifera (L. Salm Dyck by solid state fermentation with the use of Aspergillus niger and Rhyzopus sp. was studied for improving the nutritional value of this cactus species for use as animal feed. The experiments were conducted in the Agroindustrial Waste Laboratory of State University of Southwest Bahia (Brazil. To this end, we have evaluated the effects of biotransformation on the levels of protein, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as the potential degradability. Bioconversion was carried out using cactus pear as the only substrate, without supplementation with nitrogen, mineral and vitamin sources. The fermentation with Aspergillus niger promoted a 78% increase in/of protein content and reductions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of 40%, 36%, and 28%, respectively. Degradability, in turn, was observed to have increased by 66 % after 240 h. On the other hand, the fermentation with Rhyzopus sp. was less efficient, with a 69% increase in protein content, and reductions in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of 30%, 28%, and 18%. In turn, degradability was seen to have increased by 51%. The fermentation of cactus pear by Aspergillus niger and Rhyzopus sp. exhibited the protein enrichment and increased protein degradability of this Cactaceae. Moreover, this is the most ever efficient micro-organism used in bioconversion. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative to ruminant feeding in arid or semi-arid land.

  15. [Nondestructive measurement of SSC in western pear using genetic algorithms and FT-NIR spectroscopy].

    Wang, Jia-Hua; Pan, Lu; Sun, Qian; Li, Peng-Fei; Han, Dong-Hai


    An improved genetic algorithm was used to implement an automated wavelength selection procedure for use in building multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression (PLS). The region selecting by genetic algorithms (R-SGA) was applied in building calibration model of soluble solid content (SSC) of Western pear, and the numbers of latent variables used to build calibration model were further reduced. The Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) spectra were processed by GA after MSC or SNV, and four PLS calibration models were built by using the optimal combinations of these sub-regions. Meanwhile, the full region selecting PLS (Fr-PLS) models were developed. The R-SGA models variables were 434, 496, 310 and 496, for Early Red Comice, Wujiuxiang, Cascade and Kang Buddha, respectively. Despite the complexity of the spectral data, the R-SGA procedure was found to perform well (RMSEP = 0.428, 0.567 for Early Red Comice and Kang Buddha, respectively), leading to calibration models that significantly outperform those based on full-spectrum analyses (RM-SEP = 0.518, 0.633). The prediction precision of GA-PLS models was similar to that of Fr-PLS for Wujiuxiang and Cascade, with RMSEP of 0.696/0.694 and 0.425/0.421 respectively. This work proved that the R-SGA could find optimal values for several disparate variables associated with the calibration model and that the PLS procedure could be integrated into the objective function driving the optimization.

  16. Mobile Platform Development for SSC Propulsion Test Operations Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A review of mobile applications (apps) and portable electronic tools/mobile platforms (that could be used by propulsion testing field users at SSC) was conducted....

  17. A simulation of data acquisition system for SSC experiments

    Watase, Y.; Ikeda, H. [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    A simulation on some parts of the data acquisition system was performed using a general purpose simulation language GPSS. Several results of the simulation are discussed for the data acquisition system for the SSC experiment.

  18. SSC-K code user's manual

    Kwon, Y.M.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, W.P.; Hahn, D


    The Supper System Code of KAERI (SSC-K) is a best-estimate system code for analyzing a variety of off-normal or accidents in the heat transport system of a pool type LMR design. It is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Inititution (KAERI) on the basis of SSC-L, originally developed at BNL to analyze loop-type LMR transients. SSC-K can handle both designs of loop and pool type LMRs. SSC-K contains detailed mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, coolant, fuel elements, and structures to accident conditions. This report provides an overview of recent model developmentsvfor the SSC-K computer code, focusing on phenomenological model descriptions for new thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechnaical modules. A comprehensive description of the models for pool-type reactor is given in Chapters 2 and 3; the steady-state plant characterization, prior to the initiation of transient is described in Chapter 2 and their transient counterparts are discussed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, a discussion on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is presented. The IHX model of SSC-K is similar to that used in the SSC-L, except for some changes required for the pool-type configuration of reactor vessel. In Chapter 5, an electromagnetic (EM) pump is modeled as a component. There are two pump choices available in SSC-K; a centrifugal pump which was originally imbedded into the SSC-L, and an EM pump which was introduced for the KALIMER design. In Chapter 6, a model of passive safety decay heat removal system(PSDRS) is discussed, which removes decay heat through the reactor and containment vessel walls to the ambient air heat sink. In Chapter 7, models for various reactivity feedback effects are discussed. Reactivity effects of importance in fast reactor include the Doppler effect, effects of sodium density changes, effects of dimensional changes in core geometry. Finally in Chapter 8

  19. High solids content, soap-free, film-forming latexes stabilized by laponite clay platelets.

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Guimarães, Thiago Rodrigues; Pereira, Ana Maria Cenacchi; Alves, Gizelda Maria; Moreira, José Carlos; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dos Santos, Amilton Martins


    High solids content film-forming poly[styrene-co-(n-butyl acrylate)] [poly(Sty-co-BuA)] latexes armored with Laponite clay platelets have been synthesized by soap-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene and n-butyl acrylate. The polymerizations were performed in batch in the presence of Laponite and a methyl ether acrylate-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomer in order to promote polymer/clay association. The overall polymerization kinetics showed a pronounced effect of clay on nucleation and stabilization of the latex particles. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy observation confirmed the armored morphology and indicated that the majority of Laponite platelets were located at the particle surface. The resulting nanostructured films displayed enhanced mechanical properties.

  20. Modular Coils with Low Hydrogen Content Especially for MRI of Dry Solids.

    Timon Eichhorn

    Full Text Available Recent advances have enabled fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of solid materials. This development has opened up new applications for MRI, but, at the same time, uncovered new challenges. Previously, MRI-invisible materials like the housing of MRI detection coils are now readily depicted and either cause artifacts or lead to a decreased image resolution. In this contribution, we present versatile, multi-nuclear single and dual-tune MRI coils that stand out by (1 a low hydrogen content for high-resolution MRI of dry solids without artifacts; (2 a modular approach with exchangeable inductors of variable volumes to optimally enclose the given object; (3 low cost and low manufacturing effort that is associated with the modular approach; (4 accurate sample placement in the coil outside of the bore, and (5 a wide, single- or dual-tune frequency range that covers several nuclei and enables multinuclear MRI without moving the sample.The inductors of the coils were constructed from self-supporting copper sheets to avoid all plastic materials within or around the resonator. The components that were mounted at a distance from the inductor, including the circuit board, coaxial cable and holder were manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene.Residual hydrogen signal was sufficiently well suppressed to allow 1H-MRI of dry solids with a minimum field of view that was smaller than the sensitive volume of the coil. The SNR was found to be comparable but somewhat lower with respect to commercial, proton-rich quadrature coils, and higher with respect to a linearly-polarized commercial coil. The potential of the setup presented was exemplified by 1H/23Na high-resolution zero echo time (ZTE MRI of a model solution and a dried human molar at 9.4 T. A full 3D image dataset of the tooth was obtained, rich in contrast and similar to the resolution of standard cone-beam computed tomography.

  1. Combined liquid and solid-phase extraction improves quantification of brain estrogen content

    Andrew eChao


    Full Text Available Accuracy in quantifying brain-derived steroid hormones (‘neurosteroids’ has become increasingly important for understanding the modulation of neuronal activity, development, and physiology. Relative to other neuroactive compounds and classical neurotransmitters, steroids pose particular challenges with regard to isolation and analysis, owing to their lipid solubility. Consequently, anatomical studies of the distribution of neurosteroids have relied primarily on the expression of neurosteroid synthesis enzymes. To evaluate the distribution of synthesis enzymes vis-à-vis the actual steroids themselves, traditional steroid quantification assays, including radioimmunoassays (RIA, have successfully employed liquid extraction methods (e.g., ether, dichloromethane or methanol to isolate steroids from microdissected brain tissue. Due to their sensitivity, safety and reliability, the use of commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA for laboratory quantification of steroids in plasma and brain has become increasingly widespread. However, EIAs rely on enzymatic reactions in vitro, making them sensitive to interfering substances in brain tissue and thus producing unreliable results. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol for combined, two-stage liquid/solid phase extraction as compared to conventional liquid extraction alone for the isolation of estradiol (E2 from brain tissue. We employ the songbird model system, in which brain steroid production is pronounced and linked to neural mechanisms of learning and plasticity. This study outlines a combined liquid-solid phase extraction protocol that improves the performance of a commercial EIA for the quantification of brain E2 content. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our optimized method for evaluating the region specificity of brain E2 content, compare these results to established anatomy of the estrogen synthesis enzyme and estrogen receptor, and discuss the nature of potential EIA interfering

  2. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit


    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  3. Effect of magnesium content on the semi solid cast microstructure of hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys

    Hekmat-Ardakan, Alireza


    A comprehensive study of microstructural evolution of A390 hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy (Al-17%Si-4.5%Cu-0.5%Mg) with addition of Mg contents up to 10% was carried out during semi solid metal processing as well as conventional casting. As a first step, the FACTSAGE thermodynamic databank and software was applied in order to investigate the phase diagram, the solidification behavior as well as the identification of the components that are formed during the solidification of A390 alloy with different Mg contents for equilibrium and non-equilibrium (Schiel) conditions. With higher Mg content between 4.2 - 7.2 %, the Mg2Si intermetallic phase is solidified in the eutectic network according to the ternary reaction together the primary silicon due to the binary reaction of Liq → Si + Mg2Si. However the primary silicon is still the first solidified phase in this critical Mg zone. For Mg contents greater than 7.2%, the Mg2Si solidifies first as a primary phase. In fact, the Mg2Si is solidified during the primary, the binary and the ternary reactions and can be observed in the microstructure as a eutectic phase and a pro-eutectic phase with different morphology. In the next stage, the experimental tests were carried out in order to verify the accuracy of the results obtained by the FACTSAGE software. The microstructures of the A390 and the 6 and 10 wt% Mg alloys were investigated using conventional casting and rheocasting (stir casting) processes with continuous cooling solidification. The results showed that, for both processes, the microstructure of the eutectic network for high Mg alloys, specifically the eutectic Si phase is modified compared to the eutectic Si in the microstructure of A390 alloy. However the alloys with 6% and 10% Mg have a similar eutectic morphology. The eutectic formation temperature was measured by placing the thermocouple into the melt for determination of the cooling curves. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) test were also carried

  4. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency

    Simões, Ilka S.


    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isoconsistency diagrams. The incompatibility among the oils was decreased after reaction and improved the composition plasticity, demonstrated by the increment of solids value and yield value at room temperature.Se interesterificaron, en el laboratorio, mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO: 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 en condiciones predefinidas (0.4% metóxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100oC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por su contenido de grasa sólida (SFC y su consistencia. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de un sistema eutéctico en las mezclas de PO y PKO, principalmente en las proporciones 80/20, 60/40 y 50/50, demostrado por los diagramas de isosólidos y de isoconsistencia. La incompatibilidad entre los aceites disminuyó después de la interesterificación y la plasticidad de las mezclas mejoró, hecho demostrado por el incremento del contenido de sólidos y del límite de fluidez a temperatura ambiente.

  5. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Sri Hartati


    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  6. 南瓜果肉可溶性固形物含量与叶、花、果肉色泽的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between the soluble solids content of fruit sarcocarp and colour of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp on Cucurbita moschata

    周俊国; 鲁晓晓; 杨道印; 聂建满


    The colour values of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp by CR-3 colorimeter and the soluble solids content (SSC) of fruit sarcocarp by the PAL-1 digital display sugar meter were measured for 14 pumpkin cultivars respectively in this experiment. The correlation between colour values of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp and SSC of fruit sarcocarp were analyzed. The results showed that there were differences between the coefficient of variation of leaf, flower, fruit sarcocarp colour values, and fruit sarcocarp redness in the coefficient of variation was the largest (CV=27.43%). SSC of fruit sarcocarp was highly significantly positive correlated (P<0.01, r=0.632 ) with brightness of leaf, and it was significantly positive correlated (P<0.05, r=0.412 ) with its redness. This Results provided a convenient method to screen high SSC of fruit sarcocarp in the filed for pumpkin quality breeding.%以14种不同品种的南瓜为材料,在果实成熟期采用CR-3型色差仪测量其叶片、花朵、果肉的Lab值,同时采用PAL-1型测糖仪测量果肉中可溶性固形物含量,并对叶、花、果肉的Lab值与果肉中可溶性固形物含量进行了相关性分析。结果表明,南瓜叶、花、果肉色泽的Lab值的变异系数有差异,果肉中红色成分变异系数最大,达27.43%;果肉中可溶性固形物含量与叶片的亮度呈极显著正相关(r=0.632),与果肉中红色成分呈显著正相关(r=0.412)。这为南瓜品质育种田间筛选可溶性固形物含量高的试验材料提供了便捷的方法。

  7. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel


    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay


    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  9. Polonium content in sediments and other solid tailings generated by mining industry

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Central Mining Institute, 40-166 Katowice, Pl. Gwarkow 1 (Poland)


    All legal limits or recommendations concerning NORM include only primordial radionuclides and secular equilibrium state among all decay products is assumed. This is not valid for a majority of residues from NORM industry where activity concentration of progenies can substantially differ each other. Upper Silesia Coal Basin is a unique region where mining activity is continuously done over longer period of time and this include discharging of radium-bearing water to environment and creating huge amount of solid wastes where at the beginning radium is the most dominant radionuclide. With time other daughter products start to build up and actual exposure to radiation is changing. One of them is polonium that with regard to its chemical properties can be easily accumulated in non-human biota resulting in the increase of radiation exposure. In our work we focused attention on sediments where content of {sup 210}Po was determined by chemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry. Chemical preparation involves organic matter destruction and dissolution of the sample itself (if possible). In our research we employed wet digestion by means of mixture of concentrated acids: HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, HCl. Later on polonium was spontaneously deposited onto silver disc and measured with use of alpha spectrometry. In this article we want to show results of our study and as well to present some conclusions concerning changes in radiation risk assessment when actual concentration of polonium is taken into consideration. (authors)

  10. Nonionic Polymerizable Emulsifier in High-Solids-Content Acrylate Emulsion Polymerization

    LU Deping; HUANG Hongzhi; SHEN Ling; XIE Jin; GUAN Rong


    Stable high-solids-content acrylate emulsion were obtained with a nonionic polymerizable emulsifier allyloxy nonylphenoxy poly (ethyleneoxy) (10) ether (ANPEO10),and a conventional emulsifier OP-10 as a reference sample.1H NMR proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 has been incorporated into the resulted acrylate polymers.TEM demonstrates that there are some differences in the particle morphologies.AFM proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 migrating to the surface of the emulsion film was much less than the conventional emulsifier OP-10.The polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 can enhance the adhesion with glass plate compared to the conventional emulsifier.Furthermore,with increasing amount of emulsifier,the surface free energy of the films first decreased and then increased,and the adhesion with glass plate is initially enhanced and then attenuated.The water-resistance and solvent-resistance of the films prepared by the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 are superior to those prepared by the conventional emulsifier OP-10.


    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等


    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  12. 特征变量优选在苹果可溶性固形物近红外便携式检测中的应用%Application of Characteristic NIR Variables Selection in Portable Detection of Soluble Solids Content of Apple by Near Inf rared Spectroscopy

    樊书祥; 黄文倩; 李江波; 郭志明; 赵春江


    In order to detect the soluble solids content (SSC)of apple conveniently and rapidly ,a ring fiber probe and a portable spectrometer were applied to obtain the spectroscopy of apple .Different wavelength variable selection methods ,including unin-formative variable elimination (UVE) ,competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were pro-posed to select effective wavelength variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the SSC in apple based on PLS .The back interval LS-SVM (BiLS-SVM ) and GA were used to select effective wavelength variables based on LS-SVM .Selected wavelength variables and full wavelength range were set as input variables of PLS model and LS-SVM model ,respectively .The results indicated that PLS model built using GA-CARS on 50 characteristic variables selected from full-spectrum which had 1512 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance .The correlation coefficient (Rp ) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.962 ,0.403°Brix respectively for SSC .The proposed method of GA-CARS could effectively simplify the portable detec-tion model of SSC in apple based on near infrared spectroscopy and enhance the predictive precision .The study can provide a ref-erence for the development of portable apple soluble solids content spectrometer .%为实现苹果可溶性固形物(SSC )的便携式快速检测,利用环形光纤探头和微型光谱仪搭建便携式苹果可溶性固形物光谱采集系统,结合无信息变量消除(UVE)、遗传算法(GA)、竞争性自适应加权(CARS)算法筛选基于偏最小二乘(PLS)的苹果可溶性固形物的近红外光谱特征波长。另外,采用反向区间最小二乘支持向量机(BiLS-SVM )和GA算法优选基于LS-SVM的特征波长变量,分别建立所选特征波长和全波段的PLS模型和LS-SVM模型。试验结果表明,经过GA-CARS算法从全波段1512个波长中筛选出的50个特征波

  13. Protocol evaluation of the total suspended solids and suspended sediment concentration methods: solid recovery efficiency and application for stormwater analysis.

    Chan, Licheng; Li, Yingxia; Stenstrom, Michael K


    Total suspended solids (TSS) is routinely measured in water and wastewater treatment plants, and protocols are well-known. The TSS measurement in stormwater is more difficult, because the particle size and density can be much greater, biasing the sample if it is collected from a poorly mixed location or allowed to settle in a quiescent collection container. An alternative method, called suspended sediment concentration (SSC), uses a different protocol, which analyzes the entire contents of the sample collection container. The SSC method is not compatible with many monitoring programs, which require several constituents to be analyzed from a single sample container, such as from a flow-weighted composite sample. This paper addresses TSS protocol using glass beads and samples with known particle size distribution and shows that proper mixing, combined with appropriate pipettes, can largely avoid sampling error for typical sediments as large as 250 microm with specific gravity of 2.6.

  14. SSC: Gesture-based game for initial dementia examination

    LIU Jun-fa; CHEN Yi-qiang; XIE Chen; GAO Wen


    This paper presents a novel system assisting medical dementia examination in a joyful way: the object just needs to play a popular game SSC against the computer during the examination. The SSC game's target is to detect the player's reacting capability, which is related closely with dementia. Our system reaches this target with some advantages: there are no temporal and spatial constraints at all. There is no cost, and it can even improve people's mental status. Hand talk technology and EHMM gesture recognition approach are employed to realize the human computer interface. Experiments showed that this system can evaluate people's reacting capability effectively and is helpful for initial dementia examination.

  15. Improved solid fuels from co-pyrolysis of a high-sulphur content coal and different lignocellulosic wastes

    T. Cordero; J. Rodriguez-Mirasol; J. Pastrana; J.J. Rodriguez [ETSII, University of Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering


    Co-pyrolysis of blends of a high-sulphur coal with different biomass wastes has been investigated as a way to obtain improved solid fuels. Experiments have been performed in a thermogravimetric laboratory system and in a pilot-scale mobile bed furnace, this last operating at 600{sup o}C. The presence of biomass enhances coal desulphurization upon thermal treatment in significant relative amounts, giving rise about as much as twice percent sulphur loss at high biomass-to-coal ratios in the starting blend in comparison with the S loss occurring upon pyrolysis of coal alone. Combustion experiments with chars resulting from co-pyrolysis of these coal-biomass blends confirm this significantly improved desulphurization. Thus, co-pyrolysis of blends of high-sulphur coals with biomass wastes provides a potential way to obtain improved solid fuels combining good heating values with environmentally acceptable S contents. The chars resulting from co-pyrolysis show heating values within the range of high-quality solid fuels whereas the ash contents remain in the vicinity of that of the starting coal except in the case of the coal-straw blend where the relatively high ash content of this biomass waste leads to co-pyrolysis chars with substantially higher ash contents and lower heating values. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. The Influence of Niobium on SSC Resistance in API Steels

    Malina, J.; Malina, M.; Novosel-Radovic, V. [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Metallurgy (Croatia)


    Full text of publication follows: Oil country tubular goods are often exposed to aggressive sour environments in oil wells where H{sub 2}S promotes sulfide stress cracking, SSC. This is one of the most dangerous corrosion phenomena characterized by unpredictable and sudden cracking of steel constructions in service. SSC results in a variety of fracture features having a common relationship to the presence of hydrogen in metal and therefore it belongs to hydrogen embrittlement phenomena, HE. For the production of sulfide stress cracking resistant (SSC) tubing from steels included in Group 3 of API Specification 5CT, in this study two experimental Cr-Mo steels (without niobium and with niobium microalloyed) were tested. The influence of Nb precipitates in pipeline steels on the sensitivity to sulfide stress cracking was examined in laboratory experiments using three point bent beam tests. High mechanical properties were achieved through quenching and tempering procedures. Better corrosion resistance of Nb-containing steel is the consequence of microstructural parameters obtained through strengthening mechanism with microalloying element. Besides the usual mechanical, metallographic, SEM and TEM analyses, as complementary method the X-ray diffraction was used. It was revealed that tetragonality of crystal lattice, dislocation density and residual stresses are in good correlation with Sc-vales from corrosion tests. Nb precipitates (especially niobium carbides) have beneficial influence when producing the steels with low sensitivity to SSC. (authors)

  17. Assessment of a modified and optimised method for determining chemical oxygen demand of solid substrates and solutions with high suspended solid content.

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M


    A modified approach to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of solid substrates based on the DIN 38414-S9 standard method is proposed. The adapted procedure is assessed and compared with standard methods widely used for water and wastewater such as the American Public Health Association-American Water Works Association-Water Pollution Control Federation (APHA-AWWA-WPCF) standard methods 5220 B-open reflux (SM-OR) and 5220 D-closed reflux colorimetric (SM-CR). Solutions with high suspended concentration of solids, as well as digestates from an anaerobic reactor, were used during the comparative test. For solid substrates, the COD recovery was about 100% when the proposed method was used. For solutions with solid content higher than 20 g TS L(-1), the recovery was only completed when the proposed method was used, showing that the methods traditionally employed are not very appropriate for samples with the described characteristics. For instance, percentages of COD recovery in the ranges of 77.3-87.1% and 89.4-94.1% were achieved when the SM-OR and SM-CR methods were used, respectively.

  18. Analyzing Classroom Strategy: Evaluating the Concept Mapping Technique at SSC Level in Pakistan

    Sidra Mahmood


    Full Text Available This study documents the usage of Concept Mapping in the teaching-learning situation of English at SSC Level. The study is descriptive and analytical in nature and tries to investigate the effects which Concept Mapping renders in the academic environment in the context of ESL classroom setting. The research offers strategies for adopting certain techniques and up gradation of the content taught at the mentioned level by the inculcation of such techniques. Overall, the study produced a range of implementable outcomes by a pervasive discussion of Concept Mapping, the role of the textbooks, the importance of adding the technique to the contents of ESL classroom setting. For data collection and data analysis, two classes were selected. Both were taught the same content under controlled conditions. The concept mapping technique in the class guided the learners towards the improved way of learning the text of second language.

  19. Anti-proteinase 3 antibodies in diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc with normotensive renal impairment: is it suggestive for an overlapping between SSc and idiopathic vasculitis?

    V. Campanella


    Full Text Available Objective. To test the prevalence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA in systemic sclerosis (SSc and to verify a possible association of ANCA with normotensive renal involvement in SSc. Patients and methods: 51 patients affected by SSc, 35 with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc and 16 with limited scleroderma (lSSc, were tested for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on human ethanol and formalin-acetone-fixed granulocytes (before and after DNase treatment, by conventional enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA and by capture-ELISA. Results. Six out of 51 selected SSc patients had ANCA by IIF (11.7% and five presented a perinuclear/nuclear atypical ANCA pattern. In all cases we only found anti-proteinase3 (aPR3 antibodies. All ANCA positive patients had diffuse form of SSc (17.1%, all were anti-Scl70 positive (aScl70, five patients had proteinuria, three had microscopic haematuria. All ANCA positive patients were normotensive with normal renin plasma levels, the mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was higher in this group compared to the other SSc patients. Conclusions. Our study shows that aPR3 is not rare in dSSc. According to the clinical and serological findings and to the recent literature, we can hypothesise that when ANCA are found in SSc, an overlapping of scleroderma with systemic necrotizing vasculitis should be suspected.

  20. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC) and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use


    Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC) by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 c...

  1. A novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquids by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Xin, Li-Ping; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Hui-Chao; Barnes, Donald G


    This work demonstrates a novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquid (polymer-enriched) samples. The method is based multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) on a headspace vial at a temperature above boiling point of water. Thus, the trend of water loss from the tested liquid due to evaporation can be followed. With the limited MHE-GC testing (e.g., 5 extractions) and a one-point calibration procedure (i.e., recording the weight difference before and after analysis), the total amount of water in the sample can be determined, from which the total solid contents in the liquid can be calculated. A number of black liquors were analyzed by the new method which yielded results that closely matched those of the reference method; i.e., the results of these two methods differed by no more than 2.3%. Compared with the reference method, the MHE-GC method is much simpler and more practical. Therefore, it is suitable for the rapid determination of the solid content in many polymer-containing liquid samples.

  2. Fluoride content in plaque solids and fluid after ingestion of fluoridated milk.

    Martínez-Mier, Esperanza A; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Buckley, Christine; Weitz, Andrea; Villa, Alberto; Zero, Domenick T


    This study explored differences in dental biofilm solids and fluid fluoride after ingestion of NaF or Na2FPO3 in milk or non-fluoridated milk. Eighteen volunteers ingested 1 mg fluoride in 200 mL of milk or 200 mL of non-fluoridated milk. Biofilm samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60, and 240 min and biofilm solids and fluid were micro-analyzed for fluoride. Analysis of variance was performed and the total delivery, retention, and clearance of fluoride to biofilm solids and fluid were estimated as the area under the curve between 0 and 240 min. No statistically significant differences were found for baseline values. Biofilm fluid fluoride values ranged from 0.11 ± 0.05 to 0.21 ± 0.08 µg F/mL while biofilm solid values ranged from 0.62 ± 0.39 to 1.75 ± 1.16 µg F/g. Biofilm fluid values were significantly lower at 60 min for Na2FPO3 in milk. Clearance profiles for biofilm fluid diverged after the initial 60 min. Na2FPO3 had a smaller area under the curve from 60 to 240 min than NaF. Results of this study indicate that the release and clearance of fluoride in biofilm vary among fluoridation compounds and that the concentrations in biofilm solids and fluid also vary and are not correlated to each other in many cases.

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSC537 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available riginal site URL ...RAFT SEQUENCE, 26 unordered pieces. 48 0.11 1 BH238352 |BH238352.1 ATYCE41TR ATYC Arabidopsis thaliana genomic clone ATYC... 48 0.30 2 BH238452 |BH238452.1 ATYCG46TF ATYC Arabidopsis thaliana genomic clone ATYC...G46, DNA sequence. 36 0.34 2 BH239363 |BH239363.1 ATYCH35TR ATYC Arabidopsis thaliana genomic clone ATYC...H35, DNA sequence. 36 0.34 2 BH239114 |BH239114.1 ATYCK83TF ATYC Arabidopsis thaliana genomic clone ATYCK83

  4. Strain energy minimization in SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) magnet winding

    Cook, J.M.


    Differential geometry provides a natural family of coordinate systems, the Frenet frame, in which to specify the geometric properties of magnet winding. By a modification of the Euler-Bernoulli thin rod model, the strain energy is defined with respect to this frame. Then it is minimized by a direct method from the calculus of variations. The mathematics, its implementation in a computer program, and some analysis of an SSC dipole by the program will be described. 16 refs.

  5. Technology and materials for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project

    Shintomi, Takakazu; Ishimaru, Hajime; Unno, Yoshinobu; Arai, Yasuo; Watase, Yoshiyuki; Amako, Katsuya; Kondo, Takahiko (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))


    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the accelerator for the research on elementary particle physics, of which the construction was already begun in Texas, USA. Two proton rings comprising about 10,000 superconducting magnets are installed in an underground tunnel with the circumferential length of 87 km, and the proton-proton collision of superhigh energy is realized. This accelerator becomes the largest machine that mankind makes. In this report, among the high-tech and materials used for the SSC, superconducting magnets, super-high vacuum beam pipes, silicon semiconductor detector, the use of VLSI and superhigh density mounting and high speed, large quantity data processing system are taken up, and the outline of those is described. The SSC was planned for the elucidation of Higg's theory. The incidence accelerator group is composed of a linear accelerator and three booster synchrotrons. The particles generated by proton-proton collision are measured, and the discovery of new particles and the study on high energy physical phenomena are carried out. The construction of the accelerator and experimental equipment is carried out by international cooperation. (K.I.).

  6. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Aljuobori Ahmed


    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  7. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e


    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  8. Two stage hydrolysis of corn stover at high solids content for mixing power saving and scale-up applications.

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie


    A two stage hydrolysis of corn stover was designed to solve the difficulties between sufficient mixing at high solids content and high power input encountered in large scale bioreactors. The process starts with the quick liquefaction to convert solid cellulose to liquid slurry with strong mixing in small reactors, then followed the comprehensive hydrolysis to complete saccharification into fermentable sugars in large reactors without agitation apparatus. 60% of the mixing energy consumption was saved by removing the mixing apparatus in large scale vessels. Scale-up ratio was small for the first step hydrolysis reactors because of the reduced reactor volume. For large saccharification reactors in the second step, the scale-up was easy because of no mixing mechanism was involved. This two stage hydrolysis is applicable for either simple hydrolysis or combined fermentation processes. The method provided a practical process option for industrial scale biorefinery processing of lignocellulose biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland.

    Horttanainen, M; Teirasvuo, N; Kapustina, V; Hupponen, M; Luoranen, M


    For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50-60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Content

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  11. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Attilio Converti


    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  12. 高固含量水性聚氨酯的研究进展%Research Progress of Waterborne Polyurethane with High Solid Content

    彭绍军; 金勇; 漆锐


    The technical difficulties in the synthesis of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content were introduced based on the solid content limitation theory of latex.The progress in the synthesis of high solid content of waterborne polyurethane was reviewed.The developing direction of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content was prospected.%通过对乳液固含量极限理论的介绍,阐述了高固含量水性聚氨酯合成的技术难点,综述了高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成研究进展,并对其发展方向进行了展望.

  13. Research Progress of Waterborne Polyurethane with High Solid Content%高固含量水性聚氨酯的研究进展(续)

    彭绍军; 金勇; 漆锐


    The technical difficulties in the synthesis of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content were introduced based on the solid content limitation theory of latex.The progress in the synthesis of high solid content of waterborne polyurethane was reviewed.The developing direction of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content was prospected.%通过对乳液固含量极限理论的介绍,阐述了高固含量水性聚氨酯合成的技术难点,综述了高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成研究进展,并对其发展方向进行了展望.

  14. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad


    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  15. Detection of Onion Soluble Solids Content Based on the Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectra%基于近红外反射光谱的洋葱可溶性固体物检测

    王海华; 李长缨; 李民赞


    Onion soluble solids content (SSC) was detected using near-infrared (924~1 720 nm) reflectance spectra.Three cultivars of onions,harvested at different period,were selected for experiment and the total number of samples is 268.SSC reference value of onion juice was determined using the temperature compensated refractometer.Some pre-processing methods,such as S-G smoothing,scatter correction,and derivation,were compared to establish a statistical model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) method.The results show that the avitzky-Golay smoothing with window 32 and span 10 is more efficient.The determination correlation coefficient of prediction R2 is 0.87 and root mean square error (RMSEP) is 2.42 ° Brix.Compared to the 2nd derivation,the 1st derivation got better prediction result,but the spectra scatter correction is the best (R2 =0.88,RMSEP of=2.31 ° Brix).The optimal prediction (R2 =0.90,RMSEP=1.84 Brix and RPD=3) was built based on crossing validation modeling,which shows that infrared reflectance spectroscopy with scatter correction pre-processing is feasible for onions soluble solids detection.%研究利用近红外(924~1 720 nm)反射光谱预测了洋葱的可溶性固体物含量.实验选取了三种不同产地和不同采收期的洋葱为样本(268).在重复采集光谱数据之后,榨取对应光谱采集处洋葱块汁,测定可溶性固体物参考值.研究对比了Savitzky-Golay平滑、散射校正和微分处理等预处理方法,同时基于偏最小二乘回归方法建立了统计模型.结果表明,带S-G平滑的微分处理在平滑窗口为32,跨度为10时效果最佳.一阶微分比二阶微分的预处理效果要好,预测复相关系数R2为0.87,均方根误差RMSEP为2.42°Brix.对比显示,无平滑处理光谱数据散射校正预处理得到的结果最好,预测复相关系数R2为0.88(RMSEP=2.31°Brix).采用交叉验证得到的PLSR模型预测复相关系数R2为0.90,RMSEP为1.84°Brix

  16. Modeling of secondary treated wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation: effects of suspended solids content.

    Brahmi, Mounaouer; Belhadi, Noureddine Hamed; Hamdi, Helmi; Hassen, Abdennaceur


    This work aimed to study UV-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to propose a formulation of the kinetics of secondary treated wastewater disinfection and to underline the influence of suspended solids on the inactivation kinetics of these strains. Some investigations were carried out for the validation of some simulation models, from the simplest, the kinetics model of Chick-Watson reduced to first order, to rather complex models such as multi-kinetic and Collins-Selleck models. Results revealed that the involved processes of UV irradiation were too complex to be approached by a simplified formulation, even in the case of specific strains of microorganisms and the use of nearly constant UV radiation intensity. In fact, the application of Chick-Watson model in its original form is not representative of the kinetics of UV disinfection. Modification, taking into account the speed change during the disinfection process, has not significantly improved results. On the other hand, the application of Collins-Selleck model demonstrates that it was necessary to exceed a least dose of critical radiation to start the process of inactivation. To better explain the process of inactivation, we have assumed that the action of disinfectant on the survival of lonely microorganisms is faster than its action on suspended solids protected or agglomerated to each others. We can assume in this case the existence of two inactivation kinetics during the processes (parallel and independent) of the first-order. For this reason, the application of a new kinetic model by introducing a third factor reflecting the influence of suspended solids in water on disinfection kinetics appeared to be determinant for modeling UV inactivation of P. aeruginosa in secondary treated wastewater.

  17. Total Suspended Solid Content And Sediment On The Bottom Surface Of Panimbang Water



    Full Text Available The study of dynamics oceanography have been executed on June 2004 in the East season. Distribution of total suspended solid on the surface and bottom waters at the Estuary of Ciliman River is lower than Estuary of Cibungur River. Generally mud and silty mud of sediment on the bottom surface waters covered the western part of Panimbang beach. Gravel, silty sand and muddy sand with forams, fraction of mollust and corals found at the Southwest of the study area. In that area is also found many floating of Bagan Apung which is assumed as rich with fishes.

  18. Effect of moisture content on solid-state interaction at the interface between magnesium stearate and captopril

    Cheng, Wen-Ting; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang


    A grinding process was used to accelerate the solid-state interaction at the interface between magnesium stearate (MgSt) and captopril (CAP) in the presence or absence of water. The 110 °C-preheated MgSt/CAP or MgSt/CAP ground mixture showed a 5.06% (w/w) or 6.07% (w/w) water content, respectively, which was >4.29% (w/w) for the original MgSt alone. The increased water content in each ground mixture was due to the atmospheric absorption of water caused by grinding. A small infrared (IR) peak at 1562 cm -1 appeared in the IR spectrum of the 110 °C-preheated MgSt/CAP ground mixture, whereas a stronger IR peak at 1541 cm -1 with a shoulder at 1556 cm -1 was observed for the MgSt/CAP ground mixture. These IR peaks were possibly related to the solid-state interaction at the interface between MgSt and CAP via hydrogen bonding of adsorbed water. However, an excess of water added in the MgSt/CAP ground mixture could exacerbate the solid-state interaction of MgSt and CAP to form a stearic acid as evidenced by the IR peak at 1705 cm -1. This may be due to the neutralization between basic MgSt and acidic CAP. In addition, thermal Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy also confirmed that the thermal-dependent dehydration process might alter the IR peak intensity of MgSt/CAP ground mixtures.

  19. Temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships in municipal solid waste for the interpretation of bulk electrical resistivity data

    Pilawski, Tamara; Dumont, Gaël; Nguyen, Frédéric


    Landfills pose major environmental issues including long-term methane emissions, and local pollution of soil and aquifers but can also be seen as potential energy resources and mining opportunities. Water content in landfills determine whether solid fractions can be separated and recycled, and controls the existence and efficiency of natural or enhanced biodegradation. Geophysical techniques, such as electrical and electromagnetic methods have proven successful in the detection and qualitative investigation of sanitary landfills. However, their interpretation in terms of quantitative water content estimates makes it more challenging due to the influence of parameters such as temperature, compaction, waste composition or pore fluid. To improve the confidence given to bulk electrical resistivity data and to their interpretation, we established temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships that we tested on field and laboratory electrical resistivity measurements. We carried out two laboratory experiments on leachates and waste samples from a landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium. We determined a first relationship between temperature and electrical resistivity with pure and diluted leachates by progressively increasing the temperature from 5°C to 65°C, and then cooling down to 5°C. The second relationship was obtained by measuring electrical resistivity on waste samples of different volumetric water contents. First, we used the correlations obtained from the experiments to compare electrical resistivity measurements performed in a landfill borehole and on reworked waste samples excavated at different depths. Electrical resistivities were measured every 20cm with an electromagnetic logging device (EM39) while a temperature profile was acquired with optic fibres. Waste samples were excavated every 2m in the same borehole. We filled experimental columns with these samples and measured electrical resistivities at laboratory temperature

  20. The MAGIC of SSC and how it affects LHC

    Mavromatos, Nick E


    We discuss the phenomenology of Supercritical String Cosmology (SSC) in the context of Dark Matter constraints on supersymmetric particle physics models at LHC. We also link our results with recent findings of the MAGIC, H.E.S.S. and Fermi Telescopes on delayed arrival of highly energetic photons from the distant Galaxies and GRBs. The link is provided by a concrete model of space-time foam in (supercritical) string theory, involving space-time defects and their interaction with matter in a brane world scenario.

  1. On the Use of SSC Method in English Teaching



    @@ Structural, Situational and Communicative (SSC) method stresses on situation. In these situations, the teacher can mix new language structures with old knowledge structures.English is a foreign language for the students of our country, most of them lack the circumstance to study and use it. The interesting and natural situations what the teacher set up just can arouse the interest of the students' studying English, so the situations can foster the students' communicative ability and make them practice the language easily and actively.

  2. SSC San Diego Command History Calendar Year 2006


    Alamos, New Mexico . 8 Head, Pacific C4ISR Department6 George McCarty was selected to head the Pacific C4ISR Department. Prior to his selection...assistance in the rescue and care of eight dolphins that were washed out into the Gulf of Mexico when Hurricane Katrina’s storm surge destroyed their...years of Navy communications on Point Loma,” Outlook, 24 March 2006, Volume 29, Number 6, Outlook, “SSC San Diego will hold open house and Fiesta Picnic

  3. Delta-function Approximation SSC Model in 3C 273

    S. J. Kang; Y. G. Zheng; Q. Wu


    We obtain an approximate analytical solution using approximate calculation on the traditional one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In this model, we describe the electron energy distribution by a broken power-law function with a sharp cut-off, and non-thermal photons are produced by both synchrotron and inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons. We calculate the radiation energy spectrum of electrons by the function. We apply this model to the multi-wavelength Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of the 3C 273 in different states, and obtain excellent fits to the observed spectra of this source.

  4. Coil end design for the SSC collider dipole magnet

    Brandt, J.; Bartlett, N.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Konc, J.; Lee, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Cook, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Caspi, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Gordon, M.; Nobrega, F. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)


    This paper describes the design of the coil end for the 50mm aperture SSC collider dipole magnets built at Fermilab. The cable paths are determined from both magnetic and mechanical considerations. The end spacers are designed using the developable surface, grouped end approach, which allows the analysis of strain energy within the conductor groups. Techniques for strain energy minimization are presented and the behavior of individual conductors within a group is analyzed. The relationship between optimization of magnetic and mechanical variables is discussed. Requirements of manufacturing and inspection of coil end parts are outlined. 7 refs.

  5. SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole coil production tooling

    Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.


    Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Object-oriented system building for the SSC

    Ludgate, G.A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)


    The concepts and terminology of object-oriented system development are presented assuming the reader is familiar with the Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SA/SD) methodology. An improvement to SA/SD, known as Object Oriented Analysis/Object Oriented Design (OOA/OOD) is described and the steps in such an undertaking explained. Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is briefly introduced before SA/SD and OOA/OOD are compared. A recommendation to the SSC Central Design Group concludes the paper.

  7. Determination of Solids Content of Charcoal-Impregnated Polyurethane Foams Using Density Measurements


    de la mousse de polyurethane impr~gnge au charbon de bois donnant des r~sultats dont les 6carts types sont inf~rieurs A 0,7 %. Sont pr~sentges des...que la teneur en charbon de bois. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT/R9SUMf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . ii INTRODUCTION...tione of title, body of abstract arid indexi ng annotation must he entered wvlheii the overall docuiletil is classiliedl I. ORIGINATING ACTiVITY 2a

  8. Determination of soluble solids content of blueberries with near infrared spectroscopy%基于近红外光谱技术检测蓝莓可溶性固形物含量

    王姗姗; 孙红男; 陈健; 孙爱东


    An analytical procedure has been developed for the rapid and non-destructive measurement of soluble solids content in blueberry samples using near infrared diffuse reflection spectrum.Six varieties of blueberries("Elliott","Darrow","Patriot","Duke","Northblue" and "Bluecrop")were selected,which collected from Liaoning.The original spectrum averaged was preprocessed by the 1st derivative.By means of principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares(PLS),the calibration mathematics model for total soluble solids was established.The relative coefficient was 0.91518,the calibration standard deviation was 0.801,and the prediction standard deviation was 1.06.The method was rapid accurate and non-destructive,which was available for rapid accurate determination of SSC in blueberries.%采用近红外漫反射光谱技术对辽宁丹东蓝莓基地的六个蓝莓品种(埃利奥特、达柔、爱国者、北蓝、杜克、蓝丰)进行光谱分析,快速无损测定蓝莓可溶性固形物含量,利用一阶导数进行光谱预处理,主成分分析(PCA)和偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立蓝莓可溶性固形物预测模型。结果表明,所建模型的相关系数(Corr.Coeff.)为0.91518、校正集标准偏差(RMSEC)为0.801、预测集标准偏差(RMSEP)为1.06。该方法快速、准确、无损,能准确地预测蓝莓中可溶性固形物含量。




    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.



    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  11. Report of the task force on SSC commissioning and operations



    In 1985 January a Taskforce was organized to study the impact of magnet design on the commissioning and operation of the SSC. The results of the study, in the form of this report, are intended as one of several sources of input for the Magnet Type Selection Committee. Other major input will come from the Magnet Taskforce, the Test String Taskforce, the Cost Estimating Taskforce, and other study groups. All of these efforts will culminate in a magnet type selection, after which concentrated R&D on the selected magnet can commence. The study began with a one-week workshop, held on the UC Berkeley campus in 1985 January 14--18. An interim report of the Taskforce, based on the results of the Workshop, was published on 1985 January 28 (SSC-05). With very few exceptions, the work of the Taskforce was carried out by the participants in the Workshop, both during the workshop and in the subsequent weeks. This report is the collective effort of that group, whose very substantial contribution of time, effort, and thought is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Biodrying of sewage sludge: kinetics of volatile solids degradation under different initial moisture contents and air-flow rates.

    Villegas, Manuel; Huiliñir, Cesar


    This study focuses on the kinetics of the biodegradation of volatile solids (VS) of sewage sludge for biodrying under different initial moisture contents (Mc) and air-flow rates (AFR). For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 or 3L/minkgTS) and initial Mc (59%, 68% and 78% w.b.), was used. Using seven kinetic models and a nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with two statistical indicators. Initial Mc of around 68% increases the temperature matrix and VS consumption, with higher moisture removal at lower initial Mc values. Lower AFRs gave higher matrix temperatures and VS consumption, while higher AFRs increased water removal. The kinetic models proposed successfully simulate VS biodegradation, with root mean square error (RMSE) between 0.007929 and 0.02744, and they can be used as a tool for satisfactory prediction of VS in biodrying.

  13. Contents

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  14. Co-digestion of municipal sewage sludge and solid waste: modelling of carbohydrate, lipid and protein content influence.

    Nielfa, A; Cano, R; Pérez, A; Fdez-Polanco, M


    Solid wastes from industrial, commercial and community activities are of growing concern as the total volume of waste produced continues to increase. The knowledge of the specific composition and characteristics of the waste is an important tool in the correct development of the anaerobic digestion process. The problems derived from the anaerobic digestion of sole substrates with high lipid, carbohydrate or protein content lead to the co-digestion of these substrates with another disposed waste, such as sewage sludge. The kinetic of the anaerobic digestion is especially difficult to explain adequately, although some mathematical models are able to represent the main aspects of a biological system, thus improving understanding of the parameters involved in the process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the experimental biochemical methane potential on the co-digestion of sewage sludge with different solid wastes (grease; spent grain and cow manure) through the implementation of four kinetic models. The co-digestion of grease waste and mixed sludge obtained the best improvements from the sole substrates, with additional positive synergistic effects. The Gompertz model fits the experimental biochemical methane potential to an accuracy of 99%, showing a correlation between the percentage of lipid in the substrates and co-digestions and the period of lag phase.

  15. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki


    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg(-1) VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions.

  16. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Felix B. Masok


    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  17. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum-doped zinc oxide with different alumina contents

    Yu-Hsien Chou; J L H Chau; W L Wang; C S Chen; S H Wang; C C Yang


    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) ceramics with 0−2.5 wt.% alumina (Al2O3) content were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique. It was found that AZO grains became finer in size and more irregular in shape than undoped ZnO as the Al2O3 content increased. Addition of Al2O3 dopant caused the formation of phase transformation stacking faults in ZnO grains. The second phase, ZnAl2O4 spinel, was observed at the grain boundaries and triple junctions, and inside the grains. In this study, a 3-inch circular Al2O3 (2 wt.%)-doped ZnO ceramic target sintered at 1500°C for 6 h has a relative density of 99.8% with a resistivity of 1.8 × 10-3 -cm. The AZO film exhibits optical transparency of 90.3% in the visible region and shows an electrical resistivity of 2.5 × 10-3 -cm.

  18. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 chemotherapics and 3 antibiotics were evaluated by random experiment with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analysis of TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer, and the pH values were determined by potentiometry. Results: The mean TSS contents ranged from 11.73 (Keflaxina to 63.83 (Azitromed. The minimum and maximum mean pH values were 4.12 (Keflaxina and 10.97 (Zitroneo, respectively. Conclusions: The chemotherapic antimicrobials evaluated in this study presented the highest TSSC means, while the antibiotics showed pHs below the values considered as critical, which may contribute to the development of caries lesions in case of inadequate administration of these medications to children.

  19. Determination of Total Soluble Solids Content (Brix and pH in Milk Drinks and Industrialized Fruit Juices

    Alessandro Leite CAVALCANTI


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC - Brix refratometry and pH values of milk drinks (yogurts and chocolate drink and fruit juices ready to drink (FJRD. Method: Twenty milk drinks and ten fruit juices were evaluated by random experiment, with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analyis of TSSC were made for Brix refratometry and pH were determined. Results: The TSS content of drinks ranged from 13.26 to 26.30 for milk drinks and 10.23 to 13.53 to ready to drink juice. The maximum and lower values to pH were, respectively, 3.58 and 7.01 for milk drinks and 3.07 and 3.72 to drink juice. Conclusion: The high the concentration of TSSC verified in the milk and juice drinks, associated to a low pH can contribute to the development of decay lesions in case they be consumed in excess by the children.

  20. Particle-In-Cell Simulation of RFQ in SSC - Linac

    Chen, Xiao; You-Jin, Yuan; Yong, Liu; Jia-Wen, Xia; Yuan-Rong, Lu; Batygin, Yuri


    A 52MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator (linac) is designed to serve as an initial structure for the SSC-linac system (injector into Separated Sector Cyclotron). The designed injection and output energy are 3.5 keV/u and 143 keV/u, respectively. Beam dynamics study in RFQ was done using 3-dimensional particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH [1]. Simulation results show that this RFQ structure is characterized by stable value of beam transmission efficiency (at least 95%) for both zero-current mode and for space charge dominated regime. The beam accelerated in RFQ has good quality in both transversal and longitudinal directions, and could be easily accepted by Drift Tube Linac (DTL). Effects of vane errors and of the space charge on beam parameters are studied as well to define the engineering tolerance for RFQ vane machining and alignment.

  1. Design study of the SSC-LINAC re-buncher

    Sun, Lie-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Sun, Zhou-Ping; He, Yuan; Shi, Ai-Min; Xiao, Chen; Du, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Zhou-Li


    A re-buncher with spiral arms for a heavy ion linear accelerator named as SSC-LINAC at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou) has been constructed. The re-buncher, which is used for beam longitudinal modulation and matching between the RFQ and DTL, is designed to be operated in continuous wave (CW) mode at the Medium-Energy Beam-Transport (MEBT) line to maintain the beam intensity and quality. Because of the longitudinal space limitation, the re-buncher has to be very compact and will be built with four gaps. We determined the key parameters of the re-buncher cavity from the simulations using Microwave Studio software, such as the resonant frequency, the quality factor Q and the shunt impedance. The detailed design of a 53.667 MHz spiral cavity and measurement results of its prototype will be presented.

  2. Current Approaches to the Treatment of Systemic-Sclerosis-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (SSc-PAH).

    Sobanski, Vincent; Launay, David; Hachulla, Eric; Humbert, Marc


    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Despite the use of specific treatments, SSc-PAH survival remains poorer than in idiopathic PAH (IPAH). Recent therapeutic advances in PAH show a lower magnitude of response in SSc-PAH and a higher risk of adverse events, as compared to IPAH. The multifaceted underlying mechanisms and the multisystem nature of SSc probably explain part of the worse outcomes in SSc-PAH compared to IPAH. This review describes the current management of SSc-PAH with an emphasis on the impact of the different organ involvements in the prognosis and treatment response. An earlier detection of PAH and a better characterization of the clinical phenotypes of SSc-PAH are warranted in clinical practice and future trials. Determinants of prognosis, surrogate markers of clinical improvement or worsening, and relevance of the common endpoints used in clinical trials should be evaluated in this specific population. A multidisciplinary approach in expert referral centers is mandatory for SSc-PAH management.

  3. Reclamation with blue-green algae: changes in nucleic acids, protein and nitrogen content of algae exposed to solid waste of a chlor-alkali factory

    Mishra, B.B.; Nanda, D.R.; Misra, B.N.


    During an attempt at the possible reclamation of solid waste from a chlor-alkali factory by blue-green algae, the effects of the solid waste on biochemical variables were studied. DNA, RNA, protein, and algal nitrogen content of the algal material showed a significant decrease with increase in time and also solid waste concentration. An increase in RNA/DNA ratio and a decrease in protein/RNA ratio were also observed. Algae accumulated appreciable amounts of mercury from the waste, showing dependence on both concentration and time. Significant correlations were obtained between mercury uptake and concentrations of the waste and between different combinations of algae and mercury uptake.

  4. Calibration of near infrared spectroscopy for solid fat content of fat blends analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance data

    Rodrigues, J.C. [Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Grupo Florestal e dos Produtos Florestais, ISA/DEF, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Nascimento, A.C. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DAIAT, Dep. Agro-Industrias, Centro de Estudos Agro-Alimentares, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, A. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DEF, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Osorio, N.M. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DAIAT, Dep. Agro-Industrias, Centro de Estudos Agro-Alimentares, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Pires, A.S. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Gusma o, J.H. [FIMA/VG, Marinhas de Dom Pedro, 2695-361 Santa Iria de Azoia (Portugal); Fonseca, M.M.R. da [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira-Dias, S. [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, DAIAT, Dep. Agro-Industrias, Centro de Estudos Agro-Alimentares, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail:


    The functional properties of fats are determined by the distribution pattern of fatty acid residues in their acylglycerols, which may be modified by ester interchange (transesterification). In the margarine industry, the time course of the transesterification of fat blends is monitored by assaying for the amount of the solid fraction at different temperatures (SFC-solid fat content) currently measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to quantify the SFC of different fat blends using NMR data for calibration. SFC values of 128 samples, consisting of different blends of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and concentrates of triglycerides enriched with {omega}-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were assayed by NMR prior to (64 samples) and following inorganic (10 samples) or lipase-catalysed transesterification (54 samples). Prior to SFC measurement by NMR, sample preparation takes about 90 min. With NIRS technique, a faster determination is achieved since NIR spectra for SFC estimations are directly obtained on the sample at room temperature. High correlations were obtained for cross-validation of the data estimated by NIRS models and NMR for SFC assays at 10 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.91, RMSECV = 2.4), 20 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.96, RMSECV 1.7), 30 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.96, RMSECV = 1.3) and 35 deg. C (R {sup 2} = 0.96, RMSECV = 1.3) of the different blends tested. The obtained results show that NIRS is a reliable technique to replace NMR for SFC estimation.

  5. Measurement of moisture, soluble solids, and sucrose content and mechanical properties in sugar beet using portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression, was used to predict the moisture, soluble solids and sucrose content and mechanical properties of sugar beet. Interactance spectra were acquired from both intact and sliced beets, using two portable spectrometers ...

  6. The First MAXI/SSC Catalog of X-ray Sources in 0.7--7.0~keV

    Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Imatani, Ritsuko; Kimura, Masashi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Hanayama, Takanori; Yoshidome, Koshiro


    We present the first source catalog of the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) of the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) mission on the International Space Station, using the 45-month data from 2010 August to 2014 April in 0.7--7.0~keV bands. Sources are searched for in two energy bands, 0.7--1.85~keV (soft) and 1.85--7.0~keV (hard), the limiting sensitivity of 3 and 4~mCrab are achieved and 140 and 138 sources are detected in the soft and hard energy bands, respectively. Combining the two energy bands, 170 sources are listed in the MAXI/SSC catalog. All but 2 sources are identified with 22 galaxies including AGNs, 29 cluster of galaxies, 21 supernova remnants, 75 X-ray binaries, 8 stars, 5 isolated pulsars, and 9 non-categorized objects. Comparing the soft-band fluxes at the brightest end in our catalog with the ROSAT survey, which was performed about 20 years ago, 10\\% of the cataloged sources are found to have changed the flux since the ROSAT era.

  7. Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover for the production of bioethanol at high-solids content.

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos


    Corn stover (CS) was hydrothermally pretreated using CH3COOH (0.3 %, v/v), and subsequently its ability to be utilized for conversion to ethanol at high-solids content was investigated. Pretreatment conditions were optimized employing a response surface methodology (RSM) with temperature and duration as independent variables. Pretreated CS underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step at a custom designed free-fall mixer at 50 °C for either 12 or 24 h using an enzyme loading of 9 mg/g dry matter (DM) at 24 % (w/w) DM. Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of liquefacted corn stover resulted in high ethanol concentration (up to 36.8 g/L), with liquefaction duration having a negligible effect. The threshold of ethanol concentration of 4 % (w/w), which is required to reduce the cost of ethanol distillation, was surpassed by the addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF achieving this way ethanol titer of 41.5 g/L.

  8. [Transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur during thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of sludge with high solid content].

    Zhuo, Yang; Han, Yun; Cheng, Yao; Peng, Dang-Cong; Li, Yu-You


    The transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated after thermal hydrolysis pretreatment at 165 degress C for 50 min. The results showed that the hydrolysis efficiency of VSS could reach as high as 43.35%, 54.36% of protein and 65.12% of carbohydrate were transferred to dissolved organics, respectively, and the main component of dissolved organic matter in hydrolysate was dissolved protein (52.18% ), 54.23% of insoluble organic nitrogen was turned into dissolved nitrogen and 22.13% of dissolved nitrogen in hydrolysate was converted to ammonia. The transformation rate of insoluble phosphorus was 30.52%. Dissolved phosphorus was mostly transformed to phosphate (79.84%) as phosphorus-accumulating bacteria cells were crushed. 50.03% of insoluble organic sulfur was hydrolyzed, and little change was detected in sulfide (0.50%). The analysis results of the organic compounds transformation are valuable for treatment of the thermal hydrolysis pretreated sludge with high solid content.

  9. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment:a comparison

    Kim-seng CHIA; Herlina ABDUL RAHIM; Ruzairi ABDUL RAHIM


    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive,green,and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it,as compared with classical analytical methods.The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple.First,we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data.Second,PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables.Third,the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models.The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN.Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.

  10. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud


    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS(-1)), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS(-1)) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.


    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  12. Effect of test method on SSC performance of modified 13Cr steel

    Kimura, Mitsuo; Miyata, Yukio; Toyooka, Takaaki; Nakano, Yoshifumi; Murase, Fumio; Takojima, Kozo [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Handa, Aichi (Japan)


    Effect of test method on SSC performance of modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steel (0.025C-13Cr-Ni-Mo) are investigated. The SSC for martensitic stainless steel initiates at the pitting and propagates by hydrogen embrittlement. The pH stability of the test solution affects the test results. SSC threshold stress for modified 13Cr steel in the stable solution is higher than that in the unstable solution. This difference seems to depend on the pH value in the pitting, since a great volume of hydrogen enters into steel at low pH condition and causes SSC. The SSC susceptibility for subsize specimens is higher than that for full size specimens. The oxygen in the test solution causes pitting. The deaeration procedure affects the SSC test result. The deaerated test solution should be transferred to test vessel. The SSC performance for martensitic stainless steel should be evaluated by full size test specimens under stable pH condition.

  13. The XMM-Newton SSC survey of the Galactic Plane

    Gomez-Moran, A Nebot; Barcons, X; Carrera, F J; Ceballos, M T; Cropper, M; Grosso, N; Guillout, P; Herent, O; Mateos, S; Michel, L; Osborne, J P; Pakull, M; Pineau, F -X; Pye, J P; Roberts, T P; Rosen, S R; Schwope, A D; Watson, M G; Webb, N


    Many different classes of X-ray sources contribute to the Galactic landscape at high energies. Although the nature of the most luminous X-ray emitters is now fairly well understood, the population of low-to-medium X-ray luminosity (Lx = 10^27-10^34 erg/s) sources remains much less studied, our knowledge being mostly based on the observation of local members. The advent of wide field and high sensitivity X-ray telescopes such as XMM-Newton now offers the opportunity to observe this low-to-medium Lx population at large distances. We report on the results of a Galactic plane survey conducted by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC). Beyond its astrophysical goals, this survey aims at gathering a representative sample of identified X-ray sources at low latitude that can be used later on to statistically identify the rest of the serendipitous sources discovered in the Milky Way. The survey is based on 26 XMM-Newton observations, obtained at |b| < 20 deg, distributed over a large range in Galactic longitude...

  14. Best practices: Strategic stigma change (SSC): five principles for social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma.

    Corrigan, Patrick W


    This column describes strategic stigma change (SSC), which comprises five principles and corresponding practices developed as a best practice to erase prejudice and discrimination associated with mental illness and promote affirming behaviors and social inclusion. SSC principles represent more than ten years of insights from the National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment. The principles, which are centered on consumer contact that is targeted, local, credible, and continuous, were developed to inform the growth of large-scale social marketing campaigns supported by governments and nongovernmental organizations. Future social marketing efforts to address stigma and the need for evidence to determine SSC's penetration and impact are also discussed.

  15. The contents and forms of solid-phase species of radioactive strontium and cesium in Taiwan soils.

    Chien, S W Chang; Wang, M C; Chiu, C L; Lin, Yu-Ming; Lai, Shu-Ying


    This study was to investigate the activities and contents of (137)Cs in the profiles of selected arable and forest soils in Taiwan and various solid-phase species of (85)Sr and (137)Cs in selected arable soils in Taiwan. The gamma (gamma) ray spectra of the collected soil samples and some of the soils amended with (85)Sr and (137)Cs were measured. The data indicate that the arable soils from Sanhsing series, Sanhsing Township and Chuangwei series, Chuangwei Township, Ilan County, and from Tunglochuan series, Pinglin Township, Taipei County shows significantly higher radioactivity of (137)Cs (ND - 11.0 +/- 0.2 Bq kg(-1)). Furthermore, the radioactivity of (137)Cs in the mountain soils (1.24 +/- 0.07 - 42 +/- 1 Bq kg(-1)) from Yuanyang Lake Nature Preserve among Ilan, Taoyuan, and Hsinchu Counties is the highest among the investigated mountain forest soils. This may be mainly attributed to the fact that Ilan County is located in the northeastern part of Taiwan and faces the northeastern and northern seasonal winds with lots of precipitation annually from mid-autumn through mid-spring next year and is receiving greater amount of fallouts yearly. Due to longer reaction period (>or=3 y) of (137)Cs with soil components, (137)Cs was mainly in the forms bound to oxides and to organic matter in the soil amended with (137)Cs and in the soil contaminated with (137)Cs. On the contrary, due to shorter reaction period (<60 d) of (85)Sr with soil components, (85)Sr was mainly in exchangeable form and partially in the forms bound to carbonates and oxides in the soils amended with (85)Sr.

  16. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Abdelhadi Makan


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  17. Increasing NASA SSC Range Safety by Developing the Framework to Monitor Airspace and Enforce Restrictions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engine testing at NASA SSC poses a significant risk to general aviation due to potential smoke and excessive turbulence. The airspace over Stennis has been...

  18. Development of Deformation-Semisolid-Casting (D-SSC) Process and Applications to Some Aluminum Alloys


    Recent advances in the semisolid casting technologies are introduced for aluminum alloys. The advantages of the rheocast and thixocast methods to fabricate alloys with refined spheroidized α-Al particles are described.The deformation-semisolid-casting (D-SSC) process developed by the author's group is presented. The D-SSC process is extremely effective to produce microstructures of refined intermetallic compound particles as well as the spheroidized α-Al particles in the Al-Si based alloys containing highly concentrated Fe. In the D-SSC processed Al-Si-Cu alloy high elongation of about 20% was achieved even contained concentrated impurity of Fe. The D-SSC process is also useful to produce wrought aluminum alloys with microstructures of refined α-Al particles.

  19. Obtaining slow beam spills at the SSC collider

    Ritson, D.


    There is substantial interest in providing slow-spill external proton beams in parallel with ``interaction running`` at the 20 TeV SSC collider. The proposal is to cause a flux of particles to impinge on a target consisting of a bent crystal extraction channel. Additionally, a slow spill onto a conventional internal target could be used as a source of secondary beams for physics or test purposes and might also be used for B-physics as proposed for HERA. The ``natural`` beam loss rates from elastic and diffractive beam gas scattering and IP collisions are not sufficient to provide suitably intense external proton beams. To prevent loss of luminosity, the rf excitation is non-linear and preferentially blows up the halo of the beam. The ``target`` is to be located at a region of high dispersion forcing particles at the edge of the momentum space onto the target. T. Lohse in this workshop has described a proposed internal target to be used at HERA that will not employ rf excitation but will use the finite loss rates observed at the HERA machine. The Hera losses are caused by a variety of sources in addition to beam gas scattering or IP interactions. Initially, the beam lifetime at HERA was too short to obtain satisfactory integrated luminosities. Subsequently, through careful attention to detail, the beam lifetime was increased to > 20 hours. Even with these changes, present loss rates provide the required intensity onto an internal target. The Tevatron and SPS proton anti-proton colliders have had similar experiences with their investigations of loss rates and also find that beam lifetimes may be substantially shorter than expected solely from beam gas and IP interactions. This paper proposes deliberately introducing controlled errors li

  20. Advanced thermohydraulic simulation code for pool-type LMFBRs (SSC-P code)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.


    Models for components and processes that are needed for simulation of thermohydraulic transient in a pool-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plant are described in this report. A computer code, SSC-P, has been developed as a part of the Super System Code (SSC) development project. A user's manual is being prepared as a separate document. 27 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Development of the component models for the KALIMER safety analysis code SSC-K

    Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    The SSC-K code is intended to simulate system responses to operational transients or accidents of the pool-type KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor). As a part of the SSC-K development task, some primary component models have been developed and generalized correlations were recommended based on the technical review. Plant modules for the PSDRS, EMP were developed based on the analytical models. The IHX model of SSC-L was modified to take into account the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of pool. Correlations used for piping and in-core assemblies were reviewed and user options were provided for SSC-K. The merged version of SSC-K with PSDRE program was proved out to be valid by test run of ULOHS. The developed component models will be implemented into the SSC-K code and options will be provided for user to select proper correlations for friction factor and heat transfer coefficients. 30 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  2. Injection and extraction computer control system HIRFL-SSC The HIRFL-SSC is stated for Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron

    Zhang Wei; Chen Yun; Zhang Xia; Hu Jian Jun; Xu Xing Ming


    The injection and extraction computer control system of HIRFL-SSC (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron) have been introduced. Software is described briefly. Hardware structure is mainly presented. The computer control system realize that the adjustment of injection and extraction can done by PC and operate interface is Windows style. The system can make the adjustment convenient and veracious

  3. Effect of Ni content on strengthening solid solution of 18 carat gold alloy%镍元素对18 K金固溶强化的影响

    李桂华; 何文军; 王义善; 黄准; 刘雪松


    采用氧气乙炔火枪制备了4种镍质量分数分别为0,2.5,5,8%的18K金合金;利用显微硬度仪和X射线衍射仪研究了镍质量分数对18 K金固溶强化的影响.其研究结果表明:随着镍质量分数的增加,合金的硬度不断增加;这主要是由于镍质量分数的增加提高了合金的固溶度,加强了固溶强化机制.此外,镍元素对金的固溶强化效果要强于其他补口元素,这也是合金硬度提高的原因.%Four kinds of 18K gold alloys containing 0,2.5,5 and 8%Ni respectively were prepared using oxygen acetylene gun .The effect of Ni content on strengthening the solid solution of 18 carat gold alloys was investigated using by micro-hardness tester and X-ray diffractometer .Results show that the hardness of the alloys was increased with the Ni content;the increase of Ni content improved the solid solubility of the alloy ,resulting in an enhanced solid solution strengthening mechanism .In addition ,the solid solution strengthening effect of Ni content on Au is stronger than other mending elements ,which is the another explanation of the increased hardness .

  4. Influence of the microwave absorbent and moisture content on the microwave pyrolysis of an organic municipal solid waste

    Beneroso Vallejo, Daniel; Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel


    [EN] Microwave pyrolysis is presented in this study as a recycling approach for municipal solid waste treatment. The process is based on the conversion of solid waste to syngas (CO + H2) by means of a microwave absorbent. Experiments to characterise the syngas produced were performed using the char obtained from the pyrolysis of a municipal solid waste as microwave absorbent in the microwave power range of 150–450 W and in an absorbent-to-waste ratio range of 0.2:1 to 1:1 (wt.%:wt.%). A rich-...

  5. The effect of treating plum tree with Rovral (iprodion and Euparen (dichlofluanid on the content of soluble solids in fruit

    Halina Borecka


    Full Text Available The concentration of soluble solids in plum fruit varied and depended on the cultivar, year, and fungicide treatment. Plums from trees treated with Rovral (iprodion contained in some case the lowest level of soluble solids, higher or equal levels were found in those sprayed with Euparen (dichlofluanid, and the highest concentration of soluble solids was in fruits from untreated trees. Explanation of this phenomenon is possible by looking for changes in photosynthesis of treated and untreated leaves. Fungicide treatment of some plum cultivars, particularly with Rovral, decreased the photosynthesis of the leaves.

  6. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero


    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules.

  7. Survey of SSC12 regions affecting fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat using high density SNP data

    María eMuñoz


    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat. In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60 cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait. This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of backfat, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein (PCTP gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase  gene (ACACA. Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for

  8. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Anahita Khoramnia


    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming


    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J


    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)


    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  12. Advanced thermohydraulic simulation code for transients in LMFBRs (SSC-L code)

    Agrawal, A.K.


    Physical models for various processes that are encountered in preaccident and transient simulation of thermohydraulic transients in the entire liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plant are described in this report. A computer code, SSC-L, was written as a part of the Super System Code (SSC) development project for the ''loop''-type designs of LMFBRs. This code has the self-starting capability, i.e., preaccident or steady-state calculations are performed internally. These results then serve as the starting point for the transient simulation.

  13. From mobile ADCP to high-resolution SSC: a cross-section calibration tool

    Boldt, Justin A.


    Sediment is a major cause of stream impairment, and improved sediment monitoring is a crucial need. Point samples of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) are often not enough to provide an understanding to answer critical questions in a changing environment. As technology has improved, there now exists the opportunity to obtain discrete measurements of SSC and flux while providing a spatial scale unmatched by any other device. Acoustic instruments are ubiquitous in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for making streamflow measurements but when calibrated with physical sediment samples, they may be used for sediment measurements as well. The acoustic backscatter measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) has long been known to correlate well with suspended sediment, but until recently, it has mainly been qualitative in nature. This new method using acoustic surrogates has great potential to leverage the routine data collection to provide calibrated, quantitative measures of SSC which hold promise to be more accurate, complete, and cost efficient than other methods. This extended abstract presents a method for the measurement of high spatial and temporal resolution SSC using a down-looking, mobile ADCP from discrete cross-sections. The high-resolution scales of sediment data are a primary advantage and a vast improvement over other discrete methods for measuring SSC. Although acoustic surrogate technology using continuous, fixed-deployment ADCPs (side-looking) is proven, the same methods cannot be used with down-looking ADCPs due to the fact that the SSC and particle-size distribution variation in the vertical profile violates theory and complicates assumptions. A software tool was developed to assist in using acoustic backscatter from a down-looking, mobile ADCP as a surrogate for SSC. This tool has a simple graphical user interface that loads the data, assists in the calibration procedure, and provides data visualization and output options. This tool

  14. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... was observed for both the blend and products. Isothermal crystallization kinetics was characterized by the Fisher- Turnbull model. The highest free energy was observed for the blend. A small deformation with oscillation tests shows a significant difference between the blend and interesterified products...

  15. Genetic variation for bulb size, soluble solids content and pungency in the Spanish sweet onion variety Fuentes de Ebro. Response to selection for low pungency

    Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Balcells Oliván, María; Mallor, F.; Sales, E.


    The cultivar ‘Fuentes de Ebro’ is a long-day onion grown in the northeast of Spain, which is characterized by its succulence and low pungency. However, to match the market demand the size, pungency, and storability need to be improved. We have evaluated these quality-related bulb traits in 15 grower’s open-pollinated lines of this cultivar. Phenotypic variation observed for bulb weight, size and soluble solids content was significantly affected by location, growing season and line, while pung...

  16. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can


    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena


    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  18. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia (Tish) P. Tuttle


    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  19. Research on Changes of Vc Content and Soluble Solid Concentration Content during Strawberry Fruit Ripening%草莓果实成熟过程中Vc和可溶性固形物含量的变化

    张桂霞; 王英超; 石璐


    [ Objective ] The purpose was to investigate the proper harvest stage of the strawberry fruit. [ Method ] Taking pot strawberry fruit as research materials,the changes of fruit hardness and contents of the Vc and the soluble solid concentration during strawberry fruit ripening were studied. [ Result ] As strawberry fruit ripening, the fruit hardness reduced, the content of Vc decreased, the soluble solid concentration was first increasing and then reclucing. [ Conclusion ] During strawberry fruit ripening, the fruit hardness reduced and the internal quality of fruit increased.%[目的]探索草莓的最佳采收期.[方法]以盆栽草莓果实为试验材料,研究草莓成熟过程中果肉硬度、维生素C含量和可溶性固形物含量的变化规律.[结果]随着草莓果实的成熟,果肉硬度逐渐下降,维生素C含量逐渐上升,可溶性固形物含量呈先上升后下降的趋势.[结论]随着草莓果实的成熟,果肉硬度下降,内在品质提高.

  20. ATPase domain and interdomain linker play a key role in aggregation of mitochondrial Hsp70 chaperone Ssc1.

    Blamowska, Marta; Sichting, Martin; Mapa, Koyeli; Mokranjac, Dejana; Neupert, Walter; Hell, Kai


    The co-chaperone Hep1 is required to prevent the aggregation of mitochondrial Hsp70 proteins. We have analyzed the interaction of Hep1 with mitochondrial Hsp70 (Ssc1) and the determinants in Ssc1 that make it prone to aggregation. The ATPase and peptide binding domain (PBD) of Hsp70 proteins are connected by a linker segment that mediates interdomain communication between the domains. We show here that the minimal Hep1 binding entity of Ssc1 consists of the ATPase domain and the interdomain linker. In the absence of Hep1, the ATPase domain with the interdomain linker had the tendency to aggregate, in contrast to the ATPase domain with the mutated linker segment or without linker, and in contrast to the PBD. The closest homolog of Ssc1, bacterial DnaK, and a Ssc1 chimera, in which a segment of the ATPase domain of Ssc1 was replaced by the corresponding segment from DnaK, did not aggregate in Delta hep1 mitochondria. The propensity to aggregate appears to be a specific property of the mitochondrial Hsp70 proteins. The ATPase domain in combination with the interdomain linker is crucial for aggregation of Ssc1. In conclusion, our results suggest that interdomain communication makes Ssc1 prone to aggregation. Hep1 counteracts aggregation by binding to this aggregation-prone conformer.

  1. Particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of the low energy beam transport for the SSC-linac injector

    XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; YAO Qing-Gao; WANG Zhi-Jun; CHANG Wei; LIU Yong; XIA Jia-Wen


    A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending

  2. The effect of solid content on silylated-{gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PVDF-HFP-coated PE separators for lithium secondary battery

    Im, Jong Su; Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Several PVDF-HFP/silylated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated PE (polyethylene) separators with various solidities (various compositions of PVDF-HFP/silylated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by a dip-coating of PE separators in PVDF-HFP/silylated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/acetone mixtures. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the chemical reactions between silane coupling agent and {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The SEM images of the coated separators showed that various morphologies could be produced by changing the composition of total contents of binder and solid contents. The effects of composition in inorganic material (silane coupling agent-treated {gamma}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and binder (PVDF-HFP) on the physio-chemical properties of the prepared separators such as liquid electrolyte uptake, and ion conductivity were investigated and reported in this paper.

  3. Beam dynamics simulation of HEBT for the SSC-linac injector

    LI Xiao-Ni; YUAN You-Jin; XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; WANG Zhi-Jun; SHENG Li-Na


    The SSC-linac (a new injector for the Separated Sector Cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou) system to accelerate 238U34+ from 3.72 keV/u to 1.008 MeV/u.As a part of the SSC-linac injector,the HEBT (high energy beam transport) has been designed by using the TRACE-3D code and simulated by the 3D PIC (particle-in-cell) Track code.The total length of the HEBT is about 12 meters and a beam line of about 6 meters are shared with the exiting beam line of the HIRFL system.The simulation results show that the particles can be delivered efficiently in the HEBT and the particles at the exit of the HEBT well match the acceptance of the SSC for further acceleration.The dispersion is eliminated absolutely in the HEBT.The space-charge effect calculated by the Track code is inconspicuous.According to the simulation,more than 60 percent of the particles from the ion source can be transported into the acceptance of the SSC.

  4. Mechanism underlying formation of SSC in optical glass due to dynamic impact of single diamond scratch

    陈江; 赵航; 张飞虎; 张元晶; 张勇


    During the grinding of optical glass, the abrasion directly affects the morphology and depth of subsurface cracks (SSC). The effect of dynamic impact of grinding abrasives on optical glass is an important issue in the field of optics manufacturing. In this work, a single diamond scratch was used to grind optical glass, and grinding parameters were collaboratively controlled to ensure that the cutting layer remained constant. A dynamometer was used to record the duration of the impact process, and the cross-section of the test piece was polished for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the depth of the SSCs. The experimental results show that as wheel speed increases, SSC depth tends to decrease. When the wheel speed gradually increases from 500 r/min to 2500 r/min, the probability distribution curve for the maximum SSC depth shifts downward by around 80 µm. The effect of the dynamic impact of single diamond scratch is found to be an important cause of SSC formation in optical glass during grinding, i.e., the faster the grinding, the shallower the SSCs.

  5. Mechanism underlying formation of SSC in optical glass due to dynamic impact of single diamond scratch

    陈江; 赵航; 张飞虎; 张元晶; 张勇


    During the grinding of optical glass, the abrasion directly affects the morphology and depth of subsurface cracks(SSC). The effect of dynamic impact of grinding abrasives on optical glass is an important issue in the field of optics manufacturing. In this work, a single diamond scratch was used to grind optical glass, and grinding parameters were collaboratively controlled to ensure that the cutting layer remained constant. A dynamometer was used to record the duration of the impact process, and the cross-section of the test piece was polished for scanning electron microscopy(SEM) to determine the depth of the SSCs. The experimental results show that as wheel speed increases, SSC depth tends to decrease. When the wheel speed gradually increases from 500 r/min to 2500 r/min, the probability distribution curve for the maximum SSC depth shifts downward by around 80 μm. The effect of the dynamic impact of single diamond scratch is found to be an important cause of SSC formation in optical glass during grinding, i.e., the faster the grinding, the shallower the SSCs.

  6. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas


    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  7. Effects of different surface modification and contents on municipal solid waste incineration fly ash/epoxy composites.

    Goh, C K; Valavan, S E; Low, T K; Tang, L H


    Incineration fly ash, a waste from municipal solid waste incineration plant can be used to replace conventional filler as reinforcing filler to enhance the mechanical strength of a composite. Surface modification was performed on the incineration fly ash before mixing into the soft polymer matrix so as to improve interfacial bond of the filler and epoxy resin. In this study, detailed characterisation of mechanical, morphological and leaching behaviours of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash infused composite has been carried out. Flexural and tensile test was conducted to determine the effect on mechanical properties of the composite by varying the concentration of incineration fly ash filler added into polymer matrix and surface modification of incineration fly ash filler using silane coupling agent and colloidal mesoporous silica (CMS). The results indicated that composite infused with incineration fly ash filler surface treated with CMS shown improvement on the tensile and flexural strengths. In addition, SEM images showed that surface modification of incineration fly ash with colloidal mesoporous silica enhanced the interfacial bonding with polymer resin which explained the improvement of mechanical strength. Leaching test showed result of toxic metals such as Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Cd and Rb immobilised in the polymer matrix of the composite. Hence, the use of MSWI fly ash as reinforcing filler in the composite appears green and sustainable because this approach is a promising opportunity to substitute valuable raw material with MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propulsion Test Handbook: MSFC and SSC. Draft 01

    Hammond, John M.


    This Handbook was prepared to provide Propulsion Test Personnel a central source of fundamental reference material. The Testing Process, which is a three-part process of pre-test activities, testing, and post-test activities, involves a collaborative effort from the mechanical, electrical, safety, and environmental disciplines in the test environment. Pre-test activities, testing, and post-test activities processes will vary, per test requirements; however, the content of this Handbook should cover basic procedures and standards that are shared across Centers.

  9. Biological conversion of forage sorghum biomass to ethanol by steam explosion pretreatment and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation at high solid content

    Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Maria Jose; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Gonzalez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes [Renewable Energy Department-CIEMAT, Biofuels Unit, Madrid (Spain)


    In this work, forage sorghum biomass was studied as feedstock for ethanol production by a biological conversion process comprising the steps of hydrothermal steam explosion pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes, and fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Steam explosion conditions were optimized using a response surface methodology considering temperature (180-230 C) and time (2-10 min). Sugar recovery in the pretreatment and the enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated solid were used to determine the optimum conditions, i.e., 220 C and 7 min. At these conditions, saccharification efficiency attained 89 % of the theoretical and the recovery of xylose in the prehydrolyzate accounted for 35 % of the amount of xylose present in raw material. Then, a simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) process was tested at laboratory scale on the solid fraction of forage sorghum pretreated at optimum condition, in order to evaluate ethanol production. The effect of the enzyme dose and the supplementation with xylanase enzyme of the cellulolytic enzyme cocktail was studied at increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) in SSF media. Results show good performance of SSF in all consistencies tested with a significant effect of increasing enzyme load in SSF yield and final ethanol concentration. Xylanase supplementation allows increasing solid concentration up to 18 % (w/w) with good SSF performance and final ethanol content of 55 g/l after 4-5 days. Based on this result, about 190 l of ethanol could be obtained from 1 t of untreated forage sorghum, which means a transformation yield of 85 % of the glucose contained in the feedstock. (orig.)

  10. Study on Individual PAHs Content in Ultrafine Particles from Solid Fractions of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Fumes

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Elżbieta Dobrzyńska


    In order to characterize PAHs emissions of diesel engine fuelled with diesel and its blend (B20, B40). In the particle phase, PAHs in engine exhausts were collected by fiberglass filters using Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and then determined by a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FL). The main content in exhaust gases from diesel engine, regardless the type of applied fuel, is constituted by the particles fraction of diameter

  11. Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar contents.

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S


    This study was conducted to characterize shortday onions of 3 pungency levels with regard to the composition of flavor related compounds. A total of 9 onion breeding lines/cultivars were selected, per each of low, medium, and high pungency level, with pyruvic acid contents of 1.9 to 2.8, 4.8 to 5.4, and 7.2 to 8.3 micromoles/mL, respectively. The contents of flavor precursors (S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide [1-PeCSO] and S-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide [MCSO]), free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. The flavor precursor contents ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 mg/g fresh weight (FW) for MCSO, 0.07 to 0.65 mg for 1-PeCSO, and 0.12 to 0.77 mg in total, and precursor contents increased with the pungency levels. Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most abundant amino acids were glutamine and arginine. The total sugar contents ranged from 50 to 75 mg/g FW, and total S contents (3.5 to 5.1 mg/g dry weight) were not correlated with the pungency levels. However, pungency levels were correlated inversely with bulb weight and positively with SSC, presumably by the effect of dilution. This study indicates that onion pungency is primarily determined by the content of flavor precursor compounds and not by total S, total sugars, or individual/total free amino acids in shortday bulbs.

  12. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.


    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  13. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    Prabhakar, A.; Krishnaiah, K.; Janaun, J.; Bono, A.


    Solid substrate cultivation (SSC) or solid state fermentation (SSF) is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products. This process involves the fermentation of solid substrate medium with microorganism in the absence of free flowing water. Recent developments and concerted focus on SSF enabled it to evolve as a potential bio- technology as an alternative to thetraditional chemical synthesi...

  14. Solid phase epitaxy of EuTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrates with different oxygen contents

    Shimamoto, K.; Hirose, Y.; Nakao, S.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.


    We investigated solid phase epitaxy (SPE) of EuTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrates with different oxygen contents. Amorphous EuTiOx thin films were deposited onto SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition and crystallized by subsequent annealing in a vacuum chamber. A pure perovskite EuTiO3 phase was obtained on the reduced (i.e., oxygen-depleted SrTiO3) substrate, while an Eu2Ti2O7 phase was obtained on the oxygen-rich one. These results suggest that oxygen migration occurs between the EuTiOx film and SrTiO3 during SPE. The electric properties of the fabricated EuTiO3 thin films also depended on the amount of oxygen vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate.

  15. 高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成研究进展%Progress in the Synthesis of Waterborne Polyurethane with High Solid Content

    曲家乐; 王全杰; 刘立忠


    对水性聚氨酯的发展做了简要综述,并基于球型密堆积数学模型对影响水性聚氨酯乳液粒径以及粒径分布的各种因素做了论述.最后总结了各种新型的合成方法,并进一步对高固含量水性聚氨酯的合成做了展望.%The development of waterborne polyurethane was briefly overviewed and the various factors of infecting the wate.r-based polyurethane emulsion particle size and size distribution were discussed-basing on the mathematical model of ball close to the accumulation. At last a variety of new synthetic methods were concluded, and then the synthesis of waterborne polyurethane with high solid content was prospected.

  16. At-line near-infrared spectroscopy for prediction of the solid fat content of milk fat from New Zealand butter.

    Meagher, Lucy P; Holroyd, Stephen E; Illingworth, David; van de Ven, Frank; Lane, Susan


    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations that will allow prediction of the solid fat content (SFC) of milk fat extracted from butter by one measurement during manufacture were developed. SFC is a measure of the amount of the solid fraction of fat crystallized at a temperature expressed as a percentage (w/w). At-line SFC determinations are currently performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which involves a 16 h delay period for tempering of the milk fat at 0 degrees C prior to the SFC measurements, from 0 to 35 degrees C in a series of 5 degrees C increments. The NIR spectra (400-2500 nm) were obtained using a sample holder maintained at 60 degrees C. Accurate predictions for the SFC (%) were developed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression models to relate the NIR spectra to the corresponding NMR values. The independent validation samples (N = 22) had a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.385-0.762% for SFC between 0 and 25 degrees C, with SFC reference values ranging between 70.42 and 8.96% with a standard deviation range of 3.36-1.47. The low bias (from -0.351 to -0.025), the slopes (0.935-1.077), and the excellent predictive ability (R2; 0.923-0.978) supported the validity of these calibrations.

  17. Study on Individual PAHs Content in Ultrafine Particles from Solid Fractions of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Fumes

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska


    Full Text Available In order to characterize PAHs emissions of diesel engine fuelled with diesel and its blend (B20, B40. In the particle phase, PAHs in engine exhausts were collected by fiberglass filters using Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI and then determined by a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FL. The main content in exhaust gases from diesel engine, regardless the type of applied fuel, is constituted by the particles fraction of diameter <0.25 μm. Particles sized <0.25 μm constituted on average approximately 68% of particles in diesel exhaust gases and approx. 50% of particles emitted by biodiesel B20 and B40. When the B100 bioester additive was applied, the total emission of particles was reduced thus the volume of toxic substances adsorbed on them was lower. The analysis of chemical composition of <0.25 μm exhaust gas fraction showed that there were mainly 3- and 4-ring aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas of diesel fuel while in B40 single PAHs with the number of rings of 4 and 5 were detected. An application of ELPI permitted a further separation of <0.25 μm particle’s fraction and a real-time determination of interalia number, mass, and surface concentrations.

  18. A cryogenic test stand for full length SSC magnets with superfluid capability

    Peterson, T.J.; Mazur, P.O.


    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility performs testing of the full scale SSC magnets on test stands capable of simulating the cryogenic environment of the SSC main ring. One of these test stands, Stand 5, also has the ability to operate the magnet under test at temperatures from 1.8K to 4.5K with either supercritical helium or subcooled liquid, providing at least 25 Watts of refrigeration. At least 50 g/s flow is available from 2.3K to 4.5K, whereas superfluid operation occurs with zero flow. Cooldown time from 4.5K to 1.8K is 1.5 hours. A maximum current capability of 10,000 amps is provided, as is instrumentation to monitor and control the cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the cryogenic design of this test stand. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Effect of solid content and composition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings on physico-chemical and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins.

    Contreras-Oliva, Adriana; Rojas-Argudo, Cristina; Pérez-Gago, Maria B


    Citrus fruit represent an important source of vitamin C, as well as other bioactive compounds. Edible coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of citrus by providing a semi-permeable barrier to water and gases, which depends on coating composition, solid content (SC), and cultivar. However, little is known about the effect of coatings on citrus nutritional quality. This work studies the effect of coating composition and SC of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW)-shellac coatings on the physico-chemical, sensory and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins. Coatings prepared at the same lipid content differed in the BW:shellac ratio (1:3 and 3:1) and SC of the formulations (40 and 80 g kg⁻¹). The coating with 1:3 BW:shellac ratio and 80 g kg⁻¹ SC was the most effective controlling weight loss, although it was less effective than the commercial wax tested. Increasing SC had a greater effect than the BW:shellac ratio in fruit internal atmosphere and sensory quality, with the presence of off-flavour when coatings were applied at 80 g kg⁻¹ SC. Nutritional quality was not affected by the application of the different treatments. HPMC-lipid coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of 'Oronules' mandarins. However, care should be taken controlling formulation SC to avoid the build-up of off-flavour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Solid-state bioconversion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by Rhizopus oligosporus to improve total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic functionality.

    Sánchez-Magaña, Luis Martin; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Ayala-Rodríguez, Ana Edith; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc


    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of time during solid state bioconversion (SSB) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of chickpea. Chickpea cotyledons were inoculated with a suspension of Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 35 °C for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 108 h. The best time to produce bioprocessed chickpea (added with seed coats) flour with the highest AoxA was 108 h. SSB substantially increased TPC and AoxA of chickpea extracts in 2.78 and 1.80-1.94 times, respectively. At 36 and 96 h of fermentation, the SSB process improved in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (AI and GI indexes) activities of chickpea extracts in 83 and 370%, respectively. SSB is a good strategy to enhance health-linked functionality of chickpea, due to improved TPC, AoxA and content of strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes.

  1. In Orbit Performance of the MAXI/SSC onboard the ISS

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kimura, Masashi; Daikyuji, Arata; Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Kentaro


    We report here the in orbit performance of the CCD camera (MAXI/SSC) onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It was commissioned in August, 2009. This is the first all-sky survey mission employing X-ray CCDs. It consists of 32 CCDs each of which is 1 inch square. It is a slit camera with a field of view of 1deg.5x 90deg and scans the sky as the rotation of the ISS. The CCD on the SSC is cooled down to the working temperature around -60degC by the combination of the peltier cooler, a loop heat pipe and a radiator. The standard observation mode of the CCD is in a parallel sum mode (64-binning). The CCD functions properly although it suffers an edge glow when the Sun is near the field of view (FOV) which reduces the observation efficiency of the SSC down to about 30%. The performance of the CCD is continuously monitored both by the Mn-K X-rays and by the Cu-K X-rays. There are many sources detected, not only point sources but extended sources. Due to the lack of the effective observation time, we need mor...

  2. Report of the Task Force on SSC Magnet System Test Site



    The Task Force on SSC Magnet Systems test Site was appointed by Maury Tigner, Director of the SSC, Phase 1 in August 1984. In brief, the charge asked the Task Force to make a critical evaluation of potential test sites for a major SSC magnet System Test Facility (STF) with regard to: (1) availability of the needed space, utilities, staff and other requirements on the desired time scale; and (2) the cost of preparing the sites for the tests and for operating the facilities during the test period. The charge further suggests that, by virtue of existing facilities and availability of experienced staff, BNL and FNAL are the two best candidate sites and that is therefore appears appropriate to restrict the considerations of the Task Force to these sites. During the subsequent deliberations of the Task Force, no new facts were revealed that altered the assumptions of the charge in this regard. The charge does not ask for a specific site recommendation for the STF. Indeed, an agreement on such a recommendation would be difficult to achieve considering the composition of the Task Force, wherein a large fraction of the membership is drawn from the two contending laboratories. Instead, we have attempted to describe the purpose of the facility, outline a productive test program, list the major facilities required, carefully review the laboratories` responses to the facility requirements, and make objective comparisons of the specific features and capabilities offered.

  3. On the performance analysis of SSC diversity system over η-μ fading channels

    Khatalin, Sari


    In this paper, we study key performance measures of dual-branch switch-and-stay combining (SSC) system operating in ? fading environment. Specifically, analytical expressions for the kth order moment, average signal-to-noise ratio, amount of fading and outage probability are obtained for an SSC system operating over ? fading channels. Expressions of the average bit error rate (BER) for coherent detection and non-coherent detection were also derived with SSC for various modulation schemes. The BER expressions for the coherent detection case were derived using the moment generating function-based approach. Some of the final expressions are presented in the form of infinite series. Therefore, those series are truncated and upper bounds are derived for truncation errors. Expressions to determine the optimum adaptive switching thresholds are also presented. Corresponding results for Nakagami-q and Nakagami-m fading are derived in this paper as special cases. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the applications of the new results.

  4. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Progeny

    Yolanda Gogorcena


    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC, pH, titratable acidity (TA and ripening index (RI were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  5. Composting of a solid olive-mill by-product ("alperujo") and the potential of the resulting compost for cultivating pepper under commercial conditions.

    Alburquerque, J A; Gonzálvez, J; García, D; Cegarra, J


    A pollutant solid material called "alperujo" (AL), which is the main by-product from the Spanish olive oil industry, was composted with a cotton waste as bulking agent, and the compost obtained (ALC) was compared with a cattle manure (CM) and a sewage sludge compost (SSC) for use as organic amendment on a calcareous soil. The experiment was conducted with a commercial pepper crop in a greenhouse using fertigation. Composting AL involved a relatively low level of organic matter biodegradation, an increase in pH and clear decreases in the C/N and the fat, water-soluble organic carbon and phenol contents. The resulting compost, which was rich in organic matter and free of phytotoxicity, had a high potassium and organic nitrogen content but was low in phosphorus and micronutrients. The marketable yields of pepper obtained with all three organic amendments were similar, thus confirming the composting performance of the raw AL. When CM and SSC were used for soil amendment, the soil organic matter content was significantly reduced after cultivation, while it remained almost unchanged in the ALC-amended plots.

  6. Effect of Acetylene Black Content in Li4Ti5O12 Xerogel Solid-State Anode Materials on Half-Cell Li-ion Batteries Performance

    Abdurrahman, N. M.; Priyono, B.; Syahrial, A. Z.; Subhan, A.


    The effect of Acetylene Black (AB) additive contents in lithium titanate/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on Li-ion Batteries performance is studied in this work. The LTO active material for Li-ion batteries anode was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method to form TiO2 xerogel continued by mixing process with LiOH in ball-mill and then sintered to obtain spinel LTO. The LTO powder is characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The spinel LTO and TiO2 rutile were detected by XRD diffractogram. The LTO powder is in the form of agglomerates structure. This powder then was mixed with PVDF binder (10%wt) and AB additives with various amount from 10%wt (LTO2 Ac-1), 12%wt (LTO2 Ac-2), and 15%wt (LTO2 Ac-3) of total weight solid content to form electrode sheet. Half-cell coin battery was made with lithium metal foil as a counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge discharge (CD) test used to examine the battery performance. The highest resistance value is obtained in LTO2 Ac-3 sample with 15%wt of AB. It might be caused by the formation of side reaction product on electrode surface at initial cycle due to high reactivity of LTO2 Ac-3 electrode. The highest initial capacity at CV test and CD test was obtained in LTO2 Ac-1 (10%wt AB) sample, due to the best proportion of active material content in the compound. While, in the charge-discharge test at high current rate, the best sample rate-capability performance belongs to LTO2 Ac-3 sample (15%wt AB), which still have 24.12 mAh/g of discharge capacity at 10 C with 71.34% capacity loss.

  7. Determination of Tomato’s SSC and TS Based on Diffuse Transmittance Spectroscopy%基于漫透射光谱技术的番茄可溶性固形物及总糖含量的无损检测

    王凡; 李永玉; 彭彦昆; 郑晓春


    为了满足果蔬品质快速安全无损检测,基于可见-近红外漫透射原理,设计了番茄专用环形光源,自行搭建了番茄可见-近红外漫透射多品质检测系统,并以可溶性固形物含量(SSC)和总糖(TS)作为内部品质指标,对58个番茄样品进行了快速无损检测研究。基于自主搭建的系统对每个番茄进行四点的光谱采集,对平均后的光谱分别用15点 SG 卷积平滑(SG-Smooth)、标准正态变量变换(SNV)、多元散射校正(MSC)、一阶导数(FD)等方法进行了预处理,分别建立了 SSC 及 TS的偏最小二乘预测模型,并对该模型进行了验证。结果表明:采用15点 SG 平滑预处理后的 SSC 预测模型校正集和预测集相关系数分别为0.9956和0.9760,均方根误差分别为0.0524°Brix和0.0823°Brix。采用SG平滑后一阶导数预处理的TS预测模型校正集和预测集相关系数分别为0.9691和0.9729,均方根误差分别为0.4238%和0.4549%。模型验证结果显示,番茄 SSC和TS模型预测结果与标准理化值相关系数分别为0.9855和0.9449,均方根误差分别为0.0663°Brix和0.5715%。利用自行搭建的可见-近红外漫透射光谱检测系统完全可以实现番茄可溶性固形物及总糖含量的快速无损预测,为番茄内部品质的评价提供了实时、无损、快速的检测方法,为其在线分级提供理论基础。%In order to meet the demands for rapid and safe nondestructive testing of fruit and vegetable quality,tomato detection system with a special circular light source was built based on the visible/near infrared diffuse transmission principle.Taking soluble solids content (SSC)and total sugar (TS)as the internal quality index,the prediction of 58 tomato samples was carried out by using this system.First,we collected the spectral data of four points for each tomato.Second,Savitzky-Golay smooth (SG-Smooth),standard normal variable transformation(SNV),multiplication scattering correction

  8. 蛹虫草固态发酵对3种皂苷含量的影响分析%Study on Three Ginsenoside Contents Changed in Solid-state Fermentation by Cordycepsmilitaris

    闫梅霞; 逄世峰; 张瑞; 侯微; 王英平


    研究蛹虫草固态发酵人参须,超高效液相色谱仪测定单体人参皂苷Rb1、Rc、Rd含量,分析发酵过程中其含量变化。固态发酵过程中3种人参皂苷含量变化显著,同一皂苷不同时期含量相差较大。%To Study ginseng Cordyceps solid state fermentation by cordycepsmilitaris ,ultra high-performance liquid chromatograph was used to analyze monomer ginsenosides Rb1 ,Rc ,Rd content ,and its content in the fermentation process .Solid state fermentation process caused three kinds of ginseng saponin content changes significantly ,the same saponin content in different periods was quite different .

  9. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias


    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased frequency and compromised function of T regulatory cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc is related to a diminished CD69 and TGFbeta expression.

    Timothy R D J Radstake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs are essential in the control of tolerance. Evidence implicates Tregs in human autoimmune conditions. Here we investigated their role in systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients were subdivided as having limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, n = 20 or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc, n = 48. Further subdivision was made between early dcSSc (n = 24 and late dcSSc (n = 24 based upon the duration of disease. 26 controls were studied for comparison. CD3+ cells were isolated using FACS and subsequently studied for the expression of CD4, CD8, CD25, FoxP3, CD127, CD62L, GITR, CD69 using flow cytometry. T cell suppression assays were performed using sorted CD4CD25(highCD127(- and CD4CD25(lowCD127(high and CD3(+ cells. Suppressive function was correlated with CD69 surface expression and TGFbeta secretion/expression. The frequency of CD4(+CD25(+ and CD25(highFoxP3(highCD127(neg T cells was highly increased in all SSc subgroups. Although the expression of CD25 and GITR was comparable between groups, expression of CD62L and CD69 was dramatically lower in SSc patients, which correlated with a diminished suppressive function. Co-incubation of Tregs from healthy donors with plasma from SSc patients fully abrogated suppressive activity. Activation of Tregs from healthy donors or SSc patients with PHA significantly up regulated CD69 expression that could be inhibited by SSc plasma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that soluble factors in SSc plasma inhibit Treg function specifically that is associated with altered Treg CD69 and TGFbeta expression. These data suggest that a defective Treg function may underlie the immune dysfunction in systemic sclerosis.

  11. Effect of Al Content on the Isomerization Performance of Solid Superacid Pd-S2O82-/ZrO2-Al2O3☆

    Hua Song; Na Wang; Hualin Song; Feng Li; Zaishun Jin


    The effect of Al content on the performance of the Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2–Al2O3 solid superacid catalyst was studied using n-pentane isomerization as a probe reaction. The catalysts were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fou-rier transform Infrared (FTIR), specific surface area measurements (BET), thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2–Al2O3 catalyst made from Al2O3 mass fraction of 2.5%exhibited the best perfor-mance and its catalytic activity increased by 44.0%compared with Pd–S2O82−/ZrO2. The isopentane yield reached 64.3%at a temperature of 238 °C, a reaction pressure of 2.0 MPa, a space velocity of 1.0 h−1 and a H2/n-pentane molar ratio of 4.0. No obvious catalyst deactivation was observed within 100 h.

  12. 高固含量低粘度POP的合成研究%Study on Synthesis of Polymer Polyether Polyols with High Solid Content and Low Viscosity

    李玉松; 郝敬颖; 朱姝


    Polymer polyether polyol( POP) was prepared by three-reactor continuous process which was double-feed process and double absorption process, compared with product by the traditional process.The average grain size and scope of POP dispersion was tested by the photon nano particle size instrument.The influence of POP dispersion particle size to POP viscosity was analysed.Results showed that the viscosity of POP product by double-feed process was decreased about 1000 mPa·s.The POP product of the high solid content and low viscosity was prepared.%采用双进料和双老化三釜连续工艺合成高固含量聚合物多元醇(POP),与传统工艺合成高固含量POP进行了对比.并用光子纳米粒度仪测试POP分散体粒子平均粒径和范围,分析POP分散体粒径大小对POP粘度的影响.结果表明,采用双进料工艺合成的POP产品粘度可降低1000 mPa·s,实现了制备高固含量低粘度的POP产品.

  13. Evaluating misoprostol content in pregnant women with hourly oral administration during labor induction by microElution solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Hung, Cheng-Han; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Chan, Tzu-Min; Lee, Maw-Rong


    Misoprostol is a widely used alternative of prostaglandin for labor induction. Based on previous studies, we envision that small and frequent oral dosage of misoprostol is an effective method for labor induction. To monitor the misoprostol content during labor induction, a rapid, sensitive, and selective microElution solid phase extraction (μElution SPE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Using μElution SPE could minimize the sample consumption and elution volume in order to maximize the sample enrichment and throughput. The misoprostol acid, a metabolite of misoprostol, was gradient separated in a Bidentate C18 column, then quantified by highly-selective reaction monitoring (H-SRM) in a total run time of 6min. The developed method was optimized and validated in human plasma, and showed linear range of 0.01-10ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.001ng/mL. The recovery ranged from 89.0 to 96.0%, and no significant matrix effect or carryover was observed. The precision, accuracy and stability were met with the criteria of U.S. FDA guidance. The developed method was successfully applied to evaluate misoprostol concentration during labor induction in pregnant women. The concentration-time profiles approves that hourly oral administration of misoprostol is a safe and effective method without drug accumulation for labor induction.

  14. Effects of environmental factors on SSC property of modified 13Cr steels in oil and gas fields

    Sakamoto, S.; Maruyama, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan). Yawata R and D Lab.; Asahi, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Lab.; Kaneta, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Effects of environmental factors such as H{sub 2}S partial pressure, pH, Cl{sup {minus}} concentration and temperature on SSC property of modified 13Cr steels were systematically investigated. Critical H{sub 2}S partial pressure for SSC is affected mainly by temperature and chloride concentration, while pH effect was quite small. In mild conditions such as chloride free solution at 25 C, the steels presented the passive state inhibiting hydrogen entry into steel so that no SSC susceptibility was observed. With increase in Cl{sup {minus}} concentration, corrosion morphology changed from passive state into either pitting or general corrosion allowing hydrogen entry into steel so that SSC susceptibility was observed. In higher temperature condition, passive film also became unstable to cause general corrosion, however, cracking susceptibility was decreased. Based on the test results, a principal SSC mechanism of modified 13Cr steels is considered to be hydrogen embrittlement in condition that some breakdown of passive film undergoes beforehand.

  15. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals LEMD3 and WIF1 on SSC5 as the Candidates for Porcine Ear Size

    Luo, Weizhen; Liu, Xin; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Shi, Huibi; Zhang, Yuebo; Wang, Ligang; Wang, Lixian


    The quantitative trait loci (QTL) for porcine ear size was previously reported to mainly focus on SSC5 and SSC7. Recently, a missense mutation, G32E, in PPARD in the QTL interval on SSC7 was identified as the causative mutation for ear size. However, on account of the large interval of QTL, the responsible gene on SSC5 has not been identified. In this study, an intercross population was constructed from the large-eared Minzhu, an indigenous Chinese pig breed, and the Western commercial Large White pig to examine the genetic basis of ear size diversity. A GWAS was performed to detect SNPs significantly associated with ear size. Thirty-five significant SNPs defined a 10.78-Mb (30.14–40.92 Mb) region on SSC5. Further, combining linkage disequilibrium and haplotype sharing analysis, a reduced region of 3.07-Mb was obtained. Finally, by using a selective sweep analysis, a critical region of about 450-kb interval containing two annotated genes LEMD3 and WIF1 was refined in this work. Functional analysis indicated that both represent biological candidates for porcine ear size, with potential application in breeding programs. The two genes could also be used as novel references for further study of the mechanism underlying human microtia. PMID:25006967

  16. Genome-wide scan reveals LEMD3 and WIF1 on SSC5 as the candidates for porcine ear size.

    Zhang, Longchao; Liang, Jing; Luo, Weizhen; Liu, Xin; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Shi, Huibi; Zhang, Yuebo; Wang, Ligang; Wang, Lixian


    The quantitative trait loci (QTL) for porcine ear size was previously reported to mainly focus on SSC5 and SSC7. Recently, a missense mutation, G32E, in PPARD in the QTL interval on SSC7 was identified as the causative mutation for ear size. However, on account of the large interval of QTL, the responsible gene on SSC5 has not been identified. In this study, an intercross population was constructed from the large-eared Minzhu, an indigenous Chinese pig breed, and the Western commercial Large White pig to examine the genetic basis of ear size diversity. A GWAS was performed to detect SNPs significantly associated with ear size. Thirty-five significant SNPs defined a 10.78-Mb (30.14-40.92 Mb) region on SSC5. Further, combining linkage disequilibrium and haplotype sharing analysis, a reduced region of 3.07-Mb was obtained. Finally, by using a selective sweep analysis, a critical region of about 450-kb interval containing two annotated genes LEMD3 and WIF1 was refined in this work. Functional analysis indicated that both represent biological candidates for porcine ear size, with potential application in breeding programs. The two genes could also be used as novel references for further study of the mechanism underlying human microtia.

  17. Test Facilities Capability Handbook: Volume 1 - Stennis Space Center (SSC); Volume 2 - Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Hensarling, Paula L.


    The John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is located in Southern Mississippi near the Mississippi-Louisiana state line. SSC is chartered as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center of Excellence for large space transportation propulsion system testing. This charter has led to many unique test facilities, capabilities and advanced technologies provided through the supporting infrastructure. SSC has conducted projects in support of such diverse activities as liquid, and hybrid rocket testing and development; material development; non-intrusive plume diagnostics; plume tracking; commercial remote sensing; test technology and more. On May 30, 1996 NASA designated SSC the lead center for rocket propulsion testing, giving the center total responsibility for conducting and/or managing all NASA rocket engine testing. Test services are now available not only for NASA but also for the Department of Defense, other government agencies, academia, and industry. This handbook was developed to provide a summary of the capabilities that exist within SSC. It is intended as a primary resource document, which will provide the reader with the top-level capabilities and characteristics of the numerous test facilities, test support facilities, laboratories, and services. Due to the nature of continually evolving programs and test technologies, descriptions of the Center's current capabilities are provided. Periodic updates and revisions of this document will be made to maintain its completeness and accuracy.

  18. Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene polymorphisms are associated with vascular manifestations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).

    Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana S; Núñez-Alvarez, Carlos; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Jiménez-Alvarez, Luis; Ramírez-Martínez, Gustavo; Granados, Julio; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Zúñiga, Joaquín


    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) shows variable clinical expression in different ethnic groups; vascular abnormalities are a prominent feature of this disease and its clinical expression may be influenced by genetic factors. Herein, we describe 15 polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway in 170 Mexican admixed SSc patients (defined as patients with Mexican ancestry for at least 3 generations) and 199 healthy controls. We determined the presence of angiotensin II Type 1 receptor (AGTR1), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and Endothelin 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays on a 7900HT real-time fast polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. These polymorphisms had a similar distribution between SSc patients and controls, but we found that the AGTR1 G-680T (rs275652) (p = 0.02; OR 3.5; 95%CI 1.2-10.4) and AGTR1 A-119G (rs275653) (p = 0.008; OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.5-12.1) polymorphisms were associated with severe vascular involvement in our SSc patients. This is the first report of the association of these polymorphisms with vasculopathy in Mexican admixed SSc patients. Our findings suggested that the angiotensin II Type 1 receptor genotype may influence the clinical expression of vasculopathy in these patients. Functional analyses should follow. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Teaching English Idioms through Mnemonic Devices at SSC Level in Pakistan

    Sidra Mahmood


    Full Text Available This research dealt with teaching English idioms through mnemonic devices at SSC level in a school in pakistan. As the students in Pakistan, especially at SSC level, have a habit to learn idioms by rote and face many problems due the technique, the problem was selected for the investigation. Needs Analysis Questionnaire was used to determine the needs and problems faced by the students and their expectations for solution to the problem. Understanding the problems faced by the students in English idioms, an alternative methodology was selected in the form of mnemonic devices and the selected students were taught using the methodology to test its effectiveness in not only teaching English idioms but also making learning motivating, interesting and learner-involving. A post-test was given to understand the effect (if any of the selected alternative method of mnemonics and it was observed that teaching English idioms through mnemonic devices not only helped the learners but also helped in sharpening their memory.

  20. Influence of cobalt and manganese content on the dehydrogenation capacity and kinetics of air-exposed LaNi{sub 5+x}-type alloys in solid gas and electrochemical reactions

    Raekelboom, E.; Cuevas, F.; Percheron-Guegan, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares CNRS, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Knosp, B. [SAFT, 111 bd. Alfred Daney, 33074 Bordeaux (France)


    The effect of cobalt and manganese content on the dehydrogenation properties of air-exposed MmB{sub 5+x}-type (Mm = mischmetal; B = Ni, Al, Co and Mn) alloys was investigated both in solid gas and electrochemical reactions. The cobalt and manganese content were varied separately while keeping constant the plateau pressure of the hydrides. The increase of the cobalt content leads to a decrease of the hydrogen capacity whereas the manganese content has no much effect. In solid gas reactions, the kinetics were found to be limited by the hydrogen diffusion through the surface oxidation layer. As for the electrochemistry, the kinetics are limited by a corrosion layer formed in alkaline medium. The desorption rates for both processes increase as the cobalt or manganese content decreases. This is thought to be due to an enhancement of the hydrogen diffusivity through the oxidation layer. As a result, a low cobalt or manganese content in MmB{sub 5+x} alloys is found to be beneficial for the hydrogen desorption kinetics in both processes. (author)

  1. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.


    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  2. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen


    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).

  3. Regulation loops for the ring magnet power supplies in the SSC accelerator complex

    Tacconi, E.; Christiansen, C.


    The SSC complex consists of five cascaded accelerators: The linear accelerator (linac) and four synchrotrons: The low energy booster (LEB), the medium energy booster (MEB), the high energy booster (HEB), and the collider. Twelve- or 24-pulse phase-controlled SCR power supplies are used to energize the ring magnets. Each power supply has a voltage loop designed to regulate the voltage applied to the magnets. The voltage regulation loops for these synchrotrons and the current regulation for the LEB are analyzed in this work. The digital voltage regulator is fiber-optic isolated from the power converter. It has a closed-loop bandwidth of 150 Hz with band rejections for 60-Hz and 120-Hz perturbations. The LEB has a very precise current regulation system composed of a feedforward compensator, a fast feedback regulator, and a slow synchronous regulator. The current regulation design is corroborated by computer simulations.

  4. Development of Superconducting Strang and Cable with Improved Properties for Use in SSC Magnets

    Scanlan, R.M.


    The critical current requirement for the NbTi superconductor strand was set at 2750 A/mm{sup 2} (5 T, 4.2 K) in the SSC Conceptual Design, compared with a value of 1800 A/mm{sup 2} which was specified for the strand used in the Tevatron dipoles. In addition, a filament diameter of 5 {micro}m, instead of the 9 {micro}m diameter used in the Tevatron. was chosen to reduce field distonion at injection. In order to meet the requirements for field homogeneity, the dimensional requirements for both strand and cable were also tightened. The technical solutions employed to achieve these improved properties and the resulting specifications will be discussed.

  5. Cryogenic instrumentation of an SSC (superconducting super collider) magnet test stand

    McGuire, K.; Strait, J.; Kuchnir, M.; McInturff, A.


    This paper describes the system used to acquire cryogenic data for the testing of SSC magnets at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. An array of pressure transducers, resistance thermometers, vapor pressure thermometers, and signal conditioning circuits are used. Readings with time resolution appropriate for quench recording are obtained with a waveform digitizer and steady-state measurements are obtained with higher accuracy using a digital voltmeter. The waveform digitizer is clocked at a 400 Hz sampling rate and these readings are stored in local ring buffers. The system is modular and can be expanded to add more channels. The software for the acquisition, control, logging, and display of cryogenic data consist of two programs which run as separate tasks. These programs (as well as a third program which acquires quench and magnetic data) communicate and pass data using shared global resources. The acquired data are available for analysis via a nationwide DECnet network.

  6. Coil measurement data acquisition and curing press control system for SSC dipole magnet coils

    Dickey, C.E.


    A coil matching program, similar in theory to the methods used to match Tevatron coils, is being developed at Fermilab. Modulus of elasticity and absolute coil size will be determined at 18-inch intervals along the coils while in the coil curing press immediately following the curing process. A data acquisition system is under construction to automatically acquire and manage the large quantities of data that result. Data files will be transferred to Fermilab's VAX Cluster for long-term storage and actual coil matching. The data acquisition system will also provide the control algorithm for the curing press hydraulic system. A description of the SSC Curing Press Data Acquisition and Controls System will be reported. 20 figs.

  7. Design optimization of the APF DTL in the SSC-linac

    WANG Zhi-Jun; HE Yuan; WU Wei; YANG Ya-Qing; XIAO Chen


    A linear accelerator as a new injector for the SSC(Separated Sector Cyclotron)of the HIRFL(Heavy Ion Research Facility Lanzhou)is being designed.The DTL(Drift-Tube-Linac)has been designed to accelerate 23Su34+from 0.140 MeV/u to 0.97 MeV/u.To the first accelerating tank which accelerates23SU34+to 0.54 MeV/u,the approach of Alternating-Phase-Focusing(APF)is applied.The phase array isobtained by coupling optimization software Dakota and beam optics code LINREV.With the hybrid of Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm(MOGA)and a pattern search method,an optimum array of asynchronous phases is determined.The final growth,both transversely and longitudinally,can meet the design requirements.In this paper,the deign optimization of the APF DTL is presented.

  8. A Particle-in-cell scheme of the RFQ in the SSC-Linac

    Xiao, Chen; He, Yuan; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Yuri, Batygin; Yin, Ling; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yuan, You-Jin; Liu, Yong; Chang, Wei; Du, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Zhi; Xia, Jia-Wen


    A 52 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator (linac) is designed to serve as an initial structure for the SSC-Linac system (injector into Separated Sector Cyclotron). The designed injection and output energy are 3.5 keV/u and 143 keV/u, respectively. The beam dynamics in this RFQ have been studied using a three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code BEAMPATH. Simulation results show that this RFQ structure is characterized by stable values of beam transmission efficiency (at least 95%) for both zero-current mode and the space charge dominated regime. The beam accelerated in the RFQ has good quality in both transverse and longitudinal directions, and could easily be accepted by Drift Tube Linac (DTL). The effect of the vane error and that of the space charge on the beam parameters have been studied as well to define the engineering tolerance for RFQ vane machining and alignment.

  9. Design optimization of the APF DTL in the SSC-linac

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; He, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Yang, Ya-Qing; Xiao, Chen


    A linear accelerator as a new injector for the SSC (Separated Sector Cyclotron) of the HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility Lanzhou) is being designed. The DTL (Drift-Tube-Linac) has been designed to accelerate 238U34+ from 0.140 MeV/u to 0.97 MeV/u. To the first accelerating tank which accelerates 238U34+ to 0.54 MeV/u, the approach of Alternating-Phase-Focusing (APF) is applied. The phase array is obtained by coupling optimization software Dakota and beam optics code LINREV. With the hybrid of Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) and a pattern search method, an optimum array of asynchronous phases is determined. The final growth, both transversely and longitudinally, can meet the design requirements. In this paper, the deign optimization of the APF DTL is presented.

  10. Impact of total solid content and extraction pH on enzyme-aided recovery of protein from defatted rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) press cake and physicochemical properties of the protein fractions.

    Rommi, Katariina; Ercili-Cura, Dilek; Hakala, Terhi K; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lantto, Raija


    Pectinase treatment was used to facilitate protein recovery from defatted rapeseed (Brassica rapa) cold-pressing residue in water-lean conditions and without pH adjustment. Effect of extraction pH on protein yield and physiochemical properties of the protein concentrates was assessed. Enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates was feasible at high (40%) solid content and improved protein recovery at pH 6. Comparable protein yields (40-41% of total protein) from enzyme-aided water extraction (pH 6) and nonenzymatic alkaline extraction (pH10) at 10% solid content suggested that after enzymatic treatment, rapeseed protein could be extracted without exposure to alkali. However, water extraction required dilute conditions, whereas alkaline extraction was feasible also at 20% solid content. The water extracts possessed better protein solubility, higher ζ-potential, and smaller particle size than isoelectric precipitates from alkaline extraction, indicating higher dispersion stability. This is suggested to be mediated by electrostatic interactions between proteins and pectic carbohydrates in the water extracts.

  11. PVB基高固体含量推进剂胶片的力学性能%Mechanical Properties of PVB-based High Solid Content Propellant Films

    尚帆; 王江宁; 宋秀铎; 郑伟


    The polyvinyl butyral (PVB)-based propellant films containing 78% CaCO3 were prepared by rolling process of light roller.The effects of PVB with different relative molecular mass and 1 1 kinds of liquid paraffins with different content of alcohols,acids and esters on the mechanical properties of propellant films were analyzed by means of statics mechanical test.The section morphology of the propellant films was observed by SEM.Results show that when PVB with relative molecular mass of 40 000 as an adhesive and liquid paraffin containing 5% alcohol as processing assistant are used,the internal structure of the propellant films is dense,the mechanical properties of propellant films are the best,with the low temperature tensile elongation of 2.97% and the high temperature tensile stress of 3.55 MPa.The rolling process of light roller is safe and stable for preparation of the PVB-based high solid content propellant when CaCO3 is substituted by RDX.The tensile stress and tensile elongation of propellant contai-ning RDX with particle size of 43.25μm are 45% and 17% higher than those of propellant containing RDX with par-ticle size of 21.02μm.%采用光辊压延工艺制备了含质量分数78%碳酸钙(CaCO3)的聚乙烯醇缩丁醛(PVB)基推进剂胶片。通过静态力学试验分析了不同相对分子质量PVB和11种液体石蜡对推进剂胶片力学性能的影响,用扫描电镜观察了推进剂胶片的剖片形貌。结果表明,以相对分子质量为40000的PVB作黏合剂、醇质量分数为5%的液体石蜡作工艺助剂时,推进剂胶片内部结构致密,力学性能最佳,低温延伸率为2.97%,高温拉伸强度为3.55 MPa。用黑索今(RDX)全部替代CaCO3时,可安全稳定地制备 PVB 基高固体含量推进剂。含43.25μm RDX 的推进剂比含21.02μm RDX的推进剂的拉伸强度及延伸率分别高45%和17%。

  12. Comparative Analyses of the Teaching Methods and Evaluation Practices in English Subject at Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and General Certificate of Education (GCE O-Level) in Pakistan

    Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Anwar, Mohammad


    The study was conducted to compare the teaching methods and evaluation practices in English subject at secondary school certificate (SSC) and general certificate of education GCE-O-level in Pakistan. The population of the study was students, teachers and experts at SSC and 0-level in the Punjab province. Purposive and random sampling techniques…

  13. The Scavenger Receptor SSc5D Physically Interacts with Bacteria through the SRCR-Containing N-Terminal Domain

    Bessa Pereira, Catarina; Bocková, Markéta; Santos, Rita F.; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Martins de Araújo, Mafalda; Oliveira, Liliana; Homola, Jiří; Carmo, Alexandre M.


    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion, which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Toward establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR) properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSc5D (N-SSc5D), thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein–bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to Escherichia coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively), and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time, and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5, and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3). Our work thus advocates the

  14. The scavenger receptor SSc5D physically interacts with bacteria through the SRCR-containing N-terminal domain

    Catarina Bessa-Pereira


    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP of bacteria, fungi or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Towards establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSC5D (N-SSc5D, thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein-bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to E. coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively, and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR-based assay, and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5 and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that the N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and L. monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3. Our work thus advocates the

  15. Role of the mitochondrial Hsp70s, Ssc1 and Ssq1, in the maturation of Yfh1.

    Voisine, C; Schilke, B; Ohlson, M; Beinert, H; Marszalek, J; Craig, E A


    The mitochondrial matrix of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two molecular chaperones of the Hsp70 class, Ssc1 and Ssq1. We report that Ssc1 and Ssq1 play sequential roles in the import and maturation of the yeast frataxin homologue (Yfh1). In vitro, radiolabeled Yfh1 was not imported into ssc1-3 mutant mitochondria, remaining in a protease-sensitive precursor form. As reported earlier, the Yfh1 intermediate form was only slowly processed to the mature form in Deltassq1 mitochondria (S. A. B. Knight, N. B. V. Sepuri, D. Pain, and A. Dancis, J. Biol. Chem. 273:18389-18393, 1998). However, the intermediate form in both wild-type and Deltassq1 mitochondria was entirely within the inner membrane, as it was resistant to digestion with protease after disruption of the outer membrane. Therefore, we conclude that Ssc1, which is present in mitochondria in approximately a 1,000-fold excess over Ssq1, is required for Yfh1 import into the matrix, while Ssq1 is necessary for the efficient processing of the intermediate to the mature form in isolated mitochondria. However, the steady-state level of mature Yfh1 in Deltassq1 mitochondria is approximately 75% of that found in wild-type mitochondria, indicating that this retardation in processing does not dramatically affect cellular concentrations. Therefore, Ssq1 likely has roles in addition to facilitating the processing of Yfh1. Twofold overexpression of Ssc1 partially suppresses the cold-sensitive growth phenotype of Deltassq1 cells, as well as the accumulation of mitochondrial iron and the defects in Fe/S enzyme activities normally found in Deltassq1 mitochondria. Deltassq1 mitochondria containing twofold-more Ssc1 efficiently converted the intermediate form of Yfh1 to the mature form. This correlation between the observed processing defect and suppression of in vivo phenotypes suggests that Ssc1 is able to carry out the functions of Ssq1, but only when present in approximately a 2,000-fold excess over normal levels

  16. Estimation of suspended-sediment concentration from total suspended solids and turbidity data for Kentucky, 1978-1995

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Crawford, Charles G.


    Suspended sediment is a constituent of water quality that is monitored because of concerns about accelerated erosion, nonpoint contamination of water resources, and degradation of aquatic environments. In order to quantify the relationship among different sediment parameters for Kentucky streams, long-term records were obtained from the National Water Information System of the U.S. Geological Survey. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), the parameter traditionally measured and reported by the U.S. Geological Survey, was statistically compared to turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS), two parameters that are considered surrogate data. A linear regression of log-transformed observations was used to estimate SSC from TSS; 72% of TSS observations were less than coincident SSC observations; however, the estimated SSC values were almost as likely to be overestimated as underestimated. The SSC-turbidity relationship also used log-transformed observations, but required a nonlinear, breakpoint regression that separated turbidity observations ???6nephelometric turbidity units. The slope for these low turbidity values was not significantly different than zero, indicating that low turbidity observations provide no real information about SSC; in the case of the Kentucky sediment record, this accounts for 30% of the turbidity observations. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Differences in indicators of malignancy between luminal epithelial cell type and myoepithelial cell type of simple solid carcinoma in the canine mammary gland.

    Yoshimura, H; Nakahira, R; Kishimoto, T E; Michishita, M; Ohkusu-Tsukada, K; Takahashi, K


    Routinely diagnosed simple solid carcinoma (SSC) of the canine mammary gland comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors. Seventy-two cases that had been diagnosed as SSC based on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections were reclassified immunohistochemically on the basis of myoepithelial markers p63 and α-smooth muscle actin, as well as a luminal epithelial marker cytokeratin 8. Only 23 cases (32%) were true SSC, composed only of luminal epithelial cells, whereas 11 cases (15%) were malignant myoepithelioma (MM), composed predominantly of myoepithelial cells, and 38 cases (53%) were biphasic carcinoma (BC), characterized by biphasic proliferation of luminal epithelial and basal/myoepithelial components. As the pathological parameters were compared between the reclassified tumor types, infiltrative potential, vascular/lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and Ki-67 labeling index were higher in true SSC compared with MM and BC, suggesting that the former may exhibit a poorer prognosis compared with the latter two.

  18. Correlation of delta high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with delta clinical variables in early systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients

    Euathrongchit, Juntima; Wattanawittawas, Pittaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana


    Background The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014. All patients underwent HRCT at study entry and every 12 months thereafter. Thirty-one SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) within 12 weeks of their corresponding HRCT at baseline and last visit were identified. The extent of ground glass (GG), lung fibrosis (Fib), bronchiectasis (B), and honeycombing (HC) was scored, and then aggregated to produce a total (t) HRCT score. Results Mean ± SD age and disease duration from non-Raynaud’s phenomenon (NRP) to undergo HRCT at baseline were 52.2±8.8 years and 11.7±7.1 months, respectively. Seventeen (54.8%) patients were female and 20 (64.5%) were classified as dcSSc. The mean ± SD interval between the two HRCT tests was 16.0±7.2 months. The Δ HRCT scores [total fibrosis scores (t-Fib), total bronchiectasis scores (t-B), and total HRCT score (t-HRCT) scores] and Δ mRSS, but not Δ %pFVC, showed significant change over the observation period. We found significant correlation of Δ total honeycombing scores (t-HC) with Δ ESR (r=−0.44, P<0.05), and Δ t-Fib with Δ %SpO2 (r=−0.38, P<0.05). However, no significant correlation of any Δ HRCT scores with Δ %pFVC and Δ mRSS were observed. Conclusions In this study, the changes in the HRCT scores were greater than %pFVC; this, along with their correlations with the changes in ESR and %SpO2, suggest that HRCT

  19. Dynamic Changes in Ginsenoside Rb 2 and Rb3 Content in Solid-state Fermentation%人参须固态发酵中皂苷 Rb 2与 Rb 3的动态变化

    闫梅霞; 崔丽丽; 许世泉; 刘俊霞; 王英平


    以人参须为发酵基质进行赤芝双向固态发酵,测定发酵过程中人参皂苷Rb2和Rb3的含量,分析固态发酵对其影响。发酵作用使基质中Rb2和Rb3含量发生显著变化,但2种皂苷含量变化不同。Rb2在发酵初期和发酵后期都出现含量先升高后降低的过程,Rb3仅在发酵初期含量先升高后降低,发酵结束时基质中未检测到2种皂苷。%Bidirectional solid-state fermentation was carried out through the strains of Ganoderma lucidum in ginseng .The content of ginseno-side Rb2 and Rb3 was determined and the impact on the ginsenoside by solid -state fermentation was analyzed .The content of Rb2 and Rb3 changed significantly through the fermentation ,but the two kinds of ginsenoside content varied differently .The content of Rb2 increased in the early fermentation stage ,then decreased in the late fermentation stage ,the level of Rb3 increased then decreased only in the early fermentation stage ,the two kinds of ginsenoside content was 0 by the end of the fermentation .

  20. 3D calculations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 3 Tesla magnet

    Lari, R.J.


    A 20 TeV Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) proton accelerator is being proposed by the High Energy Physics Community. One proposal would consist of a ring of magnets 164 km in circumference with a field strength of 3 Tesla and would cost 2.7 billion dollars. The magnet consists of stacked steel laminations with superconducting coils. The desired field uniformity is obtained for all fields from 0.2 to 3 Tesla by using three (or more) different pole shapes. These three different laminations are stacked in the order 1-2-3-1-2-3-... creating a truly three dimensional geometry. A three laminated stack 1-2-3 with periodic boundary conditions at 1 and 3 was assigned about 5000 finite elements per lamination and solved using the computer program TOSCA. To check the TOSCA results, the field of each of the three different shaped laminations was calculated separately using periodic boundary conditions and compared to the two dimensional field calculations using TRIM. This was done for a constant permeability of 2000 and using the B-H table for fully annealed 1010 steel. The difference of the field calculations in the region of interest was always less than +-.2%

  1. Particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of the low energy beam transport for the SSC-linac injector

    XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; YAO Qing-Gao; WANG Zhi-Jun; CHANG Wei; LIU Yong; XIA Jia-Wen


    A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending magnet and an extra multi-harmonic buncher. The total length of this segment is about 7 meters. The beam dynamics in this LEBT has been studied using three-dimensional PIC (particle-in-cell) code BEAMPATH. The simulation results show that the continuous beam from the ion source is first well analyzed by a charge-to-mass selection system, and the beam of the selected charge-to-mass ratio is then efficiently pre-bunched by a multi-harmonic buncher and optimally matched into the RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole) for further acceleration. The principles and effects of the solenoid collimation channel are discussed, and it could limit the beam emittance by changing the aperture size.

  2. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ regulates testicular FOXO1 activity and spermatogonial stem cell (SSC function.

    Devi Ngo

    Full Text Available Spermatogonia stem cell (SSC self-renewal and differentiation are tightly regulated processes that ensure a continued production of mature sperm throughout male adulthood. In the present study, we investigated the role of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ in maintenance of the male germline and spermatogenesis. GILZ was detectable in germ cells of wild type mice on the day of birth, suggesting a role for GILZ in prospermatogonia and SSC pool formation. Gilz KO mice were generated and adult males were azoospermic and sterile. During the first wave of spermatogenesis in Gilz KO mice, spermatogenesis arrested part way through pachytene of meiosis I. Subsequent waves resulted in a progressive depletion of germ cells through apoptosis to ultimately produce a Sertoli cell-only phenotype. Further, in contrast to wild type littermates, PLZF(+ cells were detected in the peri-luminal region of Gilz KO mice at day 6 post-natal, suggesting a defect in prospermatogonia migration in the absence of GILZ. At age 30 days, transient accumulation of PLZF(+ cells in a subset of tubules and severely compromised spermatogenesis were observed in Gilz KO mice, consistent with defective SSC differentiation. GILZ deficiency was associated with an increase in FOXO1 transcriptional activity, which leads to activation of a selective set of FOXO1 target genes, including a pro-apoptotic protein, BIM. On the other hand, no evidence of a heightened immune response was observed. Together, these results suggest that GILZ suppresses FOXO1 nuclear translocation, promotes SSC differentiation over self-renewal, and favours germ cell survival through inhibition of BIM-dependent pro-apoptotic signals. These findings provide a mechanism for the effects of GILZ on spermatogenesis and strengthen the case for GILZ being a critical molecule in the regulation of male fertility.

  3. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Lecture: Big, Bigger, Too Big? From Los Alamos to Fermilab and the SSC

    Hoddeson, Lillian


    The modern era of big science emerged during World War II. Oppenheimer's Los Alamos laboratory offered the quintessential model of a government-funded, mission-oriented facility directed by a strong charismatic leader. The postwar beneficiaries of this model included the increasingly ambitious large laboratories that participated in particle physics--in particular, Brookhaven, SLAC, and Fermilab. They carried the big science they practiced into a new realm where experiments eventually became as large and costly as entire laboratories had been. Meanwhile the available funding grew more limited causing the physics research to be concentrated into fewer and bigger experiments that appeared never to end. The next phase in American high-energy physics was the Superconducting Super Collider, the most costly pure physics project ever attempted. The SSC's termination was a tragedy for American science, but for historians it offers an opportunity to understand what made the success of earlier large high-energy physics laboratories possible, and what made the continuation of the SSC impossible. The most obvious reason for the SSC's failure was its enormous and escalating budget, which Congress would no longer support. Other factors need to be recognized however: no leader could be found with directing skills as strong as those of Wilson, Panofsky, Lederman, or Richter; the scale of the project subjected it to uncomfortable public and Congressional scrutiny; and the DOE's enforcement of management procedures of the military-industrial complex that clashed with those typical of the scientific community led to the alienation and withdrawal of many of the most creative scientists, and to the perception and the reality of poor management. These factors, exacerbated by negative pressure from scientists in other fields and a post-Cold War climate in which physicists had little of their earlier cultural prestige, discouraged efforts to gain international support. They made the SSC

  4. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  5. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail:; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  6. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef


    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  7. [Hyperspectral technology combined with CARS algorithm to quantitatively determine the SSC in Korla fragrant pear].

    Zhan, Bai-Shao; Ni, Jun-Hui; Li, Jun


    Hyperspectral imaging has large data volume and high dimensionality, and original spectra data includes a lot of noises and severe scattering. And, quality of acquired hyperspectral data can be influenced by non-monochromatic light, external stray light and temperature, which resulted in having some non-linear relationship between the acquired hyperspectral data and the predicted quality index. Therefore, the present study proposed that competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm is used to select the key variables from visible and near infrared hyperspectral data. The performance of CARS was compared with full spectra, successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and GA-SPA (genetic algorithm-successive projections algorithm). Two hundred Korla fragrant pears were used as research object. SPXY algorithm was used to divided sample set to correction set with 150 samples and prediction set with 50 samples, respectively. Based on variables selected by different methods, linear PLS and nonlinear LS-SVM models were developed, respectively, and the performance of models was assessed using parameters r2, RMSEP and RPD. A comprehensive comparison found that GA, GA-SPA and CARS can effectively select the variables with strong and useful information. These methods can be used for selection of Vis-NIR hyperspectral data variables, particularly for CARS. LS-SVM model can obtain the best results for SSC prediction of Korla fragrant pear based on variables obtained from CARS method. r2, RMSEP and RPD were 0.851 2, 0.291 3 and 2.592 4, respectively. The study showed that CARS is an effectively hyperspectral variable selection method, and nonlinear LS-SVM model is more suitable than linear PLS model for quantitatively determining the quality of fra- grant pear based on hyperspectral information.

  8. Antioxidant and antiedema properties of solid-state cultured honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (higher Basidiomycetes), extracts and their polysaccharide and polyphenol contents.

    Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean Teik


    Culinary-medicinal honey mushroom or Mi-Huan-Ku, Armillaria mellea (AM), is a popular ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine for treating diseases of geriatric patients. This study aimed to examine the effect of cultured substrates on the mycelial growth of AM and evaluate its antioxidant and antiedema activities as well as its total polysaccharide and polyphenol contents. Results showed that AM grew best on the maize medium and worst on the potato medium. AM ethanol extract (AM-EtOH) showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than AM aqueous extract (AM-H₂O). However, they were weak in metal chelation and reducing power. AM-EtOH but not AM-H₂O at 200 mg/kg showed antiedema activity in rats. The total β-glucan content of AM-H₂O and AM-EtOH was 21.95% and 3.50%, respectively. AM-EtOH showed higher phenol but lower flavonoid content than AM-H₂O. These results indicate that maize is a good source of substrate for mass production of AM mycelia, and its potency of DPPH radical scavenging and antiedema activities was contributed mainly by the phenolic compounds, not the level of polysaccharide content.

  9. Early assessment of sub-clinical cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (CE-MRI)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio 1, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Battisti, Sara; Di Sibio, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio 1, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Cipriani, Paola; Giacomelli, Roberto; Liakouli, Vasiliky; Ruscitti, Piero [Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio 1, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)


    Objectives: Systemic sclerosis heart involvement (SHI) is one of systemic sclerosis (SSc) most frequent complications, both in diffuse (dcSSc) and limited (lcSSc) cutaneous forms of disease. Nowadays, SHI is a major factor decreasing SSc survival rate because, when clinically evident, is associated with 70% of mortality at 5 years. SHI shows different forms, primary and/or secondary. Primary myocardial SHI is characterized by fibrosis. Aim of our study is to assess the presence and pattern of fibrosis as detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in systemic sclerosis. Methods: In this study, we used CE-MRI (contrast enhanced-MRI) in 58 female SSc patients. Images were evaluated to obtain functional parameters and to see presence, location and pattern (nodular, linear or diffuse) of myocardial LE, sign of fibrosis. CE-MRI findings were correlated with patients clinical setting. Results: Myocardial fibrosis was detected in 25 of 58 patients (43%). The main finding observed in 16 of these 25 patients was a late enhancement showing a linear pattern, without coronary distribution and sparing the sub-endocardial myocardial layers. A patchy nodular enhancement pattern was observed in 9 patients (36%). Patients with linear pattern presented dcSSc, on the contrary patients with nodular LE displayed the lcSSc form. Conclusions: This study shows that CE-MRI is a reliable technique to detect SHI earlier than other methods. SHI increase passive myocardial stiffness, proportional to collagen deposition degree, leading to cardiac remodelling with possible development of heart failure, even with normal ejection fraction. An early treatment of SHI might improve SSc patients outcome.

  10. Effects of C/N and solid content of raw materials on electricity generation of cattle manure fermentation%C/N比和含固率对牛粪发酵产电性能的影响

    王成显; 沈建国; 张小梅; 潘月庆; 林童; 张艺臻; 辛言君


    waste and promote the development of agricultural modernization, an electricity production device with double chambers based on MFC was built and investigated to generate electricity from cow dung and wheat straw. Two ratios of carbon-nitrogen (C/N) (20 and 30) and 3 levels of solid content (1%, 5% and 10%) were selected respectively to study their impacts on the electricity generation efficiency. The variations of many factors were monitored during this process, including voltage, current, power density, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and pH value. The process of electricity production was finished when the voltage reduced to a very low level that was similar to the initial voltage. The results showed that when the solid content was 1%, the electricity generation performance was better than others. When the C/N was 20, the highest voltage, current and power density were 0.57 V, 1.12 mA and 464 mW/m2, respectively. When the C/N was 30, the highest voltage, current and power density were 0.80 V, 0.76 mA and 422 mW/m2, respectively. After the fermentation, VFA concentration and pH value changed obviously under different C/N and solid content. When the C/N was 20, and the solid content was 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively, compared with the initial value, the VFA concentration was increased by 270%, 255% and 313%, respectively, and the pH value was reduced by 0.45, 1.11 and 0.92, respectively; when the C/N was 30, and the solid content was 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively, compared with the initial value, the VFA concentration was increased by 281%, 243% and 395%, respectively, and the pH value was reduced by 0.88, 0.90 and 1.13, respectively. Additionally, the organic matter, total nutrient content and pH value in the solid-state remainder after fermentation met the standards for organic fertilizers of agricultural industry standard (NY525-2012). Therefore, the remainders in solid state after fermentation could be used as organic fertilizers or raw materials of organic

  11. Determination of Soluble Solid Content in Winter Shoot by Millipore Filter-Refractometry%微孔滤膜--折光法测定冬笋中可溶性固形物含量

    杨柳; 朱杰丽; 郑俊旦; 尚素微; 吴翠蓉; 蒋步云; 柴振林


    Soluble solid content in winter shoot ofPhyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens was determined by millipore filter-refractometry. At the same time, continuous determinations were conducted on aqueous solution of 10% sucrose, oxalic acid and citric acid for 6 times each. The result demonstrated that the average values of different solutions were 9.83%, 9.79%, 9.71% respectively and standard deviation of 6 tests was 1.31%, 1.04% and 1.05% respectively. Soluble solid content in winter shoot was 6.9% -8.2% and the average content was 7.5%.%采作微孔滤膜--折光法对冬笋可溶性固形物含量进行测定,同时分别连续测定含量为10%的蔗糖、草酸和柠檬酸水溶液各6次,以验证该方法测定可溶性固形物含量的可行性,结果表明:以该方法测得的蔗糖、草酸、柠檬酸水溶液的平均值分别为9.83%、9.79%、9.71%,其相对标准偏差分别为1.31%、1.04%、1.05%;冬笋中可溶性固形物为6.9%~8.2%,平均含量为7.5%。

  12. Partial Least Squares Regression Variable Screening Studies on Apple Soluble Solids NIR Spectral Detection%苹果可溶性固形物近红外光谱检测的偏最小二乘回归变量筛选研究

    欧阳爱国; 谢小强; 周延睿; 刘燕德


    To improve the predictive ability and robustness of the NIR correction model of the soluble solid content (SSC) of apple, the reverse interval partial least squares method, genetic algorithm and the continuous projection method were implemented to select variables of the NIR spectroscopy of the soluble solid content (SSC) of apple, and the partial least squares regression model was established. By genetic algorithm for screening of the 141 variables of the correction model, prediction has the best effect. And compared to the full spectrum correction model, the correlation coefficient increased to 0. 96 from 0. 93, forecast root mean square error decreased from 0. 30°Brix to 0. 23°Brix. This experimental results show that the genetic algorithm combined with partial least squares regression method improved the detection precision of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) of apple.%为了提高苹果可溶性固形物含量近红外光谱校正模型的预测能力和稳健性,分别采用反向区间偏最小二乘法、遗传算法和连续投影算法,筛选苹果可溶性固形物的近红外光谱变量,并建立了偏最小二乘回归模型.利用遗传算法筛选的141个变量建立的校正模型,预测效果最好,与全谱建立的校正模型比较,预测相关系数,从0.93提高到0.96,预测均方根误差,从0.30°Brix降低到0.23°Brix.实验结果表明遗传算法结合偏最小二乘回归方法,有效地提高了苹果可溶性固形物近红外光谱检测模型的预测精度.

  13. Influência de diferentes teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados Influence of different contents of insoluble suspended solidS on rheological characteristics of natural and despectinized pineapple juice

    Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz


    Full Text Available Estudou-se, neste trabalho, a influência dos sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi in natura e sucos tratados com enzima pectinolítica. Cada um dos dois tipos de suco foi estudado através de seis frações, divididas em quatro peneiradas, uma centrifugada e uma integral, representando seis teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos. Os dados reométricos foram coletados através de um reômetro Haake rotovisco e os dados experimentais ajustados pelo modelo de Mizrahi-Berk. Das seis frações in natura, quatro apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana e outra como dilatante enquanto das seis frações tratadas enzimaticamente cinco apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana. O teor de sólidos insolúveis suspensos mostrou-se o principal fator responsável pelo comportamento reológico dos sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados.The influence of insoluble suspended solid contents in rheological characteristics of pineapple juice, both natural and treated with pectinolytic enzymes, was studied. Each type of juice was examined by six fractions, divided into four sievings, one centrifuged and the others whole, representing six contents of insoluble suspended solids. The rheometric data were collected by means of Haake rotovisco rheometer and the experimental data were adjusted by the Mizrahi-Berk model. In the natural material four fractions showed pseudoplastic behaviour, one characterized as newtonian and the others as dilatant, whereas in the enzyme treated material, five fractions presented pseudoplastic behaviour and one was characterized as newtonian. The insoluble suspended solid content was found to be the principal factor responsible for this rheological behaviour of natural and despectinized pineapple juices.

  14. Influence of total solid content on anaerobic digestion of swine manure and kinetic analysis%猪粪固体含量对厌氧消化产气性能影响及动力学分析

    杜连柱; 梁军锋; 杨鹏; 高文萱; 张克强


    contents on anaerobic digestion at TS of 3.0%, 7.5%, 12.0%and 15.0%under mesophilic conditions (35℃). In the period of 62 d, the accumulative biogas production, volume percentage of CH4 in biogas, TS and VS, pH value before and after digestion were monitored. The biogas production and methane yields were key indicators which were used to evaluate the anaerobic digestion, and the first-order kinetic was used to model the anaerobic digestion process. The results showed that the biogas yields basing on VS decreased with total solids fraction increasing from 3.0%to 15.0%and the biogas yields were 579, 527, 356 and 237 mL/g. The CH4 yields at different solids fraction were 317, 326, 222 and 140 mL/g, respectively. The CH4 yields of 3.0% and 7.5% accounted for 66.9% and 68.8% of the theoretical methane productivity (474 mL/g) which was calculated by the protein, fat and carbohydrate content in swine manure. The maximum CH4 production rate of different TS appeared at 2 d, the values were 37.0, 24.4, 10.4 and 4.7 mL/(g·d), respectively and the CH4 production rate during the experiment decreased with the increasing of TS generally. The volume percentage of CH4 in biogas was between 67%and 74%after 22 d, the value of solids fraction at 15.0%was the lowest. TS and VS degradation efficiency of anaerobic digestion decreased with the increasing of solids fraction from 7.5%to 15.0%, TS and VS degradation efficiency at TS of 7.5%were 49.2%and 65.5%, but that of TS at 15.0% were 37.4% and 46.9%. The VS degradation efficiency at TS of 3.0% was lower than that of the others mainly attributed to the TS content in inoculum. The first-order kinetic was used to simulate the anaerobic digestion process of swine manure at different TS contents, the results indicated that it was suitable for modeling the digestion when the solids fraction were 3.0% and 7.5%, and the degradation rate constants were 0.126 and 0.063 d-1. The first-order kinetic was not fitting well for the TS content of 12.0%and 15

  15. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS.

  16. Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content.

    Mockaitis, G; Pantoja, J L R; Rodrigues, J A D; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M


    This paper describes a new type of anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) in which the support for the biomass consists of polyurethane foam strips placed along the length of the bioreactor. This configuration prevents the accumulation of biomass or solids in the bed as well as clogging and channeling effects. In this study, complex synthetic wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand of 404.4 mg O(2) L(-1) is treated by the reactor. The ABFSB, which has a working volume of 4.77 L, was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. A removal efficiency of 78 % for organic matter and an effluent pH of 6.97 were achieved. An analysis of the organic volatile acids produced by the ABFSB indicated that it operated under stable conditions during an experimental run of 36 days. The stable and efficient operation of the bioreactor was compared with the configurations of other anaerobic bioreactors used for complex wastewater treatment. The results of the study indicate that the ABFSB is a technological alternative to packed-bed bioreactors.

  17. 索尼(SONY)SSC-G103模拟枪式摄像机



    索尼SSC-G103通过“Super HAD CCD Ⅱ”组合“索尼最新的Effio-E DSP平台”的全新搭配应用,实现了高清晰度和高灵敏度,并提供日夜转换、自动暗区补偿、智能背光补偿、自动白平衡、数字降噪等一系列功能。

  18. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian


    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  19. Multi-residue methods for the determination of over four hundred pesticides in solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with gas and liquid chromatograph.

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Ilyasova, Gulzhakhan; Kaczynski, Piotr; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Mojsak, Patrycja; Szabunko, Julia


    For the first time three methods: matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD), original and modified QuEChERS, with and without clean up step were studied in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of various classes of pesticides from solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices. Determinations over four hundred pesticides were performed by gas and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/LC/MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring. The proposed methods were validated on sugar beets and their technological product beet molasses. In general, the recoveries obtained for the original QuEChERS and MSPD method were lower (gas and liquid chromatography. The most compounds showed signal enhancement and it was compensated by using matrix-matched calibration and modified QuEChERS characterized lower matrix effects. The confirmation of suitability citrate QuEChERS optimized method was to use for routine testing of several dozen samples determination and residue of epoxiconazole and tebuconazole (both at 0.01mgkg(-1)) in the samples of beet molasses and cyfluthrin (0.06mgkg(-1)) in sugar beet were found.

  20. Effect of iron content on the structure and disorder of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses: A high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    Kim, Hyo-Im; Sur, Jung Chul; Lee, Sung Keun


    Despite its geochemical importance and implications for the properties of natural magmatic melts, understanding the detailed structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses remains among the outstanding problems in geochemistry. This is mainly because solid-state NMR techniques, one of the most versatile experimental methods to probe the structure of oxide glasses, cannot be fully utilized for exploring the structural details of iron-bearing glasses as the unpaired electrons in Fe induce strong local magnetic fields that mask the original spectroscopic features (i.e., paramagnetic effect). Here, we report high-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR spectra of iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses (Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2, Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.89 ± 0.04, thus containing both ferric and ferrous iron) with varying XFe2O3 [=Fe2O3/(Na2O + Fe2O3)], containing up to 22.9 wt% Fe2O3. This compositional series involves Fe-Na substitution at constant SiO2 contents of 66.7 mol% in the glasses. For both nuclides, the NMR spectra exhibit a decrease in the signal intensities and an increase in the peak widths with increasing iron concentration partly because of the paramagnetic effect. Despite the intrinsic difficulties that result from the pronounced paramagnetic effect, the 29Si and 17O NMR results yield structural details regarding the effect of iron content on Q speciation, spatial distribution of iron, and the extent of polymerization in the iron-bearing silicate glasses. The 29Si NMR spectra show an apparent increase in highly polymerized Q species with increasing XFe2O3 , suggesting an increase in the degree of melt polymerization. The 17O 3QMAS NMR spectra exhibit well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) peaks with varying iron concentration. By replacing Na2O with Fe2O3 (and thus with increasing iron content), the fraction of Na-O-Si decreases. Quantitative consideration of this effect confirms that the degree of polymerization is likely to

  1. Using GOCI Retrieval Data to Initialize and Validate a Sediment Transport Model for Monitoring Diurnal Variation of SSC in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Xuefei Yang


    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC in Hangzhou Bay, China has been investigated using remotely-sensed SSC derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI in combination with a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model for regional and shelf seas (COHERENS. The SSC maps were inferred through a UV-AC atmospheric correction algorithm and an empirical inversion algorithm from the GOCI Level-1B data. The sediment transport model was initialized from maps of the GOCI-derived SSC and the model results were validated through a comparison with remotely-sensed data. The comparison demonstrated that the model results agreed well with the observations. The relationship between SSC distribution and hydrodynamic conditions was analyzed to investigate the sediment transport dynamics. The model’s results indicate that the action of tidal currents dominate the sediment deposition and re-suspension in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. This is especially the case in Hangzhou Bay where the tidal currents are strongest. The satellite-derived sediment data product can not only dramatically improve the specification of the initial conditions for the sediment model, but can also provide valuable information for the model validation, thereby improving the model’s overall performance.

  2. 近红外法测定豆浆蛋白质、脂肪和可溶性固形物含量%Determination of Protein,Fat and Soluble Solids Content of Soy Milk by Near -Infrared Spectroscopy

    邱燕燕; 孙娟娟; 魏肖鹏; 栾广忠; 张玉静; 胡亚云; 辰巳英三


    利用傅里叶变换近红外光谱仪采用积分球漫反射方式对60个豆浆样品进行光谱的采集,结合常规分析结果分别建立了3种成分的近红外校正模型。结果表明:豆浆蛋白质、脂肪及可溶性固形物光谱分别经过消除常数偏移量、一阶导数和矢量归一化(SNV)预处理后建模效果最好。蛋白质、脂肪和可溶性固形物含量的校正模型决定系数(R2)分别为:0.9664、0.9500和0.9507,交叉验证均方根差(RMSECV)依次为0.0769、0.0874和0.316;对模型进行外部验证,验证集化学值和模型预测值之间差异不显著,说明模型可以用于豆浆中蛋白质、脂肪和可溶性固形物含量的检测。%With the mode of integrating sphere diffuse,the spectra of 60 soy milk samples were obtained by the Fourier transform near -infrared spectrometer (FT -NIRS)in this research.Combined with the results of chemical analysis,the calibration models of the three components were established separately.The calibration models had a best prediction performance when the spectra of the protein,fat and soluble solids were preprocessed by constant off-set elimination,first derivative and standard normal variate transformation (SNV)respectively.The determination co-efficients (R2 )for the protein,fat and soluble solids content were 0.966 4,0.950 0 and 0.950 7 respectively,and the root mean square errors of cross -validation (RMSECV)were 0.076 9,0.087 4 and 0.316 respectively.Exter-nal validation of the model showed there was no significant difference between chemical values and model predictions, which indicated that the calibration models could be used to detect protein,fat and soluble solids content of soy milk.

  3. Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC

    Li, Xinlin; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J. R.; Hudson, M. K.; Blake, J. B.


    We model the rapid (about 1 min) formation of a new electron radiation belt at L about or = 2.5 that resulted from the Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) of March 24, 1991 as observed by the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) satellite. Guided by the observed electric and magnetic fields, we represent the time-dependent magnetospheric electric field during the SSC by an asymmetric bipolar pulse that is associated with the compression and relaxation of the Earth's magnetic field. We follow the electrons using a relativistic guiding center code. The test-particle simulations show that electrons with energies of a few MeV at L greater than 6 were energized up to 40 MeV and transported to L about or = 2.5 during a fraction of their drift period. The energization process conserves the first adiabatic invariant and is enhanced due to resonance of the electron drift motion with the time-varying electric field. Our simulation results, with an initial W(exp -8) energy flux spectra, reproduce the observed electron drift echoes and show that the interplanetary shock impacted the magnetosphere between 1500 and 1800 MLT.

  4. An intense SFE and SSC event in geomagnetic H, Y and Z fields at the Indian chain of observatories

    S. Alex

    Full Text Available Changes in the three components of geomagnetic field are reported at the chain of ten geomagnetic observatories in India during an intense solar crochet that occurred at 1311 h 75° EMT on 15 June 1991 and the subsequent sudden commencement (SSC of geomagnetic storm at 1518 h on 17 June 1991. The solar flare effects (SFE registered on the magnetograms appear to be an augmentation of the ionospheric current system existing at the start time of the flare. An equatorial enhancement in ΔH due to SFE is observed to be similar in nature to the latitudinal variation of SQ (H at low latitude. ΔY registered the largest effect at 3.6° dip latitude at the fringe region of the electrojet. ΔZ had positive amplitudes at the equatorial stations and negative at stations north of Hyderabad. The SSC amplitude in the H component is fairly constant with latitude, whereas the Z component again showed larger positive excursions at stations within the electrojet belt. These results are discussed in terms of possible currents of internal and external origin. The changes in the Y field strongly support the idea that meridional current at an equatorial electrojet station flows in the ionospheric dynamo, E.

  5. Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Fermi Bubbles: Northernmost Cap and Southeast Claw Discovered with MAXI-SSC

    Tahara, Masaya


    We report on Suzaku observations of large-scale X-ray structures possibly related with the Fermi Bubbles obtained in 2013 with a total duration of ~ 80 ks. The observed regions were the: (i) northern cap (N-cap; l ~ 0 deg, 45 deg < b < 55 deg) seen in the Mid-band (1.7-4.0 keV) map recently provided by MAXI-SSC and (ii) southeast claw (SE-claw; l ~ 10 deg, -20 deg < b < -10 deg) seen in the ROSAT all-sky map and MAXI-SSC Low-band (0.7-1.7 keV) map. In each region, we detected diffuse X-ray emissions which are represented by a three component plasma model consisting of an unabsorbed thermal component (kT ~ 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT = 0.30+/-0.05 keV emission representing the Galactic Halo, and a power-law component due to the isotropic cosmic X-ray background radiation. The emission measure of the GH component in the SE-claw shows an excess by a factor of ~ 2.5 over the surrounding emission at 2 deg away. We also found a broad excess in the 1.7-4.0 keV count rates across the N-cap...

  6. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    XIAO Chen; XU Meng-Xin; HE Shou-Bo; XIA Jia-Wen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; LU Yuan-Rong; LIU Yong; WANG Zhi-Jun; DU Xiao-Nan; YAO Qing-Gao; LIU Ge


    A new linear accelerator system,called the SSC-Linac injector,is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou).As part of the SSC-Linac,the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles,a re-buncher and a diagnose box.The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m.The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particlein-cell code,and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces,and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotronfor further acceleration.The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail,and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  7. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    Xiao, Chen; He, Yuan; Yuan, You-Jin; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Du, Xiao-Nan; Yao, Qing-Gao; Liu, Ge; Xu, Meng-Xin; He, Shou-Bo; Xia, Jia-Wen


    A new linear accelerator system, called the SSC-Linac injector, is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of the SSC-Linac, the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles, a re-buncher and a diagnose box. The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m. The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particle-in-cell code, and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces, and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotron for further acceleration. The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail, and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  8. The Italian version of the Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis scale (MHISS) is valid, reliable and useful in assessing oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients.

    Maddali Bongi, S; Del Rosso, A; Miniati, I; Galluccio, F; Landi, G; Tai, G; Matucci-Cerinic, M


    In systemic sclerosis (SSc), mouth and face involvement leads to problems in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis scale (MHISS) is a 12-item questionnaire specifically quantifying mouth disability in SSc, organized in 3 subscales. Our aim was to validate Italian version of MHISS, by assessing its test-retest reliability and internal and external consistency in Italian SSc patients. Forty SSc patients (7 dSSc, 33 lSSc; age and disease duration: 57.27 ± 11.41, 9.4 ± 4.4 years; 22 with sicca syndrome) were evaluated with MHISS. MHISS was translated following a forward-backward translation procedure, with independent translations and counter-translation. Test-retest reliability was evaluated, comparing the results of two administrations, with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's α and external consistency by comparison with mouth opening. MHISS has a good test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.93) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α:0.99). A good external consistency was confirmed by correlation with mouth opening (rho: -0,3869, p: 0.0137). Total MHISS score was 17.65 ± 5.20, with scores of subscale 1 (reduced mouth opening) of 6.60 ± 2.85 and scores of subscales 2 (sicca syndrome) and 3 (aesthetic concerns) of 7.82 ± 2.59 and 3.22 ± 1.14. Total and subscale 2 scores are higher in dSSc than in lSSc. This result may be due to the higher presence of sicca syndrome in dSSc than in lSSc (p = 0.0109). Our results support validity and reliability in Italian SSc patients of MHISS, specifically measuring SSc OHRQoL.

  9. Inversion Models of Suspended Solids Content Based on TM Data in Dalangdian Reservoir%基于TM影像的大浪淀水库悬浮物含量的模型反演

    郝海森; 曹志勇; 高永芹


    With Cangzhou Dalangdian Reservoir as the research object, the measured suspended solids content and remote sensing data were analyzed, the multi-spectral model of suspended substance content and TM2 + TM3 was constructed, and the inversion for model was carried out, the result was correlated with actual water quality distribution, which indicated the model could be applied in monitoring of water body suspended substance.%以沧州大浪淀水库为研究时象,将实测的悬浮物含量和遥感数据进行分析处理,构建了悬浮物含量与TM2+TM3多光谱模型,并对模型进行了反演,其结果符合水体实际水质分布情况,表明所建模型可应用于该水体悬浮物含量的监测需要.

  10. Development and validation of an UPLC method for determination of content uniformity in low-dose solid drugs products using the design space approach.

    Oliva, Alexis; Fariña, José B; Llabrés, Matías


    A simple and reproducible UPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of finasteride in low-dose drug products. Method validation demonstrated the reliability and consistency of analytical results. Due to the regulatory requirements of pharmaceutical analysis in particular, evaluation of robustness is vital to predict how small variations in operating conditions affect the responses. Response surface methodology as an optimization technique was used to evaluate the robustness. For this, a central composite design was implemented around the nominal conditions. Statistical treatment of the responses (retention factor and drug concentrations expressed as percentage of label claim) showed that methanol content in mobile-phase and flow rate were the most influential factors. In the optimization process, the compromise decision support problem (cDSP) strategy was used. Construction of the robust domain from response-surfaces provided tolerance windows for the factors affecting the effectiveness of the method. The specified limits for the USP uniformity of dosage units assay (98.5-101.5%) and the purely experimental variations based on the repeatability test for center points (nominal conditions repetitions) were used as criteria to establish the tolerance windows, which allowed definition design space (DS) of analytical method. Thus, the acceptance criteria values (AV) proposed by the USP-uniformity of assay only depend on the sampling error. If the variation in the responses corresponded to approximately twice the repeatability standard deviation, individual values for percentage label claim (%LC) response may lie outside the specified limits; this implies the data are not centered between the specified limits, and that this term plus the sampling error affects the AV value. To avoid this fact, the limits specified by the Uniformity of Dosage Form assay (i.e., 98.5-101.5%) must be taken into consideration to fix the tolerance windows for each

  11. Analysis on Changes of Amino Acid and Soluble Solid Content during Fresh -keeping of Fruit Sugarcane%果蔗保鲜过程中可溶性固形物和氨基酸变化分析

    李瑞美; 李海明; 潘世明


    采用鱼腥草、丁香、高良姜、藿香、白藓皮和EM茵等制剂对果蔗进行冷藏(0 ~4℃)保鲜处理,结果表明:不同处理出汁率不同,真空包装的出汁率高于未包装的;处理40d后,各处理pH急剧下降,品质劣化加剧;果蔗保鲜过程中所有处理的可溶性固形物均呈现出由下降转为上升再下降的趋势,丁香、高良姜、藿香处理能保持较高的pH,其鲜味氨基酸含量、17种氨基酸总量较高,保鲜效果较好.%The fruit sugarcanes were dipped in the antibacterial solution which contained Houltuynia or Cloves or Galangal or Agastache or Dictamnus albus or EM microorganism, and then they were preserved at 0 ~4 ℃. The results showed that there was different juice yield in different treatments, and the juice yield of vacuum - packed fruit sugarcane was higher than that of unpacked one. The pH - value of fruit sugarcanes in all treatments decreased sharply and their quality depredated greatly after 40 days' treatment. The soluble solid content of fruit sugarcanes in all treatments showed the trend of fall - rising - decline during fresh - keeping. The pH -value, delicious amino acids content and 17 kinds of amino acids content maintained high level in the treatment of Cloves, Galangal and Agastache, and these treatments had good fresh - keeping effect.

  12. Influence of pre- and postharvest summer pruning on the growth, yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of early season peach cultivars.

    Ikinci, Ali


    Winter and summer pruning are widely applied processes in all fruit trees, including in peach orchard management. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer prunings (SP), as compared to winter pruning (WP), on shoot length, shoot diameter, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) increment, fruit yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of two early ripening peach cultivars ("Early Red" and "Maycrest") of six years of age, grown in semiarid climate conditions, in 2008 to 2010. The trees were grafted on GF 677 rootstocks, trained with a central leader system, and spaced 5 × 5 m apart. The SP carried out after harvesting in July and August decreased the shoot length significantly; however, it increased its diameter. Compared to 2009, this effect was more marked in year 2010. In general, control and winter pruned trees of both cultivars had the highest TCSA increment and yield efficiency. The SP increased the average fruit weight and soluble solids contents (SSC) more than both control and WP. The titratable acidity showed no consistent response to pruning time. The carbohydrate accumulation in shoot was higher in WP and in control than in SP trees. SP significantly affected carbohydrate accumulation; postharvest pruning showed higher carbohydrate content than preharvest pruning.

  13. Influence of Pre- and Postharvest Summer Pruning on the Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, and Carbohydrate Content of Early Season Peach Cultivars

    Ali Ikinci


    Full Text Available Winter and summer pruning are widely applied processes in all fruit trees, including in peach orchard management. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer prunings (SP, as compared to winter pruning (WP, on shoot length, shoot diameter, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA increment, fruit yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of two early ripening peach cultivars (“Early Red” and “Maycrest” of six years of age, grown in semiarid climate conditions, in 2008 to 2010. The trees were grafted on GF 677 rootstocks, trained with a central leader system, and spaced 5 × 5 m apart. The SP carried out after harvesting in July and August decreased the shoot length significantly; however, it increased its diameter. Compared to 2009, this effect was more marked in year 2010. In general, control and winter pruned trees of both cultivars had the highest TCSA increment and yield efficiency. The SP increased the average fruit weight and soluble solids contents (SSC more than both control and WP. The titratable acidity showed no consistent response to pruning time. The carbohydrate accumulation in shoot was higher in WP and in control than in SP trees. SP significantly affected carbohydrate accumulation; postharvest pruning showed higher carbohydrate content than preharvest pruning.

  14. 基于近红外光谱对老陈醋的pH值和可溶性固形物定量与定性的检测研究%Qualitative and Quantitative Detection Research of Mature Vinegar’s pH and SSC Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    蒋雪松; 陆辉山; 张林; 闫宏伟; 高强; 王福杰


    Our present study is about qualitative and quantitative detection research of Shanxi mature vinegar based on near infrared spectroscopy. Firstly, near infrared spectroscopy combined with discriminant analysis (DA) was used for vinegar age through different pre-processing methods, at the same time it established the Principal components analysis(PCA) model of soluble solids content (SSC) and the effective acidity (pH). The result indicated that 100%recognition ratio for calibration and 88.89%recognition ratio for validation were achieved by DA for vinegar age. Quantitative model of the SSC which was established by original spectroscopy was the best, the correlation coefficients of calibration and prediction respectively were 0.99989 and 0.99884, RMSEC, RMSEP and RMSECV respectively were 0.0400, 0.0581 and 0.132. Quantitative model of the effective acidity (pH) by 5 points smooth have a better result. The correlation coefficients of calibration and prediction were 0.99733 and 0.97411 respectively. RMSEC, RMSEP and RMSECV were 0.0151, 0.0386 and 0.0468.%采用近红外光谱结合判别分析(DA)和主成分分析(PCA)在不同光谱预处理方法下分别对山西老陈醋醋龄进行定性判别分析,和对陈醋中可溶性固形物(SSC)及 pH 值进行定量分析。结果表明:原始光谱、5点平滑以及SNV校正建立的DA模型性能良好,校正集判别正确率为100%,预测集判别正确率为88.89%;原始光谱建立的可溶性固形物的定量模型最优,校正集和预测集的相关系数r分别为0.99988和0.99960,RMSEC、RMSEP和RMSECV分别为0.0421,0.0911和0.0777;5点平滑建立的 pH 值的定量模型最优,校正集和预测集的相关系数 r 分别为0.99733和0.97411, RMSEC、RMSEP和RMSECV分别为0.0151,0.0386和0.0468,表明采用近红外光谱对老陈醋的pH值和可溶性固形物进行定量分析以及对老陈醋的醋龄进行定性判别是可行的。

  15. SSC编码体系的研究与应用%The Investigation And Application of SSC Encoding System



    Nuclear power projects usually last a long period and include large amount of data. On the top of that, many corporations and institutes participate in the projects of nuclear power plant. Therefore, it's important to manage data and information accurately if administrators want to keep nuclear power project in efficient and smooth running. So an effective and universal encoding system, which is used to manage the component and activity of projects, makes sense to operate plants efficiently and with good quality. Now there are a series of international reference standards, which are based on industry and construction, applied to establish naming system. SSC is a kind of naming standard which is short for structure, system and component. Regarding the process of engineering, procurement, construction and testing, SSC shows value on nuclear power project management, because it would integrate the data from different levels, modules and stages based on different dimensions. All in all, SSC is a naming system used for all parts of nuclear power plant, as a result, it can be used as the tool for nuclear project management.%核电项目的周期长,涉及数据量大,参与单位多,如何能够全面、准确地管理信息和数据,一定程度上决定了该项目是否能高效和稳定的推进.因此,能否为项目管理所涉及的实体建立一套有效而通用的编码体系,对提高核电项目管理的质量和效率有着重要的作用.如今国际上已经有了建立工业现场和电厂的参考命名系统的相应标准,SSC便是其中之一.SSC为核电厂的构筑物、系统和设备的总称.就核电厂的设计、采购、施工和调试工作而言,SSC的作用主要体现在对核电项目的全局管控能力,基于不同的维度,SSC可将不同管理层级、业务模块以及各阶段的数据进行良好的整合,形成对项目的全程管控.

  16. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    Vanessa de Cássia Teixeira da Silva


    Full Text Available This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC and submerged (SmC cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  17. 聚苯醚改性高固含量热塑性PF的制备与性能研究%Study on preparation and properties of thermoplastic PF with high solid content modified by PPO

    理莎莎; 齐暑华; 刘乃亮; 曹鹏


    A thermoplastic PF(phenol formaldehyde resin) with high solid content(>85%) and thermoplastic PF with high solid content modified by PPO(polyphenylene oxide) were synthesized. The structure,curing reaction and thermal degradation process of thermoplastic PF unmodified and modified by PPO were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetry(TGA). And both mechanics properties of composites reinforced by glass fiber were investigated. The results showed that the PPO's introduction,not only increases the curing reaction activity of PF,but also improves the heat resistance of PF. The PPO modified thermoplastic PF-based composite reinforced by glass fiber could effectively improve mechanics properties because its tensile strength,shear strength and bend strength were increased by 17.8% , 73.0% and 21.4%,respectively.%合成了高固含量(>85%)的线性PF(酚醛树脂)和聚苯醚(PPO)改性高固含量线性PF.采用红外光谱(FT-IR)法、差示扫描量热(DSC)法和热重分析(TGA)法等,分析了PPO改性前后线性PF的结构、固化反应和热降解过程,并对两者的玻璃纤维增强复合材料的力学性能进行了研究.结果表明:PPO的引入,既增强了PF的固化反应活性,又提高了PF的耐热性能;PPO改性线性PF基玻璃纤维增强复合材料的力学性能得到了有效提升,其拉伸强度、剪切强度和弯曲强度分别提高了17.8%、73.0%和21.4%.

  18. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan


    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect.

  19. Inulinase Production by Penicillium citrinum ESS in Submerged and Solid-State Cultures

    Cynthia Lafuente-Castaneda


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This work reports the Penicillium citrinum ESS strain as a new source of inulinase (2,1-β-D fructanhydrolase, E.C. Approach: The enzyme was produced in both, Solid-State (SSC and Submerged Culture (SmC using a basal medium added either with inulin or sucrose (5 gL-1. Results: The culture grew faster in SmC than in SSC with both carbon sources; however, yields of inulinase activity per gram of biomass were higher in SSC (1,658,237.28 for inulin and 66598.96 for sucrose than in SmC (441.05 for inulin and 183.91 for sucrose. Conclusion: The highest inulinase production was obtained by SSC, either with inulin or sucrose, reaching values of 6650 and 2970 U/L respectively. In contrast, in SmC were obtained higher levels of inulinase activity (2241 U/L with sucrose as carbon source (24 h, while with inulin, the enzyme production was negatively affected and retarded.

  20. 挤出处理对碎米粉中可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量的影响%Effect of Extrusion on Contents of Soluble Solids and Soluble Sugar in Rice Flour

    王大为; 孙丽琴; 吴丽娟; 徐旭


    将精白米加工过程中产生的碎米粉进行挤出处理,通过正交试验对影响碎米粉中可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量的主要因素进行研究和分析。结果表明:各因素对可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量影响强弱次序为水分含量〉螺杆转速〉挤出温度;碎米粉双螺杆挤出的最佳条件为含水量25%、挤出温度140℃、螺杆转速240r/min,在此条件下,碎米粉挤出物中可溶性固形物及可溶性糖含量分别为39.88%、7.90%,分别是未挤出处理样的1.53倍、3.64倍。采用高效液相色谱法,对最佳挤出条件处理的碎米粉中可溶性糖进行检测,其中果糖275.124mg/100g、葡萄糖891.632mg/100g、蔗糖853.144mg/100g、麦芽糖516.576mg/100g、麦芽三糖353.266mg/100g。%Broken rice and flour from the whitening and polishing of brown rice was extruded,and main factors that affect the contents of soluble solids and soluble sugar in extruded rice flour were investigated.The results indicated that moisture content was the most significant affecting factor,followed by screw speed and extrusion temperature.The optimal moisture content,screw speed and extrusion temperature were determined as 25%,240 r/min and 140 ℃,respectively.Under the optimal extrusion conditions,the contents of soluble solids and soluble sugar in extruded rice flour were 39.88% and 7.90%,respectively,revealing a 1.53-and 3.64-fold increase compared with those of non-extruded samples.HPLC analysis of soluble sugars in extruded rice flour obtained under the optimal conditions showed that 100 g of samples contained 275.124 mg of fructose,891.632 mg of glucose,853.144 mg of sucrose,516.576 mg of maltose and 353.266 mg of maltotriose.

  1. Neutral technicolor pseudo Goldstone bosons production and QCD (quantum chromodynamics) background at the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    Kuo, Wang-Chuang.


    The production of the neutral technicolor pseudo Goldstone bosons, P{sup 0}{prime}and P{sub 8}{sup 0}{prime}, at large transverse momentum in pp collisions, pp {yields} g(q)P{sup 0}{prime} (P{sub 8}{sup 0}{prime})X has been investigated in reactions at a high energy collider such as the SSC. The major two-body and three-body decay modes in tree diagrams are investigated in detail. The t{bar t} decay channel would dominate both the decays of P{sup 0}{prime} and P{sub 8}{sup 0}{prime} if it is allowed. Otherwise, gg and 3g will be the dominant decay modes unless the mass of the P{sup 0}{prime} and P{sub 8}{sup 0}{prime} are below 40 GeV, where b{bar b} becomes dominant. According to the QCD backgrounds, which we have also investigated in detail in this work, the signal for t{bar t} is much larger than the background and will be the ideal signal for detecting these bosons. However, in the absence of the t{bar t} channel, the {tau}{bar {tau}} mode can be used to identify P{sup 0}{prime} up to m{sub P} = 300 GeV in the transverse momentum range P{sub {perpendicular}} {approx lt} 100 GeV. Similarly, the b{bar b} decay mode can serve us a signal to identify P{sub 8}{sup 0}{prime} up to m{sub P} = 300 GeV for P{sub {perpendicular}} between 500 and 700 GeV. Our results show that these high transverse momentum production processes are useful for the searching for the P{sub 8}{sup 0}{prime} at the SSC. 63 refs.

  2. Mrk 421 active state in 2008: the MAGIC view, simultaneous multi-wavelength observations and SSC model constrained

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, A.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.


    Context. The blazar Markarian 421 is one of the brightest TeV gamma-ray sources of the northern sky. From December 2007 until June 2008 it was intensively observed in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) band by the single-dish Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescope (MAGIC-I). Aims: We aimed to measure the physical parameters of the emitting region of the blazar jet during active states. Methods: We performed a dense monitoring of the source in VHE with MAGIC-I, and also collected complementary data in soft X-rays and optical-UV bands; then, we modeled the spectral energy distributions (SED) derived from simultaneous multi-wavelength data within the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) framework. Results: The source showed intense and prolonged γ-ray activity during the whole period, with integral fluxes (E > 200 GeV) seldom below the level of the Crab Nebula, and up to 3.6 times this value. Eight datasets of simultaneous optical-UV (KVA, Swift/UVOT), soft X-ray (Swift/XRT) and MAGIC-I VHE data were obtained during different outburst phases. The data constrain the physical parameters of the jet, once the spectral energy distributions obtained are interpreted within the framework of a single-zone SSC leptonic model. Conclusions: The main outcome of the study is that within the homogeneous model high Doppler factors (40 ≤ δ ≤ 80) are needed to reproduce the observed SED; but this model cannot explain the observed short time-scale variability, while it can be argued that inhomogeneous models could allow for less extreme Doppler factors, more intense magnetic fields and shorter electron cooling times compatible with hour or sub-hour scale variability.

  3. Modulator considerations for beam chopping in the low energy beam transport at the SSC Laboratory

    Anderson, D.; Pappas, G.


    Beam chopping in the low energy transport line at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is accomplished using an electrostatic deflection system. LINAC requirements dictate the design of two modulators operating at 10 Hz with rise and fall times (as measured from approximately 10--99%) of {approximately}100 ns. Design of the first pulser, normally at 10 kV and pulsed to ground potential, utilizes a transformer-coupled diode-clamped solid state circuit to achieve the 2--35 {mu}s pulse width range required. The second pulser, which pulses from ground to approximately 7 kV, relies on a series vacuum tube circuit. The current designs, as well as recent test results and other circuit topologies considered, will be presented. 6 refs.

  4. Assessment of the Halogen Content of Brazilian Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10) Using High Resolution Molecular Absorption Spectrometry and Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with Direct Solid Sample Analysis.

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Almeida, Tarcisio S; Alves, Jeferson C; Araujo, Rennan G O; Borges, Daniel L G


    Halogens in the atmosphere play an important role in climate change and also represent a potential health hazard. However, quantification of halogens is not a trivial task, and methods that require minimum sample preparation are interesting alternatives. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of direct solid sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS MAS) for F determination and electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for simultaneous Cl, Br, and I determination in airborne inhalable particulate matter (PM10) collected in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Analysis using HR-CS MAS was accomplished by monitoring the CaF molecule, which was generated at high temperatures in the graphite furnace after the addition of Ca. Analysis using ETV-ICP-MS was carried out using Ca as chemical modifier/aerosol carrier in order to avoid losses of Cl, Br, and I during the pyrolysis step, with concomitant use of Pd as a permanent modifier. The direct analysis approach resulted in LODs that were proven adequate for halogen determination in PM10, using either standard addition calibration or calibration against a certified reference material. The method allowed the quantification of the halogens in 14 PM10 samples collected in a northeastern coastal city in Brazil. The results demonstrated variations of halogen content according to meteorological conditions, particularly related to rainfall, humidity, and sunlight irradiation.

  5. Thermal expansion in the garnet-type solid electrolyte (Li{sub 7−x}Al{sub x/3})La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} as a function of Al content

    Hubaud, Aude A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Schroeder, David J. [Department of Engineering Technology, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Ingram, Brian J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Okasinski, John S. [Advanced Photon Source, X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Vaughey, John T., E-mail: [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)


    Highlights: • Thermal expansion (TE) coefficients of LLZ found up to 700°. • The aluminum content of LLZ has a small impact on the thermal expansion. • Typical thermal expansion values were around, 16 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1}. • The TE is approximately double other garnet-type structures. - Abstract: The thermal expansion (TE) coefficients of the lithium-stable lithium-ion conducting garnet lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide (LLZ) and the effect of aluminum substitution were measured from room temperature up to 700 °C by a synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction. The typical TE value measured for the most reported composition (LLZ doped with 0.3 wt.% or 0.093 mol% aluminum) was 15.498 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1}, which is approximately twice the value reported for other garnet-type structures. As the Al(III) concentration has been observed to strongly affect the structure observed and the ionic conductivity, we also assessed its role on thermal expansion and noted only a small variation with increasing dopant concentration. The materials implications for using LLZ in a solid state battery are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of a pilot-scale sewage biogas powered 2.8 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Assessment of heat-to-power ratio and influence of oxygen content

    de Arespacochaga, N.; Valderrama, C.; Peregrina, C.; Mesa, C.; Bouchy, L.; Cortina, J. L.


    Biogas from anaerobic digestion of organic matter is a promising renewable energy source and fuel cells appear as a breakthrough technology to improve the performance of the biogas-to-energy valorisation chain. The vast majority of studies addressing biogas energy recovery through Solid Oxide Fuel Cells published in recent years correspond to simulations and lab-scale performance with synthetic biogas. This paper assesses the pilot performance of a 2.8 kWe SOFC unit powered with cleaned sewage biogas for around 700 h in a Wastewater Treatment Plant. The biogas thorough treatment consisting of a biological desulphurisation with a biotrickling filter followed by a deep cleaning step based on adsorption is successful for removing sulphur compounds, siloxanes and hydrocarbons. The influence of the heat-to-power ratio on fuel cell performance is investigated operating the system at O/C ratio of 2, reforming temperature of 550 °C, stack temperature of 800 °C and at a constant voltage of 43 V. At optimized conditions for electrical production satisfying heat demand in the WWTP, system electrical and thermal efficiencies account for 34% and 28%. Cogeneration efficiency remains constant at around 59-62% for all the heat-to-power ratios tested. Furthermore, the impact of the oxygen content in the biogas is also studied.

  7. Computer prediction system on solid/solid reaction kinetics


    A computer software system of kinetic predication of solid/solid reaction, KinPreSSR, was developed using Visual C++ and FoxPro. It includes two main modules, REACTION and DIFFUSION. KinPreSSR deals with the kinetics on the diffusion in solids as well as solid/solid reactions. The REACTION module in KinPreSSR was mainly described, which has organized the commonly recognized kinetic models, parameters, and employed both numerical and graphical methods for data analyses. The proper combination between the kinetic contents and the analytical methods enables users to use KinPreSSR for the evaluation and prediction of solid/solid reactions interested. As an example to show some of functions of KinPreSSR, the kinetics analysis for the reaction between SrCO3 and TiO2 powders to form SrTiO3 with a series of kinetic data from isothermal measurements was demonstrated.

  8. Solid propellants.

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.


    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  9. Radionuclide contents and physicochemical characterization of solid waste and effluent samples of some selected industries in the city of Lagos, Nigeria; Teneurs en radionucleides et caracterisation physico-chimique d'echantillons de dechets solides et d'effluent venant de quelques industries, selectionnees dans la ville de Lagos, Nigeria

    Jibiri, N.N. [Ibadan Univ., Radiation and Health Physics Research Lab., Dept. of Physics (Nigeria); Adewuyi, G.O. [Ibadan Univ., Dept of Chemistry (Nigeria)


    The radionuclide contents in waste products and physico-chemical characterization of effluent samples from some selected industries in the city of Lagos were carried out. The radioactivity concentration levels due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th in the solid wastes were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry while physico-chemical determination of parameters were based on standard methods of measurements. The average radioactivity levels obtained was between 104 {+-} 14 Bq kg-1 and 1276 {+-} 31 Bq kg-1 for {sup 40}K, 86 {+-} 18 Bq kg-1 and 122 {+-} 23 Bq kg-1 for {sup 226}Ra and while for {sup 228}Th it ranged between 14 {+-} 2 Bq kg-1 and 73 {+-} 10 Bq kg-1. No artificial radioactive elements were detected in any of the samples. The average outdoor effective dose rate due to gamma exposure from these waste materials in the city was calculated as 0.12 mSv y{sup -1}. This is far less than 1 mSv y{sup -1} recommended limit for the member of the public by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The pH of the effluent samples was slightly alkaline, while the electrical conductivity ranged between 275 and 455 {mu}S cm{sup -1} and total suspended solids ranged from 104 to 5616 mg l{sup -1}. All these ranges and those of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand values were all higher than the prescribed limits. Presence of heavy metals in the effluent samples was however lower than prescribed with the exception of iron. (authors)

  10. 高含固率秸秆和牛粪混合物料发酵产甲烷工艺%Fermentation technology for methane production using high solid content materials with straw and dairy manure

    马旭光; 李传友; 袁旭峰; 朱万斌; 王小芬; 程序; 崔宗均


    technology. The continuous feeding and discharge of lignocellulosic feedstock with high solids is difficult to complete. Methane production from the feedstock is low in practice. Thus, it is important to develop a new reactor with efficient feeding and discharge feedstock equipments and improve methane production by an optimized operation process. Based on synthesizing the merits of a number of techniques home and abroad, a novel anaerobic reactor was designed in this study. The reactor had two spiral equipments to implement continuous feeding and discharge feedstock with high solid content and had a high bearing capability of organic loading rate (OLR) to improve methane production. In order to provide a technology and some reliable operating parameters to efficiently produce methane from lignocellulosic feedstock, the continuous anaerobic co-digestion tests were conducted at three total solid contents of 10%, 15% and 20%using corn stalk and dairy manure as feedstock. An integrated two-phase division digestion system was constructed by controlling stirring intensity (h/d) and feeding intensity (d). The methane volumetric production rate (MVPR) of different OLRs was compared. Effects of the total solid (TS) of feedstock, stirring, feeding intensity on height, pH of function divisions, and MVPR were discussed in detail. The results showed that function divisions, including the acidification division of upside and methanogenic division of underpart in the vertical reactor, were obviously formed when TS were 10% and 15%, MVPR gradually increased, and methane content stabilized around 52% with OLR increasing. The highest MVPR reached 1.62 and 1.66 m3/(m3·d) respectively when OLR was 13.44 kg/(m3·d) at 10%TS and 20.17 kg/(m3·d) at 15% TS. MVPR significantly decreased when OLR was 20.17 kg/(m3·d) and 30.0 kg/(m3·d), respectively, which might be caused by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids. MVPR stabilized around 0.98 m3/(m3·d) with OLR increasing, then it dramatically

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue 3XMM-DR5 (XMM-SSC, 2016)

    Rosen, S. R.; Webb, N. A.; Watson, M. G.; Ballet, J.; Barret, D.; Braito, V.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Coriat, M.; Della Ceca, R.; Denkinson, G.; Esquej, P.; Farrell, S. A.; Freyberg, M.; Grise, F.; Guillout, P.; Heil, L.; Law-Green, D.; Lamer, G.; Lin, D.; Martino, R.; Michel, L.; Motch, C.; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A.; Page, C. G.; Page, K.; Page, M.; Pakull, M. W.; Pye, J.; Read, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Sakano, M.; Saxton, R.; Schwope, A.; Scott, A. E.; Sturm, R.; Traulsen, I.; Yershov, V.; Zolotukhin, I.


    The 3XMM-DR5 catalogue is the third generation catalog of serendipitous X-ray sources from the European Space Agency's (ESA) XMM-Newton observatory, and has been created by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC) on behalf of ESA. The catalog has 354 more observations and 34701 more detections than the preceding 3XMM-DR4 catalog, which was made public in July 2013. The history of the versions can be summarized as: ---------------------------------------------------- Name DR# Designation Year Cat. #Sources ---------------------------------------------------- 2XMMp 0 2XMMp-DR0 2006 2XMM 1 2XMM-DR1 2007 IX/39 191870 2XMMi 2 2XMMi-DR2 2008 IX/40 221012 2XMMi-DR3 3 2XMMi-DR3 2010 IX/41 262902 3XMM-DR4 4 3XMM 2013 IX/44 372728 3XMM-DR5 5 3XMM 2016 IX/46 396910 ---------------------------------------------------- The production and content of the 3XMM catalogue is described in the the 3XMM-DR4 User Guide at The "slim" version of the catalogue (file "xmm3r5s.dat") contains one row per unique source, while the the main catalogue has one row per detection. This slim version includes 44 columns, essentially those containing information about the unique sources, while the full catalogue (file "") describes all detections with 323 columns. The slim version also contains a column with links to the summary pages in the IRAP catalogue archive. In the case of sources with multiple detections the summary page of the best detection is selected (i.e., the detection with the largest exposure time, summed over all cameras), and the summary page gives cross-links to the other detections. A separate file "summary.dat" contains the key details about the observations used in the construction of the 3XMM-DR5 catalogue. (3 data files).

  12. Study on preparing high-solid content polyurethane adhesive modified by acrylate%高固含量丙烯酸酯改性聚氨酯胶粘剂的研制

    胡孝勇; 朱文强; 张泽民; 陈锦凡


    以聚醚多元醇、聚酯多元醇和蓖麻油为混合多元醇,以改性MDI(4,4'-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯)及PAPI(多亚甲基多苯基多异氰酸酯)为混合异氰酸酯,合成了聚氨酯(PU)胶粘剂预聚体;然后以PA(羟基丙烯酸酯树脂)作为PU预聚体的改性剂,制得高固含量的PUA(聚丙烯酸酯改性聚氨酯)胶粘剂.结果表明:当m(改性MDI):m(PAPI)=1:1、n(-NCO):n(-OH)=2.2:1、ω(PA)=8%(相对于PU质量而言)和ω(丙烯酸羟乙酯)=3%(相对于PU质量而言)时,PuA胶粘剂的综合性能较好.%With polyester polyol, polyether polyol and castor oil as mix polyols, modified MDI(4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) and PAPI (multimethylene multiphenyl multiisocyanate) as mix isocyanate, so a polyurethane(PU) adhesive prepolymer was prepared. Then a PUA (PU modified by polyacrylate) adhesive with high solid content was prepared when PA(hydroxyl acrylate resin) was used as modifier of PU prepolymer. The results showed that the PUA adhesive had well combination property when mass ratio of m(modified MDI):m(PAPI) was 1:1,molar ratio of n(-NCO):n(-OH) was 2.2:1, mass fractions of PA and hydroxy ethyl acrylate were 8% and 3% in PU respectively.

  13. Mrk 421 active state in 2008: the MAGIC view, simultaneous multi-wavelength observations and SSC model constrained

    Aleksic, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Canellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Dominguez1, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; Lopez, R J Garcia; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Giavitto, G; Godinovic, N; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jogler, T; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krahenbuh, T; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Lopez, A; Lopez, M; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldon, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Pasanen, M; Pauss, F; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vankov, H; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R


    Context. The HBL-type blazar Markarian 421 is one of the brightest TeV gamma-ray sources of the northern sky. From December 2007 until June 2008 it was intensively observed in the VHE (E > 100 GeV) band by the single dish Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescope (MAGIC-I). Aims. We aimed to sample the evolution of the source emission at VHE and in other bands, and to model the broad band spectral energy distribution (SED) of selected states, reconstructed by means of sets of multi-wavelength (MWL) data observed simultaneously. Methods. We performed a dense monitoring of the source in VHE with MAGIC-I, collecting also complementary data in soft X-rays and optical-UV bands; then, we modeled the SEDs derived from simultaneous MWL data within the Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) framework. Results. The source showed intense and prolonged gamma-ray activity during the whole period, with integral fluxes (E > 200 GeV) sel- dom below the level of Crab Nebula, and up to 3.6 times this value. Eight dataset...

  14. The SSC cycle: a PDCA approach to address site-specific characteristics in a continuous shallow water quality monitoring project.

    Miles, Eduardo J


    In any water quality-monitoring project there are several critical success factors that must be adequately addressed in order to ensure the implementation and realization of the monitoring objectives. Site selection is one of these critical success factors. The monitoring sites must be selected to comply with the monitoring and data quality objectives. In the real world, ideal monitoring setting conditions are difficult to achieve, and compromises must be made in order to locate the monitoring stations that best represent the environment to be monitored. Site-specific characteristics are all the environmental, logistical and management factors particular to the monitoring site, that could influence the fulfilment of the monitoring and data quality objectives. Therefore, during the site selection process, it is essential to properly consider and evaluate these site-specific characteristics. The SSC cycle was developed with this goal in mind, to assist the monitoring team to systematically address site-specific characteristics. The cycle is a methodology to organize the site-specific characteristics in different categories, and to ensure a comprehensive overview of these characteristics throughout the project life cycle.

  15. Comparison of SSC and epidemiological approaches to evaluating links between heat stress and mortality in Prague, Czech Republic

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan


    Reduced numbers of deaths during heat waves related to introduction of heat early warning systems has been demonstrated in many areas of the world. These systems are most often based on synoptic or epidemiological approaches to assessing the impact of heat on mortality. While the synoptic approach is based on the classification of air masses and the subsequent identification of oppressive air masses (OAMs), the epidemiological approach identifies direct relationship between time series of mortality and meteorological data (mostly air temperature). In this study, OAMs and oppressive days (ODs) will be identified in the period May-September 1994-2013 using selected methods of the synoptic (SSC) and epidemiological approach (GAM, piecewise regression), respectively. Relations between mortality daily data (adjusted for long-term and seasonal changes) and both meteorological and non-meteorological factors (pollution, day of the season, the length of heat waves, year) within OAMs and ODs, will be identified in the "training" years. The resulting regression relationships will be tested on independent "testing" years to evaluate the ability of different approaches to predict days with increased mortality. The results of the project may help to refine the criteria for issuing biometeorological forecasts and warnings of possible adverse heat effects.

  16. Time-dependent simulations of emission from FSRQ PKS1510-089: multiwavelength variability of external Compton and SSC models

    Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus


    [abridged] We present results of modeling the SED and multiwavelength variability of the bright FSRQ PKS1510-089 with our time-dependent multizone Monte Carlo/Fokker-Planck code (Chen et al. 2001). As primary source of seed photons for inverse Compton scattering, we consider radiation from the broad line region (BLR), from the molecular torus, and the local synchrotron radiation (SSC). Different scenarios are assessed by comparing simulated light curves and SEDs with one of the best flares by PKS1510-089, in March 2009. The time-dependence of our code and its correct handling of light travel time effects allow us to fully take into account the effect of the finite size of the active region, and in turn to fully exploit the information carried by time resolved observed SEDs, increasingly available since the launch of Fermi. We confirm that the spectrum adopted for the external radiation has an important impact on the modeling of the SED, in particular for the lower energy end of the Compton component, observed...

  17. Solid lubricants

    Sliney, Harold E.


    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  18. Solid Matter

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  19. High performance air electrode for solid oxide regenerative fuel cells fabricated by infiltration of nano-catalysts

    Lee, Sung-il; Kim, Jeonghee; Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Byung-Kook; Je, Hae-June; Lee, Hae-Weon; Song, Huesup; Yoon, Kyung Joong


    A high performance air electrode fabricated by infiltration of highly active nano-catalysts into a porous scaffold is demonstrated for high-temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cells (SORFCs). The nitrate precursor solution for Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (SSC) catalyst is impregnated into a porous La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF)-gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) composite backbone, and extremely fine SSC nano-particles are uniformly synthesized by in-situ crystallization at the initial stage of SORFC operation via homogeneous nucleation induced by urea decomposition. The SSC nano-catalysts are in the size range of 40-80 nm and stable against coarsening upon the SORFC operation at 750 °C. The electrochemical performance is significantly improved by incorporation of SSC nano-catalysts in both power generation and hydrogen production modes. Systematic analysis on the impedance spectra reveals that the surface modification of the air electrode with nano-catalysts remarkably accelerates the chemical surface exchange reactions for both O2 reduction and O2- oxidation, which are the major limiting processes for SORFC performance.

  20. SSC Resistance of Super 13Cr Martensitic Stainless Steel%超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢抗SSC性能研究

    吕祥鸿; 赵国仙; 王宇; 张建兵; 谢凯意


    H2S stress corrosion cracking (SSC) behavior of super 13Cr martensitic stainless steel at the simulated and standard environments has been studied with four-point bent test, electrochemical measurement as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis methods. The results show that the super 13Cr martensitic stainless steel behaves a high SSC susceptibility at the standard environments, and the cracks stem from surface corrosion pits because of the occurrence of H2S and Clmaking the pitting potential of super 13Cr martensitic stainless steel decreased significantly. While at the simulated environments, the SSC susceptibility of super 13Cr martensitic stainless steel decreased, and no cracks are found on the surface of the test specimen.%采用四点弯曲实验方法、电化学测试技术及扫描电子显微镜(SEM)等分析手段研究了超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢在模拟工况和标准工况中的H2S应力腐蚀开裂(SSC)行为.结果表明:超级13Cr 马氏体不锈钢在标准工况条件下具有很高的SSC敏感性,裂纹起源于表面点蚀坑处,H2S腐蚀性气体的存在及Cl-浓度的增加显著降低超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢的点蚀电位,明显增加超级13Cr马氏体不锈钢的SSC敏感性;在模拟工况条件下,超级13Cr发生SSC的敏感性降低,没有发生开裂现象.

  1. Wide Area Recovery & Resiliency Program (WARRP) Transition Manager Series, Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) 2011: SSC Pacific Civilian Message Systems in Trial 2.32


    They acquired materials and equipment on short notice, and shipped and tracked equipment to the various locations for testing and operations. SSC...displayed sensor readings and maps: an Apple iPad and a Samsung Galaxy Tab. • Mobile Wi-Fi Hotspot: A 3G AT&T MiFi integrated the sensors, laptops and...Sullivan (1) 85300 Archive Stock (1) 53627 Francis Cortez (1) Defense Technical Information Center Fort Belvoir, VA 22060

  2. Propriedades termofísicas da polpa do cupuaçu com diferentes teores de sólidos Termophysical properties of cupuaçu pulp at different solids contents

    Josalice de Lima Araújo


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar as propriedades termofísicas difusividade térmica, calor específico e condutividade térmica da polpa do cupuaçu em três condições de teor de sólidos: integral (12ºBrix, 9ºBrix e com eliminação parcial dos sólidos insolúveis (peneirado. A difusividade térmica foi determinada por meio do aparato de Dickerson (1965; para o calor específico, utilizou-se a metodologia do calorímetro de mistura, e a condutividade térmica foi determinada considerando-se a relação entre a difusividade térmica, o calor específico e a massa específica. Foram utilizadas equações para o cálculo teórico dessas propriedades e os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais. Os resultados experimentais médios, obtidos para as difusividades térmicas, calores específicos e condutividades térmicas das amostras integral, 9ºBrix e peneiradas foram, respectivamente: 1,31x10-7, 1,32x10-7 e 1,27x10-7 m²/s; 3,24, 3,71 e 3,18 kJ/kgºC; e 0,44 W/mºC, 0,50 W/mºC e 0,42 W/mºC.This work was accomplished with the aim of determining the termophysical properties, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of cupuaçu pulp in three conditions of solids contents: 12ºBrix, 9ºBrix, and partial elimination of the insoluble solids (sieving. The thermal diffusivity was determined by means of Dickerson’s (1965 apparatus, for the specific heat the method of mixtures was used and the thermal conductivity was determined starting from the relationship among thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density. Equations were used for the theoretical calculation of those properties and the results were compared with the experimental values. The average results, obtained for the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of the 12ºBrix, 9ºBrix and sieved samples were, respectively: 1.31x10-7, 1.32x10-7 and 1.27x10-7 m²/s; 3.24, 3.71 and 3.18 kJ/kgºC; and 0.44 W

  3. Morphological and molecular evaluation of some Egyptian ...



    Jan 8, 2014 ... The chemical traits such as soluble solids contents (SSC), vitamin C content, anthocyanin content .... (RADWAG , Model: WTB200) with an accuracy of 0.001 g and color .... software of Non-Linear Dynamics Corporation (UK).

  4. 考虑粒径分布的深水环空岩屑浓度研究及应用%Research and Application of Annulus Solid Content Considering the Cuttings Size Distribution during Deep-water Drilling

    夏环宇; 翟应虎; 王磊; 陈静; 张毅


    深水低温对钻井液性能影响显著,其黏度和切力的改变使深水携岩与常规陆上钻井不同.由于温度降低带来钻井液性能的改变对不同粒径岩屑上返速度的影响程度不同,因此在深水携岩研究中,考虑岩屑粒径分布是必要的.分析了温度变化对钻井液影响,建立了考虑岩屑粒径大小及粒径分布、机械钻速及钻井循环时间等影响因素的深水钻井分岩屑粒径的环空浓度计算新模型,从而获得了深水钻井中全井及井眼各段环空内岩屑浓度大小及其浓度随循环时间变化的分布与变化规律;并在现场深水钻井岩屑浓度的分析计算中,取得了良好的应用效果.%Drilling fluid performance can be influenced significantly under low temperature in deep-water drilling. The change of viscosity and shear force make cutting transport in deep-water drilling different from onshore drilling. Due to the different influence on sinking speed of different size cuttings with temperature changed, it is necessary to consider the particle size distribution for the cutting carry in deepwater drilling. The factor of rheological behavior varied with temperature changing, drilling cuttings size and its distribution, rate of penetration (ROP) and circulation time in drilling are considered, the new model of cuttings proportion calculation in wellbore annular is established, which can calculate the proportion in each hole and the full well sections and indicate the rule of proportion changed with time-varying. The model is applied in the calculation of solid content in the oil field and a good effect has been achieved.

  5. Development of a new sample preparation method based on liquid-liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and its application on unfiltered samples containing high content of solids.

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Abbaspour, Maryam


    A new sample preparation method based on liquid-liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection has been reported for the extraction/preconcentration and determination of trace levels of twelve pesticide residues from different samples with high content of solids without filtration. This method consists of a three-phase system including an aqueous phase (sample solution), acetonitrile, and hexane. The extraction mechanism is based on different affinities of the substances from the sample matrices towards each of the involved phase, which provides a high selectivity to the process. In other words, interfering hydrophobic compounds are transferred into hexane and will not be present in the final extract. Furthermore, ionic and polar compounds are retained in the aqueous phase. Therefore, only semi-polar compounds such as the studied pesticides are extracted into acetonitrile. In this method, a homogeneous solution of the aqueous phase and acetonitrile (a water-soluble extraction solvent) forms two clearly separated phases in the presence of sodium sulfate (as a phase separation agent) and simultaneously the analytes are extracted into the fine droplets of the acetonitrile collected on the surface of the aqueous phase. To achieve high enrichment factors, the acetonitrile phase is mixed with 1,2-dibromoethane (as a preconcentration solvent) at µL-level to perform the following dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. Several parameters that can affect extraction efficiency including kind and volume of extraction solvent, type and concentration of phase separation agent, hexane volume, kind of preconcentration solvent, and ionic strength were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, extraction recoveries were obtained in the range of 53-93% and the calibration curves were linear in wide ranges with correlation coefficients ≥ 0.9983. Intra- (n = 6) and

  6. The CALBC RDF Triple Store: retrieval over large literature content

    Croset, Samuel; Li, Chen; Kavaliauskas, Silvestras; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich


    Integration of the scientific literature into a biomedical research infrastructure requires the processing of the literature, identification of the contained named entities (NEs) and concepts, and to represent the content in a standardised way. The CALBC project partners (PPs) have produced a large-scale annotated biomedical corpus with four different semantic groups through the harmonisation of annotations from automatic text mining solutions (Silver Standard Corpus, SSC). The four semantic groups were chemical entities and drugs (CHED), genes and proteins (PRGE), diseases and disorders (DISO) and species (SPE). The content of the SSC has been fully integrated into RDF Triple Store (4,568,678 triples) and has been aligned with content from the GeneAtlas (182,840 triples), UniProtKb (12,552,239 triples for human) and the lexical resource LexEBI (BioLexicon). RDF Triple Store enables querying the scientific literature and bioinformatics resources at the same time for evidence of genetic causes, such as drug ta...

  7. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A


    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  8. Solid consistency

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge


    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  9. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    Gray, J.H.


    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  10. Prediction of water content at different potentials from soil property data in Jazan region

    Alturki, Ali; Ibrahim, Hesham


    In dry regions effective irrigation management is crucial to maintain crop production and sustain limited water resources. Effective irrigation requires good knowledge of soil water content in the root zone. However, measurement of soil water in the root zone over time is extremely expensive and time consuming. On the other hand, weather and basic soil property data are more available, either from existing databases or by direct measurement in the field. Simulation models can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate soil water content and subsequent irrigation requirements based on the available weather and soil data. In this study we investigated three hierarchical approaches to predict water content at variable potentials (0, 10, 33, 60, 100, 300, 500, 800, 1000, and 1500 kPa) using the Rosetta model: soil texture class (STC); percent of sand, silt, and clay (SSC); bulk density, percent of sand, silt, and clay, and water content measurements at 33 and 1500 kPa (SSC+WC). Estimation of soil water content at 43 locations in Jazan region using the three hierarchical approaches was compared with gravimetric water content. Results showed that the three approaches failed to describe water content accurately at saturation conditions (achieve effective irrigation scheduling especially in locations where only limited weather and soil date are available.

  11. Content Analysis

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento


    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  12. Content Marketing

    LE, DUC


    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  13. An Overview of the Coding Standard MPEG-4 Audio Amendments 1 and 2: HE-AAC, SSC, and HE-AAC v2

    A. C. den Brinker


    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004, the ISO/IEC MPEG standardization committee added two amendments to their MPEG-4 audio coding standard. These amendments concern parametric coding techniques and encompass Spectral Band Replication (SBR, Sinusoidal Coding (SSC, and Parametric Stereo (PS. In this paper, we will give an overview of the basic ideas behind these techniques and references to more detailed information. Furthermore, the results of listening tests as performed during the final stages of the MPEG-4 standardization process are presented in order to illustrate the performance of these techniques.

  14. Design and Evaluation of joint resistance in SSC Rutherford type cable splices for Torus magnet for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade

    Ghoshal, Probir K. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Fair, Ruben J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kashy, David H. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rajput-Ghoshal, Renuka [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hampshire, Damian; Tsui, Yeekin; Haden-Gates, Virginia


    The Hall B 3.6-T superconducting torus magnet is being designed and built as part of the Jefferson Lab 12-GeV upgrade. The magnet consists of six trapezoidal coils connected in series, with an operating current of 3770 A. The magnet and the joints (or splices) connecting the coils are all conduction cooled by supercritical 4.6-K helium. This paper studies the design and manufacturing process of the splices made between two SSC Rutherford-type cables and discusses the tests performed to evaluate the performance of the splices under varying incident magnetic fields.


    高鸣; 蔡体敏


    通过对固体推进剂药柱进行初始气孔率热老化试验研究,探讨了用累积损伤方法来预测药柱贮存寿命,提出了一种准确、经济、方便地提前预测药柱贮存寿命的新方法和新技术.%A method for predicting the storage life of solid propellant grain by cumulative damage was developed based on heat ageing experiment on initial void content rate of propellant grain,and its application was discussed.A new method which can accurately,economically and conveniently predict the storage life of solid propillant grain was prosoed.

  16. Mechanical-property changes of structural composite materials after low-temperature proton irradiation: Implications for use in SSC magnet systems

    Morena, J. [Ace, Inc., Stuart, FL (US); Snead, C.L. Jr. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Czajkowski, C.; Skaritka, J. [SSC Lab., Dallas, TX (US)


    Longterm physical, mechanical, electrical, and other properties of advanced composites, plastics, and other polymer materials are greatly affected by high-energy proton, neutron, electron, and gamma radiation. The effects of high-energy particles on materials is a critical design parameter to consider when choosing polymeric structural, nonstructural, and elastomeric matrix resin systems. Polymer materials used for filled resins, laminates, seals, gaskets, coatings, insulation and other nonmetallic components must be chosen carefully, and reference data viewed with caution. Most reference data collected in the high-energy physics community to date reflects material property degradation using other than proton irradiations. In most instances, the data were collected for room-temperature irradiations, not 4.2 K or other cryogenic temperatures, and at doses less than 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} Rad. Energetic proton (and the accompanying spallation-product particles) provide good simulation fidelity to the expected radiation fields predicted for the cold-mass regions of the SSC magnets, especially the corrector magnets. The authors present here results for some structural composite materials which were part of a larger irradiation-characterization of polymeric materials for SSC applications.

  17. Serial enrichment of spermatogonial stem and progenitor cells (SSCs) in culture for derivation of long-term adult mouse SSC lines.

    Martin, Laura A; Seandel, Marco


    Spermatogonial stem and progenitor cells (SSCs) of the testis represent a classic example of adult mammalian stem cells and preserve fertility for nearly the lifetime of the animal. While the precise mechanisms that govern self-renewal and differentiation in vivo are challenging to study, various systems have been developed previously to propagate murine SSCs in vitro using a combination of specialized culture media and feeder cells(1-3). Most in vitro forays into the biology of SSCs have derived cell lines from neonates, possibly due to the difficulty in obtaining adult cell lines(4). However, the testis continues to mature up until ~5 weeks of age in most mouse strains. In the early post-natal period, dramatic changes occur in the architecture of the testis and in the biology of both somatic and spermatogenic cells, including alterations in expression levels of numerous stem cell-related genes. Therefore, neonatally-derived SSC lines may not fully recapitulate the biology of adult SSCs that persist after the adult testis has reached a steady state. Several factors have hindered the production of adult SSC lines historically. First, the proportion of functional stem cells may decrease during adulthood, either due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors(5,6). Furthermore, as with other adult stem cells, it has been difficult to enrich SSCs sufficiently from total adult testicular cells without using a combination of immunoselection or other sorting strategies(7). Commonly employed strategies include the use of cryptorchid mice as a source of donor cells due to a higher ratio of stem cells to other cell types(8). Based on the hypothesis that removal of somatic cells from the initial culture disrupts interactions with the stem cell niche that are essential for SSC survival, we previously developed methods to derive adult lines that do not require immunoselection or cryptorchid donors but rather employ serial enrichment of SSCs in culture, referred to hereafter as SESC(2



    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  19. Content Analysis

    George Bedinelli Rossi


    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  20. 革新化技术 日夜型产品——Sony SSC-DC410P日夜型摄像机



    作为摄像机的核心器件,CCD的品质对影像画质起决定性的作用。当前,安防行业应用的摄像机多数采用的都是Sony生产的CCD,所以Sony CCD技术的每一次进步,都将带来摄像机影像品质的提升。本次向各位读者介绍的新品就是采用Sony新开发的Super HADⅡ技术,具备日夜转换功能的SSC-DC410P日夜型摄像机。

  1. Effect of Sr Content and Strain on Sr Surface Segregation of La 1–x Sr x Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-δ as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Yu, Yang; Ludwig, Karl F.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Basu, Soumendra N.


    Strontium doped lanthanum cobalt ferrite (LSCF) is a widely used cathode material due to its high electronic and ionic conductivity, and reasonable oxygen surface exchange coefficient. However, LSCF can have long-term stability issues such as surface segregation of Sr during solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation, which can adversely affect the electrochemical performance. Thus, understanding the nature of the Sr surface segregation phenomenon, and how it is affected by the composition of LSCF and strain are critical. In this research, heteroepitaxial thin films of La1-x SrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3- with varying Sr content (x = 0.4, 0.3, 0.2) were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal NdGaO3, SrTiO3 and GdScO3 substrates, leading to different levels of strain in the films. The extent of Sr segregation at the film surface was quantified using synchrotron-based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electronic structure of the Sr-rich phases formed on the surface was investigated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The extent of Sr segregation was found to be a function of the Sr content in bulk. Lowering the Sr content from 40% to 30% reduced the surface segregation, but further lowering the Sr content to 20% increased the segregation. The strain of LSCF thin films on various substrates was measured using high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and the Sr surface segregation was found to be reduced with compressive strain and enhanced with tensile strain present within the thin films. A model was developed correlating the Sr surface segregation with Sr content and strain effects to explain the experimental results.

  2. Implementing New Methods of Laser Marking of Items in the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System at SSC RF-IPPE: An Automated Laser Marking System

    Regoushevsky, V I; Tambovtsev, S D; Dvukhsherstnov, V G; Efimenko, V F; Ilyantsev, A I; Russ III, G P


    For over ten years SSC RF-IPPE, together with the US DOE National Laboratories, has been working on implementing automated control and accountability methods for nuclear materials and other items. Initial efforts to use adhesive bar codes or ones printed (painted) onto metal revealed that these methods were inconvenient and lacked durability under operational conditions. For NM disk applications in critical stands, there is the additional requirement that labels not affect the neutron characteristics of the critical assembly. This is particularly true for the many stainless-steel clad disks containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium that are used at SSC RF-IPPE for modeling nuclear power reactors. In search of an alternate method for labeling these disks, we tested several technological options, including laser marking and two-dimensional codes. As a result, the method of laser coloring was chosen in combination with Data Matrix ECC200 symbology. To implement laser marking procedures for the HEU disks and meet all the nuclear material (NM) handling standards and rules, IPPE staff, with U.S. technical and financial support, implemented an automated laser marking system; there are also specially developed procedures for NM movements during laser marking. For the laser marking station, a Zenith 10F system by Telesis Technologies (10 watt Ytterbium Fiber Laser and Merlin software) is used. The presentation includes a flowchart for the automated system and a list of specially developed procedures with comments. Among other things, approaches are discussed for human-factor considerations. To date, markings have been applied to numerous steel-clad HEU disks, and the work continues. In the future this method is expected to be applied to other MC&A items.

  3. Influence of total solid content and inoculum-to-substrate ratio on anaerobic digestion of leaf vegetable waste%含固率和接种比对叶菜类蔬菜垃圾厌氧消化的影响

    何品晶; 胡洁; 吕凡; 诸一殊; 邵立明


    通过叶菜类蔬菜垃圾中温批式厌氧消化实验,比较了含固率(3%、5%、7%)和接种比(1.5、2.5、3.5)对产甲烷效果的联合影响.结果表明,在研究实验参数范围内,含固率越低、接种比越高,越有利于缩短产甲烷反应迟滞期,平均日产甲烷速率越快.经过52d 的培养,在含固率为3%、接种比为3.5的工况中,平均日产甲烷速率最快,达到9.5mL/(gVS?d),日最大产甲烷速率最快,达到49.8mL/(gVS?d),最早进入快速产甲烷期.当接种比为3.5时,随着含固率的升高,产甲烷速率下降,迟滞期延长,但单位底物累计产甲烷量增大,含固率7%时单位底物累计净产甲烷量为481mL/gVS.而当接种比为1.5时,含固率为5%和7%的工况均无法启动甲烷化反应,含固率为3%的工况的产气迟滞期达15d.挥发性有机酸的累积抑制甲烷化反应的启动,迟滞期随着液相中有机酸浓度的增加而延长,当有机酸浓度低于1260mg/L,甲烷化反应没有明显的迟滞期.%Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mesophilic anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste. The performances of anaerobic digestion were compared at different total solid contents (3%, 5%, and 7%) and inoculum-to-substrate ratios (1.5, 2.5, and 3.5). Gas and liquid phase analysis showed that the lower total solid content and the higher inoculum-to-substrate ratio shortened the lag phase of methanogenesis, and increased the average daily methane production rate. After 52 days, the treatment at 3%in total solid content and inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 3.5 had the highest average daily methane production rate from VS of 9.5mL/(gVS?d), and the highest daily highest methane production rate from VS of 49.8 mL/(gVS?d). This treatment was also the first to enter the rapid methanogenic phase. At an inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 3.5, it was observed that as the total solid content increased the lag phase was prolonged and there was an increase in the methane production

  4. Silicon PIN diode hybrid arrays for charged particle detection: Building blocks for vertex detectors at the SSC

    Kramer, G.; Gaalema, S.; Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.


    Two-dimensional arrays of solid state detectors have long been used in visible and infrared systems. Hybrid arrays with separately optimized detector and readout substrates have been extensively developed for infrared sensors. The characteristics and use of these infrared readout chips with silicon PIN diode arrays produced by MICRON SEMICONDUCTOR for detecting high-energy particles are reported. Some of these arrays have been produced in formats as large as 512 /times/ 512 pixels; others have been radiation hardened to total dose levels beyond 1 Mrad. Data generation rates of 380 megasamples/second have been achieved. Analog and digital signal transmission and processing techniques have also been developed to accept and reduce these high data rates. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung


    A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials under realistic conditions. A commerical 50 mm x 50 mm NiO-YSZ anode supported thin YSZ electrolyte cell with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode was tested to evaluate the stability of candidate materials. The cell was tested in two stages at 800oC: stage I of low (~3% H2O) humidity and stage II of high (~30% H2O) humidity hydrogen fuel at constant voltage or constant current mode. Part I of the work was published earlier with information of the generic test fixture design, materials, cell performance, and optical post-mortem analysis. In part II, detailed microstructure and interfacial characterizations are reported regarding the SOFC candidate materials: (Mn,Co)-spinel conductive coating, alumina coating for sealing area, ferritic stainless steel interconnect, refractory sealing glass, and their interactions with each other. Overall, the (Mn,Co)-spinel coating was very effective in minimizing Cr migration. No Cr was identified in the cathode after 1720h at 800oC. Aluminization of metallic interconnect also proved to be chemically compatible with alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass. The details of interfacial reaction and microstructure development are discussed.

  6. 固相烧结低钨含量W-Ni-Fe合金的微观结构与力学性能%Microstructure and mechanical property of W-Ni-Fe alloys with lower tungsten content fabricated by solid state sintering

    徐欢; 曹顺华; 陈炳煌; 肖彬; 李世康


    采用固相烧结工艺(1300℃保温1 h)制备低钨含量(质量分数为60%~80%)的W-Ni-Fe合金,测定合金的抗拉强度、抗压强度和伸长率,利用金相显微镜观察合金的显微组织,并通过扫描电镜(SEM)观察合金断口形貌,研究钨含量对固相烧结W-Ni-Fe合金力学性能与微观结构的影响。结果表明:随钨含量降低,合金的孔隙率和平均孔径减小,抗拉强度增大,伸长率显著提高,抗压强度变化不大。W含量为60%~80%的W-Ni-Fe合金,其孔隙率为17.8%~21.4%,抗拉强度为231~262 MPa,抗压强度2450~2550 MPa,伸长率为0.3%~2.3%,压拉比为9.45~11.04,都能满足易碎型穿甲弹弹芯材料的性能要求。%W-Ni-Fe alloys with low tungsten content (60%−80%, mass fraction) were prepared by solid state sintering. The mechanical properties including tensile strength, compression strength and elongation of the sample were tested. The microstructure and fracture morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of tungsten content on mechanical properties and microstructure of W-Ni-Fe alloys after solid state sintering were also studied. The results show that, with decreasing tungsten content, the porosity and average pore size of alloys decrease, tensile strength increases, elongation increases significantly, and compression strength changes a little. The W-Ni-Fe alloys with tungsten content in the range of 60%−80% have porosity of 17.8%−21.4%, tensile strength of 231−262 MPa, compressive strength of 2 450−2 550MPa, elongation of 0.3%−2.3%, and the proportion of compressive strength and tensile strength of 9.45−11.04, which all meet the requirements of the fragile armour-piercing projectile.

  7. CFU-Mk content of immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells, evaluated with an adapted serum-free methylcellulose assay, is predictive of platelet lineage reconstitution in children with solid tumors.

    Boiret, N; Kanold, J; Fouassier, M; Bons, J M; Halle, P; Rapatel, C; Berger, J; Pireyre, P; Blanzat, V; Travade, P; Bonhomme, J; Demeocq, F; Berger, M G


    Immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation is now frequently used to support autologous hematopoiesis after myeloablative therapy, its feasability having been proved by several groups. However, we and others observed delayed platelet recovery. We hypothesized that immunoselection processing might induce selective loss of megakaryocyte progenitors, or a decrease in their proliferation. We used a colony-forming units megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk) assay to evaluate these consequences and predict platelet recovery in patients. In CD34+ PBPCs from 10 children with solid tumors, we observed no selective loss in CFU-Mk numbers during immunoselection processing and no impairment of clonogenicity. The CFU-Mk yield (59.2 +/- 11.3%) was at least similar to the CD34+ yield (44.2 +/- 3.8%). We assessed the predictive value of CFU-Mk numbers infused for recovery of platelet lineage. We found an inverse correlation between the time taken to reach a platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L and only the CFU-Mk dose (r = -0.71; p = 0.022) among the different type of progenitors, including colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), burst-forming units erythrocyte (BFU-E) and colony-forming units-mixed (CFU-Mix). These findings suggest that CFU-Mk number could be used as sole predictive functional parameter for platelet reconstitution in children after immunoselection of CD34+ cells, in particular for low CD34+ cell dose, and thus as an indicator for initial quality of hematopoietic cells before in vitro expansion.

  8. PENGARUH UKURAN PARTIKEL, KADAR PADATAN, NaCl dan Na2CO3 TERHADAP SIFAT AMILOGRAFI TEPUNG DAN PATI JAGUNG [The Effect of Particle Size, Solid Content, NaCl and Na2CO3 on The Amilographic Characteristics of Corn Flour and Corn Starch

    Tjahja Muhandri


    Full Text Available The ojective of this research was to investigate the effect of corn flour particle sizes (60, 80 and 100 mesh, solid content (40, 45, 50 and 55 gr sample, NaCl (1, 2, 3, and 4% w/w and Na2CO3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2%, w/w on the amilography properties of the corn flour and corn starch revealed. Which were characterised by using Brabender Amilograph. The study that initial temperature of gelatization, maximum temperature of gelatinization and maximum viscosity increased with the increased of particle sizess. In most cases, each increment of 1 gram solid content could increase maximum viscosity about 57 BU and 49 BU for corn flour and corn starch, respectivevely . More over, addition of Na2CO3 and NaCl upon corn flour could increase the initial temperature of geletinization, maximum temperature of geletinization, maximum viscosity and cold viscosity. In the case of corn starch, addition of Na2CO3 had no significant effect on initial temperature of gelatinization. Whereas this treatment could decrease the maximum temperature of gelatinization and increase maximum viscosity at low concentrations ( <0.3%. As far as the cold viscosity is corceerned, it was decreased from 800 BU to 400 BU by the addition of Na2CO3 at least 0.1% (w/w. Furthermore, the addition of NaCl had no significant effect on amylography properties of corn starch at the experimental a mount added.

  9. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...... chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary......-rich microstructures during ball milling is found to significantly influence the conductivity of the samples. The long-range diffusion of lithium ions was measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The solid solutions are found to exhibit two-dimensional conduction in the hexagonal plane of the crystal structure...

  10. Illumina MiSeq测序平台测定蒙古羊瘤胃液相和固相菌群多样性%Bacteria Community Diversity of Liquid and Solid Phases of Ruminal Contents of Mongolian Sheep Analyzed by Illumina MiSeq Platform

    曾燕; 简平; 倪学勤; 周毅; 祝辉; 曾东


    本研究旨在比较蒙古羊瘤胃液相和固相细菌菌群多样性。应用Illumina Miseq测序平台的16S rRNA基因扩增子技术对采集自5只蒙古羊的瘤胃液相和固相样品进行高通量测序,采用UPARSE-操作分类单元( OTU )法和非加权组平均( UPGMA )法分析试验结果。结果表明,共获得91971条序列和15321个OTU,平均每个样品有13138条序列和2189个OTU。液相与固相样品相比:门水平分类上存在显著性差异的优势菌群为拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes)和厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)(P<0.05),拟杆菌门在液相和固相样品中的比例分别为67%和45%;属水平分类上存在显著性差异的优势菌群为普氏菌属( Prevotella)和1种未鉴定( unknown)的属( P<0.05),液相样品优势菌群为普氏菌属,所占比例为53%,而固相样品优势菌群来自1种未鉴定的属,所占比例为32%;种水平分类上存在显著性差异的是栖瘤胃普雷沃菌( Prevotella ru-minicola)( P<0.05),在液相和固相样品中所占的比例分别为41%和11%。与液相样品相比,固相样品的alpha多样性较好;主成分分析( PCA)和主坐标分析( PCoA)显示来自同一动物个体的瘤胃液相和固相样品聚类在一起。结果提示,蒙古羊瘤胃液相和固相样品均具有丰富的细菌菌群;与液相样品相比,固相样品细菌的多样性更好。%This experiment was conducted to compare bacteria community diversity of liquid and solid phases of ruminal contents of Mongolian sheep. The samples of liquid and solid phases of ruminal contents from 5 Mongolian sheep were investigated using 16S rRNA amplicon high-throughput sequencing technique by Illumi-na MiSeq platform, and the results were analyzed by UPARSE-operational taxonomic units ( OTU) and un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic mean ( UPGMA) . The results showed that a total of 91 971 se-quences and 1 871 OTUs across all samples were observed, and the average number of sequence and OTU was

  11. 高固体含量线性酚醛树脂的固化动力学%Curing Kinetics of Novolac-Type Phenolic Resin with High Solid Content

    理莎莎; 齐暑华; 刘乃亮; 曹鹏


    合成了高固体含量(〉85%)的线性酚醛树脂,经凝胶渗透色谱/多角度激光光散射(SEC/MALLS)联用仪测定其数均分子量为1577,且分子量分布范围较窄,-Mw/-Mn仅为1.127。采用差示扫描量热(DSC)分析技术在50℃~300℃温度范围内,以不同的升温速率(2.5℃/min、5℃/min、7.5℃/min和10℃/min)研究了该酚醛树脂的固化反应过程。结果表明,该高固体含量线性酚醛树脂的凝胶化温度Tgel=110.61℃,固化温度Tcure=129.14℃,后处理温度Ttreat=146.96℃;根据Kissinger方程、Ozawa方程和Crane方程以及n级动力学模型确定该树脂的固化动力学方程为dα(t)/dt=2.09×1017(1-α)0.95exp(-2.10235×104/T)。%Novolac-type resin with high solid content(85%) was synthesized,of which number average molecular weight is 1577 and distribution is narrow.The curing process was studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) at different heating rates of 2.5 ℃/min,5 ℃/min,7.5 and 10 ℃/min between 50 ℃~300 ℃.The gelation temperature,curing temperature and post processing temperature of the resin are 136.68 ℃,163.16 ℃ and 197.39 ℃ respectively.According to Kissinger equation,Ozawa equation,Crane equation and the n-level kinetic model,the curing kinetic equation is dα(t)/dt=2.09×1017(1-α)0.95exp(-210235×103/T).

  12. Statics of deformable solids

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH


    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  13. A model for correlating 4. 2-K performance with room-temperature mechanical characteristics in superconducting test dipole magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)

    Ige, O.O.; Lyon, R.H.; Iwasa, Y. (Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))


    The longitudinal attenuation of impact-generated pulses in ten superconducting dipole magnets was measured at room temperature. A lumped-parameter model was constructed for the collared dipole. Using the method of nonlinear least-squares, the model was used to estimate the internal damping in the main components of the dipoles and the coupling resistances between the components: collars, inner, and outer coils. A positive correlation was found between the collar-inner coil coupling resistance and the 4.2-K performance of the magnets: the higher the coupling resistance, the fewer the number of quenches required to reach design operating current. There was virtually no correlation between any of the other internal or coupling resistances and 4.2-K performance. These observations are explained in terms of frictional slip of the inner coil against the collars causing premature quenches. The magnets are more susceptible to quenches at the collar-inner coil interface than at the collar-outer coil interface because the inner coil is subject to higher fields and forces. The experiment is potentially useful as a technique for screening high-performance superconducting magnets such as Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles at room temperature.

  14. Composite Solid Fuel: Research of Formation Parameters

    Tabakaev Roman


    Full Text Available Involving of local low-grade fuels resources in fuel and energy balance is actual question of research in the present. In this paper the possibility of processing low-grade fuel in the solid fuel composite was considered. The aim of the work is to define the optimal parameters for formation of the solid composite fuel. A result of researches determined that dextrin content in the binder allows to obtain solid composite fuel having the highest strength. The drying temperature for the various fuels was determined: for pellets production was 20-80 °C, for briquettes – 20-40 °C.

  15. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    Braithwaite, E R


    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  16. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.


    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  17. Screening of filamentous fungi to produce xylanase and xylooligosaccharides in submerged and solid-state cultivations on rice husk, soybean hull, and spent malt as substrates.

    da Silva Menezes, Bruna; Rossi, Daniele Misturini; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia


    We investigated the enzymatic complex produced by selected fungi strains isolated from the environment using the agro-industrial residues rice husk, soybean hull, and spent malt as substrates. Microbial growth was carried out in solid-state cultivation (SSC) and in submerged cultivations (SC) and the enzymatic activities of xylanase, cellulase, β-xylosidase, and β-glucosidase were determined. All substrates were effective in inducing enzymatic activities, with one strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis BLf1 showing maximum activities for all enzymes, except for cellulases. Using this fungus, the enzymatic activities of xylanase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase were generally higher in SSC compared to SC, producing maxima activities of 120.5, 25.3 and 47.4 U g(-1) of dry substrate, respectively. β-xylosidase activity of 28.1 U g(-1) of dry substrate was highest in SC. Experimental design was carried out to optimize xylanase activity by A. brasiliensis BLf1 in SSC using rice husk as substrate, producing maximum xylanase activity 183.5 U g(-1) dry substrate, and xylooligosaccharides were produced and characterized. These results suggest A. brasiliensis BLf1 can be used to produce important lytic enzymes to be applied in the preparation of xylooligosaccharides.

  18. Solid state bioreactor production of transglutaminase by Amazonian Bacillus circulans BL32 strain.

    de Souza, Claucia Fernanda Volken; Heck, Júlio Xandro; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia


    In this work, we investigated the production of transglutaminase (TGase) by an Amazonian isolated strain of Bacillus circulans by solid-state cultivation (SSC). Several agro-industrial residues, such as untreated corn grits, milled brewers rice, industrial fibrous soy residue, soy hull, and malt bagasse, were used as substrates for microbial growth and enzyme production. Growth on industrial fibrous soy residue, which is rich in protein and hemicellulose, produced the highest TGase activity (0.74 U g(-1) of dried substrate after 48 h of incubation). A 2(3) central composite design was applied to determine the optimal conditions of aeration, cultivation temperature and inoculum cell concentration to TGase production. The best culture conditions were determined as being 0.6 L air min(-1), 33 degrees C and 10 log (10) CFU g(-1) of dried substrate, respectively. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the model predicted an enzyme production of 1.16 U g(-1) of dried substrate, closely matching the experimental activity of 1.25 U g(-1). Results presented in this work point to the use of this newly isolated B. circulans strain as a potential alternative of microbial source for TGase production by SSC, using inexpensive culture media.


    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh


    This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} has been achieved at 600 C with Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

  20. Solid state physics

    Burns, Gerald


    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  1. Theoretical solid state physics

    Haug, Albert


    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  2. Analysis of porcine MUC4 gene as a candidate gene for prolificacy QTL on SSC13 in an Iberian × Meishan F2 population

    Balcells Ingrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive traits, such as prolificacy, are of great interest to the pig industry. Better understanding of their genetic architecture should help to increase the efficiency of pig productivity through the implementation of marker assisted selection (MAS programmes. Results The Mucin 4 (MUC4 gene has been evaluated as a candidate gene for a prolificacy QTL described in an Iberian × Meishan (Ib × Me F2 intercross. For association analyses, two previously described SNPs (DQ124298:g.243A>G and DQ124298:g.344A>G were genotyped in 347 pigs from the Ib × Me population. QTL for the number of piglets born alive (NBA and for the total number of piglets born (TNB were confirmed on SSC13 at positions 44 cM and 51 cM, respectively. The MUC4 gene was successfully located within the confidence intervals of both QTL. Only DQ124298:g.344A>G MUC4 polymorphism was significantly associated with both NBA and TNB (P-value MUC4 expression level was determined in F2 sows displaying extreme phenotypes for the number of embryos (NE at 30-32 days of gestation. Differences in the uterine expression of MUC4 were found between high (NE ≥ 13 and low (NE ≤ 11 prolificacy sows. Overall, MUC4 expression in high prolificacy sows was almost two-fold increased compared with low prolificacy sows. Conclusions Our data suggest that MUC4 could play an important role in the establishment of an optimal uterine environment that would increase embryonic survival during pig gestation.

  3. Computer-Aided Tomographic Analysis of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Correlation with Pulmonary Physiologic Tests and Patient-Centred Measures of Perceived Dyspnea and Functional Disability.

    Fausto Salaffi

    Full Text Available This study was designed (a to evaluate an improved quantitative lung fibrosis score based on a computer-aided diagnosis (CaM system in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc,-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD, (b to investigate the relationship between physiologic parameters (forced vital capacity [FVC] and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], patient-centred measures of dyspnea and functional disability and CaM and visual reader-based (CoVR methods, and (c to identify potential surrogate measures from quantitative and visual HRCT measurement.126 patients with SSc underwent chest radiography, HRCT and PFTs. The following patient-centred measures were obtained: modified Borg Dyspnea Index (Borg score, VAS for breathing, and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI. HRCT abnormalities were scored according to the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR and by a CaM. The relationships among the HRCT scores, physiologic parameters (FVC and DLCO, % predicted results and patient-centred measures, were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the predictor variables on severity of pulmonary fibrosis.Subjects with limited cutaneous SSc had lower HAQ-DI scores than subjects with diffuse cutaneous SSc (p <0.001. CaM and CoVR scores were similar in the 2 groups. In univariate analysis, a strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (p <0.0001. In multivariate analysis the CaM and CoVR scores were predicted by DLco, FVC, Borg score and HAQ-DI. Age, sex, disease duration, anti-topoisomerase antibodies and mRSS were not significantly associated with severity of pulmonary fibrosis on CaM- and CoVR methods.Although a close correlation between CaM score results and CoVR total score was found, CaM analysis showed a more significant correlation with DLco (more so than the FVC, patient-centred measures of perceived

  4. Kinetics Study on Black Tea Infusion: Effects of Super-comminuting Process and Temperature on the Extraction Rate of the Soluble Solid Contents%红茶汤动力学研究:超微粉碎工艺和温度对茶汤可溶性固形物成分萃取率的影响

    高彦祥; 杨文雄


    本文研究了红茶叶和超微茶粉可溶性固形物含量的萃取动力学过程.不同温度(40~80℃)下茶汤的Brixs通过数字折射计测量,实验结果通过一级稳态模型加以解释,等级常数由Brixs随时间的增加率决定.结果表明:茶汤可溶性固形物含量随萃取温度的升高而增加,超微茶粉的等级常数是红茶叶的1.22~2.22倍.%The kinetics of extracting the soluble solid contents from black tea leaves in super-comminuted tea powder was studied.The Brixs of infusion was measured by digital refractometer at different temperatures from 40 to 80 ℃.The first order rate constant was determined from the rate of increase of the Brixs concentration in the tea infusion time and the result was interpreted by using a steady state model. The results showed that the first order rate constant of the super-comminuted tea powder was 1.27~2.22 times as large as that of black tea leaves, and that the Brixs increased when the extraction temperature increased.

  5. Efeito do teor de sólidos e da concentração de sacarose na acidificação, firmeza e viabilidade de bactérias do iogurte e probióticas em leite fermentado Effect of total solids and sucrose contents on acidity, firmness and viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria in fermented milk

    Maricê N. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Doze lotes de leites fermentados foram preparados a 42ºC nos quais as variáveis estudadas foram o teor de sólidos totais (12 e 15%, o teor de sacarose (0% e 8% e o tipo de co-cultura (Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ; Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus acidophilus ; Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Parâmetros cinéticos para a diminuição do pH até 4,5 foram calculados. Determinações físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas após um e sete dias de armazenamento dos produtos a 4ºC. Com o aumento do teor de sólidos totais e adição de sacarose, a atividade de água do leite diminuiu e o tempo para atingir pH 4,5 variou conforme a co-cultura empregada. Os leites fermentados por S. thermophilus e L. acidphilus (STLA apresentaram pós-acidificação mais acentuada. Aqueles fermentados por S. thermophilus e L. rhamnosus (STLR foram mais estáveis. Os leites contendo maiores teores de sólidos totais foram aqueles com maior acidez total independente da co-cultura usada. Com o aumento do teor de sacarose e de sólidos solúveis houve um aumento da firmeza usando-se as co-culturas STLR e STLA. Após sete dias, o número de bactérias do iogurte e as probióticas não variou significativamente. Em todos os lotes, o número de bactérias probióticas ficou acima do sugerido pela literatura.Twelve batches of fermented milk were prepared at 42ºC where the studied variables were total solids content (12 and 15%, sucrose concentration (0 and 8%, and co-culture type (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ; Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus ; Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Kinetic parameters to decrease pH until 4.5 were calculated. Physico-chemical and microbiological determinations were carried out on products after 1 and 7 days of storage at 4ºC. The increase in total solids and

  6. What Are Solid Fats?

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  7. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the stability of tetraphenylborate solids.

  8. Laser cooling of solids

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM


    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  9. Solubility of strontium-substituted apatite by solid titration

    Pan, HB; Darvell, BW; Luk, KDK; Lu, WW; Li, ZY; Lam, WM; Wong, JC


    Solid titration was used to explore the solubility isotherms of partially (Srx-HAp, x = 1, 5, 10, 40, 60 mol.%) and fully substituted strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp). Solubility increased with increasing strontium content. No phase other than strontium-substituted HAp, corresponding to the original titrant, was detected in the solid present at equilibrium; in particular, dicalcium hydrogen phosphate was not detected at low pH. The increase in solubility with strontium content is interpreted...

  10. Rheological and solid-state NMR assessments of copovidone/clotrimazole model solid dispersions.

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhu, Lei; Brown, Chad D; Rosen, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Kenneth J


    This study aims to assess several model solid dispersions by using dynamic oscillatory rheology, solid-state NMR and other solid phase characterization techniques, and correlate their viscoelastic responses with processing methods and microstructures. A model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), clotrimazole, was compounded with copovidone to form solid dispersions via various techniques with different mixing capabilities. Physicochemical characterizations of the resulting solid dispersions demonstrated that simple physical mixing led to a poorly mixed blend manifested by existence of large API crystalline content and heterogeneous distribution. Cryogenic milling significantly improved mixing of two components as a result of reduced particle size and increased contact surface area, but produced limited amorphous content. In contrast, hot melt extrusion (HME) processing resulted in a homogenous amorphous solid dispersion because of its inherent mixing efficiency. Storage modulus and viscosities versus frequency of different solid dispersions indicated that the incorporation of API into the polymer matrix resulted in a plasticizing effect which reduced the viscosity. The crystalline/aggregated forms of API also exhibited more elastic response than its amorphous/dispersed counterpart. Temperature ramps of the physical mixture with high API concentration captured a critical temperature, at which a bump was observed in damping factor. This bump was attributed to the dissolution of crystalline API into the polymer. In addition, heating-cooling cycles of various solid dispersions suggested that cryomilling and HME processing could form a homogeneous solid dispersion at low API content, whereas high drug concentration led to a relatively unstable dispersion due to supersaturation of API in the polymer.




    Mossbauer spectroscopy on the 9.40 keV transition Kr-83 is used to obtain information about solid Kr precipitates in Al. Three different (RbI)-Rb-83 sources differing in water content were used, which, when measured against a solid Kr absorber, show a quadrupole component in addition to a dominating

  12. Solid State Division

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  13. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo


    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6heavy metal speciation in the solid phase were similar between the reference soil and the amended soil.

  14. SSC workshop on environmental radiation



    The Superconducting Super Collider is a 20 TeV-on-20 TeV proton beam collider where two 20-TeV proton accelerators whose beams, rotating in opposite senses, are brought into collision to provide 40 TeV in the center of mass. The scale of the project is set by the 6.6 tesla magnet guide field for the protons which results in a roughly circular machine with a circumference of 83 km (51.5 mi.). The energy scale of the proton beams and the physical scale of the machine are an order of magnitude greater than for any presently operating or contemplated proton accelerator yet the facility must be operated within the same strict radiological guidelines as existing accelerators in the US and Europe. To ensure that the facility conforms to existing and projected guidelines both in design and operation, the Workshop was charged to review the experience and practices of existing accelerator laboratories, to determine the relevant present and projected regulatory requirements, to review particle production and shielding data from accelerators and cosmic rays, to study the design and operational specifications of the Collider, to examine the parameters set forth in the Siting Parameters Document, and to evaluate the computational tools available to model the radiation patterns arising under various operational and failure scenarios. This report summarizes the extensive and intensive presentations and discussions of the Workshop. A great deal of material, much of it in the form of internal reports from the various laboratories and drafts of works in preparation, was provided by the participants for the various topics. This material, including the viewgraphs used by the presenters, forms the background and basis for the conclusions of the Workshop and, as such, is an important part of the Workshop. An introduction to the material and a catalog by topic are presented as section 6 of this report.

  15. Astrid-2 SSC ASUMagnetic Calibration

    Primdahl, Fritz


    Report of the inter calibration between the starcamera and the fluxgate magnetometer onboard the ASTRID-2 satellite. This calibration was performed in the night between the 15. and 16. May 1997 at the Lovö magnetic observatory.......Report of the inter calibration between the starcamera and the fluxgate magnetometer onboard the ASTRID-2 satellite. This calibration was performed in the night between the 15. and 16. May 1997 at the Lovö magnetic observatory....

  16. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes


    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...

  17. RP-HPLC法测定布洛芬-聚乙二醇6000固体分散体中布洛芬的含量%Use of RP-HPLC to detect the contents of ibuprofen in ibuprofen-PEG6000 solid dispersion

    汤南; 徐招玉; 梁伟亮; 吴劲东


    目的 建立反相高效液相色谱法测定布洛芬-聚乙二醇6000固体分散体中布洛芬的含量.方法 色谱柱为Shimadzu C18柱,流动相为0.02 mol·L-1醋酸钠(冰醋酸调节pH至3.0±0.1)-乙腈(40:60),流速1.0ml·min-1,检测波长为264nm,进样量为20μl.结果 布洛芬质量浓度在0.051~1.02 mg·ml-1范围内与相应峰面积呈良好线性关系(r=0.999 9,n=6),平均加样回收率为98.40%,RSD为0.92%(n=9).结论 所用方法准确、简便、快速,适用于布洛芬-聚乙二醇6000固体分散体中布洛芬的含量测定.%Objective To apply RP-HPLC to determine the contents of ibuprofen in ibuprofen-PEG6000 solid dispersion. Methods The separation was performed on a Shimadzu C18 column with UV detection at 264 nm, and the mobile phase consisted of 0.02 moLL-1 sodium acetate (adjusted to pH 3.0 ± 0.1 with acetic acid) -acetonitrile (40:60). The flow rate was 1.0 ml.min-1. The sample was injected at 20 μl.Results The calibration curve was linear (r = 0.999 9) within the range of 0.051 to 1.02 for ibuprofen. The average rate of retrieval was 98.40%, RSD was 0.92% (n = 9). Conclusions This method is accurate, simple, quick, and suitable for the quality control of Ibuprofen-PEG6000 solid dispersion.

  18. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)


    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  19. Solid state phenomena

    Lawrance, R


    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista


    Qiu Jinghui


    The author gives a dual characterization of solid cones in locally convex spaces.From this the author obtains some criteria for judging convex cones to be solid in various inds of locally convex spaces. Using a general expression of the interior of a solid cone,the author obtains a number of necessary and sufficient conditions for convex cones to be solid in the framework of Banach spaces. In particular, the author gives a dual relationship between solid cones and generalized sharp cones. The related known results are improved and extended.

  1. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.


    additional details are provided below as recommendations. From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system; Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid; The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future; Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing; Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

  2. Solids fluidizer-injector

    Bulicz, T.R.


    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  3. Solid Base Catalysis

    Ono, Yoshio


    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  4. Efeito do composto de resíduo sólido urbano no teor de metais pesados em solo e goiabeira Effect of the urban solid waste compost in the heavy content of metals in soil and guava orchard (Psidium guajava L.

    Leonardo Santos Collier


    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no município de Cachoeiras de Macacu (RJ com o objetivo de avaliar as várias formas dos metais Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn em solo Gleissolo pouco húmico tratado com composto de resíduos urbanos, e as concentrações desses metais nas folhas e nos frutos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L.. Foram utilizadas três áreas com históricos distintos: área que recebeu doses de 40 t.ha¹ de composto de resíduo sólido urbano (CRSU na superfície por onze anos consecutivos; área com uma única aplicação de CRSU na cova; e área-controle que não utilizou CRSU e sem goiabeiras. As amostras de solo foram tomadas dentro de cada área, nas camadas de 05; 515 e 1530 cm. A extração seqüencial dos metais contidos nas amostras (05 cm de terra demonstrou uma tendência de redução das formas móveis ou mais biodisponíveis de metais pesados no solo com uso do CRSU. Houve aumento nos teores de metais pesados em folhas e frutos de goiabeira cultivadas em áreas que receberam CRSU; porém os teores obtidos estavam dentro da faixa considerada normal. Há necessidade de monitoramento dos teores totais de metais no solo e nas plantas, devido ao incremento dos teores de metais pesados em solos tratados com CRSU.The work was performed in the municipal district of Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro State and had as objective to obtain information on the contents of chemical forms of Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil Gleissolo pouco húmico treated with composted urban residues, and the concentrations in the leaves and fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.. Three areas with different land use history were used: area that received doses of 40 t.ha¹ of composted of urban solid residue (CRSU in the surface for eleven consecutive years; area with only one application of CRSU in the hole; and control area, with no guava and no CRSU. The soil samples were taken from each area, in the layers of 05, 515 and 15-30 cm. The sequential extraction of

  5. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    Huizingh, EKRE


    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site, des

  6. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    Huizingh, EKRE


    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site,

  7. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    Huizingh, EKRE


    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site, des

  8. Digital Content Strategies

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R


    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  9. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    K. Kumaresan


    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  10. Particle behavior in solid propellant rockets

    Netzer, D. W.; Diloreto, V. D.; Dubrov, E.


    The use of holography, high speed motion pictures, light scattering measurements, and post-fire particle collection/scanning electron microscopic examination to study the combustion of composite solid propellants is discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the different experimental techniques for obtaining two-phase flow characteristics within the combustion environment of a solid propellant grain are evaluated. Combustion bomb studies using high speed motion pictures and post-fire residue analysis were completed for six low metal content propellants. Resolution capabilities and the relationships between post-fire residue and motion picture data are determined. Initial testing using a holocamera together with a 2D windowed motor is also described.

  11. Solid state video cameras

    Cristol, Y


    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  12. Solid propellant rocket motor

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)


    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  13. Understanding solid state physics

    Holgate, Sharon Ann


    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  14. Calibrações por meio da técnica da espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo para teor de extrativos totais, de lignina total e holocelulose usando espectros obtidos na madeira sólida / Calibrations using the technique of near infrared spectroscopy for content of extractives, lignin total and holocellulose using spectra obtained in solid wood

    Carlos Rogério Andrade


    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter curvas de calibrações por meio da técnica de espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIRS para as propriedades teor de extrativos totais, lignina total e de holocelulose, usando espectros das faces radial, tangencial e transversal da madeira sólida. Foi utilizado um híbrido natural de Eucalyptus urophylla pertencente à empresa V&M Florestal, localizada no município de Paraopeba (MG. O híbrido tinha sete anos de idade e estava plantado em espaçamento de 3m x 3m. Os corpos-de-prova foram retirados ao longo de todo o fuste. O equipamento utilizado foi um espectrômetro da marca Bruker modelo MPA-R. Os espectros foram adquiridos na gama de 800 a 1.500 nm, em modo de reflexão difusa. Os modelos foram ajustados pelo método PLS-1. Foi utilizado o método da validação cruzada com pré-tratamentos de primeira e segunda derivada e remoção do espalhamento de luz. Pelos resultados conclui-se que: De maneira geral, os maiores valores de correlação foram obtidos a partir da média das faces tangencial, transversal e radial; as melhores calibrações foram obtidas quando aplicou-se o pré-tratamento de segunda derivada; melhores resultados: extrativos totais r = 0,66 e RPD = 1,3; teor de lignina total r = 0,70 e RPD = 1,5 e teor de holocelulose r = 0,66 e RPD = 1,4.AbstractThe purpose of this study was to obtain calibration curves using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technique (NIRS for the determination of total extractive content, total lignin, and holocellulose, using the radial face, tangential, and transversal spectra of solid wood. We used a natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla owned by V & M Florestal, located in Paraopeba city (MG. The hybrid was seven years old and was planted in 3m x 3m space. The soils-proof was taken throughout the shaft. The used equipment was a Bruker spectrometer brand model MPA-R. The spectra were acquired in the range from 800 to 1,500 nm in diffuse reflection mode. The

  15. Solid anaerobic digestion: State-of-art, scientific and technological hurdles.

    André, Laura; Pauss, André; Ribeiro, Thierry


    In this paper, a state-of-art about solid anaerobic digestion (AD), focused on recent progress and trends of research is proposed. Solid anaerobic digestion should be the most appropriate process for degradation of by-products with high total solid (TS) content, especially lignocellulosic materials like agricultural waste (straw, manure), household waste and food waste. Solid AD is already widely used in waste water treatment plant for treating plant for sewage sludge but could be more developed for lignocellulosic materials with high TS content. Many research works were carried out in Europe on solid AD, focused on current hurdles (BMP, codigestion, inhibition, microbial population, rheology, water transfers, inoculum, etc.) in order to optimize the solid AD process. In conclusion, hurdles of solid AD process should and must be solved in order to propose better productivity and profitability of such system operating with high TS content (>15%), favouring reliable industrial processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradation and Recycling of Urban Solid Waste

    S. P. Gautam


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rapid urbanization and population growth are largely responsible for very high increasing rate of solid waste in the urban areas, its proper management and recycling is major problems of Municipal Corporation. The proposed study attempted to proper management, physicochemical analysis of Urban Solid Waste (USW and its conversion to enriched compost by ecofriendly process. Approach: For this study, we used turned windrows method for composting of USW, microbial inoculums added uniformly and temperature, pH, moisture maintained throughout the composting process. The chemical composition of compost obtained at the end of the composting process compare to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standards. Results: A study in Jabalpur had shown the 47% of Urban Solid Waste (USW were degradable and 53% non-degradable. The initial compositions of urban waste were indicates an organic carbon status of 38% with the C: N ratio of 950. The additives used in solid urban waste composting such as cow dung and green manure recorded organic carbon content of 25.60 and 34.60 and C:N ratio of 30.11 and 11.23. Conclusion: The results of the study clearly indicate that the recycling of solid urban waste can transform garbage or municipal solid waste to enriched composts. This is practical significance if adopted by urban farmers as a result of soil health and in turn the productivity of soil can be maintained for further agriculture.

  17. Modeling transportation of suspended solids in Zhujiang River estuary, South China

    CHEN Xiaohong; CHEN Yongqin; LAI Guoyou


    A three-dimensional transportation model for suspended solids (SS) in Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary, South China, was developed by coupling with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The model was validated using hourly measured data of sediment contents during 25-26, July 1999. The results showed that modeled contents matched well with measured ones and that the modeled top layer distribution agreed with the remotely sensed image of suspended solids in summer. The modeled results showed clearly the layers of suspended solids in depth, with larger sediment contents in lower layers though in the interface between salt water and freshwater the lowest contents appeared in middle layer. In overall, the suspended solids inflow from 8 rivers, transport southwestward, and carried by strong coastal flow in Zhujiang River estuary. Contours of sediment contents in the estuary spread further to the open sea during ebb tide rather than flood tide which reflects that the suspended solids in the estuary are land sourced.

  18. List of Article Contents

    Editorial Section


    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  19. Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids

    Shalaev, Evgenyi


    Solid pharmaceuticals are multi-component systems consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inactive ingredients (excipients). Excipients may include inorganic salts (e.g., NaCl), carbohydrates (e.g., lactose), and polymers, to name a few, whereas APIs range from relatively simple molecules (e.g., aspirin) to proteins and olygonucleotides. Pharmaceutical solids could exist either as single-phase or heterophase systems. They also may have different extent of order, such as highly ordered crystalline phases, amorphous solids that are thermodynamically unstable but might be kinetically stable under the time frame of observation, and crystalline mesophases including liquid crystals. With all this diversity, there are common features for such systems, and two of them will be discussed in the presentation. (i) Requirements for chemical stability of pharmaceuticals are very strict. A very limited (e.g., less than 0.1%) extent of conversion is allowed in these materials over the shelf life, i.e., during several years of storage at ambient and (sometimes) not fully controlled (e.g., a medicine cabinet in one's bathroom) conditions. (ii) All pharmaceutical solids contain some water, although its amount and physical state are highly variable and may change during manufacturing and shelf life. There are many challenging questions and issues associated with the ``Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids'' subject; some of them will be considered in the presentation: (i) What are the features of chemical reactivity of crystalline vs disordered systems? (ii) What is the role of water in solid state chemical reactivity of amorphous solids, e.g., water as plasticizer vs reactant vs reaction media? (iii) How homogeneous are pharmaceutical amorphous solid solutions, e.g., carbohydrate-water systems? (iv) What is the optimal water content? With water being the most common destabilizing factor, is ``the drier - the better'' always the case?

  20. Applied mechanics of solids

    Bower, Allan F


    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  1. Prediction of stress-strain state of municipal solid waste with application of soft soil creep model

    Ofrikhter Vadim Grigor'evich

    Full Text Available The deformation of municipal solid waste is a complex process caused by the nature of MSW, the properties of which differ from the properties of common soils. The mass of municipal solid waste shows the mixed behaviour partially similar to granular soils, and partially - to cohesive. So, one of mechanical characteristics of MSW is the cohesion typical to cohesive soils, but at the same time the filtration coefficient of MSW has an order of 1 m/day that is characteristic for granular soils. It has been established that MSW massif can be simulated like the soil reinforced by randomly oriented fibers. Today a significant amount of the verified and well proved software products are available for numerical modelling of soils. The majority of them use finite element method (FEM. The soft soil creep model (SSC-model seems to be the most suitable for modelling of municipal solid waste, as it allows estimating the development of settlements in time with separation of primary and secondary consolidation. Unlike the soft soil, one of the factors of secondary consolidation of MSW is biological degradation, the influence of which is possible to consider at the definition of the modified parameters essential for soft soil model. Application of soft soil creep model allows carrying out the calculation of stress-strain state of waste from the beginning of landfill filling up to any moment of time both during the period of operation and in postclosure period. The comparative calculation presented in the paper is executed in Plaxis software using the soft-soil creep model in contrast to the calculation using the composite model of MSW. All the characteristics for SSC-model were derived from the composite model. The comparative results demonstrate the advantage of SSC-model for prediction of the development of MSW stress-strain state. As far as after the completion of the biodegradation processes MSW behaviour is similar to cohesion-like soils, the demonstrated

  2. Wet spinning of solid polyamic acid fibers

    Dorogy, William E., Jr. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor)


    The invention is a process for the production of solid aromatic polyamic acid and polyimide fibers from a wet gel or coagulation bath wet gel using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solutions of the polyamic acid derived from aromatic dianhydrides such as 3,3',4,4' benzophenonetetra carboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and aromatic diamines such as 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA). By utilizing the relationship among coagulation medium and concentration, resin inherent viscosity, resin percent solids, filament diameter, and fiber void content, it is possible to make improved polyamic acid fibers. Solid polyimide fibers, obtained by the thermal cyclization of the polyamic acid precursor, have increased tensile properties compared to fibers containing macropores from the same resin system.

  3. Experimental investigations of solid-state-fermentation in gas/solid fluidized bed. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Solid-State-Fermentation in der Gas/Feststoff-Wirbelschicht

    Behns, W. (FZB Biotechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)); Ebenau, B. (FZB Biotechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)); Friedrich, K. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Apparate- und Umwelttechnik); Grau, W. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Apparate- und Umwelttechnik); Haida, H. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Apparate- und Umwelttechnik); Kuenne, H.J. (Magdeburger Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)); Lakowitz, R. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Apparate- und Umwelttechnik)


    Solid-state fermentations in gas-fluidized beds promise on principle advantages in comparison with the liquid-phase-culture. Problems concerning the technical processing follow from milieu conditions and heat and mass transfer. The set of problems was investigated in five series of experiments on different yeasts. To obtain optimal conditions for biomass growth and/or product formation controlling of air and solid moisture content and avoiding of agglomeration have to be governed. (orig.)

  4. HPLC-fluorescence determination of vitamin B2 content in human blood plasma with solid phase extraction%固相萃取结合HPLC-荧光法测定人血浆中维生素B2含量

    田兰; 孔彬; 杜晨松; 居来提·安尼瓦尔; 买买提艾力·乌马尔; 巴吐尔·买买提明


    目的:建立固相萃取结合HPLC-荧光法测定人血浆中维生素B2含量的方法.方法:采用SiroccoTM96孔蛋白沉淀板和正压固相萃取装置处理样品,采用SymmetryshieldTMRP-C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-5 mmol·L-1乙酸铵(35:65),流速为0.6 mL·min-1,荧光检测器检测(激发波长:450 nm,发射波长:520 nm).结果:维生素B2线性范围为0.2~10ng·mL-1(r=0.9937).定量下限为0.17 ng·mL1,日内精密度(RSD)为2.0%~4.8%,日间精密度(RSD)为3.8%,方法回收率为101.5%~116.0%(n=3),提取回收率为91.8% ~ 115.1%.结论:所建方法采用96孔蛋白沉淀装置自动处理样品,高效液相色谱-荧光法测定,可用于临床血浆样品中维生素B2含量的测定.%Objectives: To establish a method for the determination of the content of vitamin B2 in human blood plasma by HPLC -fluorescence detection combined with solid phase extraction. Method:Sirocco?96 precipitation plate and the positive pressure - 96 processor were used for sample pre - treatment. The chromatographic column was Symmetryshield? RP - C18(250 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm) ,the mobile phase was 35% methanol and 65% 5 mmol · L -1 ammonium acetate solution at a flow rate of 0. 6 mL · min -1 . The spectro - photofluorimeter was set at wavelength of 450 nm for excitation and 520 nm for emission. Results:The linear ranges were 0. 2 - 10 ng · mL -1 ( r = 0. 9937). The lowest limit of quantification was 0. 17 ng · mL-1. The intra - day RSD were 2. 0% -4. 8% ,the inter - day RSD was 3.8%. The relative recoveries were between 101. 5% and 116. 0% (n = 3 ) . The recovery of extraction were 91. 8% -115. 1%. Conclusions: A 96 - well plate automation - compatible precipitation plate was used to dispose the samples, which determined the content of vitamin B2 by the HPLC - fluorescence detector. This method can be used for determining of vitamin B2 in clinical plasma samples.

  5. Multifunctional solid/solid phononic crystal

    Swinteck, N.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A. C.; Croënne, C.; Bringuier, S.; Deymier, P. A.


    A two-dimensional, solid/solid phononic crystal (PC) comprised a square array of steel cylinders in epoxy is shown to perform a variety of spectral, wave vector, and phase-space functions. Over a range of operating frequencies, the PC's elastic band structure shows uniquely shaped equifrequency contours that are only accessible to excitations of longitudinal polarization. Under this condition, the PC is shown to behave as (1) an acoustic wave collimator, (2) a defect-less wave guide, (3) a directional source for elastic waves, (4) an acoustic beam splitter, (5) a phase-control device, and (6) a k-space multiplexer. Wave vector diagrams and finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to authenticate the above mentioned capabilities.

  6. Low-Dimensional Solids

    Bruce, Duncan W; O'Hare, Dermot


    With physical properties that often may not be described by the transposition of physical laws from 3D space across to 2D or even 1D space, low-dimensional solids exhibit a high degree of anisotropy in the spatial distribution of their chemical bonds. This means that they can demonstrate new phenomena such as charge-density waves and can display nanoparticulate (0D), fibrous (1D) and lamellar (2D) morphologies. Low-Dimensional Solids presents some of the most recent research into the synthesis and properties of these solids and covers: Metal Oxide Nanoparticles; Inorganic Nanotubes and Nanowir

  7. Applications in solid mechanics

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.


    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  8. Solid propellant motor

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)


    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  9. The solid state maser

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D


    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  10. Laser cooling of solids

    Nemova, Galina


    Parallel to advances in laser cooling of atoms and ions in dilute gas phase, which has progressed immensely, resulting in physics Nobel prizes in 1997 and 2001, major progress has recently been made in laser cooling of solids. I compare the physical nature of the laser cooling of atoms and ions with that of the laser cooling of solids. I point out all advantages of this new and very promising area of laser physics. Laser cooling of solids (optical refrigeration) at the present time can be lar...

  11. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Neilsen, M.K.


    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  12. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Hershaft, Alex


    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  13. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.


    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  14. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Rummel, R.


    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  15. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  16. Gases, liquids and solids

    Tabor, David


    It has been tradional to treat gases, liquids and solids as if they were completely unrelated material. However, this book shows that many of their bulk properties can been explained in terms of intermolecular forces.

  17. Streaming Virtual Reality Content

    El-Ganainy, Tarek; Hefeeda, Mohamed


    The recent rise of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) came with the availability of commodity commercial VR prod- ucts, such as the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) created by Oculus and other vendors. To accelerate the user adoption of VR headsets, content providers should focus on producing high quality immersive content for these devices. Similarly, multimedia streaming service providers should enable the means to stream 360 VR content on their platforms. In this study, we try to cover different ...

  18. Content management systems (CMS)

    Oriahi, Harrison


    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  19. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John


    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  20. Solid model design simplification

    Ames, A.L.; Rivera, J.J.; Webb, A.J.; Hensinger, D.M.


    This paper documents an investigation of approaches to improving the quality of Pro/Engineer-created solid model data for use by downstream applications. The investigation identified a number of sources of problems caused by deficiencies in Pro/Engineer`s geometric engine, and developed prototype software capable of detecting many of these problems and guiding users towards simplified, useable models. The prototype software was tested using Sandia production solid models, and provided significant leverage in attacking the simplification problem.

  1. Organic Molecular Solids

    Schwoerer, Marcus


    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  2. Solid State Research


    intermediate-field Meissner region, and high-field Bean model . The solid line is a fit of RsM = a + b(f,T)Hrf 2 to the results in the Meissner region...model the results: low-field weak links, intermediate-field Meissner region, and high-field Bean model The solid line is a fit of R1 M-- a + b (f T) Hff

  3. Scalable Content Management System

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani


    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  4. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin


    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  5. Solid Mathematical Marbling.

    Lu, Shufang; Jin, Xiaogang; Jaffer, Aubrey; Gao, Fei; Mao, Xiaoyang


    Years of research have been devoted to computer-generated two-dimensional marbling. However, three-dimensional marbling has yet to be explored. In this paper, we present mathematical marbling of three-dimensional solids which supports a compact random-access vector representation. Our solid marbling textures are created by composing closed-form 3D pattern tool functions. These tool functions are an injection function and five deformation functions. The injection function is used to generate basic patterns, and the deformation functions are responsible for transforming the basic pattern into complex marbling effects. The resulting representation is feature preserving and resolution-independent. Our approach can render high-quality images preserving both the sharp features and the smooth color variations of a solid texture. When implemented on the GPU, our representation enables efficient color evaluation during the real-time solid marbling texture mapping. The color of a point in the volume space is computed by the 3D pattern tool functions from its coordinates. Our method consumes very little memory because only the mathematical functions and their corresponding parameters are stored. In addition, we develop an intuitive user interface and a genetic algorithm to facilitate the solid marbling texture authoring process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through various solid marbling textures and 3D objects carved from them.

  6. Time- and stress-dependent model for predicting moisture retention capacity of high-food-waste-content municipal solid waste:based on experimental evidence%题目:考虑应力和时间作用的高厨余含量生活垃圾的持水量预测模型:基于试验现象

    Hui XU; Liang-tong ZHAN; He LI; Ji-wu LAN; Yun-min CHEN; Hai-yan ZHOU


    目的:我国城市生活垃圾厨余含量高,导致初始含水量高,从而带来填埋场渗滤液水位高、堆体稳定性低、填埋气难以收集以及焚烧厂焚烧热值低、能耗大等问题。研究降解时间和上覆应力对高厨余垃圾持水量的影响,提出快速降低高厨余垃圾的持水量的方法,大幅减小进场(厂)垃圾的含水量,避免上述问题的发生。创新点:1.获得高厨余垃圾的持水量随降解时间和上覆应力的变化规律;2.建立考虑时间和应力作用的垃圾持水量预测模型。方法:1.通过开展试验,分析高厨余垃圾的持水量随降解时间和上覆应力的变化(图3和5);2.基于试验结果,分析持水量变化机理(图7),并建立持水量预测模型(公式6);3.通过对比分析多种脱水方案的计算结果,提出高厨余垃圾堆体的快速脱水方法(图13)。结论:1.高厨余垃圾的持水量随降解时间呈复合指数形式下降,随应力的对数线性下降;2.降解作用能够降低胞内水并增大孔隙水持有量,应力作用则同时降低胞内水和孔隙水持有量;3.持水量模型计算结果与工程案例实测结果吻合较好,并进一步提出了采取加速降解和增大应力相联合的措施以实现高厨余垃圾快速脱水的目的。%Moisture retention capacity (MRC) is a key parameter for the prediction of leachate production of a municipal solid waste (MSW) pile. In this paper, five sets of laboratory tests were conducted in compression cells to characterize the variation of MRC with degradation time and overburden stress. Set A was conducted on the fresh high-food-waste-content (HFWC)-MSW under different degradation conditions and a sustained stress; Set B was on the fresh HFWC-MSW by alternation of degradation time and incremental stresses; Sets C, D, and E were on fresh HFWC-MSW, zero-food-waste-content (NFWC)-MSW, and de-composed MSW, respectively

  7. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Rhenny Ratnawati


    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  8. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne


    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Content-Based Instruction

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.


    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  10. Branded content infantil



    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  11. Content Analysis: Television.

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  12. Print advertising : Vivid content

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.


    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  13. Print advertising: vivid content

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.


    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  14. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.


    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  15. Content-Based Instruction

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.


    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  16. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.


    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  17. Social video content delivery

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu


    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  18. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Philipp Mayring


    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  19. Encryption for digital content

    Kiayias, Aggelos


    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  20. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.


    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  1. PCB Content of Sediments Collected at Manistique Harbor, Michigan


    waste, fine organic, and mineral fractions of the sediment. Results showed that the primary repository of PCBs was the coarse wood waste fraction...then dried further at 180 °C to remove water bound to the wood and mineral materials and yield the dry solids content. Thermal gravimetric analysis...the influence of wood waste on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content in sediment. Sediments were fractionated by density and size to isolate the wood

  2. Solid phases of tenoxicam.

    Cantera, Rodrigo G; Leza, María G; Bachiller, Carmen M


    In this report we describe the preparation and characterization of four polymorphic forms of tenoxicam; they are, three 1:1 stoichiometric solvates with acetonitrile, dioxane, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and an amorphous phase obtained by recrystallization in various solvents. Polymorph IV and solvates with dioxane and N,N-dimethylformamide are reported for the first time in this paper. In addition, three solvates were crystallized in acetone, ethyl acetate, and isopropyl alcohol. These solid forms were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, optical microscopy, and elemental analysis. Solid-state properties, intrinsic dissolution rate, and dissolution kinetics from formulated tablets are also provided.

  3. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    Matsuura, T


    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  4. Optical properties of solids

    Wooten, Frederick


    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  5. Solid-state circuits

    Pridham, G J


    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  6. Solid state theory

    Harrison, Walter A


    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  7. Hybrid elastic solids

    Lai, Yun


    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Proton tunneling in solids

    Kondo, J.


    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  9. Local Solid Shape

    Jan Koenderink


    Full Text Available Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.

  10. Solid State Research


    width at half-maximum measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb substrates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from...Rowe N. R. Newbury A. Sanchez-Rubio C. A. Primmerman Bermuda Grass Smut Spores WhitET 0 12 3 4 5 6 Ratio (PMT1 / PMT2) Figure 1-4...measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb sub- strates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from [10]. [9],[10

  11. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    Ertl, Gerhard


    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  12. SolidWorks : opetuspaketti

    Myllymäki, Vesa


    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin mahdollisuuksia tehdä opetusvideoita SolidWorks -ohjelman käyttämisestä. Tähän tarkoitukseen löydettiin menetelmään sopiva ohjelma, CamStudio, jota sitten sovellettiin käytännössä. Camstudio ja SolidWorks ohjelmia hyödyntäen luotiin videoita kolmiulotteisista mallinnusprosesseista. Menetelmä toimi, mutta sen käyttökelpoisuuteen liittyi ongelmia. Videoden laatu on heikko, mutta sen parantaminen merkitsisi suurempaa tiedostokokoa, mikä voi tuottaa tietokantaongelmia. ...

  13. Learning Content Management Systems



    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  14. Fannish form and content

    TWC Editor


    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  15. Scalable Content Management System

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani


    Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizabi...

  16. Solid state physics

    Brewster, Hilary D


    Solid state physics is an exhaustive introductory text for the students of physics. Keeping in mind, this book has been prepared to present the subject-matter in an easily understandable way without sacrificing the essential details and principles an yet avoiding redundant matter and unnecessary complications. This book is expected to meet adequately the need of the students for whom it is meant.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell


    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  18. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  19. Solid-phase microextraction

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...

  20. Local solid shape

    Koenderink, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543; van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, Johan


    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches-essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures-of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is cate

  1. Solid-State Devices.

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell


    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  3. Solid-Waste Management

    Science Teacher, 1973


    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  4. Physical properties of solids

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.


    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  5. Front Matter and Contents.


    The present study is primarily aimed at an audience of evolutionary biologists in the broad sense for Parts 1-3, as well as at scientists from other professional disciplines looking for new approaches to explore phenomena in nature. However, the content is in general not written as technical text or filled with equations that make it utterly incomprehensible for 'normal' people, although they would have to skip strictly professional biochemical and biological terms that are a constituent part of the evidence in a scientific sense. Therefore, large parts of Part 2 may also be enjoyed by a broader audience with little prior insight into evolutionary biology or science, when in search of explanations for the phenomena that we see in nature. Finally, Part 4 - with a view into Parts 1-3 - is meant for systems analysts and researchers striving to find a general systems theory. Parts 3 and 4 are the only parts that are not relevant for a general audience. A Note for the Reader Extensive use of references in scientific literature is generally perceived as evidence in favour of an author's statement when synthesizing findings in the literature on a given topic. At the same time, when applying citations of such literature one has to copy the text literally including printing errors, references and everything relevant, unless otherwise explicitly stated. Including such references in cited text often a) creates confusion because such references are not included in the reference list even if they appear in the text; and furthermore b) they tend to add an unnecessary cognitive burden on the reader. Therefore, references with cited text in the present publication have been replaced by the Italicized text 'ref' or 'refs', i.e. single or plural, depending on the number of references omitted in a given place. About the Author/Contributors The authorJBMcNis the initiatorsole contributor to the present study. JBMcN and her husband, Dr. Peter McNair, in close cooperation developed the

  6. Enzyme Analysis to Determine Glucose Content

    Carpenter, Charles; Ward, Robert E.

    Enzyme analysis is used for many purposes in food science and technology. Enzyme activity is used to indicate adequate processing, to assess enzyme preparations, and to measure constituents of foods that are enzyme substrates. In this experiment, the glucose content of corn syrup solids is determined using the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which then reacts with a dye in the presence of peroxidase to give a stable colored product.

  7. Microspheres with Ultrahigh Holmium Content for Radioablation of Malignancies

    Bult, W.; Seevinck, P.R.; Krijger, G.C.; Visser, T.; Kroon-Batenburg, L.M.J.; Bakker, C.J.G.; Hennink, W.E.; Van het Schip, A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  8. Microspheres with ultrahigh holmium content for radioablation of malignancies

    Bult, W; Seevinck, P R; Krijger, G C; Visser, T; Kroon-Batenburg, L M J; Bakker, C J G; Hennink, W E; van het Schip, A D; Nijsen, J F W


    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  9. Luminescence and the solid state

    Ropp, Richard C


    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  10. M-Solidity Testing Systems

    K. Denecke; S.L. Wismath


    A set S of hypersubstitutions is called an M-solidity testing system for a class of varieties if it is possible to determine all M-solid varieties in the class using only the hypersubstitutions from S. If S is a minimal such set, we will call it an M-solidity basis for the class. In this paper, we relate solidity testing systems to the Galois connection between hypersubstitutions and varieties, and present a number of examples of solidity testing systems for several different types of varieties, including examples of the existence of finite M-solidity bases for various classes.

  11. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    Lombard, Matt


    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  12. Evidence for Argon Content in Pure Oxygen from Thermal Data

    Steur, Peter P. M.; Yang, Inseok; Pavese, Franco


    Since many years it is known that argon impurities in oxygen change the temperature of the oxygen triple point by +12 K{\\cdot }mol^{-1} (positive, while most impurities decrease the temperature) without any effect on the melting range of this transition, for the impurity concentrations usually encountered in nominally pure gases. It has been hypothesized that thermal measurements on the α -β solid-to-solid transition at 23.8 K or the β -γ solid-to-solid transition at 43.8 K may give reliable evidence regarding the argon content. However, such measurements require very long times for full completion of each transition (with prohibitive costs if liquid helium is used) and for the α -β solid-to-solid transition the heat pulse method cannot be applied reliably. The availability of closed-cycle refrigerators permits the first obstacle to be surmounted. The automatic system earlier developed at INRIM during the EU Multicells project and used extensively for the project on the isotopic effect in neon is perfectly suited for such measurements. Thus, the uncertainties of the temperature measurements are similar to those obtained previously (of the order of 0.1 mK or less). Three argon-in-oxygen mixtures were prepared gravimetrically and certified at KRISS, just as was previously done for the work on the neon isotopic compositions. Results of continuous-current measurements on the α -β solid-to-solid transition, along with the triple-point data obtained with the heat pulse method, are presented for one cell with a known doped argon content, to be compared with similar data from a cell with oxygen of very high purity. In addition, some preliminary data for the β -γ solid-to-solid transition are given. The measurements on the mixture with the highest argon content, about 1002 μmol{\\cdot } mol^{-1}, imply a (linear) sensitivity of (116 ± 7) K{\\cdot }mol^{-1} for the α -β transition. This sensitivity may be different at much lower argon contents, and follow

  13. HDI三聚体改性磺酸盐型高固含量水性聚氨酯的制备与性能研究%Synthesis and Properties of High Solid Content Sulphonated Waterborne Polyurethane Modified by HDI Trimer

    孙雪娇; 夏正斌; 李伟; 曹高华; 张燕红; 李忠


    Sulphonated waterborne polyurethane emulsions with 50% solid-content were successfully synthesized by using poly(1,4-butanediol adipate)diol (PBA), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as the main raw materials, N-(2-aminoethyl)-amino ethane sulphonated sodium as hydrophilic chain extender, and HDI trimer (HT) as a modifier. The effects of the feeding method and the amount of HDI trimer on the latex particle size and distribution, Zeta potential and viscosity of waterborne polyurethane emulsions, and the water resistance, crystallinity and mechanical properties of the cast films of synthesized polyurethane were studied respectively by Malvern laser particle size analyzer, Brookfield viscometer, universal tensile machine, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that, with the increase of the amount of HDI trimer, the viscosity of waterborne polyurethane emulsion decreases, the average particle size and its distribution of latex particles increase, and the tensile strength and elongation at break of the cast films are increased firstly and then decreased. The introduction of the HDI trimer into the polyurethane chain destroys the arrangement regularity of the polyurethane soft segment, which results in a slightly lower film crystallinity. When the ratio of HDI trimer to IPDI is 1:3 (mass ratio), the synthesized polyurethane shows excellent performance, which has the emulsion particle size of 199.3 nm, Zeta potential of-42.7 mV, the film water absorption of 3.8%and the film relative crystallinity of 50.62%.%  以异氟尔酮二异氰酸酯(IPDI)、六亚甲基二异氰酸酯(HDI)、聚己二酸1,4-丁二醇酯二醇(PBA)为主要原料,以乙二胺基乙磺酸钠(AAS)为亲水性扩链剂,以HDI三聚体(HT)为改性剂,制得了固含量

  14. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    Cooke, Gary A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  15. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    Smits, J.P.


    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most promising.

  16. Solid-state fermentation: modelling fungal growth and activity.

    Smits, J.P.


    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most promising.Glucosamine is the monom

  17. Loser Generated Content

    Petersen, Søren Mørk


    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content......In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  18. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  19. The plasma-solid transition

    Celebonovic, V


    Using a criterion proposed by Salpeter and standard solid-state physics,we have determined conditions for the occurence of the plasma-solid transition.Possible astrophysical applications are discussed.

  20. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos



    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.