WorldWideScience

Sample records for solidification cracking susceptibility

  1. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  2. Investigation of the susceptibility to solidification cracking in copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Richard [Avesta Sheffield R and D, Avesta (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    A test procedure has been developed at LuTH for investigating the susceptibility to cracking at high temperatures in weldments. It has been proposed to adapt this testing procedure to investigate the cracking susceptibility at high temperatures during strip casting of certain copper alloys. Six different materials were selected for investigation - OFHC copper, tellurium containing copper, 4% tin bronze, 6% tin bronze, 30% zinc brass and 35% zinc brass. The aim of the investigation was to characterize the cracking susceptibility of the candidate materials so as to be able to rank and compare them in a quantitative manner. A further aim of the work was to study the suitability of using the data on the cracking indices generated in the present work in thermomechanical models of the casting process to optimize the casting parameters for each of the materials.

  3. Effect of Chemical Composition on Susceptibility to Weld Solidification Cracking in Austenitic Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Kota; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the chemical composition, especially the niobium content, chromium equivalent Creq, and nickel equivalent Nieq, on the weld solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region in the Schaeffler diagram was investigated. Specimens were fabricated using the hot-wire laser welding process with widely different compositions of Creq, Nieq, and niobium in the region. The distributions of the susceptibility, such as the crack length and brittle temperature range (BTR), in the Schaeffler diagram revealed a region with high susceptibility to solidification cracking. Addition of niobium enhanced the susceptibility and changed the distribution of the susceptibility in the diagram. The BTR distribution was in good agreement with the distribution of the temperature range of solidification (Δ T) calculated by solidification simulation based on Scheil model. Δ T increased with increasing content of alloying elements such as niobium. The distribution of Δ T was dependent on the type of alloying element owing to the change of the partitioning behavior. Thus, the solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region depends on whether the alloy contains elements. The distribution of the susceptibility in the region is controlled by the change in Δ T and the segregation behavior of niobium with the chemical composition.

  4. On the hot cracking susceptibility of a semisolid aluminium 6061 weld: Application of a coupled solidification- thermomechanical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajani, H R Zareie; Phillion, A B

    2015-01-01

    A coupled solidification-thermomechanical model is presented that investigates the hot tearing susceptibility of an aluminium 6061 semisolid weld. Two key phenomena are considered: excessive deformation of the semisolid weld, initiating a hot tear, and the ability of the semisolid weld to heal the hot tear by circulation of the molten metal. The model consists of two major modules: weld solidification and thermomechanical analysis. 1) By means of a multi-scale model of solidification, the microstructural evolution of the semisolid weld is simulated in 3D. The semisolid structure, which varies as a function of welding parameters, is composed of solidifying grains and a network of micro liquid channels. The weld solidification module is utilized to obtain the solidification shrinkage. The size of the micro liquid channels is used as an indicator to assess the healing ability of the semisolid weld. 2) Using the finite element method, the mechanical interaction between the weld pool and the base metal is simulated to capture the transient force field deforming the semisolid weld. Thermomechanical stresses and shrinkage stresses are both considered in the analysis; the solidification contractions are extracted from the weld solidification module and applied to the deformation simulation as boundary conditions. Such an analysis enables characterization of the potential for excessive deformation of the weld. The outputs of the model are used to study the effect of welding parameters including welding current and speed, and also welding constraint on the hot cracking susceptibility of an aluminium alloy 6061 semisolid weld. (paper)

  5. Microstructure and Solidification Crack Susceptibility of Al 6014 Molten Alloy Subjected to a Spatially Oscillated Laser Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minjung; Han, Heung Nam; Kim, Cheolhee

    2018-04-23

    Oscillating laser beam welding for Al 6014 alloy was performed using a single mode fiber laser and two-axis scanner system. Its effect on the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone was investigated. To evaluate the influence of oscillation parameters, self-restraint test specimens were fabricated with different beam patterns, widths, and frequencies. The behavior of hot cracking propagation was analyzed by high-speed camera and electron backscatter diffraction. The behavior of crack propagation was observed to be highly correlated with the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone. For most oscillation conditions, the microstructure resembled that of linear welds. A columnar structure was formed near the fusion line and an equiaxed structure was generated at its center. The wide equiaxed zone of oscillation welding increased solidification crack susceptibility. For an oscillation with an infinite-shaped scanning pattern at 100 Hz and 3.5 m/min welding speed, the bead width, solidification microstructure, and the width of the equiaxed zone at the center of fusion fluctuated. Furthermore, the equiaxed and columnar regions alternated periodically, which could reduce solidification cracking susceptibility.

  6. Microstructure and Solidification Crack Susceptibility of Al 6014 Molten Alloy Subjected to a Spatially Oscillated Laser Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating laser beam welding for Al 6014 alloy was performed using a single mode fiber laser and two-axis scanner system. Its effect on the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone was investigated. To evaluate the influence of oscillation parameters, self-restraint test specimens were fabricated with different beam patterns, widths, and frequencies. The behavior of hot cracking propagation was analyzed by high-speed camera and electron backscatter diffraction. The behavior of crack propagation was observed to be highly correlated with the microstructural evolution of the fusion zone. For most oscillation conditions, the microstructure resembled that of linear welds. A columnar structure was formed near the fusion line and an equiaxed structure was generated at its center. The wide equiaxed zone of oscillation welding increased solidification crack susceptibility. For an oscillation with an infinite-shaped scanning pattern at 100 Hz and 3.5 m/min welding speed, the bead width, solidification microstructure, and the width of the equiaxed zone at the center of fusion fluctuated. Furthermore, the equiaxed and columnar regions alternated periodically, which could reduce solidification cracking susceptibility.

  7. Weld solidification cracking in 304 to 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochanadel, Patrick W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lienert, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jesse N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Raymond J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Matthew Q [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A series of annulus welds were made between 304 and 304L stainless steel coaxial tubes using both pulsed laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this application, a change in process from pulsed LBW to pulsed gas tungsten arc welding was proposed to limit the possibility of weld solidification cracking since weldability diagrams developed for GTAW display a greater range of compositions that are not crack susceptible relative to those developed for pulsed LBW. Contrary to the predictions of the GTAW weldability diagram, cracking was found. This result was rationalized in terms of the more rapid solidification rate of the pulsed gas tungsten arc welds. In addition, for the pulsed LBW conditions, the material compositions were predicted to be, by themselves, 'weldable' according to the pulsed LBW weldability diagram. However, the composition range along the tie line connecting the two compositions passed through the crack susceptible range. Microstructurally, the primary solidification mode (PSM) of the material processed with higher power LBW was determined to be austenite (A), while solidification mode of the materials processed with lower power LBW apparently exhibited a dual PSM of both austenite (A) and ferrite-austenite (FA) within the same weld. The materials processed by pulsed GT A W showed mostly primary austenite solidification, with some regions of either primary austenite-second phase ferrite (AF) solidification or primary ferrite-second phase austenite (FA) solidification. This work demonstrates that variations in crack susceptibility may be realized when welding different heats of 'weldable' materials together, and that slight variations in processing can also contribute to crack susceptibility.

  8. Weld solidification cracking in 304 to 204L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochanadel, Patrick W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lienert, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jesse N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Matthew Q [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    A series of annulus welds were made between 304 and 304L stainless steel coaxial tubes using both pulsed laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this application, a change in process from pulsed LBW to pulsed gas tungsten arc welding was proposed to limit the possibility of weld solidification cracking since weldability diagrams developed for GTAW display a greater range of compositions that are not crack susceptible relative to those developed for pulsed LBW. Contrary to the predictions of the GTAW weldability diagram, cracking was found.This result was rationalized in terms of the more rapid solidification rate of the pulsed gas tungsten arc welds. In addition, for the pulsed LBW conditions, the material compositions were predicted to be, by themselves, 'weldable' according to the pulsed LBW weldability diagram. However, the composition range along the tie line connecting the two compositions passed through the crack susceptible range. Microstructurally, the primary solidification mode (PSM) of the material processed with higher power LBW was determined to be austenite (A), while solidification mode of the materials processed with lower power LBW apparently exhibited a dual PSM of both austenite (A) and ferrite-austenite (FA) within the same weld. The materials processed by pulsed GTAW showed mostly primary austenite solidification, with some regions of either primary austenite-second phase ferrite (AF) solidification or primary ferrite-second phase austenite (FA) solidification. This work demonstrates that variations in crack susceptibility may be realized when welding different heats of 'weldable' materials together, and that slight variations in processing can also contribute to crack susceptibility.

  9. Relationship Between Solidification Microstructure and Hot Cracking Susceptibility for Continuous Casting of Low-Carbon and High-Strength Low-Alloyed Steels: A Phase-Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, B.; Apel, M.; Santillana, B.; Eskin, D. G.

    2013-08-01

    Hot cracking is one of the major defects in continuous casting of steels, frequently limiting the productivity. To understand the factors leading to this defect, microstructure formation is simulated for a low-carbon and two high-strength low-alloyed steels. 2D simulation of the initial stage of solidification is performed in a moving slice of the slab using proprietary multiphase-field software and taking into account all elements which are expected to have a relevant effect on the mechanical properties and structure formation during solidification. To account for the correct thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the multicomponent alloy grades, the simulation software is online coupled to commercial thermodynamic and mobility databases. A moving-frame boundary condition allows traveling through the entire solidification history starting from the slab surface, and tracking the morphology changes during growth of the shell. From the simulation results, significant microstructure differences between the steel grades are quantitatively evaluated and correlated with their hot cracking behavior according to the Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) hot cracking criterion. The possible role of the microalloying elements in hot cracking, in particular of traces of Ti, is analyzed. With the assumption that TiN precipitates trigger coalescence of the primary dendrites, quantitative evaluation of the critical strain rates leads to a full agreement with the observed hot cracking behavior.

  10. Solidification cracking in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Hot cracking in stainless steel welds is caused by low-melting eutectics containing impurities such as S, ... Total crack length (TCL), used extensively in hot cracking assessment, exhibits greater variability due to ... behaviour appear to be complex and the mechanisms thereof are not completely under- stood. Development of ...

  11. Analysis of weld solidification cracking in cast nickel aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santella, M.L.; Feng, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the response of several nickel aluminide alloys to SigmaJig testing was done to examine their weld solidification cracking behavior and the effect of Zr concentration. The alloys were based on the Ni-8Al-7.7Cr-1.5Mo-0.003B wt% composition and contained Zr concentrations of 3, 4.5, and 6 wt%. Vacuum induction melted ingots with a diameter of 2.7 in and weight about 18 lb were made of each alloy, and were used to make 2 x 2 x 0.030 in specimens for the Sigmajig test. The gas tungsten arc welds were made at travel speeds of 10, 20, and 30 ipm with heat inputs of 2--2.5 kJ/in. When an arc was established before traveling onto the test specimen centerline cracking was always observed. This problem was overcome by initiating the arc directly on the specimens. Using this approach, the 3 wt% Zr alloy withstood an applied stress of 24 ksi without cracking at a welding speed of 10 ipm. This alloy cracked at 4 ksi applied at 20 ipm, and with no applied load at 30 ipm. Only limited testing was done on the remaining alloys, but the results indicate that resistance to solidification cracking increases with Zr concentration. Zirconium has limited solid solubility and segregates strongly to interdendritic regions during solidification where it forms a Ni solid solution-Ni 5 Zr eutectic. The volume fraction of the eutectic increases with Zr concentration. The solidification cracking behavior of these alloys is consistent with phenomenological theory, and is discussed in this context. The results from SigmaJig testing are analyzed using finite element modeling of the development of mechanical strains during solidification of welds. Experimental data from the test substantially agree with recent analysis results

  12. Aluminum alloy weldability. Identification of weld solidification cracking mechanisms through novel experimental technique and model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present thesis is to make advancements in understanding solidification crack formation in aluminum welds, by investigating in particular the aluminum 6060/4043 system. Alloy 6060 is typical of a family of Al-Mg-Si extrusion alloys, which are considered weldable only when using an appropriate filler alloy such as 4043 (Al-5Si). The effect of 4043 filler dilution (i.e. weld metal silicon content) on cracking sensitivity and solidification path of Alloy 6060 welds are investigated. Afterwards, cracking models are developed to propose mechanisms for solidification crack initiation and growth. Cracking Sensitivity. Building upon the concept that silicon improves weldability and that weldability can be defined by a critical strain rate, strain rate-composition combinations required for solidification crack formation in the Al- 6060/4043 system were determined using the newly developed Controlled Tensile Weldability (CTW) test utilizing local strain extensometer measurements. Results, presented in a critical strain rate - dilution map, show a crack - no crack boundary which reveals that higher local strain rates require higher 4043 filler dilution to avoid solidification cracking when arc welding Alloy 6060. Using the established crack - no crack boundary as a line of reference, additional parameters were examined and their influence on cracking characterized. These parameter influences have included studies of weld travel speed, weld pool contaminants (Fe, O, and H), and grain refiner additions (TiAl{sub 3} + Boron). Each parameter has been independently varied and its effect on cracking susceptibility quantified in terms of strain rate - composition combinations. Solidification Path. Solidification path of the Al-6060/4043 system was characterized using thermal analysis and phase identification. Increasing 4043 filler dilution from 0 to 16% in Alloy 6060 arc welds resulted in little effect on thermal arrests and microstructure, no effect on

  13. Quantitative influence of minor and impurity elements on hot cracking susceptibility of extra high-purity type 310 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi; Matsushita, Hideki; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Junpei

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of minor and impurity elements such as C, Mn, P and S on the solidification and ductility-dip cracking susceptibilities of extra high-purity type 310 stainless steels, the transverse-Varestraint test was conducted by using several type 310 stainless steels with different amounts of C, Mn, P and S. Two types of hot cracks occurred in these steels by Varestraint test; solidification and ductility-dip cracks. The solidification cracking susceptibility was significantly reduced as the amounts of C, P and S decreased. The ductility-dip cracking susceptibility also reduced with a decrease in P and S contents. It adversely, however, increased as the C content of the steels was reduced. Mn didn't greatly affect the hot cracking susceptibility of the extra high-purity steels. The characteristic influence on solidification cracking was the ratio of P:S:C=1:1.3:0.56, while Mn negligibly ameliorated solidification cracking in the extra low S (and P) steels. The numerical analysis on the solidification brittle temperature range (BTR) revealed that the reduced solidification cracking susceptibility with decreasing the amounts of C, P and S in steel could be attributed to the reduced BTR due to the suppression of solidification segregation of minor and impurity elements in the finally solidified liquid film between dendrites. On the other hand, a molecular orbital analysis to estimate the binding strength of the grain boundary suggested that the increased ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in extra high-purity steels was caused by grain boundary embrittlement due to the refining of beneficial elements for grain boundary strengthening such as C. (author)

  14. Probing liquation cracking and solidification through modeling of momentum, heat, and solute transport during welding of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Chakraborty, S.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-01-01

    A transport phenomena-based mathematical model is developed to understand liquation cracking in weldments during fusion welding. Equations of conservation of mass, momentum, heat, and solute transport are numerically solved considering nonequilibrium solidification and filler metal addition to determine the solid and liquid phase fractions in the solidifying region and the solute distribution in the weld pool. An effective partition coefficient that considers the local interface velocity and the undercooling is used to simulate solidification during welding. The calculations show that convection plays a dominant role in the solute transport inside the weld pool. The predicted weld-metal solute content agreed well with the independent experimental observations. The liquation cracking susceptibility in Al-Cu alloy weldments could be reliably predicted by the model based on the computed solidifying weld-metal composition and solid fraction considering nonequilibrium solidification

  15. Effect of chemical composition and cooling conditions on solidification hot cracking of Ni-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vito, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Ni-based alloys 690 present solidification hot cracks during welding of vapour generators. Hot cracks are qualitatively known to be due to the formation of inter-dendritic liquid films and of secondary phases down to low temperatures. This study aims at establishing the link between thermodynamics, solidification and hot cracking. Experimental solidification paths of high purity alloys (with varying Nb and Si contents) are obtained from quenching during directional solidification and TIG-welding experiments. They are compared to Thermo-Calc computations, assuming no diffusion in the solid. From directional solidification samples, good agreement between computed and experimental solidification paths is shown in the quenched liquid. Secondary arms of dendrites are affected by solid state diffusion of Nb. Combined effect of diffusion and solute build-up in the liquid phase modifies micro-segregation in the solid region. Solidification paths from welding specimens are similar to those of the solid region of quenched samples. Nb solid state diffusion is negligible but undercooling compensates the effect of solid state diffusion in directional solidification. Evolution of liquid fraction at the end of the solidification is in accordance with the hot cracking classification of the alloys. Nb favours formation of inter-dendritic liquid films and eutectic-like phases down to low temperature. (author) [fr

  16. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  17. A Three-Stage Mechanistic Model for Solidification Cracking During Welding of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, L.; Huang, D.; Dong, H. B.; Wen, S. W.; Marsden, J.; Rack, A.; Cocks, A. C. F.

    2018-03-01

    A three-stage mechanistic model for solidification cracking during TIG welding of steel is proposed from in situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of solidification cracking and subsequent analysis of fracture surfaces. Stage 1—Nucleation of inter-granular hot cracks: cracks nucleate inter-granularly in sub-surface where maximum volumetric strain is localized and volume fraction of liquid is less than 0.1; the crack nuclei occur at solute-enriched liquid pockets which remain trapped in increasingly impermeable semi-solid skeleton. Stage 2—Coalescence of cracks via inter-granular fracture: as the applied strain increases, cracks coalesce through inter-granular fracture; the coalescence path is preferential to the direction of the heat source and propagates through the grain boundaries to solidifying dendrites. Stage 3—Propagation through inter-dendritic hot tearing: inter-dendritic hot tearing occurs along the boundaries between solidifying columnar dendrites with higher liquid fraction. It is recommended that future solidification cracking criterion shall be based on the application of multiphase mechanics and fracture mechanics to the failure of semi-solid materials.

  18. Numerical Simulation on the Origin of Solidification Cracking in Laser Welded Thick-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Bakir

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors affecting the use of lasers in the industry for welding thick structures is the process accompanying solidification cracks. These cracks mostly occurring along the welding direction in the welding center, and strongly affect the safety of the welded components. In the present study, to obtain a better understanding of the relation between the weld pool geometry, the stress distribution and the solidification cracking, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD model was combined with a thermo-mechanical model. The CFD model was employed to analyze the flow of the molten metal in the weld pool during the laser beam welding process. The weld pool geometry estimated from the CFD model was used as a heat source in the thermal model to calculate the temperature field and the stress development and distributions. The CFD results showed a bulging region in the middle depth of the weld and two narrowing areas separating the bulging region from the top and bottom surface. The thermo-mechanical simulations showed a concentration of tension stresses, transversally and vertically, directly after the solidification during cooling in the region of the solidification cracking.

  19. Cracking susceptibility of stainless steel subjected to plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, H.

    1995-01-01

    The similarities and differences in the cracking susceptibility between welding and resolidification after plasma disruption were examined experimentally using a number of primary candidate alloy samples with different chemical compositions. The product of the number density and the average depth of the cracks was measured after simulated disruption, employing a hydrogen ion beam as the heat source, and was compared with the Varestraint test result. An adequate correlation was observed between them, which indicates that the cracking susceptibility during plasma disruption can be well estimated from the welding cracking susceptibility. (orig.)

  20. Ductility dip cracking susceptibility of Inconel Filler Metal 52 and Inconel Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikel, J.M.; Parker, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 have become the materials of choice for commercial nuclear steam generator applications in recent years. Filler Metal 52 exhibits improved resistance to weld solidification and weld-metal liquation cracking as compared to other nickel-based filler metals. However, recently published work indicates that Filler Metal 52 is susceptible to ductility dip cracking (DDC) in highly restrained applications. Susceptibility to fusion zone DDC was evaluated using the transverse varestraint test method, while heat affected zone (HAZ) DDC susceptibility was evaluated using a newly developed spot-on-spot varestraint test method. Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 cracking susceptibility was compared to the DDC susceptibility of Alloy 600, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625. In addition, the effect of grain size and orientation on cracking susceptibility was also included in this study. Alloy 690, Filler Metal 82, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625 were found more susceptible to fusion zone DDC than Alloy 600. Filler Metal 52 and Alloy 690 were found more susceptible to HAZ DDC when compared to wrought Alloy 600, Filler Metal 82 and Filler Metal 625. Filler Metal 52 exhibited the greatest susceptibility to HAZ DDC of all the weld metals evaluated. The base materials were found much more resistant to HAZ DDC in the wrought condition than when autogenously welded. A smaller grain size was found to offer greater resistance to DDC. For weld metal where grain size is difficult to control, a change in grain orientation was found to improve resistance to DDC

  1. Cracking susceptibility of aluminum alloys during laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Abbaschian

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser parameters in welding aluminum alloys was studied in order to reduce hot cracking. The extension of cracks at the welding surface was used as a cracking susceptibility (CS index. It has been shown that the CS changes with changing welding velocity for binary Al-Cu alloys. In general, the CS index increased until a maximum velocity and then dropped to zero, generating a typical lambda-curve. This curve is due to two different mechanisms: 1 the refinement of porosities with increasing velocity and 2 the changes in the liquid fraction due to decreasing microsegregation with increasing velocities.

  2. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  3. Metallurgical phenomena in laser finishing: Interdependences between solidification morphologies and hot cracking in laser welding of mostly austenitic materials. Final reportc; Metallkundliche Phaenomene der Laserstrahlmaterialbearbeitung. Teilvorhaben: Zusammenhaenge zwischen Erstarrungsmorphologien und Heissrissentstehung beim Laserschweissen von vornehmlich austenitischen Werkstoffen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobbert, H.

    2000-06-01

    Austentic stainless steels are widely used in safety relevant applications such as chemical plant industry or off-shore industry. Due to the rapid development of laser welding processes, the economical efficiency increases and leads to a growing interest in industry for the production of, for example, straight bead welded pipes. A specific problem of laser welding is the economically desirable high welding speed, which leads in austenitic stainless steels to a change of solidification mode and thus, to a restricted hot cracking resistance. Thus, the solidification morphologies of austenitic stainless steels near the eutectic trough during laser welding were investigated. Thereby, the main aspect was the evaluation of a short-term metallurgical kinetic effects under rapid solidification conditions. It was proven that three widely used stainless steels (1.4828, 1.4306, and 1.4404) show a transition of primary solidifcation mode from primary ferritic to primary austenitic solidification depending on the solidification rate. The approximate value of the critical soldification rate can be determined using a newly developed model by analyzing the geometric structures of solidification. The critical solidification rate for the transition of the solidification mode depends on the chemical composition of the base metal. It was shown that austenitic stainless steels have a critical solidification rate of approximately 1 m/min. As a main result, it was proven that a transition of the solidification mode to primary austenitic solidification promotes the predicted susceptibiliyy of hot cracking. For this, a hot cracking test assembly has been developed in order to determine the hot cracking behavior under laser beam conditions. In contrast to existing hot crack tests, a critical strain rate for hot crack initiation could be measured. A classification of the materials with respect to their hot cracking susceptibility under the solidification conditions during laser welding can

  4. Evaluation of cold crack susceptibility on HSLA steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio-Freire Júnior, R. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses an evaluation of the effect of several welding parameters on cold cracking formation in welded joints of High Strength and Low Alloy steels, as well as the resulting microstructures and hardness values. The main parameters studied include the variation of the preheating temperature, drying time of the electrode, chemical composition and thickness of the base metal. The presence of cold cracking in the joints was analyzed from Tekken tests using steel plates made of SAR 80 T, 100 T and 120 T with of various thickness. The plates were welded by Shielded Metal Arc Welding either with or without pre-heating. Different preheating temperatures were studied, i.e., 375, 455 and 525 K. AWS E 12018 G and 11018 G electrodes were used under different conditions, i.e., not dried or dried up to 2, 3 and 4 h at 515 K. The results indicated the presence of cracks in the welded metals with the combination of hardness values above 230 HV and the formation of high contents of acicular ferrite (above 93 % in the welds without preheating. Higher crack susceptibility was also observed in the thick welded metal plates.

    Este trabajo evalúa la influencia de la variación de temperatura de precalentamiento, del tiempo de secado del electrodo, de la composición química y del espesor del metal base sobre la formación de fisuras en frío, inducidas por el hidrógeno en juntas soldadas de aceros de alta resistencia y baja aleación y su relación con la microestructura y dureza resultante. Para esto, se analizó la presencia de fisuras en frío en probetas para ensayos Tekken, fabricadas a partir de chapas de aceros SAR 80 T, 100 T y 120 T, con diferentes espesores y soldados por proceso de arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido, sin precalentamiento y con precalentamiento, a 375, 455 y 525 K, empleando electrodos AWS E 12018 G y 11018 G no secados y secados durante 2, 3 y 4 h. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron la presencia de fisuras

  5. Studies of Hot Crack Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther

    During the present work crack testing concerning small and fast solidifying laser welds in austenitic stainless steel has been studied. A set of methods has been applied to investigate alloy properties, including ·Application of known information to predict solidification phases from the alloy...... composition. ·Weld metal solidification rate measurements for prediction of phases. ·Various crack tests to assess the crack susceptibility of alloys. ·A combination of the above for selection of suitable, weldable alloys. The possibility of using such specific methods for alloys and applications has been...... to the crack behaviour, but do not show an expected correlation between the crack resistance and the solidification rate. The employment of pulsed seams is therefore assessed not to be usable in the present selection methods. From evaluation of several crack tests, the Weeter spot weld test has been chosen...

  6. Thermomechanical processing of 5083 aluminum to increase strength without increasing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Blakeslee, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    5083 aluminium with 25% cold work must be processed above 215 0 C or below 70 0 C to avoid forming continuous precipitate in the grain boundaries which makes the material susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Time at temperature above 215 0 C should be held to minimum (less than 30 min) to retain some strength from the 25% cold work

  7. Standard practice for determining cracking susceptibility of metals exposed under stress to a hot salt environment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1990-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for testing metals for embrittlement and cracking susceptibility when exposed under stress to a hot salt environment. This practice can be used for testing all metals for which service conditions dictate the need for such information. The test procedures described herein are generally applicable to all metal alloys; required adjustments in environmental variables (temperature, stress) to characterize a given materials system should be made. This practice describes the environmental conditions and degree of control required, and suggests means for obtaining this desired control. 1.2 This practice can be used both for alloy screening for determination of relative susceptibility to embrittlement and cracking, and for the determination of time-temperature-stress threshold levels for onset of embrittlement and cracking. However, certain specimen types are more suitable for each of these two types of characterizations. Note 1 This practice relates solely to the performance of ...

  8. Effects of nitrogen and pulsed mean welding current in AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel solidification cracks; Efecto del nitrogeno y la corriente media pulsada de soldadura en la formacion de grietas de solidificacion en aceros inoxidables AISI 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, R. E.; Braga, E.; Fals, H. C.

    2002-07-01

    An analysis of the influence of nitrogen concentration in the weld zone and the pulsed mean welding current in the solidification crack formation is presented in this paper. The AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was employed as the metal base. The welding was done using CC+ pulsed flux cored are welding process and AWS E316L wire type. The tests were conducted using CO{sub 2} shielding gas with four different nitrogen levels (0,5; 10 and 15%) in order to induce different nitrogen weld metal concentrations. The pulsed mean welding current was varied in three levels and the. Transvarestraint tangential strain test was fixed of 5%. The results showed that the solidification cracking decreased as the pulsed mean welding current increase. It was also verified that an increase of the weld zone nitrogen level was associated with a decrease in both the total length of solidification crack and the amount of {delta} ferrite. (AUthor) 20 refs.

  9. Method of evaluation of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of clad fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Iwao; Yoshida, Toshimi; Ikeda, Shinzo; Masaoka, Isao; Nakajima, Junjiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, by an evaluation in out-pile test, the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of clad fuel tubes in the reactor environment. Method: A plurality of electrodes are mounted in the circumferential direction on the entire surface of cladding tubes. Of the electrodes, electrodes at two adjacent places are used as measuring terminals and electrodes at another two places adjacent thereto are used as constant-current terminals. With a specific current flowing in the constant-current terminals, measurements are made of a potential difference between the terminals to be measured, and from a variation in the potential difference the depth of cracking of the cladding tube surface is presumed to determine the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the cladding tube. To check the entire surface of the cladding tube, the cladding tube is moved by each block in the circumferential direction by a contact changeover system, repeating the measurements of the potential difference. Contact type electrodes are secured with an insulator and held in uniform contact with the cladding tube by a spring. It is detachable by use of a locking system and movable as desired. Thus the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility can be determined without mounting the cladding tube through and also a fuel failure can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Effect of surface treatments on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Masaru; Kaneda, Junya; Tamako, Hiroaki; Hato, Hisamitsu; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of surface treatment on SCC susceptibility of Ni base alloys was investigated. Cracks were observed in all grinding specimens in a creviced bent beam (CBB) test. On the other hand, no cracks occurred in shot peening (SP), water jet peening (WJP) specimens. It was indicated that these surface treatments effectively reduced the SCC susceptibility of nickel-base alloys. As a result of a residual stress test, the surface of specimens with grinding had high tensile residual stress. However, SP and WJP improved surface residual stress to compressive stress. The depth of the compressive effect of WJP was almost the same as that of SP. However, the surface hardness of WJP specimens differed from that of SP and it was found that WJP had less impact on surface hardening. This difference was consistent with their surface microstructures. The surface of SP specimens had clearly the deformation region, but the surface of WJP specimens was localized. (author)

  11. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the earthquake resistant NOM B457 Mexican steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Mexican construction code was modified after the Mexico city 1985 earthquake, substituted the medium carbon reinforced steel NOM B6 by the new micro alloyed steel NOM B457 in 42 Kg/mm 2 grade. The present study reports the evaluation of the NOM B457 steel behavior in mortar with and without 2% wt. in chlorides and in Ca(OH) 2 saturated solutions. The results are compared with the NOM B6 steel behavior in the same conditions. The Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is not present in all the conditions used in this study and there are not susceptibility potential range to SCC when the material is evaluated by electrochemical Tests, Constant Extension Rate Tests (CERT) and Constant Load Test at 80 % of yield stress. A susceptibility potential range to Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) is detected, below -900 mV. vs Standard Calomel Electrode (SCE) by CERT at constant potential

  12. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of selected materials for steam plant bolting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, P.; Noga, J.O.; Ogundele, G.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of alloy steel bolting failure in nuclear and fossil fired generating plants was discussed. The problem manifests itself in the form of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. A study was conducted to rank the susceptibility of three materials (Alloy AISI, type 4140, Alloy ASTM A564-92AXM 13 and Inconel 718) to stress corrosion cracking and to determine threshold stress intensity factors of currently used and alternate alloys in service environments typically encountered in steam generating utility plants. Although most alloy steel bolting failures have involved Cr-Mo, failures have also been reported for all the above mentioned materials. Attempts to minimize the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking have involved a ban on molybdenum disulphide, limiting bolt tightening torque and placing an upper limit on bolt hardness, and by correlation on tensile strength. Slow strain rate and wedge opening-loading specimen tests were used to evaluate commonly used and superior alternative bolting materials. Electrochemical polarization tests were also conducted. Threshold stresses in a H{sub 2}S environment were determined according to NACE standard TM-01-77. Results showed that, to a certain degree, all tested materials were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. They ranked as follows from best to worst performance: (1) the Inconel 718, (2) alloy SM 13, and (3) alloy 4140. 9 refs., 20 tabs., 34 figs.

  13. Study on hydrogen assisted cracking susceptibility of HSLA steel by implant test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa Chakraborty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DMR-249A is an indigenously developed high strength low alloy steel for Indian ship building industry for making ship-hull and is extensively used in the construction of war ships and submarines. Welding electrodes conforming to SFA 5.5 AWS E8018 C1 has been indigenously developed for welding of this steel using shielded metal arc welding process. In the present study, susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking of DMR-249A steel welds made using this electrode has been assessed using implant test. Implant tests were conducted using this electrode at two different levels of diffusible hydrogen, measured using gas chromatography technique. It is observed that both the steel and the welding consumable are not susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking even with a high diffusible hydrogen level of 9 mL/100g of weld metal. In implant tests, specimen did not fracture even after loading to stress levels higher than the yield strength of the base metal. The good resistance of this steel and the welding consumable, even with high levels of diffusible hydrogen, is attributed to absence of a susceptible microstructure in both the weld metal and heat affected zone. Hence, this study shows that, in the absence of a susceptible microstructure, hydrogen assisted cracking is unlikely to occur even if hydrogen level is high. It also confirms that in welding of DMR-249A with indigenously developed E8018 C1 electrode, hydrogen assisted cracking is not a concern and no preheating is required to avoid it during welding.

  14. Effect of microstructure on the sulphide stress cracking susceptibility of a high strength pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)], E-mail: ggonzalez@uaem.mx; Torres-Islas, A.; Serna, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Campillo, B. [Intituto de Ciencias Fisicas-Facultad de Quimicas-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Dominguez-Patino, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Juarez-Islas, J.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The sulphide stress cracking (SSC) susceptibility of a newly developed high strength microalloyed steel with three different microstructures has been evaluated using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. Studies were complemented with potentiodynamic polarization curves and hydrogen permeation measurements. Material included a C-Mn steel having Ni, Cu, and Mo as main microalloying elements with three microstructures: martensitic, ferritic and ferritic + bainitic. Testing temperatures included 25, 50, 70 and 90 deg. C. Detailed SEM observations of the microstructure and fracture surfaces were done to identify possible degradation mechanisms. The results showed that in all cases, the corrosion rate, number of hydrogen atoms at the surface and the percentage reduction in area increased with temperature. The steel with a martensitic microstructure had the highest SSC susceptibility at all temperatures, whereas the ferritic steels were susceptible only at 25 deg. C, and the most likely mechanism is hydrogen embrittlement assisted by anodic dissolution.

  15. Microstructural investigation of vintage pipeline steels highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Monica

    The use of pipelines for the transmission of gas offers not only efficiency, but a number of economic advantages. Nevertheless, pipelines are subject to aggressive operating conditions and environments which can lead to in-service degradation [1] and thus to failures. These failures can have catastrophic consequences, such as environmental damage and loss of life [2]. One of the most dangerous threats to pipeline integrity is stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Despite the substantial progress that has been achieved in the field, due to the complex nature of this phenomenon there is still not a complete understanding of this form of external corrosion. This makes its detection and prevention a challenge and therefore a risk to pipeline integrity, and most importantly, to the safety of the population. SCC cracks are the result of the interaction between a corrosive environment, applied stresses, and a susceptible microstructure. To date, what defines a susceptible microstructure remains ambiguous, as SCC has been observed in a range of steel grades, microstructures, chemical composition, and grain sizes. Therefore, in order to be able to accurately predict and prevent this hazardous form of corrosion, it is imperative to advance our knowledge on the subject and gain a better understanding on the microstructural features of highly susceptible pipeline materials, especially in the subsurface zone where crack nucleation must take place. Therefore, a microstructural characterization of the region near the surface layer was carried-out utilizing TEM. TEM analysis revealed the dislocation character, ferrite morphology, and apparent carbide precipitation in some grain boundaries. Furthermore, light microscopy, SEM, and hardness testing were performed to expand our knowledge on the microscopical features of highly SCC susceptible service components. This investigation presents a new approach to SCC characterization, which exposed the sub-surface region microscopical

  16. The relative stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of candidate aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    Stress corrosion tests of Al-Li-Cu powder metallurgy alloys are described. Alloys investigated were Al-2.6% Li-1.4% and Al-2.6% Li-1.4% Cu-1.6% Mg. The base properties of the alloys were characterized. Process, heat treatment, and size/orientational effects on the tensile and fracture behavior were investigated. Metallurgical and electrochemical conditions are identified which provide reproducible and controlled parameters for stress corrosion evaluation. Preliminary stress corrosion test results are reported. Both Al-Li-Cu alloys appear more susceptible to stress corrosion crack initiation than 7075-T6 aluminum, with the magnesium bearing alloy being the most susceptible. Tests to determine the threshold stress intensity for the base and magnesium bearing alloys are underway. Twelve each, bolt loaded DCB type specimens are under test (120 days) and limited crack growth in these precracked specimens has been observed. General corrosion in the aqueous sodium chloride environment is thought to be obscuring results through crack tip blunting.

  17. Understanding susceptibility of in-core components to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Kassner, T.F.

    1991-03-01

    As nuclear plants age and accumulated fluences of core structural components increase, susceptibility of the components to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is also expected to increase. Irradiation-induced sensitization, commonly associated with an IASCC failure, was investigated in this study to provide a better understanding of long-term structural integrity of safety-significant in-core components. Irradiation-induced sensitization of high- and commercial-purity Type 304 stainless steels irradiated in BWRs was analyzed. 7 refs., 8 figs

  18. Crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spending time in a rehab facility or getting cognitive-behavioral therapy or other treatments. Right now, there are no medicines to treat a crack addiction. If you smoke crack, talking with a counselor ...

  19. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  20. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoi, Kota; Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi

    2016-01-01

    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  1. Crack growth testing of cold worked stainless steel in a simulated PWR primary water environment to assess susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Stairmand, J.W.; Fairbrother, H.J.; Stock, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although austenitic stainless steels do not show a high degree of susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in PWR primary environments, there is limited evidence from laboratory testing that crack propagation may occur under some conditions for materials in a cold-worked condition. A test program is therefore underway to examine the factors influencing SCC propagation in good quality PWR primary coolant. Type 304 stainless steel was subjected to cold working by either rolling (at ambient or elevated temperature) or fatigue cycling, to produce a range of yield strengths. Compact tension specimens were fabricated from these materials and tested in simulated high temperature (250-300 o C) PWR primary coolant. It was observed that the degree of crack propagation was influenced by the degree of cold work, the crack growth orientation relative to the rolling direction and the method of working. (author)

  2. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibilities of various stainless steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Saburo; Ohnaka, Noriyuki; Kikuchi, Eiji; Minato, Akira; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1980-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behaviors of several austenitic stainless steels in high temperature water were evaluated using three types of SCC tests, i.e., single U-bend test in chloride containing water, uniaxial constant load and constant extension rate tests (CERT) in pure water. The steels used were SUS 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 321 and 347 and several heats of them to examine heat to heat variations. The three test methods gave the same relative ranking of the steels. The CERT is the most sensitive method to detect the relative IGSCC susceptibilities. The CERT result for relative ranking from poor to good is: SUS 304 - 0.07% C, 304 - 0.06% C, 304L - 0.028% C, 316 - 0.07% C. The IGSCC susceptibilities of SUS 304L - 0.020% C, 316L - 0.023% C, 321 and 347 were not detected. These test results suggest that the use of the low carbon, molybdenum bearing, or stabilized austenitic stainless steel is beneficial for eliminating the IGSCC problem in boiling water reactor environment. (author)

  3. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels in supercritical water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.; Haehner, P.; Ripplinger, S.; Siegl, J.; Penttilae, Sami; Toivonen, Aki

    2009-01-01

    Within the 6th Framework Program HPLWR-2 project (High Performance Light Water Reactor - Phase 2), stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibilities of selected austenitic stainless steels, 316L and 316NG, were studied in supercritical water (SCW) with the aim to identify and describe the specific failure mechanisms prevailing during slow strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests in ultra-pure demineralised SCW water solution. The SSRT tests were performed using a step-motor controlled loading device in an autoclave at 350 deg. C, 500 deg. C and 550 deg. C. Besides water temperature, the pressure, the oxygen content and the strain rate (resp. crosshead speed) were varied in the series of tests. The specimens SSRT tested to failure were subjected to fractographic analysis, in order to characterise the failure mechanisms. The fractography confirmed that failure was due to a combination of transgranular SCC and transgranular ductile fracture. The share of SCC and ductile fracture in the failure process of individual specimens was affected by the parameters of the SSRT tests, so that the environmental influence on SCC susceptibility could be assessed, in particular, the SCC sensitising effects of increasing oxygen content, decreasing strain rate and increasing test temperature. (author)

  4. Determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient of dental ceramics using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Yoshimura, Humberto Naoyuki

    2011-11-01

    This study compared three methods for the determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient (n) of two veneering ceramics (VM7 and d.Sign), two glass-ceramics (Empress and Empress 2) and a glass-infiltrated alumina composite (In-Ceram Alumina). Discs (n = 10) were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations and polished. The constant stress-rate test was performed at five constant stress rates to calculate n(d) . For the indentation fracture test to determine n(IF) , Vickers indentations were performed and the crack lengths were measured under an optical microscope. For the constant stress test (performed only for d.Sign for the determination of n(s) ) four constant stresses were applied and held constant until the specimens' fracture and the time to failure was recorded. All tests were performed in artificial saliva at 37°C. The n(d) values were 17.2 for Empress 2, followed by d.Sign (20.5), VM7 (26.5), Empress (30.2), and In-Ceram Alumina (31.1). In-Ceram Alumina and Empress 2 showed the highest n(IF) values, 66.0 and 40.2, respectively. The n(IF) values determined for Empress (25.2), d.Sign (25.6), and VM7 (20.1) were similar. The n(s) value determined for d.Sign was 31.4. It can be concluded that the n values determined for the dental ceramics evaluated were significantly influenced by the test method used. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  6. Assessment of Hot Crack Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Crack testing concerning small and fast solidifying laser welds in austenitic stainless steel has been studied. A set of methods has been applied to investigate alloy properties, including (1) Application of known information to predict solidification phases, (2) Weld metal solidification rate...... crack tests, the Weeter spot weld test has been chosen to form a basis for the development of a practicable method to select specific alloys for welding applications. A new test, the Groove weld test was developed, which has reduced the time consumption and lightened the analysis effort considerably...... measurements for prediction of phases, (3) Various crack tests to assess the crack susceptibility of alloys and (4) A combination of the above for selection of suitable, weldable alloys. The possibility of using such specific methods for alloys and applications has been investigated and recommendations...

  7. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of steam generator tube materials in AVT (all volatile treatment) chemistry contaminated with lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Castano, M.L.; Garcia, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Alloy 600 steam generator tubing has shown a high susceptibility to stress corrosion degradation at the operation conditions of pressurized water reactors. Several contaminants, such as lead, have been postulated as being responsible for producing the secondary side stress corrosion cracking that has occurred mainly at the location where these contaminants can concentrate. An extensive experimental work has been carried out in order to better understand the effects of lead on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of steam generator tube materials, namely Alloys 600, 690 and 800. This paper presents the experimental work conducted with a view to determining the influence of lead oxide concentration in AVT (all volatile treatment) conditions on the stress corrosion resistance of nickel alloys used in the fabrication of steam generator tubing. (orig.)

  8. Stress Corrosion cracking susceptibility of reduced-activation martensitic steel F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Y. [Nuclear Energy and Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Jitsukawa, S.; Tsukada, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: For fusion power source in near future, supercritical water-cooled type blanket system was planned in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The blankest system was designed by the present knowledge base and a reasonable extrapolation in material and design technology. Reduced-activation martensitic steel, F82H, is one of the blanket system structural materials. Therefore durability of the F82H for corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the concerns for this water-cooling concept of the blanket system. In this paper, SCC susceptibility of F82H was studied after heat treatments simulating post weld heat treatment (PWHT) or neutron-irradiation at 493 K to a dose level of 2.2 dpa. In order to evaluate SCC susceptibility of F82H, slow strain rate testing (SSRT) in high-purity, circulating water was conducted at 513-603 K in an autoclave. The strain rate was 1.0- 2.0x10{sup -7} s{sup -1}. Concentration of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen of the circulating water was controlled by bubbling with these gases. Specimens were heat treated after normalization at 1313 K for 40 min and water quenching. Some of the specimens were tempered at 873-1073 K for 1 h. Since the temperature control during PWHT in vacuum vessel by remote handling will be difficult, it is expected the tempering temperature will be different at place to place. Some specimens after tempering at 1033 K for 1 h were irradiated at 493 K to 2.2 dpa in Japan Research Reactor No.3 at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The SSRT results showed the as-normalized specimens failed by IGSCC in oxygenated temperature water at 573 K. SSRT results of specimens with other tempering temperature conditions will be presented at conference. In irradiated specimen, IGSCC did not occur in oxygenated water at 5113-603 K. IGSCC also did not occur in hydrogenated water at 573 K. However TGSCC occurred in the irradiated specimen with a round notch (radius= {approx}0.2 mm) in oxygenated water at 573 K

  9. Effect of water content on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 in iodine-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2005-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 (UNS R60804) was studied in 10 g/L iodine dissolved in various alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1 propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-octanol. SCC was observed in all the systems studied and it was found that the higher the size of alcohol molecule, the lower the SCC susceptibility. The existence of intergranular attack -controlled by the diffusion of the active species- is a condition for the SCC process to occur. In the present work the inhibiting effect of water on the SCC susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 in iodine-alcoholic solutions was also investigated and the results showed that the minimum water content to inhibit the SCC process depends on the type of alcohol used as a solvent. (author) [es

  10. Heat affected zone liquation cracking in electron beam welded third generation nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O.A.; Wang, Y.L.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The weldability of directionally solidified nickel base superalloy TMS-75 and TMS-75+C was investigated by autogenous bead-on-plate electron beam welding. The analysis of microsegregation that occurred during solidification of the as-cast alloys indicated that while W and Re segregated into the γ dendrites of both the alloys, Ta, Hf and C were rejected into the interdendritic liquid in the TMS-75+C. Heat affected zone intergranular liquation cracking was observed in both the materials and was observed to be closely associated with liquated γ-γ' eutectic microconstituent. The TMS-75+C alloy, however, exhibited a reduced extent of HAZ cracking compared to TMS-75. Suppression of terminal solidification reaction involving non-invariant γ-γ' eutectic transformation due to modification of primary solidification path by carbon addition is suggested to be an important factor contributing to reduced susceptibility of TMS-75+C alloy to HAZ liquation cracking relative to the TMS-75 superalloy

  11. Stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of V-15Cr-5Ti in pressurized water at 2880C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    The stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of V-15Cr-5Ti in pressurized water at 288 0 C has been evaluated by means of constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests in a refreshed autoclave system. The test environments included high-purity water as well as water containing SO 4 2- and NO 3 - impurities at a concentration of 10 wppM. Strain rates from 1 x 10 -6 to 5 x 10 -8 s -1 were employed, and dissolved oxygen levels ranged from <0.005 to 7.9 wppM. Test times were from 3.2 to 619 h. No stress corrosion cracking was observed under any of the test conditions. These results were analyzed using measured electrochemical potentials, available Pourbaix diagram information, and the observed oxidation behavior. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  13. Effects of Cr and Nb contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type Ni-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in a simulated BWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune

    1995-01-01

    In order to discuss the effects of chromium and niobium contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type nickel-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in the BWR primary coolant environment, a series of creviced bent-beam (CBB) tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-purity water environment. Chromium, niobium, and titanium as alloying elements improved the resistivity to stress-corrosion cracking, whereas carbon enhanced the susceptibility to it. Alloy-chemistry-based correlations have been defined to predict the relative resistances of alloys to stress-corrosion cracking. A strong correlation was found, for several heats of alloys, between grain-boundary chromium depletion and the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking

  14. Grain boundary segregation and intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, T.; Yamaki, K.; Ballinger, R.G.; Hwang, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of grain boundary segregation on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels in high temperature water have been examined as a function of heat treatment. The materials investigated were: (1) two commercial purity Type 304; (2) low sulfur Type 304; (3) nuclear grade Type 304; (4) ultra high purity Type 304L; and (5) Type 316L and Type 347L. Specimens were solution treated at 1050 degrees C for 0.5 hour and given a sensitization heat treatment at 650 degrees C for 50 hours. Some of the specimens were then subjected to an aging heat treatment at 850 degrees C for from one to ten hours to cause Cr recovery at the grain boundaries. The effects of heat treatments on degree of sensitization and grain boundary segregation were evaluated by Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) and Coriou tests, respectively. The susceptibility to stress corrosion (SCC) was evaluated using slow strain rate tests technique (SSRT) in high temperature water. SSRT tests were performed in an aerated pure water (8 ppm dissolved oxygen) at 288 degrees C at a strain rate of 1.33 x 10 -6 /sec. Susceptibility to intergranular stress corrosion cracking was compared with degree of sensitization and grain boundary segregation. The results of the investigation indicate that EPR is not always an accurate indicator of SCC susceptibility. The Coriou test provides a more reliable measure of SCC susceptibility especially for 304L, 304NG, 316L, and 347L stainless steels. The results also indicate that grain boundary segregation as well as degree of sensitization must be considered in the determination of SCC susceptibility

  15. Effect of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel on deformation behavior and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in BWR simulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychowdhury, S.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel (SS) components in boiling water reactor (BWR has been a serious issue and is generic in nature. Initial cracking incidences were attributed to weld induced sensitisation and low temperature sensitisation which was mitigated by the use of low carbon grade of SS and molybdenum and nitrogen containing nuclear grade SS. However, IGSCC has occurred in these SS in the non-sensitised condition which was attributed to residual weld induced strain. Strain hardening in SS has been identified as a major cause for enhanced IGSCC susceptibility in BWR environment. Nitrogen in SS has a significant effect on the strain hardening characteristics and has potential to affect the IGSCC susceptibility in BWR environment. Type 304LN stainless steel is a candidate material for use in future reactors with long design life like the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), in which the operating conditions are similar to BWR. This study reports the effect of nitrogen in type 304LN stainless steel on the strain hardening behaviour and deformation characteristics and its effect on the IGSCC susceptibility in BWR/AHWR environment. Two heats of type 304LN stainless steel were used containing different levels of nitrogen, 0.08 and 0.16 wt % (SS alloys A and B, respectively). Both the SS was strain hardened by cross rolling at 200℃ to simulate the strain hardened regions having higher IGSCC susceptibility in BWRs. Tensile testing was done at both room temperature and 288℃(temperature simulating operating BWR conditions) and the effect of nitrogen on the tensile properties were established. Tensile testing was done at strain rates similar to the crack tip strain rates associated with a growing IGSCC in SS. Detailed transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies were done to establish the effect of nitrogen on the deformation modes. Results indicated twinning was the major mode of deformation during cross rolling while

  16. Susceptibility of 17-4PH stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking in aqueous environments by electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The susceptibility of a 17-4PH type steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in low pressure steam turbine environments was assessed using slow strain rate test at 90 Centigrade and at 1.35x10 -6 seg -1 . Environments tested included different concentrated solutions of NaCl, NaOH and Na 2 SO 4 . It was concluded that this steel is susceptible to SCC in 20 % NaCl and pH=3 and in 20 % NaCl pH=neutral but under cathodic polarisation. The electrochemical potential noise of the specimen was monitored during the test. The naturally fluctuations in potential were arise due to spontaneous brake protective film and were characteristics of the kind of corrosion like pit or stress corrosion cracking. After that using Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) the noise data set were analyzed to obtain power spectral density plots which showed differences between general corrosion and localized corrosion. Polarization curves were carry out at two different rates and them showed the general behavior of the systems. (Author)

  17. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of steam generator tubing on secondary side in restricted flow areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulger, M.; Lucan, D.; Radulescu, M.; Velciu, L.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear steam generator tubes operate in high temperature water and on the secondary side in restricted flow areas many nonvolatile impurities accidentally introduced into circuit tend to concentrate. The concentration process leads to the formation of highly aggressive alkaline or acid solutions in crevices, and these solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on stressed tube materials. Even though alloy 800 has shown to be highly resistant to general corrosion in high temperature water, it has been found that the steam generator tubes may crack during service from the primary and/or secondary side. Stress corrosion cracking is still a serious problem occurring on outside tubes in operating steam generators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental factors affecting the stress corrosion cracking of steam generators tubing. The main test method was the exposure for 1000 hours into static autoclaves of plastically stressed C-rings of Incoloy 800 in caustic solutions (10% NaOH) and acidic chloride solutions because such environments may sometimes form accidentally in crevices on secondary side of tubes. Because the kinetics of corrosion of metals is indicated by anodic polarization curves, in this study, some stressed specimens were anodically polarized in caustic solutions in electrochemical cell, and other in chloride acidic solutions. The results presented as micrographs, potentiokinetic curves, and electrochemical parameters have been compared to establish the SCC behavior of Incoloy 800 in such concentrated environments. (authors)

  18. Susceptibility of cold-worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy to delayed hydrogen cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Notched tensile specimens of cold-worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy have been stressed at 350 K and 520 K. At 350 K, above a possible threshold stress of 200 MPa, specimens exhibited delayed failure which was attributed to hydride cracking. Metallography showed that hydrides accumulated at notches and tips of growing cracks. The time to failure appeared to be independent of hydrogen content over the range 7 to 100 ppm hydrogen. Crack growth rates of about 10 -10 m/s deduced from fractography were in the same range as those necessary to fracture pressure tubes. The asymptotic stress intensity for delayed failure, Ksub(1H), appeared to be about 5 MPa√m. With this low value of Ksub(1H) small surface flaws may propagate in pressure tubes which contain large residual stresses. Stress relieving and modified rolling procedures will reduce the residual stresses to such an extent that only flaws 12% of the wall thickness or greater will grow. At 520 K no failures were observed at times a factor of three greater than times to failure at 350 K. Zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium appears to be safe from delayed hydrogen cracking at the reactor operating temperature. (author)

  19. AN EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TITANIUM ALLOYS IN US HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. De; K. Mon; G. Gordon; D. Shoesmith; F. Hua

    2006-02-21

    This paper evaluates hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of titanium alloys in environments anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository with particular emphasis on the. effect of the oxide passive film on the hydrogen absorption process of titanium alloys being evaluated. The titanium alloys considered in this review include Ti 2, 5 , 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24 and 29. In general, the concentration of hydrogen in a titanium alloy can increase due to absorption of atomic hydrogen produced from passive general corrosion of that alloy or galvanic coupling of it to a less noble metal. It is concluded that under the exposure conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain repository, the HIC of titanium drip shield will not occur because there will not be sufficient hydrogen in the metal even after 10,000 years of emplacement. Due to the conservatisms adopted in the current evaluation, this assessment is considered very conservative.

  20. AN EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TITANIUM ALLOYS IN US HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. De; K. Mon; G. Gordon; D. Shoesmith; F. Hua

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of titanium alloys in environments anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository with particular emphasis on the. effect of the oxide passive film on the hydrogen absorption process of titanium alloys being evaluated. The titanium alloys considered in this review include Ti 2, 5 , 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24 and 29. In general, the concentration of hydrogen in a titanium alloy can increase due to absorption of atomic hydrogen produced from passive general corrosion of that alloy or galvanic coupling of it to a less noble metal. It is concluded that under the exposure conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain repository, the HIC of titanium drip shield will not occur because there will not be sufficient hydrogen in the metal even after 10,000 years of emplacement. Due to the conservatisms adopted in the current evaluation, this assessment is considered very conservative

  1. Characterization of susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, W.

    1999-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of three different material/environment combinations was investigated in an inter-laboratory test programme using five different SCC test methods, with special emphasis laid on a new rising displacement test method which was to be further developed in the course of this project. The degree of reliability that could be obtained with each of the test methods and their usability were assessed. In all cases the experimental data characterising the occurrence of SCC show considerable scatter, irrespective of the test method. Based on the experience gained in the test programme, a draft for a new part of the ISO standard 7539 was elaborated and has meanwhile attained the status of an ISO Draft International Standard (ISO/DIS). (orig.) [de

  2. Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of 304L Substrate and 308L Weld Metal Exposed to a Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available 304 stainless steels (SS were considered as the materials for a dry storage canister. In this study, ER (Electrode Rod 308L was utilized as the filler metal for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD map was used to identify the inherent microstructures in distinct specimens. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the 304L substrates and welds in a salt spray containing 5 wt % NaCl at 80 °C to evaluate their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC. Generally, the weight loss of the ER 308L deposit was higher than that of the 304L substrate in a salt spray in the same sample-prepared condition. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ was responsible for a greater weight loss of the 308L deposit, especially for the cold-rolled and sensitized specimen. Cold rolling was detrimental and sensitization after cold rolling was very harmful to the SCC resistance of the 304L substrate and 308L deposit. Overall, the SCC susceptibility of each specimen was correlated with its weight loss in each group.

  3. Effects of cyclic tensile loading on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility for sensitized Type 304 stainless steel in 290 C high purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, H.; Tokiwai, M.; Hirano, H.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of load waveform on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility have been examined for sensitized Type 304 stainless steels in a 290 C high purity water loop. Concerning the strain rate in the trapezoidal stress waveform, it was found that IGSCC susceptibility was higher for smaller values of the strain rate. It was also shown that IGSCC susceptibility became higher when the holding time at the upper stress was prolonged, and when the upper stress was high. The occurrence of IGSCC for sensitized Type 304 stainless steel became easy due to the application of cyclic tensile stress in 290 C high purity water

  4. Reheat cracking susceptibility of new generation 2%CrMo(W)V P23 steel multipass welds made using matching and mis-matching filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevasmaa, P.; Salonen, J.; Holmstroem, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2007-06-15

    In comparison with conventional creep resisting grade T/P22, the modified 2%Cr steels T/P23 and T/P24 show nearly twice the creep strength at typical service temperatures of about 520-570 deg C. The possibility of welding thin-wall boiler tubes without preheating or PWHT has promoted the use of T23 and T24 in practical boiler service. For thick-wall applications and multipass welds, welding consumables still require further development to improve creep strength and ductility. Susceptibility to reheat cracking and hydrogen cracking increase with the wall-thickness and structural rigidity of the component. Consequently, thick-wall sections generally require the use of PWHT and sometimes preheating as well. This paper is concerned with weldability of P23 pipe steel, with particular emphasis on reheat cracking sensitivity of simulated HAZ microstructures and thick-section multipass welds made using closely matching and mis-matching filler metals. The results demonstrate that the weld metal is far more critical than the parent steel HAZ, both in terms of reheat cracking sensitivity and ductility and toughness. In the as-welded condition, the weld metal exhibited excessive hardness of {approx}380 HV and only diminutive Charpy toughness at room temperature. Adoption of the PWHT (760 deg C/2h) enhanced the weldment toughness; however, it also inevitably raises risk to reheat cracking in the weld metal that showed values of reduction of area (RA) no more than 2-3% in the BWI cracking test. The results imply that thick-section multipass welds made using filler metal with the chemical composition closer to P24 grade material are much less susceptible to reheat cracking than 'matching' P23 grade welds. (orig.)

  5. Reheat cracking susceptibility of P23 (7CrWVMoNb9-6) steel welds made using matching and mis-matching filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevasmaa, Pekka; Salonen, Jorma; Auerkari, Pertti; Rantala, Juhani; Holmstroem, Stefan [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    Reheat cracking sensitivity of 7CrWVMoNb9-6 (P23) thick-section multipass welds has been investigated by Gleeble simulation, mechanical testing, fractography and metallography. The results demonstrate that the experimental weld metal made using a high-Nb-W-Ti-B type filler metal was sensitive to reheat cracking, with a reduction of area no more than 2-3% in the BWI reheat cracking (RC) test. Welds made using a high-W -low-Ti type filler metal with Nb content similar to the parent steel, as well as welds make using a Ni-Nb-Ti-free-(W-free) type filler metal with the chemical composition closer to P24 grade material, were more ductile and crack-resistant, though with reduced cross-weld creep strength. Fractography of RC test specimens showed evidence of pronounced localisation of damage at the prior austenite grain boundaries of the thermally reheated, experimental P23 weld metal. The reheat cracking susceptibility of the less ductile weld metal was apparently related both to the chemical composition (higher B, Nb and Ti content) and sub-structural features of the coarse-grained reheated weld metal microstructure. Appropriate single- and multi-cycle thermal Gleeble simulations to produce representative HAY and reheated weld metal microstructures (as function of peak temperature), in conjunction with the BWI RC test were successfully applied to characterise the reheat cracking sensitivity of the candidate weld metals and parent steel HAZ. (orig.)

  6. Effect of the delta ferrite solidification morphology of austenitic steels weld metal on the joint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilmes, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Llorente, C.; Solari, M.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of austenitic stainless steel weld metals are largely influenced by the appearance in the microstructure of delta ferrite of a given morphology. The susceptibility to hot cracks and low temperature toughness are deeply conditioned by the mixed complex austenitic-ferritic structures which depending on the steel chemical composition and on the cooling rate may be developed. The latest research on this issue points out the importance of the sodification mode as regards to the influence in the appearance of delta ferrite of a certain morphology. In fact, it is very important to understand the solidification sequences, the primary solidification modes which are possible and the subsequent solid state transformations to correlate the structural elements of the weld metal with the parameters of the welding process on the one had, and the weld joint properties on the other. (Author) 19 refs

  7. Standard test method for determining susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of 2XXX and 7XXX Aluminum alloy products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for characterizing the resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of high-strength aluminum alloy wrought products for the guidance of those who perform stress-corrosion tests, for those who prepare stress-corrosion specifications, and for materials engineers. 1.2 This test method covers method of sampling, type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure for determining the susceptibility to SCC of 2XXX (with 1.8 to 7.0 % copper) and 7XXX (with 0.4 to 2.8 % copper) aluminum alloy products, particularly when stressed in the short-transverse direction relative to the grain structure. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are provided for information. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and de...

  8. Method of plastic solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Yasuo; Tokimitsu, Fujio.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent occurrence of deleterious cracks to the inside and the surface of solidification products, as well as eliminate gaps between the products and the vessel inner wall upon plastic solidification processing for powdery or granular radioactive wastes. Method: An appropriate amount of thermoplastic resins such as styrenic polymer or vinyl acetate type polymer as a low shrinking agent is added and mixed with unsaturated polyester resins to be mixed with radioactive wastes so as to reduce the shrinkage-ratio to 0 % upon curing reaction. Thus, a great shrinkage upon hardening the mixture is suppressed to prevent the occurrence of cracks to the surface and the inside of the solidification products, as well as prevent the gaps between the inner walls of a drum can vessel and the products upon forming solidification products to the inside of the drum can. The resultant solidification products have a large compression strength and can sufficiently satisfy the evaluation standards as the plastic solidification products of radioactive wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Improvements in the susceptibility to hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.; Sato, S.; Shimomura, J.; Aso, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of sulphur content at extremely low level on the susceptibility to hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking in 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels was studied. The reduction of sulphur content and/or the addition of REM (rare earth metal) or Ca in accordance with sulphur content remarkably improve the resistivity against hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking. Micro-structural examination has showed that there exist Mn-REM-S-Al-O complex particles in the REM-added steels. It is concluded that the effect of REM on hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking is to reduce ''the free sulphur'' in 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels

  10. Effects of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions on lead-induced stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nuclear steam generator tubing alloy in high temperature crevice solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, B.T.; Tian, L.P.; Zhu, R.K.; Luo, J.L.; Lu, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of UNS N08800 are investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests at 300 o C in simulated crevice chemistries. The presence of lead contamination in the crevice chemistries increases significantly the SCC susceptibility of the alloy. The lead-assisted SCC (PbSCC) susceptibility is reduced markedly by the addition of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions into the solution and this mitigating effect is enhanced by increasing the total concentration of Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ . The CERT test results are consistent with the types of fracture surfaces shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). There is a reasonable correlation between the SCC susceptibility and the donor densities in the anodic films in accord with the role of lead-induced passivity degradation in PbSCC.

  11. Susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking in H2S corrosion environment of API 5L-X80 weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Fals, H. C.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking in H 2 S environment of welded API X80 steel was studied. The flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process was employed with E71-T1 and E71-T8K6 wires. The welding parameters were kept constant, but the samples were welded using different preheat temperatures (room temperature and 100 degree centigrade). The gapped bead-on-plate (G-BOP) test was used. The specimens of modified G-BOP tests were exposed to an environment saturated in H 2 S, as recommended by the NACE TM0284 standard. The weld beads were characterized by optical microscopy and the level of residual hydrogen in the samples was measured. The fracture surface areas of hydrogen-induced cracking were calculated and the fracture mode was discussed. It was found that the preheating temperature of 100 degree centigrade was enough to avoid cracking, even in the presence of H 2 S. It was also found that the E71- T8K6 wire was more susceptible to cracking, and the typical mixed-mode fracture was predominant in all samples. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Influence of microstructure on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of alloys 600 and 690 in primary water of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergaravat, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    performed in primary water on the more GBS sensitive materials (Alloy 600 and 690). These specimens showed an important susceptibility to SCC failure. Based on these results, we proposed a new cracking mechanism for Alloy 600 SCC in high temperature primary water. This mechanism takes into account the GBS role during both initiation and propagation steps of failure. (author)

  13. Relative Humidity and the Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking in an impure Plutonium Oxide Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.; Duffey, J.; Lam, P.; Dunn, K.

    2010-05-05

    Laboratory tests to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons showed that corrosion occurred in selected samples. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The exposures were conducted in sealed containers in which the oxide-salt mixtures were loaded with about 0.6 wt % water from a humidified helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration, the composition of the salt and the moisture present in the test environment. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride and 0.6 wt% water. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas above the solid mixture, or in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either no CaCl{sub 2} or 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2}. SCC was present where the 0.6 wt % water content exceeded the value needed to fully hydrate the available CaCl{sub 2}, but was absent where the water content was insufficient. These results reveal the significance of the relative humidity in the austenitic stainless steels environment to their susceptibility to corrosion. The relative humidity in the test environment was controlled by the water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salts such as CaCl{sub 2}. For each salt or salt mixture there is a threshold

  14. Experimental and numerical approaches to studying hot cracking in stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Minh

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns experimental and numerical approaches to studying hot cracking in welds in stainless steel. Metallurgical weldability of two filler products used for the welding of an AISI-316L(N) austenitic stainless steel grade is evaluated. These filler metals are distinguished by their solidification microstructures: austeno-ferritic for the 19Cr-12Ni-2Mo grade and austenitic for the 19-15H Thermanit grade. The study of weldability concerns the assessment of the susceptibility to hot cracking of these three alloys, the proposition of a hot cracking criterion, and the evaluation of its transferability to structure-scale tests. Hot cracks are material separations occurring at high temperatures along the grain boundaries (dendrite boundaries), when the level of strain and the strain rate exceed a certain level. The hot cracks studied are formed during solidification from the liquid phase of weld metals. The bibliography study brings to the fore the complexity of initiation and propagation mechanisms of these material separations. Three types of tests are studied in this work: hot cracking tests, such as trapezoidal and Varestraint tests, allowing to initiate the phenomenon in controlled experimental conditions, and tests on the Gleeble thermomechanical simulator for thermomechanical (materials behavior laws, fracture properties) and metallurgical (brittle temperature range (BTR), evolution of delta ferrite) characterizations of the alloys. All these tests on the three materials were analyzed via numerical modeling and simulations implemented in the Cast3M finite element code in order to bring out a thermomechanical hot cracking criterion. (author) [fr

  15. Investigation of irradiation induced inter-granular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility on austenitic stainless steels for PWR by simulated radiation induced segregation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, Toshio; Fujimoto, Koji; Kanasaki, Hiroshi; Iwamura, Toshihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago R and D Center, Takasago, Hyogo (Japan); Nakada, Shizuo; Ajiki, Kazuhide [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Urata, Sigeru [General Office of Nuclear and Fossil Power Production, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    An Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) has not been found in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). However, the authors have investigated on the possibility of IASCC so as to be able to estimate the degradation of PWR plants up to the end of their lifetime. In this study, the authors melted the test alloys whose bulk compositions simulated the grain boundary compositions of irradiated Type 304 and Type 316 CW stainless steels. Low chromium, high nickel and silicon (12%Cr-28%Ni-3%Si) steel showed high susceptibility to PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) by SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test in simulated PWR primary water. PWSCC susceptibility of the test steels increases with a decrease of chromium content and a increase of nickel and silicon contents. The aged test steel included coherent M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides with matrices at the grain boundaries showed low PWSCC susceptibility. This tendency is in very good agreement with that of the PWSCC susceptibility of nickel based alloys X-750 and 690. From these results, if there is the possibility of IASCC for austenitic stainless steels in PWRs, in the future, the IASCC shall be caused by the PWSCC as a result of irradiation induced grain boundary segregation. (author)

  16. Standard Practice for Use of Mattsson's Solution of pH 7.2 to Evaluate the Stress- Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Copper-Zinc Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the preparation and use of Mattsson's solution of pH 7.2 as an accelerated stress-corrosion cracking test environment for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The variables (to the extent that these are known at present) that require control are described together with possible means for controlling and standardizing these variables. 1.2 This practice is recommended only for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The use of this test environment is not recommended for other copper alloys since the results may be erroneous, providing completely misleading rankings. This is particularly true of alloys containing aluminum or nickel as deliberate alloying additions. 1.3 This practice is intended primarily where the test objective is to determine the relative stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of different brasses under the same or different stress conditions or to determine the absolute degree of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, if any, of a particular brass or brass component ...

  17. Inspection method for solidification product of radioactive waste and method of preparing solidification product of radiation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Tamada, Shin; Matsuda, Masami; Kamata, Shoji; Kikuchi, Makoto.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful X-ray generation device using an electron-ray accelerator is used for inspecting presence or absence of inner voids in solidification products of radioactive wastes during or after solidification. By installing the X-ray CT system and the radioactive waste solidifying facility together, CT imaging for solidification products is conducted in a not-yet cured state of solidifying materials during or just after the injection. If a defect that deteriorates the durability of the solidification products should be detected, the solidification products are repaired, for example, by applying vibrations to the not-yet cured solidification products. Thus, since voids or cracks in the radioactive wastes solidification products, which were difficult to be measured so far, can be measured in a short period of time accurately thereby enabling to judge adaptability to the disposal standards, inspection cost for the radioactive waste solidification product can be saved remarkably. Further, the inside of the radioactive waste solidification products can be evaluated correctly and visually, so that safety in the ground disposal storage of the radioactive solidification products can be improved remarkably. (N.H.)

  18. Microstructure, local mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of an SA508-52M-316LN safe-end dissimilar metal weld joint by GTAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Hongliang; Zhu, Ruolin [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhiming [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Jianqiu, E-mail: wangjianqiu@imr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Han, En.-Hou.; Ke, Wei [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning KeyLaboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Su, Mingxing [Shanghai Research Center for Weld and Detection Engineering Technique of Nuclear Equipment, Shanghai 201306 (China)

    2016-07-04

    The microstructure, local mechanical properties and local stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of an SA508-52M-316LN domestic dissimilar metal welded safe-end joint used for AP1000 nuclear power plant prepared by automatic gas tungsten arc welding was studied in this work by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (with electron back scattering diffraction and an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system), micro-hardness testing, local mechanical tensile testing and local slow strain rate tests. The micro-hardness, local mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility across this dissimilar metal weld joint vary because of the complex microstructure across the fusion area and the dramatic chemical composition change across the fusion lines. Briefly, Type I boundaries and Type II boundaries exist in 52Mb near the SA508-52Mb interface, a microstructure transition was found in SA508 heat affected zone, the residual strain and grain boundary character distribution changes as a function of the distance from the fusion boundary in 316LN heat affected zone, micro-hardness distribution and local mechanical properties along the DMWJ are heterogeneous, and 52Mw-316LN interface has the highest SCC susceptibility in this DMWJ while 316LN base metal has the lowest one.

  19. Dendritic microstructure and hot cracking of laser additive manufactured Inconel 718 under improved base cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke; Nie, Pulin; Elmi Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo

    2016-01-01

    The base cooling effect was improved by imposing the continuous water flow on the back of the substrate during the laser additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 (IN718). The dendritic microstructure, crystal orientation and hot cracking behavior were studied by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The results showed that the crystal orientation was increased by increasing the base cooling effect during the deposition. Also, highly ordered columnar dendrites were established, and mono-crystalline texture was constructed in the final clad. It was fund that the effect of solidification cracking on the properties of final clad was negligible since it was only generated at the top region of the deposit, while liquation cracking was produced and remained in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and needed to be carefully controlled. The susceptibility to the liquation cracking showed a high dependence on the grain boundary misorientation, which was considered to be attributed to the stability of interdendritic liquation films, as well as the magnitude of local stress concentration in the last stage of solidification. - Highlights: • The base cooling effect was increased during laser additive manufacturing. • Highly ordered dendrites were established under improved base cooling. • The crystal orientation was increased by improving the base cooling effect. • Liquation cracking tendency was reduced due to the increase of base cooling. • Liquation cracking increased with the increase of grain boundary misorientation.

  20. Dendritic microstructure and hot cracking of laser additive manufactured Inconel 718 under improved base cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke; Nie, Pulin; Elmi Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    The base cooling effect was improved by imposing the continuous water flow on the back of the substrate during the laser additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 (IN718). The dendritic microstructure, crystal orientation and hot cracking behavior were studied by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The results showed that the crystal orientation was increased by increasing the base cooling effect during the deposition. Also, highly ordered columnar dendrites were established, and mono-crystalline texture was constructed in the final clad. It was fund that the effect of solidification cracking on the properties of final clad was negligible since it was only generated at the top region of the deposit, while liquation cracking was produced and remained in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and needed to be carefully controlled. The susceptibility to the liquation cracking showed a high dependence on the grain boundary misorientation, which was considered to be attributed to the stability of interdendritic liquation films, as well as the magnitude of local stress concentration in the last stage of solidification. - Highlights: • The base cooling effect was increased during laser additive manufacturing. • Highly ordered dendrites were established under improved base cooling. • The crystal orientation was increased by improving the base cooling effect. • Liquation cracking tendency was reduced due to the increase of base cooling. • Liquation cracking increased with the increase of grain boundary misorientation.

  1. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  2. Effect of heating produced by welding on the microstructure and on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of AA7028 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, A.; Rodenas, M.; Ferrer, C.; Amigo, V.; Salvador, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The microstructural and stress corrosion cracking changes due to welding are studied for the AA7028 aluminium alloy. Special attention is paid to the characterization of what is known as the white zone. The influence of the delay step between quenching and aging in a T73 treatment on the microstructure and on the characteristics of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is also studied. Finally the effect of thermal treatments applied on this zone after the welding is analysed. (Author) 7 refs

  3. Pitting and Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Nanostructured Al-Mg Alloys in Natural and Artificial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mala M.; Ziemian, Constance W.

    2008-12-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of two developmental nanocrystalline 5083 alloys with varied composition and processing conditions was studied. The results were compared to a commercial aluminum AA 5083 (H111) alloy. The pitting densities, size and depths, and residual tensile strengths were measured after alternate immersion in artificial seawater and atmospheric exposure under different loading conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX was used to analyze the fracture surfaces of failed specimen after removal at selected intervals and tensile testing. One of the nanostructured Al-Mg alloys exhibited significantly superior pitting resistance when compared to conventional microstructured AA 5083. Under conditions where pitting corrosion showed up as local tunnels toward phase inclusions, transgranular cracking was observed, whereas under conditions when pitting corrosion evolved along grain boundaries, intergranular cracking inside the pit was observed. Pit initiation resistance of the nano alloys appears to be better than that of the conventional alloys. However, long-term pit propagation is a concern and warrants further study. The objective of this investigation was to obtain information regarding the role that ultra-fine microstructures play in their degradation in marine environments and to provide insight into the corrosion mechanisms and damage processes of these alloys.

  4. Hot tearing susceptibility of binary Mg–Y alloy castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi; Huang, Yuanding; Srinivasan, Amirthalingam; Liu, Zheng; Beckmann, Felix; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Hort, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quantitatively and qualitatively assessing hot tearing susceptibility for different alloys. ► Monitoring the hot tearing propagation process. ► Detecting the hot tearing initiation/onset temperature. ► Recording the stress and strain evolution during the casting solidification and the subsequent cooling. - Abstract: The influence of Y content on the hot tearing susceptibility (HTS) of binary Mg–Y alloys has been predicted using thermodynamic calculations based on Clyne and Davies model. The calculated results are compared with experimental results determined using a constrained rod casting (CRC) apparatus with a load cell and data acquisition system. Both thermodynamic calculations and experimental measurements indicate that the hot tearing susceptibility as a function of Y content follows the “λ” shape. The experimental results show that HTS first increases with increase in Y content, reaches the maximum at about 0.9 wt.%Y and then decreases with further increase the Y content. The maximum susceptibility observed in Mg–0.9 wt.%Y alloy is attributed to its coarsened columnar microstructure, large solidification range and small amount of eutectic at the time of hot tearing. The initiation of hot cracks is monitored during CRC experiments. It corresponds to a drop in load increment on the force curves. The critical solid fractions at which the hot cracks are initiated are in the range from 0.9 to 0.99. It is also found that it decreases with increasing the content of Y. The hot cracks propagate along the dendritic or grain boundaries through the interdendritic separation or tearing of interconnected dendrites. Some of the formed cracks are possible to be healed by the subsequent refilling of the remained liquids

  5. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from...

  6. Solidification microstructure development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A majority of manufacturing processes involve melting and solidification of metals and ... In such a case (for example, chill casting), the solidification thickness (S) is ... (5). Here, LX is the system length scale in one dimension and DS is the solute diffusivity in solid. Thermal and solutal diffusivities are finite and usually very ...

  7. Assessment of The Cracking Properties of Stainless Steel Alloys and their Usability for Laser Welding in Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther

    2001-01-01

    Methods to assess stainless steel alloys’ cracking properties and usability for laser welding has been studied. Also tests to assess alloys’ susceptibility to hot cracking has been conducted. Among these is the so-called Weeter test which assesses the alloy by executing a number of spot welds...... to provoke cracking in the alloy. In this work the Weeter test has been modified and changed in order to develop a faster and easier test also applicable to small specimens. The new test, called a Groove test differs from the Weeter test by its procedure in which linear seam welds are conducted instead...... of spot welds. The Groove test has the advantage of an easier microscopy and analysis in the welds. Results from crack tests was partly confirmed by predictions made on the basis of the alloy’s constituents and solidification growth rate....

  8. Assessment of the effects of surface preparation and coatings on the susceptibility of line pipe to stress-corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate susceptibility of pipeline steel to SCC when coated with coal-tar enamel, fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE), and polyethylene tape coatings. The tests included standard cathodic disbondment tests, potential gradients beneath disbonded coatings, electrochemical measurements, and SCC tests. It was concluded that factors affecting relative SCC susceptibility of pipelines with different coatings are the disbonding resistance of the coating and the ability of the coating to pass cathodic protection (CP) current. FBE coated pipelines would be expected to exhibit good SCC resistance, since the FBE coating had high cathodic disbonding resistance and could pass CP current. Grit blasting at levels used at coating mills may be beneficial or detrimental to SCC susceptibility. Excellent correlation was found between th Almen strip deflection and change in SCC threshold stress. It appears to be beneficial to remove as much mill scale as possible, and a white surface finish probably should also be specified. 50 figs, 10 tabs

  9. Effect Mo Addition on Corrosion Property and Sulfide Stress Cracking Susceptibility of High Strength Low Alloy Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo Yong; Koh, Seong Ung; Kim, Kyoo Young

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the effect of Mo addition on SSC susceptibility of high strength low alloy steels in terms of microstructure and corrosion property. Materials used in this study are high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with carbon content of 0.04wt% and Mo content varying from 0.1 to 0.3wt%. The corrosion property of steels was evaluated by immersion test in NACE-TM01-77 solution A and by analyzing the growth behavior of surface corrosion products. SSC resistance of steels was evaluated using constant load test. Electrochemical test was performed to investigate initial corrosion rate. Addition of Mo increased corrosion rate of steels by enhancing the porosity of surface corrosion products. however, corrosion rate was not directly related to SSC susceptibility of steels

  10. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern technological societies. As a result, there have been innumerable efforts and full conferences dedicated to this important subject [1–6]. In addition, there are various scientific journals fully devoted to investigating the various aspects which give rise to various solidification microstructures [7–9]. [...

  11. Effect of quenching and tempering process on sulfide stress cracking susceptibility in API-5CT-C110 casing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Wang, C.H.; Dai, Y.C.; Li, X.; Cao, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Russell, A.M. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory of the U.S.D.O.E., and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States); Liu, Y.H.; Dong, X.M. [Tube & Pipe Department, Baosteel Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Zhang, Z.H., E-mail: zhzhang@baosteel.com [Tube & Pipe Department, Baosteel Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China)

    2017-03-14

    Three quenching and tempering processes performed on API-5CT-C110 casing steel produced tempered martensite structures and similar mechanical properties but distinct sulfide stress cracking (SSC) behavior as evaluated by Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) testing. An as-quenched specimen tempered at 690 °C for two hours showed superior SSC behavior compared to another specimen tempered at 715 °C for one hour. The latter contained a larger fraction of low-angle boundaries (LABs) and higher values of kernel average misorientation (KAM) than those in the former. Moreover, one more quenching and tempering on the former specimen would produce better SSC resistance with a decrease in the fraction of LABs and the values of KAM. Since dislocations trap hydrogen more strongly than grain boundaries, the specimen with higher KAM values, as well as higher dislocation density, would trap more hydrogen atoms and lead to greater SSC.

  12. Chemical radwaste solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Some of these processes and their problems are briefly reviewed: early cement systems; urea-formaldehyde; Dow solidification process; low-viscosity chemical agents (POLYPAC); and water-extensible polyester. 9 refs

  13. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  14. Assessment of susceptibility of Type 304 stainless steel to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in simulated Savannah River Reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.; Caskey, C.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Type 304 stainless steel rate tests (CERT) of specimens machined was evaluated by constant extension from Savannah River Plant (SRP) decontaminated process water piping. Results from 12 preliminary CERT tests verified that IGSCC occurred over a wide range of simulated SRP envirorments. 73 specimens were tested in two statistical experimental designs of the central composite class. In one design, testing was done in environments containing hydrogen peroxide; in the other design, hydrogen peroxide was omitted but oxygen was added to the environment. Prediction equations relating IGSCC to temperature and environmental variables were formulated. Temperature was the most important independent variable. IGSCC was severe at 100 to 120C and a threshold temperature between 40C and 55C was identified below which IGSCC did not occur. In environments containing hydrogen peroxide, as in SRP operation, a reduction in chloride concentration from 30 to 2 ppB also significantly reduced IGSCC. Reduction in sulfate concentration from 50 to 7 ppB was effective in reducing IGSCC provided the chloride concentration was 30 ppB or less and temperature was 95C or higher. Presence of hydrogen peroxide in the environment increased IGSCC except when chloride concentration was 11 ppB or less. Actual concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and carbon dioxide did not affect IGSCC. Large positive ECP values (+450 to +750 mV Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)) in simulated SRP environments containing hydrogen peroxide and were good agreement with ECP measurements made in SRP reactors, indicating that the simulated environments are representative of SRP reactor environments. Overall CERT results suggest that the most effective method to reduce IGSCC is to reduce chloride and sulfate concentrations

  15. Solidification microstructures and solid-state parallels: Recent developments, future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Beckermann, C. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kurz, W. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: wilfried.kurz@epfl.ch; Napolitano, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Plapp, M. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Purdy, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4L7 (Canada); Rappaz, M. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Trivedi, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Rapid advances in atomistic and phase-field modeling techniques as well as new experiments have led to major progress in solidification science during the first years of this century. Here we review the most important findings in this technologically important area that impact our quantitative understanding of: (i) key anisotropic properties of the solid-liquid interface that govern solidification pattern evolution, including the solid-liquid interface free energy and the kinetic coefficient; (ii) dendritic solidification at small and large growth rates, with particular emphasis on orientation selection; (iii) regular and irregular eutectic and peritectic microstructures; (iv) effects of convection on microstructure formation; (v) solidification at a high volume fraction of solid and the related formation of pores and hot cracks; and (vi) solid-state transformations as far as they relate to solidification models and techniques. In light of this progress, critical issues that point to directions for future research in both solidification and solid-state transformations are identified.

  16. The Relation Between Alloy Chemistry and Hot-Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Talia, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    Hot cracking is a problem in welding 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Weld wire additives seem to reduce the problem. This study proposes a model intended to clarify the way alloying elements affect hot-cracking. The brittle temperature range of an alloy extends wherever the tensile stress required to move the meniscus of the liquid film at the grain/dendrite boundaries is less than the bulks flow stress Sigma(sub B) of the grains: 2gamma/delta alloys outgas.) If the above condition is not met, the grains deform under stress and the liquid film remains in place. Curves of 2gamma/delta and sigma(sub B) vs. temperature in the range just below the melting temperature determine the hot cracking susceptibility of an alloy. Both are zero at onset of solidification. sigma(sub B) rises as the thermal activation of the slip mechanism is reduced. 2gamma/delta rises as the film thickness delta which can be estimated from the Scheil equation, drops. But, given an embrittled alloy, whether the alloy actually cracks is determined by the strain imposed upon it in the embrittled condition. A critical strain is estimated, Epsilon(sub C) on the order of Epsilon(sub C) is approximately delta/l where L = grain size and where the the volume increment due to the strain, concentrated at the liquid film, is on the order of the liquid film volume. In the early 80's an empirical critical strain cracking envelope Epsilon(sub C)(T) was incorporated into a damage criterion to estimate the effect of welding parameters on the formation of microfissures in a superalloy with good results. These concepts, liquid film decoherence vs. grain bulk deformation and critical strain, form the key elements of a quantitative theory of hot-cracking applicable for assessing the effect of alloying elements on hot-cracking during welding.

  17. Solidification at the micro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, A.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental determination and computer simulation of the micro-segregation accompanying the solidification of alloys continues to be a subject of much academic and industrial interest. Both are subject to progressively more sophisticated analyses, and a discussion is offered regarding the development and practical use of such studies. Simple steels are particularly difficult targets for such work: solidification does not end conveniently in a eutectic, the rapid diffusion particularly in the delta-ferrite phase obscures most evidence of what had occurred at the micro-scale during solidification, and one or more subsequent solid state phase transformations further obscure such details. Also, solidification at the micro-scale is inherently variable: the usual, dendrite morphologies encountered are, after all, instabilities in growth behaviour, and therefore such variability should be expected. For questions such as the relative susceptibility of different grades to particular problems, it is the average, typical behaviour that is of interest, whereas for other questions such as the on-set of macro-segregation, the local variability is paramount. Depending on the question being asked, and indeed the accuracy with which validatory data are available, simple pseudo-analytical equations employing various limiting assumptions, or sophisticated models which remove the need for most such limitations, could be appropriate. This paper highlights the contribution to such studies of various collaborative research forums within the European Union with which the author is involved. (orig.) [de

  18. Standard practice for determining the susceptibility of stainless steels and related Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in polythionic acids

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for preparing and conducting the polythionic acid test at room temperature, 22 to 25°C (72 to 77°F), to determine the relative susceptibility of stainless steels or other related materials (nickel-chromiumiron alloys) to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. 1.2 This practice can be used to evaluate stainless steels or other materials in the “as received” condition or after being subjected to high-temperature service, 482 to 815°C (900 to 1500°F), for prolonged periods of time. 1.3 This practice can be applied to wrought products, castings, and weld metal of stainless steels or other related materials to be used in environments containing sulfur or sulfides. Other materials capable of being sensitized can also be tested in accordance with this test. 1.4 This practice may be used with a variety of stress corrosion test specimens, surface finishes, and methods of applying stress. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, ...

  19. Polymer solidification national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1993-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several new and innovative polymer processes for the solidification of low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes streams. Polyethylene and modified sulfur cement solidification technologies have undergone steady, gradual development at BNL over the past nine years. During this time they have progressed through each of the stages necessary for logical technology maturation: from process conception, parameter optimization, waste form testing, evaluation of long-term durability, economic analysis, and scale-up feasibility. This technology development represents a significant investment which can potentially provide DOE with both short- and long-term savings

  20. Species redistribution during solidification of nuclear fuel waste metal castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naterer, G F; Schneider, G E [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    An enthalpy-based finite element model and a binary system species redistribution model are developed and applied to problems associated with solidification of nuclear fuel waste metal castings. Minimal casting defects such as inhomogeneous solute segregation and cracks are required to prevent container corrosion and radionuclide release. The control-volume-based model accounts for equilibrium solidification for low cooling rates and negligible solid state diffusion for high cooling rates as well as intermediate conditions. Test problems involving nuclear fuel waste castings are investigated and correct limiting cases of species redistribution are observed. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  1. Effects of cold working ratio and stress intensity factor on intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of non-sensitized austenitic stainless steels in simulated BWR and PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguchi, Seiji; Yonezawa, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cold working ratio, stress intensity factor and water chemistry on an IGSCC susceptibility of non-sensitized austenitic stainless steel, constant displacement DCB specimens were applied to SCC tests in simulated BWR and PWR primary water for the three types of austenitic stainless steels, Types 316L, 347 and 321. IGSCC was observed on the test specimens in simulated BWR and PWR primary water. The observed IGSCC was categorized into the following two types. The one is that the IGSCC observed on the same plane of the pre-fatigue crack plane, and the other is that the IGSCC observed on a plane perpendicular to the pre-fatigue crack plane. The later IGSCC fractured plane is parallel to the rolling plane of a cold rolled material. Two types of IGSCC fractured planes were changed according to the combination of the testing conditions (cold working ratio, stress intensity factor and simulated water). It seems to suggest that the most susceptible plane due to fabrication process of materials might play a significant role of IGSCC for non-sensitized cold worked austenitic stainless steels, especially, in simulated PWR primary water. Based upon evaluating on the reference crack growth rate (R-CGR) of the test specimens, the R-CGR seems to be mainly affected by cold working ratio. In case of simulated PWR primary water, it seems that the effect of metallurgical aspects dominates IGSCC susceptibility. (author)

  2. Radioactive gas solidification treatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Ryokichi; Watanabe, Yu; Seki, Eiji.

    1992-01-01

    In a radioactive gas solidification treatment device by using sputtering, spiral pipelines are disposed with a gap therebetween for cooling an ion injection electrode by passing cooling water during operation of the solidification treatment. During the operation of the solidification treatment, cooling water is passed in the pipelines to cool the ion injection electrode. During storage, a solidification vessel is cooled by natural heat dissipation from an exposed portion at the surface of the solidification vessel. Accordingly, after-heat of radioactive gas solidified in a metal accumulation layer can be removed efficiently, safely and economically to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  3. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  4. Nuclear waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition

  5. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF 6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF 6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF 6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  6. Microwave solidification project overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  7. Microwave solidification project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included

  8. Advanced modeling of solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet-Melou, P.; Fichot, F.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D.; Quintard, M.

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical and numerical macroscopic modeling of the solidification of binary mixtures is presented. The growth of a solid-liquid region (mushy zone), represented by a non-homogeneous porous medium, is considered. A macroscopic model for momentum, heat and mass transfer during solidification is derived using the volume averaging method, and the effective transport properties (permeability, effective diffusivities, mass exchange coefficients) are defined by associated closure problems (set of microscopic balance equations). Consequently, the effects of the dendritic geometry (tortuosity) and of microscopic transfer phenomena (dispersion, interfacial exchange) are introduced in the averaged balance equations and in the representation of the effective transport coefficients. This closure method provides an original approach of solidification modeling. The resulting macroscopic model is based on the local thermal equilibrium assumption (one-temperature model) while a two-phase description of macroscopic species transfer is introduced using solid and liquid mass exchange coefficients. The phase diagram is used to predict the solid and liquid equilibrium concentrations at the solid-liquid interface. This two-phase approach extends the classical limiting cases that correspond to the lever-rule and Scheil descriptions. (authors)

  9. NPP Grafenrheinfeld. No thank you. Questions and answers concerning the oldest operating crack susceptible reactor in the federal republic; AKW Grafenrheinfeld. Nein danke. Fragen und Antworten zum aeltesten noch laufenden und rissanfaelligsten Reaktor der Republik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darge, Tobias

    2014-03-15

    The brochure discusses questions on the NPP Grafenrheinfeld. concerning the following issues: reactor type, operating company, nuclear fuel, licensing, radioactive waste management, susceptibility to damage, stress test results, critical arguments concerning the reactor pressure vessel steel and the containment, cracks in the primary circuit, safety in case of an aircraft crash, possibility of a severe accident, consequences of a severe accident, medical emergency plan, public information for an emergency case, shutdown at the end of 2015, necessity of a new power plant for energy security?.

  10. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  11. Low-level radwaste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.; Miller, C.C.; Nelson, R.A.; Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ''Advanced Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems'' conducted under an EPRI contract. The object of the study is to identify advanced lowlevel radwaste treatment systems that are commercially available or are expected to be in the near future. The current state-ofthe-art in radwaste solidification technology is presented. Related processing technologies, such as the compaction of dry active waste (DAW), containers available for radwaste disposal, and the regulatory aspects of radwaste transportation and solidification, are described. The chemical and physical properties of the currently acceptable solidification agents, as identified in the Barnwell radwaste burial site license, are examined. The solidification agents investigated are hydraulic cements, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. It is concluded that solidification processes are complex and depend not only on the chemical and physical properties of the binder material and the waste, but also on how these materials are mixed

  12. Plastic solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru

    1981-01-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed after the start of nuclear power development, and the nuclear power generation in Japan now exceeds the level of 10,000 MW. In order to meet the energy demands, the problem of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power stations must be solved. The purpose of the plastic solidification of such wastes is to immobilize the contained radionuclides, same as other solidification methods, to provide the first barrier against their move into the environment. The following matters are described: the nuclear power generation in Japan, the radioactive wastes from LWR plants, the position of plastic solidification, the status of plastic solidification in overseas countries and in Japan, the solidification process for radioactive wastes with polyethylene, and the properties of solidified products, and the leachability of radionuclides in asphalt solids. (J.P.N.)

  13. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  14. Metallurgy of stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    The susceptibility of metals and alloys to stress corrosion is discussed in terms of the relationship between structural characteristics (crystal structure, grains, and second phases) and defects (vacancies, dislocations, and cracks) that exist in metals and alloys. (U.S.)

  15. Effect of Cr, Ni, and Mo additions on the susceptibility of the 0Kh6n7m7c steel to hot cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, L.G.; Pryakhin, A.V.; Popov, A.N.; Usynin, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel on the tendency of surfacing materials to form hot cracks (Vsub(kp) was studied using the mathematical statistics method. The St3 steel and 38KhN3MFA steel were used in the study. A device facilitating the hot cracking tendency test procedure was developed. It was found that, in the concentration range involved, Ni and Mo produce no effect on Vsub(kp), and Cr enhances it. A new powder wire, PP-OKh7N8M6S, capable of increasing surface material resistance by 1.5-2 times, has been developed

  16. Susceptibility of 17-4PH stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking in aqueous environments by electrochemical techniques.; Estudio de la corrosion bajo tension del acero 17-4PH en medios acuosos usando tecnicas electroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz S, A C [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The susceptibility of a 17-4PH type steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in low pressure steam turbine environments was assessed using slow strain rate test at 90 Centigrade and at 1.35x10{sup -6} seg{sup -1}. Environments tested included different concentrated solutions of NaCl, NaOH and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. It was concluded that this steel is susceptible to SCC in 20 % NaCl and pH=3 and in 20 % NaCl pH=neutral but under cathodic polarisation. The electrochemical potential noise of the specimen was monitored during the test. The naturally fluctuations in potential were arise due to spontaneous brake protective film and were characteristics of the kind of corrosion like pit or stress corrosion cracking. After that using Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) the noise data set were analyzed to obtain power spectral density plots which showed differences between general corrosion and localized corrosion. Polarization curves were carry out at two different rates and them showed the general behavior of the systems. (Author).

  17. Solidification method of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Tsutomu; Chino, Koichi; Sasahira, Akira; Ikeda, Takashi

    1992-07-24

    Metal solidification material can completely seal radioactive wastes and it has high sealing effect even if a trace amount of evaporation should be caused. In addition, the solidification operation can be conducted safely by using a metal having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the radioactive wastes. Further, the radioactive wastes having a possibility of evaporation and scattering along with oxidation can be solidified in a stable form by putting the solidification system under an inert gas atmosphere. Then in the present invention, a metal is selected as a solidification material for radioactive wastes, and a metal, for example, lead or tin having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the wastes is used in order to prevent the release of the wastes during the solidification operation. Radioactive wastes which are unstable in air and scatter easily, for example, Ru or the like can be converted into a stable solidification product by conducting the solidification processing under an inert gas atmosphere. (T.M.).

  18. Corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on alloy corrosion cracking. Topics considered at the conference included the effect of niobium addition on intergranular stress corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue cracking in fossil-fueled-boilers, fracture toughness, fracture modes, hydrogen-induced thresholds, electrochemical and hydrogen permeation studies, the effect of seawater on fatigue crack propagation of wells for offshore structures, the corrosion fatigue of carbon steels in seawater, and stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical strength of alloy 600

  19. Rock solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. MODELING SOLIDIFICATION-INDUCED STRESSES IN CERAMIC WASTE FORMS CONTAINING NUCLEAR WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Bateman, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce a ceramic waste form (CWF) that permanently occludes radioactive waste. This is accomplished by absorbing radioactive salts into zeolite, mixing with glass frit, heating to a molten state 915 C to form a sodalite glass matrix, and solidifying for long-term storage. Less long term leaching is expected if the solidifying cooling rate doesn't cause cracking. In addition to thermal stress, this paper proposes that a stress is formed during solidification which is very large for fast cooling rates during solidification and can cause severe cracking. A solidifying glass or ceramic cylinder forms a dome on the cylinder top end. The temperature distribution at the time of solidification causes the stress and the dome. The dome height, ''the length deficit,'' produces an axial stress when the solid returns to room temperature with the inherent outer region in compression, the inner in tension. Large tensions will cause cracking of the specimen. The temperature deficit, derived by dividing the length deficit by the coefficient of thermal expansion, allows solidification stress theory to be extended to the circumferential stress. This paper derives the solidification stress theory, gives examples, explains how to induce beneficial stresses, and compares theory to experimental data.

  1. Method of storing solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently and satisfactorily cool and store solidification products of liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process by a simple facility. Method: Liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process are caused to flow from the upper opening to the inside of a spherical canistor. The opening of the spherical canistor is welded with a lid by a remote control and the liquid wastes are tightly sealed within the spherical canistor as glass solidification products. Spherical canistors having the solidification products tightly sealed therein are sent into and stored in a hopper by the remote control. Further, a blower is driven upon storing to suck cooling air from the cooling air intake port to the inside of the hopper to absorb the decay heat of radioactive materials in the solidification products and the air is discharged from the duct and through the stack to the atmosphere. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Contribution to the determination of priority constructive influences on the hot crack initiation of welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollnow, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The previous research results do not allow a general hot crack characterisation although a variety of experimental and numerical knowledge is available. The reason for this is mainly the large number of influencing factors that complicate a complete description of the hot cracking phenomenon and especially solidification cracking. The hot crack formation and thus the solidification crack initiation can be described by the interaction of process, metallurgy and design. However, the literature examination shows that in the solidifaction crack characterisation the influence of the design aspect is often underestimated. The pre-stresses of the structural components is up to now not considered as an essential cause for the formation of solidification cracks. The evaluation of the influence of the various parameters is presented partly inconsistent. In addition, the targeted presentation of the design influence with respect to the solidification cracks in the weld is because the limited transferability of the various component-specific stresses on a laboratory scale and thus to the respective hot cracking tests restricted. Hence, the difficulty to transfer the results between laboratory specimen and component as well as the general hot crack characterisation is given. In this work the different types of stresses from the component welding in the laboratory and to quantify experimentally the solidification crack critical values, displacements and displacement rates were detected. In this regard external loaded hot cracking tests were carried out by using the advantages of contactless measurement techniques close to the weld and to analyse the welding process with respect to various local and global design-specific factors influencing the formation of solidification cracks in high alloyed steel. These investigations were performed on austenitic (1.4828) and ferritic (1.4509) materials with different mechanical and technological properties. To reflect the praxis relevant

  3. A review of hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, V.; Gill, T.P.S.; Mannan, S.L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence of hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel weldments is discussed with respect to its origin and metallurgical contributory factors. Of the three types of hot cracking, namely solidification cracking, liquation and ductility dip cracking, solidification cracking occurs in the interdendritic regions in weld metal while liquation and ductility dip cracking occur intergranularly in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Segregation of impurity and minor elements such as sulphur, phosphorous, silicon, niobium, boron etc to form low melting eutectic phases has been found to be the major cause of hot cracking. Control of HAZ cracking requires minimisation of impurity elements in the base metal. In stabilized stainless steels containing niobium, higher amounts of delta-ferrite have been found necessary to prevent cracking than in unstabilized compositions. Titanium compounds have been found to cause liquation cracking in maraging steels and titanium containing stainless steels and superalloys. In nitrogen added stainless steels, cracking resistance decreases when the solidification mode changes to primary austenitic due to nitrogen addition. A review of the test methods to evaluate hot cracking behaviour showed that several external restraint and semi-self-restraint tests are available. The finger Test, WRC Fissure Bend Test, the PVR test and the Varestraint Test are described along with typical test results. Hot ductility testing to reveal HAZ cracking tendency during welding is described, which is of particular importance to stabilized stainless steels. Based on the literature, recommendations are made for welding stabilized and nitrogen added steels, indicating areas of further work. (author). 81 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab

  4. Study of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of type 304 austenitic stainless steel in aqueous solution of MgCl2 at 1250C using the slow - strain - rate technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of type 304 austenitic stainless steel mainly in aqueous solution of MgCl 2 at 125 0 C using the slow strain-rate technique. A system is built up of a tensile test machine and the peripheric equipment. The efficacy of this system has been tested by running experiments for determination of critical potentials in MgCl 2 with or without aditions of NaNO 3 . Critical potentials are found to be between -145 and -160 mV sub(H) for pure MgCl 2 and between -90 and -100 mV sub(H) for MgCl 2 plus 2,5% NaNO 3 . Comparing these results with others of constant load tests, good agreement is found. (Author) [pt

  5. Hydrogen cracking susceptibility evaluation of buried steel pipe under cathodic protection. Cathode boshokuka ni okeru maisetsu kokan no suisoware kanjusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Nonaka, H. (Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Yamakawa, K. (University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    An evaluation was given on effects of hydrogen on pipeline materials in order to determine a most base value in an optimal cathodic protection potential in cathodic protection of buried pipelines. Protection potentials were estimated from the relation between critical hydrogen amount and the potentials in marine clays and sodium acetate as electrolyte. The materials were evaluated using a strain rate tensile experiment method. The following results were obtained: The more base the potential, the elongation was somewhat less than the result in air, while the tensile strength increased slightly; difference in water content in soils varies the cross section contraction rate; the rate does not change in a marine clay containing water at 20%, but it decreases in a 30%-content soil; an SEM observation revealed pseudo cleavage faces; and the critical hydrogen amount that causes hydrogen cracking is 10 ppb, which corresponds to -1.4V in a marine clay containing water at 30%, and -1.2V at 14%. A loading experiment with actual loads verified that no fracture due to hydrogen cracking occurs even under an overprotection environment when a load imposed on an actual pipeline is kept constant. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Microstructure and Ductility-Dip Cracking Susceptibility of Circumferential Multipass Dissimilar Weld Between 20MND5 and Z2CND18-12NS with Ni-Base Filler Metal 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Renyao; Duan, Zhaoling; He, Guo

    2013-10-01

    The large circumferential multipass dissimilar weld between 20MND5 steel and Z2CND18-12NS stainless steel welded with FM52 filler material was investigated in terms of the diluted composition, the grain boundary precipitation, and the ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility of the weld. The diluted composition of the weld is composed of 37 to 47 pct Ni, 21 to 24 pct Cr, and 28 to 40 pct Fe, which are inhomogeneous along the depth and over the width of the deep weld. The carbon content has a distribution in the region of the surface weld from a high level (~0.20 pct) in the zone near 20MND5 steel to a normal level (~0.03 pct) in the zone near Z2CND18-12NS stainless steel. The carbon distribution is corresponding to the grain boundary carbides. The minimum threshold strains for DDC occur in the temperature range of 1223 K to 1323 K (950 °C to 1050 °C), which are 0.5, 0.35, and 0.4 pct for the root weld, middle region, and the surface weld, respectively. The dissimilar weld has the largest susceptibility to the DDC compared to the filler metal 52 and the Inconel 690.

  7. Hot-crack test for aluminium alloys welds using TIG process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel, A.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.

    2010-06-01

    Hot cracking is a critical defect frequently observed during welding of aluminium alloys. In order to better understand the interaction between cracking phenomenon, process parameters, mechanical factors and microstructures resulting from solidification after welding, an original hot-cracking test during welding is developed. According to in-situ observations and post mortem analyses, hot cracking mechanisms are investigated, taking into account the interaction between microstructural parameters, depending on the thermal cycles, and mechanical parameters, depending on geometry and clamping conditions of the samples and on the thermal field on the sample. Finally, a process map indicating the limit between cracking and non-cracking zones according to welding parameters is presented.

  8. UNCONSTRAINED MELTING AND SOLIDIFICATION INSIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... There is a large number of experimental and numerical works on melting and solidification of PCM[6-10], and also its usage as thermal management in building [11-14], electronic devices [15-16] and solar energy. [17-20].Most investigated geometries in melting and freezing process are sphere (spherical.

  9. Characterization of susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking. Final report[AISI 4340 steel; AISI 316H steel; aluminium alloy 7010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietzel, W. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    1999-07-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of three different material/environment combinations was investigated in an inter-laboratory test programme using five different SCC test methods, with special emphasis laid on a new rising displacement test method which was to be further developed in the course of this project. The degree of reliability that could be obtained with each of the test methods and their usability were assessed. In all cases the experimental data characterising the occurrence of SCC show considerable scatter, irrespective of the test method. Based on the experience gained in the test programme, a draft for a new part of the ISO standard 7539 was elaborated and has meanwhile attained the status of an ISO Draft International Standard (ISO/DIS). (orig.) [German] In einem Ringversuch, an dem insgesamt 24 Prueflaboratorien teilgenommen haben, wurde die Anfaelligkeit gegenueber Spannungsrisskorrosion (SpRK) dreier Kombinationen aus Werkstoff und Umgebung untersucht. Fuenf verschiedene Pruefmethoden wurden eingesetzt, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf der Methode monoton zunehmender Probenbelastung lag, deren Weiterentwicklung eines der Ziele dieses Projektes war. Die Analyse der erzielten Ergebnisse zeigt, dass alle Methoden ihre speziellen Vorzuege, aber auch Nachteile haben. Basierend auf den in diesem Projekt gewonnenen Erfahrungen wurde ein Entwurf fuer einen neuen Teil des ISO-Standards 7539 ausgearbeitet, der inzwischen den Status eines Draft International Standard, ISO/DIS, erreicht hat. (orig.)

  10. Simulation of continuous cast steel product solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardelean, E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary cooling – inside the tundish – has a great impact over the thickness of the solidified steel crust. If on exiting the tundish the crust is too thin, it can punch and break, as a result of the ferrostatic pressure exerted from the inside by the liquid steel as well as because of the weight of the molten steel. The parameters that influence the amount of dissipated heat depend on the cooling water flow of the tundish, on the pressure and temperature of the cooling water but also on the overheating of the continuously cast steel. The secondary cooling takes place at the exit of the semi-finished product from the tundish, when the solidification is supposed to take place all along the cross section of the strand. In order to achieve it, in addition to a correctly managed primary cooling, it is necessary to obtain the proper correlation of the factors that influence the secondary cooling as well: the water flow rate long the three zones of the installation and its pressure in the secondary circuit. All these have in view a proper solidification length; an intense cooling can generate cracks due to the thermal stress, while a too slow cooling can generate a partial solidification of the strand up to the cropping machine area. The paper presents a mathematical simulation of the continuously cast steel solidification.

    El enfriamiento primario del cristalizador tiene una gran importancia sobre el espesor de la costra de acero solidificado. Si al salir del cristalizador, esta costra es demasiado sutil, bajo la acción de la presión ferro estática ejercitada por el acero líquido del interior y gracias el peso propio del hilo, ésta, puede perforar resultando su rompimiento. Los parámetros que influenyen sobre la cantidad de calor cedida dependen del agua de enfriamiento del catalizador, de la presión y de la temperatura de agua de enfriamiento, pero también del sobrecalentamiento del acero fundido continuamente. A la salida del

  11. Evaluation of flaws or service induced cracks in pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardella, P.C.; Copeland, J.F.; Gilman, J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the ASME flaw evaluation procedures for nuclear pressure vessels is presented, with emphasis on fatigue crack growth evaluations. Environmental and load-rate effects are further considered with respect to new crack growth data and a time-dependent crack growth model. This new crack growth model is applied to evaluate feedwater nozzle cracking in boiling water reactors and is compared to current and past ASME crack growth curves. The time-dependent model bounds the observed cracking and indicates that more detailed consideration of material susceptibility, in terms of sulfur content and product form, is needed

  12. Solidification Sequence of Spray-Formed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Ellendt, Nils; Uhlenwinkel, Volker; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-02-01

    Solidification in spray-forming is still an open discussion in the atomization and deposition area. This paper proposes a solidification model based on the equilibrium solidification path of alloys. The main assumptions of the model are that the deposition zone temperature must be above the alloy's solidus temperature and that the equilibrium liquid fraction at this temperature is reached, which involves partial remelting and/or redissolution of completely solidified droplets. When the deposition zone is cooled, solidification of the remaining liquid takes place under near equilibrium conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to analyze the microstructures of two different spray-formed steel grades: (1) boron modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) and (2) D2 tool steel. The microstructures were analyzed to determine the sequence of phase formation during solidification. In both cases, the solidification model proposed was validated.

  13. Solidification paths of multicomponent monotectic aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-10-15

    Solidification paths of three ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, are studied using thermodynamic calculations, both for the pertinent phase diagrams and also for specific details concerning the solidification of selected alloy compositions. The coupled composition variation in two different liquids is quantitatively given. Various ternary monotectic four-phase reactions are encountered during solidification, as opposed to the simple binary monotectic, L' {yields} L'' + solid. These intricacies are reflected in the solidification microstructures, as demonstrated for these three aluminum alloy systems, selected in view of their distinctive features. This examination of solidification paths and microstructure formation may be relevant for advanced solidification processing of multicomponent monotectic alloys.

  14. Contribution to the determination of priority constructive influences on the hot crack initiation of welded components; Beitrag zur Ermittlung vorrangig konstruktiver Einflussgroessen auf die Heissrissinitiierung an geschweissten Bauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollnow, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The previous research results do not allow a general hot crack characterisation although a variety of experimental and numerical knowledge is available. The reason for this is mainly the large number of influencing factors that complicate a complete description of the hot cracking phenomenon and especially solidification cracking. The hot crack formation and thus the solidification crack initiation can be described by the interaction of process, metallurgy and design. However, the literature examination shows that in the solidifaction crack characterisation the influence of the design aspect is often underestimated. The pre-stresses of the structural components is up to now not considered as an essential cause for the formation of solidification cracks. The evaluation of the influence of the various parameters is presented partly inconsistent. In addition, the targeted presentation of the design influence with respect to the solidification cracks in the weld is because the limited transferability of the various component-specific stresses on a laboratory scale and thus to the respective hot cracking tests restricted. Hence, the difficulty to transfer the results between laboratory specimen and component as well as the general hot crack characterisation is given. In this work the different types of stresses from the component welding in the laboratory and to quantify experimentally the solidification crack critical values, displacements and displacement rates were detected. In this regard external loaded hot cracking tests were carried out by using the advantages of contactless measurement techniques close to the weld and to analyse the welding process with respect to various local and global design-specific factors influencing the formation of solidification cracks in high alloyed steel. These investigations were performed on austenitic (1.4828) and ferritic (1.4509) materials with different mechanical and technological properties. To reflect the praxis relevant

  15. Finite element modelling of solidification phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The process of solidification process is complex in nature and the simulation of such process is required in industry before it is actually undertaken. Finite element method is used to simulate the heat transfer process accompanying the solidification process. The metal and the mould along with the air gap formation ...

  16. Solidification control in continuous casting of steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Solidification in continuous casting (CC) technology is initiated in a water- ..... to fully austenitic solidification, and FP between 0 and 1 indicates mixed mode. ... the temperature interval (LIT – TSA) corresponding to fs = 0⋅9 → 1, is in reality the.

  17. General characteristics of eutectic alloy solidification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, Clement.

    1977-01-01

    The eutectic alloy sodification was studied in binary systems: solidification of non facetted - non facetted eutectic alloy (theoretical aspects, variation of the lamellar spacing, crystallographic relation between the various phases); solidification of facetted - non facetted eutectic alloy; coupled growth out of eutectic alloy; eutectic nucleation [fr

  18. Environmentally assisted cracking of LWR materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    Research on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of light water reactor materials has focused on (a) fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, (b) crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs, and (d) EAC in high- nickel alloys. The effect of strain rate during different portions of the loading cycle on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels in 289 degree C water was determined. Crack growth studies on wrought and cast SSs have been completed. The effect of dissolved-oxygen concentration in high-purity water on IASCC of irradiated Type 304 SS was investigated and trace elements in the steel that increase susceptibility to intergranular cracking were identified. Preliminary results were obtained on crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 degree C. The program on Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Light Water Reactor Materials is currently focused on four tasks: fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, fatigue and environmentally assisted crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic SS, irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of austenitic SSs, and environmentally assisted crack growth in high-nickel alloys. Measurements of corrosion-fatigue crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast stainless steels has been essentially completed. Recent progress in these areas is outlined in the following sections

  19. Thermosolutal convection during dendritic solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.; Felicelli, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for directional solidification of a binary alloy including a dendritic region underlying an all-liquid region. It is assumed initially that there exists a nonconvecting state with planar isotherms and isoconcentrates solidifying at a constant velocity. The stability of this system has been analyzed and nonlinear calculations are performed that show the effect of convection in the solidification process when the system is unstable. Results of calculations for various cases defined by the initial temperature gradient at the dendrite tips and varying strength of the gravitational field are presented for systems involving lead-tin alloys. The results show that the systems are stable for a gravitational constant of 0.0001 g(0) and that convection can be suppressed by appropriate choice of the container's size for higher values of the gravitational constant. It is also concluded that for the lead-tin systems considered, convection in the mushy zone is not significant below the upper 20 percent of the dendritic zone, if al all.

  20. Fatigue cracking in road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the problem of modelling fatigue phenomena occurring in the road pavement. The example of two selected pavements shows the changes occurring under the influence of the load in different places of the pavement layers. Attention is paid to various values of longitudinal and transverse strains generated at the moment of passing the wheel on the pavement. It was found that the key element in the crack propagation analysis is the method of transferring the load to the pavement by the tire and the strain distribution in the pavement. During the passage of the wheel in the lower layers of the pavement, a complex stress state arises. Then vertical, horizontal and tangent stresses with various values appear. The numerical analyses carried out with the use of finite element methods allowed to assess the strain and stress changes occurring in the process of cracking road pavement. It has been shown that low-thickness pavements are susceptible to fatigue cracks arising "bottom to top", while pavements thicker are susceptible to "top to bottom" cracks. The analysis of the type of stress allowed to determine the cracking mechanism.

  1. Characteristics of Cement Solidification of Metal Hydroxide Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Seo Koo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To perform the permanent disposal of metal hydroxide waste from electro-kinetic decontamination, it is necessary to secure the technology for its solidification. The integrity tests on the fabricated solidification should also meet the criteria of the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency. We carried out the solidification of metal hydroxide waste using cement solidification. The integrity tests such as the compressive strength, immersion, leach, and irradiation tests on the fabricated cement solidifications were performed. It was also confirmed that these requirements of the criteria of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency on these cement solidifications were met. The microstructures of all the cement solidifications were analyzed and discussed.

  2. Characteristics of cement solidification of metal hydroxide waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Sung, Hyun Hee; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Gye Nam; Choi, Jong Won [Dept. of Decontemination Decommission Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To perform the permanent disposal of metal hydroxide waste from electro-kinetic decontamination, it is necessary to secure the technology for its solidification. The integrity tests on the fabricated solidification should also meet the criteria of the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency. We carried out the solidification of metal hydroxide waste using cement solidification. The integrity tests such as the compressive strength, immersion, leach, and irradiation tests on the fabricated cement solidifications were performed. It was also confirmed that these requirements of the criteria of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency on these cement solidifications were met. The microstructures of all the cement solidifications were analyzed and discussed.

  3. Password cracking

    OpenAIRE

    Χριστοφάκης, Μιχαήλ Κ.

    2014-01-01

    Information security is the next big thing in computers society because of the rapidly growing security incidents and the outcomes of those. Hacking and cracking existed even from the start of the eighties decade when there was the first step of the interconnection through the internet between humans. From then and ever after there was a big explosion of such incidents mostly because of the worldwide web which was introduced in the early nineties. Following the huge steps forward of computers...

  4. Micro-scale thermocapillary convection with solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.; Liu, J.C.; Chai, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental study performed on heat transfer in sessile drops of lysozyme solutions with solidification. Solidification inside the sessile drop is initiated by means of the center cooling method. The internal flow behavior and solidification front movement are observed using a microscope-video monitor system. Results are obtained for lysozyme, and buffer solutions, and water, representing media possessing surface tension coefficients. It is disclosed that the time history of the solidification front movement can be divided into two stages; initial and stable. In the stable stage, the front movement x follows the power-law behavior x = Ct n . C is an empirical constant, and t denotes time. The exponent n takes on a value close to unity in the stable stage

  5. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  6. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  7. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Efficient estimation of diffusion during dendritic solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, K. S.; Poirier, D. R.; Laxmanan, V.

    1989-01-01

    A very efficient finite difference method has been developed to estimate the solute redistribution during solidification with diffusion in the solid. This method is validated by comparing the computed results with the results of an analytical solution derived by Kobayashi (1988) for the assumptions of a constant diffusion coefficient, a constant equilibrium partition ratio, and a parabolic rate of the advancement of the solid/liquid interface. The flexibility of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the dendritic solidification of a Pb-15 wt pct Sn alloy, for which the equilibrium partition ratio and diffusion coefficient vary substantially during solidification. The fraction eutectic at the end of solidification is also obtained by estimating the fraction solid, in greater resolution, where the concentration of solute in the interdendritic liquid reaches the eutectic composition of the alloy.

  9. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  10. Role of hydrogen in stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement has been postulated as a cause of stress corrosion cracking in numerous alloy systems. Such an interrelationship is useful in design considerations because it permits the designer and working engineer to relate the literature from both fields to a potential environmental compatibility problem. The role of hydrogen in stress corrosion of high strength steels is described along with techniques for minimizing the susceptibility to hydrogen stress cracking. (U.S.)

  11. Crack Characterisation for In-service Inspection Planning - An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waale, Jan [lnspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    ; Mechanical fatigue; and Solidification cracking in weld metal. The evaluated parameters were divided into visually detectable and metallurgical parameters, which need to be evaluated from a cross-section. The visually detectable parameters are; location, orientation and shape in surface direction and finally the number of cracks in the cracked region. The metallurgical parameters are; orientation and shape in the through thickness direction, macroscopic branching, crack tip radius, crack surface roughness, crack width and finally discontinuous appearance. The morphology parameters were statistically processed and the results are presented as minimum, maximum. mean, median and scatter values for each data group, both in tables and in various graphs. Finally each morphology parameter is compared between the seven data groups. A brief description of typical characteristics of each data group is given below. Most IGSCC develop next to welds with straight or winding cracks oriented almost parallel to the weld. Single cracking is most common but occasionally two cracks are formed on each side of the weld. In the through thickness direction IGSCC is typically winding or lightly bend and macroscopic branching is rare. The surface roughness is normally on a grain size magnitude and the cracks are particularly narrow providing secondary corrosion is small. Similar characteristics to IGSCC in austenitic stainless steels may be expected. However, cracking close to weld are less frequent and macroscopic branching is more common for IGSCC in nickel base alloys compared to austenitic stainless steels. Typically IDSCC is winding or straight, single cracking in the weld metal transverse to the weld. In the through thickness direction IDSCC cause typically winding, non branched cracks with large surface roughness due to course solidification microstructure. The crack width often shows large variation along the crack and a width close to zero at the surface intersection is common. Typically

  12. Crack Characterisation for In-service Inspection Planning - An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waale, Jan

    2006-05-01

    ; Mechanical fatigue; and Solidification cracking in weld metal. The evaluated parameters were divided into visually detectable and metallurgical parameters, which need to be evaluated from a cross-section. The visually detectable parameters are; location, orientation and shape in surface direction and finally the number of cracks in the cracked region. The metallurgical parameters are; orientation and shape in the through thickness direction, macroscopic branching, crack tip radius, crack surface roughness, crack width and finally discontinuous appearance. The morphology parameters were statistically processed and the results are presented as minimum, maximum. mean, median and scatter values for each data group, both in tables and in various graphs. Finally each morphology parameter is compared between the seven data groups. A brief description of typical characteristics of each data group is given below. Most IGSCC develop next to welds with straight or winding cracks oriented almost parallel to the weld. Single cracking is most common but occasionally two cracks are formed on each side of the weld. In the through thickness direction IGSCC is typically winding or lightly bend and macroscopic branching is rare. The surface roughness is normally on a grain size magnitude and the cracks are particularly narrow providing secondary corrosion is small. Similar characteristics to IGSCC in austenitic stainless steels may be expected. However, cracking close to weld are less frequent and macroscopic branching is more common for IGSCC in nickel base alloys compared to austenitic stainless steels. Typically IDSCC is winding or straight, single cracking in the weld metal transverse to the weld. In the through thickness direction IDSCC cause typically winding, non branched cracks with large surface roughness due to course solidification microstructure. The crack width often shows large variation along the crack and a width close to zero at the surface intersection is common. Typically

  13. Solidification of radioactive aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, Hideaki; Kato, Kiyoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1970-09-07

    A process for solidifying a radioactive waste solution is provided, using as a solidifying agent a mixture of calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite. The quantity ratio of the mixture is preferred to be 1:1 by volume. The quantity of impregnation is 1/2 of the volume of the total quantity of the solidifying agent. In embodiments, 10 liters of plutonium waste solution was mixed with a mixture of 1:1 calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite contained in a 20-liter cylindrical steel container lined with asphalt. The plutonium waste solution from the laboratory was neutralized with a caustic soda aqueous solution to prevent explosion due to the nitration of organic compounds. The neutralization is not always necessary. A market available dental gypsum was calcined at 400 to 500/sup 0/C and a vermiculite from Illinois was burnt at 1,100/sup 0/C to prepare the agents. The time required for the impregnation with 10 liters of plutonium solution was four minutes. After impregnation, the temperature rose to 40/sup 0/C within 30 minutes to one hour. Next, it was cooled to room temperature by standing for 3-4 hours. Solidification time was about 1 hour. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Insitute had treated and disposed about 1,000 tons of plutonium waste by this process as of August 19, 1970.

  14. Cause of Damage. Hot cracking; Schadensursache Heissrissigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wader, Therese [BENTELER Steel/Tube GmbH, Paderborn (Germany). Vorentwicklung Werkstoffe

    2016-10-15

    Under certain conditions, Nb-containing stainless steels are susceptible to hot cracking. Such conditions include low melting phases on the grain boundaries, a coarse-grained microstructure such as cast structures, microstructure orientations towards the main tensile direction and high processing temperatures. The case of damage was characterized using metallographic and microanalytical methods. In the laboratory, the critical temperature range for the formation of hot cracks could furthermore specifically be localized under mechanical stresses by means of a dilatometer aiming at clearly verifying the cause of the damage, namely ''hot cracks''.

  15. Sandia solidification process: a broad range aqueous waste solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.W.; Dosch, R.G.; Kenna, B.T.; Johnstone, J.K.; Nowak, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    New ion-exchange materials of the hydrous oxide type were developed for solidifying aqueous radioactive wastes. These materials have the general formula M[M'/sub x/O/sub y/H/sub z/]/sub n/, where M is an exchangeable cation of charge +n and M' may be Ti; Nb; Zr, or Ta. Affinities for polyvalent cations were found to be very high and ion-exchange capacities large (e.g., 4.0--4.5 meq/g for NaTi 2 O 5 H depending on moisture content). The effectiveness of the exchangers for solidifying high-level waste resulting from reprocessing light-water reactor fuel was demonstrated in small-scale tests. Used in conjunction with anion exchange resin, these materials reduced test solution radioactivity from approximately 0.2 Ci/ml to as low as approximately 2 nCi/ml. The residual radioactivity was almost exclusively due to 106 Ru and total α-activity was only a few pCi/ml. Alternative methods of consolidating the solidified waste were evaluated using nonradioactive simulants. Best results were obtained by pressure-sintering which yielded essentially fully dense ceramics, e.g., titanate/titania ceramics with bulk density as high as 4.7 g/cm 3 , waste oxide content as high as 1.2 g/cm 3 , and leach resistance comparable to good borosilicate glass. Based on the above results, a baseline process for solidifying high-level waste was defined and approximate economic analyses indicated costs were not prohibitive. Additional tests have demonstrated that, if desired, operating conditions could be modified to allow recovery of radiocesium (and perhaps other isotopes) during solidification of the remaining constituents of high-level waste. Preliminary tests have also shown that these materials offer promise for treating tank-stored neutralized wastes

  16. Method of cement-solidification of radioactive liquid wastes containing surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H

    1979-04-10

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising the steps of adjusting the concentration of the surfactant to a value less than the predetermined value even when the concentration of the surfactant is high, and rendering the uniaxial compression strength of the cement-solidification body into more than the defined fabrication reference value. Method: To radioactive liquid wastes there are applied means for boiling and heating liquid wastes by addition of sulfuric acid, means for cracking surfactants by the addition of oxidants and means for precipitating and arresting surfactants. After suppressing the hindrance of the cement hydration reaction by surfactants, the radioactive liquid wastes are cement-solidified. (Nakamura, S.).

  17. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

  18. Solidification microstructures of aluminium-uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The solidification of microstrutures of aluminium-uranium alloys in the range of 4 to 20% uranium is investigated. The solidification was obtained both in ingot molds and under controlled directional solidification. The conditions for the presence of primary crystals and eutectic are discussed and an analysis of the influence of variables (growth rate and thermal gradient in the liquid) on the alloy structure is made. The effect of cooling rate on the alloy structures has been determined. It is found that the resulting structure can be derived from the kinectics concept, as required by the coupled-zone theory. Suggestions on the qualitative intervals of composition and temperatures with eutectic growth are presented [pt

  19. Enthalpies of a binary alloy during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Nandapurkar, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a method of calculating the enthalpy of a dendritic alloy during solidification. The enthalpies of the dendritic solid and interdendritic liquid of alloys of the Pb-Sn system are evaluated, but the method could be applied to other binaries, as well. The enthalpies are consistent with a recent evaluation of the thermodynamics of Pb-Sn alloys and with the redistribution of solute in the same during dendritic solidification. Because of the heat of mixing in Pb-Sn alloys, the interdendritic liquid of hypoeutectic alloys (Pb-rich) of less than 50 wt pct Sn has enthalpies that increase as temperature decreases during solidification.

  20. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  1. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  2. Plastic solidification system for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Jiro; Irie, Hiromitsu; Obu, Etsuji; Nakayama, Yasuyuki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki.

    1979-01-01

    The establishment of a new solidification system is an important theme for recent radioactive-waste disposal systems. The conditions required of new systems are: (1) the volume of the solidified product to be reduced, and (2) the property of the solidified product to be superior to the conventional ones. In the plastic solidification system developed by Toshiba, the waste is first dried and then solidified with thermosetting resin. It has been confirmed that the property of the plastic solidified product is superior to that of the cement-or bitumen-solidified product. Investigation from various phases is being carried on for the application of this method to commercial plants. (author)

  3. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav [Department of Materials Engineering, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, tr. 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava - Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  4. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  5. Cracking in dissimilar laser welding of tantalum to molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingwen; Huang, Yongde; Hao, Kun; Chen, Yuhua

    2018-06-01

    Dissimilar joining of tantalum (Ta) to molybdenum (Mo) is of great interest in high temperature structural component applications. However, few reports were found about joining of these two hard-to-weld metals. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the weldability of laser butt joining of 0.2 mm-thick Ta and Mo. In order to study cracking mechanism in Ta/Mo joint, similar Ta/Ta and Mo/Mo joints were compared under the same welding conditions. An optical microscope observation revealed presence of intergranular cracks in the Mo/Mo joint, while both transgranular and intergranular cracks were observed in Ta/Mo joint. The cracking mechanism of the Ta/Mo joint was investigated further by micro-hardness testing, micro X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that solidification cracking tendency of Mo is a main reason for crack initiation in the Ta/Mo joint. Low ductility feature in fusion zone most certainly played a role in the transgranular propagation of cracking.

  6. Phase-field modelling of microstructure formation during the solidification of continuously cast low carbon and HSLA steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, B.; Apel, M.; Santillana, B.; Eskin, D. G.

    2012-07-01

    Cracking in continuous casting of steels has been one of the main problems for decades. Many of the cracks that occur during solidification are hot tears. To better understand the factors leading to this defect, microstructure formation is simulated for a low carbon (LCAK) and two high strength low alloyed (HSLA) steel grades during the initial stage of the process where the first solidified shell is formed inside the mould and where breakouts typically occur. 2D simulation is performed using the multiphase-field software MICRESS [1], which is coupled to the thermodynamic database TCFE6 [2] and the mobility database MOB2 [2], taking into account all elements which may have a relevant effect on the mechanical properties and structure formation during or subsequent to solidification. The use of a moving-frame boundary condition allows travelling through the entire solidification history starting from the slab surface, and tracking the morphology changes during growth of the shell. A heterogeneous nucleation model is included to permit the description of morphological transitions between the initial solidification and the subsequent columnar growth region. Furthermore, a macroscopic one-dimensional temperature solver is integrated to account for the transient and nonlinear temperature field during the initial stage of continuous casting. The external heat flux boundary conditions for this process were derived from thermal process data of the industrial slab caster. The simulation results for the three steel grades have been validated by thickness measurements of breakout shells and microstructure observation of the corresponding grades. Furthermore, the primary dendrite spacing has been measured across the whole thickness of the shell and compared with the simulated microstructures. Significant microstructure differences between the steel grades are discussed and correlated with their hot-cracking behavior.

  7. Phase-field modelling of microstructure formation during the solidification of continuously cast low carbon and HSLA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böttger, B; Apel, M; Santillana, B; Eskin, D G

    2012-01-01

    Cracking in continuous casting of steels has been one of the main problems for decades. Many of the cracks that occur during solidification are hot tears. To better understand the factors leading to this defect, microstructure formation is simulated for a low carbon (LCAK) and two high strength low alloyed (HSLA) steel grades during the initial stage of the process where the first solidified shell is formed inside the mould and where breakouts typically occur. 2D simulation is performed using the multiphase-field software MICRESS, which is coupled to the thermodynamic database TCFE6 and the mobility database MOB2, taking into account all elements which may have a relevant effect on the mechanical properties and structure formation during or subsequent to solidification. The use of a moving-frame boundary condition allows travelling through the entire solidification history starting from the slab surface, and tracking the morphology changes during growth of the shell. A heterogeneous nucleation model is included to permit the description of morphological transitions between the initial solidification and the subsequent columnar growth region. Furthermore, a macroscopic one-dimensional temperature solver is integrated to account for the transient and nonlinear temperature field during the initial stage of continuous casting. The external heat flux boundary conditions for this process were derived from thermal process data of the industrial slab caster. The simulation results for the three steel grades have been validated by thickness measurements of breakout shells and microstructure observation of the corresponding grades. Furthermore, the primary dendrite spacing has been measured across the whole thickness of the shell and compared with the simulated microstructures. Significant microstructure differences between the steel grades are discussed and correlated with their hot-cracking behavior.

  8. Process for the selective cracking of straight-chained and slightly branched hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorring, R L; Shipman, G F

    1975-01-23

    The invention describes a method for the selective (hydro) cracking of petroleum materials, containing normal straight-chained and/or slightly branched-chained hydrocarbons. The mixture is brought into contact with a selective, crystalline alumino silicate zeolite cracking catalyst housing a silicon oxide/aluminum oxide ratio of at least about 12 and a constraint index of about 1 to 12 under cracking conditions. A zeolite catalyst with a crystal size of up to 0.05 ..mu.. is used. Solidification point and viscosity in particular of oils are to be lowered through the catalytic dewaxing.

  9. Sufficient condition for generation of multiple solidification front in one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobula, E.; Kalicka, Z.

    1981-10-01

    In the paper we consider the one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys in the finite system. The authors present the sufficient condition for solidification in the liquid in front of the moving solid-liquid interface. The effect may produce a fluctuating concentration distributin in the solid. The convection in the liquid and supercooling required for homogeneous nucleation are omitted. A local-equilibrium approximation at the liquid-solid interface is supposed. (author)

  10. Solidification of oils and organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    The suitability of selected solidification media for application in the disposal of low-level oil and other organic liquid wastes has been investigated. In the past, these low-level wastes (LLWs) have commonly been immobilized by sorption onto solid absorbents such as vermiculite or diatomaceous earth. Evolving regulations regarding the disposal of these materials encourage solidification. Solidification media which were studied include Portland type I cement; vermiculite plus Portland type I cement; Nuclear Technology Corporation's Nutek 380-cement process; emulsifier, Portland type I cement-sodium silicate; Delaware Custom Materiel's cement process; and the US Gypsum Company's Envirostone process. Waste forms have been evaluated as to their ability to reliably produce free standing monolithic solids which are homogeneous (macroscopically), contain < 1% free standing liquids by volume and pass a water immersion test. Solidified waste form specimens were also subjected to vibratory shock testing and flame testing. Simulated oil wastes can be solidified to acceptable solid specimens having volumetric waste loadings of less than 40 volume-%. However, simulated organic liquid wastes could not be solidified into acceptable waste forms above a volumetric loading factor of about 10 volume-% using the solidification agents studied

  11. NPP radioactive waste processing and solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.S.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharova, K.P.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of proce-sing NPP intermediate level- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) are considered. Various methods are compared of LWR solidification on the base of bituminization, cement grouting and inclusion into synthetic resins. It is concluded that the considered methods ensure radioactive radionuclides effluents into open hydronetwork at the level below the sanitary, standards

  12. Solidification of highly active liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.

    1985-03-01

    This document contains the annual progress reports on the following subjects: Joule ceramic melter; microwave vitrification; glass technology; identification, evaluation and review of potential alternative solidification processes; rotary kiln calcination; alternative glass feedstocks; volatile ruthenium trapping by solid adsorbents; irrigated baffle column dust scrubber. (author)

  13. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  14. Polymer Solidification Technology - Technical Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Charles; Kim, Juyoul

    2010-01-01

    Many factors come into play, most of which are discovered and resolved only during full-scale solidification testing of each of the media commonly used in nuclear power plants. Each waste stream is unique, and must be addressed accordingly. This testing process is so difficult that Diversified's Vinyl Ester Styrene and Advanced Polymer Solidification are the only two approved processes in the United States today. This paper summarizes a few of the key obstacles that must be overcome to achieve a reliable, repeatable process for producing an approved Stable Class B and C waste form. Before other solidification and encapsulation technologies can be considered compliant with the requirements of a Stable waste form, the tests, calculations and reporting discussed above must be conducted for both the waste form and solidification process used to produce the waste form. Diversified's VERI TM and APS TM processes have gained acceptance in the UK. These processes have also been approved and gained acceptance in the U. S. because we have consistently overcome technical hurdles to produce a complaint product. Diversified Technologies processes are protected intellectual property. In specific instances, we have patents pending on key parts of our process technology

  15. Method of processing solidification product of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daime, Fumiyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the long-time stability of solidification products by providing solidification products with liquid tightness, gas tightness, abrasion resistance, etc., of the products in the course of the solidification for the treatment of radioactive wastes. Method: The surface of solidification products prepared by mixing solidifying agents with powder or pellets is entirely covered with high molecular polymer such as epoxy resin. The epoxy resin has excellent properties such as radiation-resistance, heat resistance, water proofness and chemical resistance, as well as have satisfactory mechanical properties. This can completely isolate the solidification products of radioactive wastes from the surrounding atmosphere. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Temperature effect on Zircaloy-4 stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.; Galvele, Jose R.

    1999-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 alloy in chloride, bromide and iodide solutions with variables as applied electrode potential, deformation rate and temperature have been studied. In those three halide solutions the susceptibility to SCC is only observed at potentials close to pitting potential, the crack propagation rate increases with the increase of deformation rate, and that the temperature has a notable effect only for iodide solutions. For chloride and bromide solutions and temperatures ranging between 20 to 90 C degrees it was not found measurable changes in crack propagation rates. (author)

  17. The mechanism of hot crack formation in Ti-6A1-4V during cold crucible continuous casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng DING

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Hot crack is one of common defects in castings, which often results in failure of castings. This work studies the formation of hot cracks during cold crucible continous casting by means of experiments and thoretical analysis. The results show that the hot crack occurs on the surface and in the circumference of ingots, where the solidified shell and solidification front meet each other. The tendency of hot cracking decreases with the increase of withdrawal velocities in some extent. The hot crack is caused mainly by friction force between the shell and the crucible inner wall, and it takes place when the stress resulting from friction exceeds the tensile strength of the shell. The factors affecting the hot cracks are analyzed and verified. In order to decrease the tendency of hot cracks, technical parameters should be optimized.

  18. Modified Dugdale cracks and Fictitious cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1998-01-01

    A number of theories are presented in the literature on crack mechanics by which the strength of damaged materials can be predicted. Among these are theories based on the well-known Dugdale model of a crack prevented from spreading by self-created constant cohesive flow stressed acting in local...... areas, so-called fictitious cracks, in front of the crack.The Modified Dugdale theory presented in this paper is also based on the concept of Dugdale cracks. Any cohesive stress distribution, however, can be considered in front of the crack. Formally the strength of a material weakened by a modified...... Dugdale crack is the same as if it has been weakened by the well-known Griffith crack, namely sigma_CR = (EG_CR/phi)^1/2 where E and 1 are Young's modulus and crack half-length respectively, and G_CR is the so-called critical energy release rate. The physical significance of G_CR, however, is different...

  19. Cracking and bulk movement in irradiated uranium oxide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, A.S.

    1963-09-01

    UO 2 pellets were fabricated with simulated circumferential or diametral cracks, and with voids formed by drilling axial or radial holes. Under irradiation the cracks healed in a region extending out slightly beyond the area of discernible grain growth. Cracks in the cooler outer annulus formed early and remained during the irradiation. Similarly voids in the outer annulus were unchanged, whereas those in the grain-growth region closed. Tungsten wire markers stayed in their original positions, demonstrating that the surrounding columnar grains in the UO 2 had not formed during the solidification of a melt. Decreases in diameter of 1 mm thick Zircaloy-2 sheathing assembled with large fuel/sheath diametral clearances were due to multi-axial stresses arising from axial elongation and the lack of diametral restraint. (author)

  20. Cracking and bulk movement in irradiated uranium oxide fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, A S

    1963-09-15

    UO{sub 2} pellets were fabricated with simulated circumferential or diametral cracks, and with voids formed by drilling axial or radial holes. Under irradiation the cracks healed in a region extending out slightly beyond the area of discernible grain growth. Cracks in the cooler outer annulus formed early and remained during the irradiation. Similarly voids in the outer annulus were unchanged, whereas those in the grain-growth region closed. Tungsten wire markers stayed in their original positions, demonstrating that the surrounding columnar grains in the UO{sub 2} had not formed during the solidification of a melt. Decreases in diameter of 1 mm thick Zircaloy-2 sheathing assembled with large fuel/sheath diametral clearances were due to multi-axial stresses arising from axial elongation and the lack of diametral restraint. (author)

  1. Prevention of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.; Ambler, J.F.R.

    1987-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are susceptible to a mechanism for crack initiation and propagation called delayed hydride cracking. From a review of component failures and experimental results, we have developed the requirements for preventing this cracking. The important parameters for cracking are hydrogen concentration, flaws, and stress; each should be minimized. At the design and construction stages hydrogen pickup has to be controlled, quality assurance needs to be at a high enough level to ensure the absence of flaws, and residual stresses must be eliminated by careful fabrication and heat treatment

  2. CAT scanning of hydrogen-induced cracks in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Tapping, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Computer assisted tomography (CAT) was applied to detect small cracks caused by hydrogen ingress into carbon steel samples. The incipient cracks in the samples resulted from a quality control procedure used to test the susceptibility of carbon steel to hydrogen blistering/cracking. The method used until now to assess the extent of the cracking resulting from this test has been mechanical sectioning, polishing and microscopic examination of the sections. The CAT results are compared with the reference method and the feasibility of using CAT in the proposed application is demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Partially melted zone cracking in AA6061 welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad Rao, K.; Ramanaiah, N.; Viswanathan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Partially melted zone (PMZ) cracking susceptibility in AA6061 alloy was studied. Role of prior thermal history, gas tungsten arc welding techniques such as continuous current (CC) and pulsed current (PC) and use of different fillers (AA4043 and AA5356) were studied. Role of different grain refiners such as scandium, zirconium and Tibor in the above fillers was studied. Varestraint test was used to study the PMZ cracking susceptibility. Metallurgical analysis was done to corroborate the results. PMZ cracking was severe in T6 temper than in T4 irrespective of filler material. PMZ cracking susceptibility was more with AA5356 than in AA4043. It was less with pulsed current GTAW. PMZ cracking susceptibility was reduced with addition of grain refiners. Out of all, lowest PMZ cracking susceptibility was observed with 0.5%Sc addition to fusion zone through AA4043 filler and PC technique. The concentrations of magnesium and silicon were reduced at the PMZ grain boundaries with grain refiner additions to fusion zone through AA5356 or AA4043

  4. Partially melted zone cracking in AA6061 welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad Rao, K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)], E-mail: kpr@iitm.ac.in; Ramanaiah, N. [Sri Kalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti (India); Viswanathan, N. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    2008-07-01

    Partially melted zone (PMZ) cracking susceptibility in AA6061 alloy was studied. Role of prior thermal history, gas tungsten arc welding techniques such as continuous current (CC) and pulsed current (PC) and use of different fillers (AA4043 and AA5356) were studied. Role of different grain refiners such as scandium, zirconium and Tibor in the above fillers was studied. Varestraint test was used to study the PMZ cracking susceptibility. Metallurgical analysis was done to corroborate the results. PMZ cracking was severe in T6 temper than in T4 irrespective of filler material. PMZ cracking susceptibility was more with AA5356 than in AA4043. It was less with pulsed current GTAW. PMZ cracking susceptibility was reduced with addition of grain refiners. Out of all, lowest PMZ cracking susceptibility was observed with 0.5%Sc addition to fusion zone through AA4043 filler and PC technique. The concentrations of magnesium and silicon were reduced at the PMZ grain boundaries with grain refiner additions to fusion zone through AA5356 or AA4043.

  5. BWR pipe crack remedies evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.; Kuzay, T.; Rybicki, E.F.; Stonesifer, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Piping in light-water-reactor power systems has been affected by several types of environmental degradation. This paper presents results from studies of (1) stress corrosion crack growth in fracture mechanics specimens of modified Type 347 SS and Type 304/308L SS weld overlay material, (2) heat-to-heat variations in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Types 316NG and 347 SS, (3) SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS in water with cupric ion or organic acid impurities, (4) electrochemical potential (ECP) measurements under gamma irradiation, (5) SCC of ferritic steels, (6) strain-controlled fatigue of Type 316NG SS in air at ambient temperature, and (7) through-wall residual stress measurements and finite-element calculation of residual stresses in weldments treated by a mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). Fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate tests on Type 316NG SS have shown that transgranular cracking can occur even in high purity environments, whereas no crack growth was observed in Type 347 SS even in impurity environments. In tests on weld overlay specimens, no cracks penetrated into the overlay even in impurity environments. Instead, the cracks branched when they approached the overlay, and then grew parallel to interface. In SCC tests on sensitized Type 304 SS, cupric ions at concentrations greater than ∼1 ppm were found to be deleterious, whereas organic acids at this concentration were not detrimental. Tests on several ferritic steels indicate a strong correlation between the sulfur content of the steels and susceptibility to SCC. External gamma radiation fields produced a large positive shift in the ECP of Type 304 SS at low dissolved-oxygen concentrations (<5 ppb), whereas in the absence of an external gamma field there was no difference in the ECP values of irradiated and nonirradiated material. Fatigue data for Type 316NG SS are consistent with the ASME code mean curve at high strains, but fall below the curve at low strains. Calculations of the

  6. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  7. Stress corrosion cracking and dealloying of copper-gold alloy in iodine vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.F.; Bianchi, G.L.; Galvele, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of copper-gold alloy in iodine vapor was studied and the results were analyzed under the scope of the surface mobility stress corrosion cracking mechanism. The copper-gold alloy undergoes stress corrosion cracking in iodine. Copper iodide was responsible of that behavior. The copper-gold alloy shows two processes in parallel: stress corrosion cracking and dealloying. As was predicted by the surface mobility stress corrosion cracking mechanism, the increase in strain rate induces an increase in the crack propagation rate. (Author)

  8. Solidification in Multicomponent Multiphase Systems (SIMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, S.; Hecht, U.

    2005-06-01

    The multiphase microstructures that evolve during the solidification of multicomponent alloys are attracting widespread interest for industrial applications and fundamental research.Thermodynamic databases are now well-established for many alloy systems. Thermodynamic calculations provide all the required information about phase equilibria, forming an integral part of both dedicated and comprehensive microstructure models. Among the latter, phase-field modelling has emerged as the method of choice. Solidification experiments are intended to trigger model development or to serve as benchmarks for model validation. For benchmarking, microgravity conditions offer a unique opportunity for avoiding buoyancy-induced convection and buoyancy forces in bulk samples. However, diffusion and the free-energy of interfaces and its anisotropy need to be determined.The measurement of chemical diffusivities in the liquid state can equally benefit from microgravity experiments.

  9. Retrofit of radwaste solidification systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorcillo, R.; Virzi, E.

    1983-01-01

    In order to meet current Spanish engineering criteria as well as to provide for likely future Spanish Regulatory requirements, utilities committed to a major policy change in the preferred radwaste solidification media. In the early 1970's Spanish utilities, following the United States experience, purchased inexpensive solidification systems which used urea formaldehyde (UF) as the binding matrix. By the late 1970's the Spanish utilities, seeing the deterioration of the UF position and slow progress toward its improvement, unilaterally changed their binding matrix to cement. This paper illustrates the implementation of this change at the ASCO Nuclear Plant. The problems of layout modifications, shortened delivery schedule and criteria unique for Spain are addressed. Also presented is the operating experience acquired during the pre-operational start-up of the ASCO I Radwaste System

  10. Solidification processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Nancy L.; Shiohara, Yuh; Russell, Kenneth C.

    1989-01-01

    Directionally solidified aluminum-indium alloys of the monotectic composition were found to form an in situ rod composite which obeys a lambda exp 2 R = constant relation. The experimental data shows good agreement with previously reported results. A theoretical boundary between cellular and dendritic growth conditions was derived and compared with experiments. The unique wetting characteristics of the monotectic alloys can be utilized to tailor the interface structure in metal matrix composites. Metal matrix composites with monotectic and hypermonotectic Al-In matrices were made by pressure infiltration, remelted and directionally solidified to observe the wetting characteristics of the alloys as well as the effect on structure of solidification in the constrained field of the fiber interstices. Models for monotectic growth are modified to take into account solidification in these constrained fields.

  11. Cement radwaste solidification studies third annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; James, J.M.; Lee, D.J.; Smith, D.L.; Walker, A.T.

    1982-03-01

    This report summarises cement radwaste studies carried out at AEE Winfrith during 1981 on the encapsulation of medium and low active waste in cement. During the year more emphasis has been placed on the work which is directly related to the solidification of SGHWR active sludge. Information has been obtained on the properties of 220 dm 3 drums of cemented waste. The use of cement grouts for the encapsulation of solid items has also been investigated during 1981. (U.K.)

  12. Initial stages of solidification of eutectic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, Clement

    1980-01-01

    The study of the various initial stages of eutectic solidification - i.e. primary nucleation, eutectic structure formation and stable growth conditions - was undertaken with various techniques including low angle neutron diffusion, in-situ electron microscopy on solidifying alloys and classical metallography. The results obtained allow to discuss the effect of metastable states during primary nucleation, of surface dendrite during eutectic nucleation and also of the crystallographic anisotropy during growth. (author) [fr

  13. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  14. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology

  15. Crack growth rates in vessel head penetration materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Blazquez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The cracks detected in reactor vessel head penetrations in certain European plants have been attributed to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The penetrations in question are made from Inconel 600. The susceptibility of this alloy to PWSCC has been widely studied in relation to use of this material for steam generator tubes. When the first reactor vessel head penetration cracks were detected, most of the available data on crack propagation rates were from test specimens made from steam generator tubes and tested under conditions that questioned the validity of these data for assessment of the evolution of cracks in penetrations. For this reason, the scope of the Spanish Research Project on the Inspection and Repair of PWR reactor vessel head penetrations included the acquisition of data on crack propagation rates in Inconel 600, representative of the materials used for vessel head penetrations. (authors). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  16. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  17. Direct numerical simulation of solidification microstructures affected by fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juric, D.

    1997-12-01

    The effects of fluid flow on the solidification morphology of pure materials and solute microsegregation patterns of binary alloys are studied using a computational methodology based on a front tracking/finite difference method. A general single field formulation is presented for the full coupling of phase change, fluid flow, heat and solute transport. This formulation accounts for interfacial rejection/absorption of latent heat and solute, interfacial anisotropies, discontinuities in material properties between the liquid and solid phases, shrinkage/expansion upon solidification and motion and deformation of the solid. Numerical results are presented for the two dimensional dendritic solidification of pure succinonitrile and the solidification of globulitic grains of a plutonium-gallium alloy. For both problems, comparisons are made between solidification without fluid flow and solidification within a shear flow

  18. Solidification process for toxic and hazardous wastes. Second part: Cement solidification matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Arcuri, L.; Dotti, M.; Pace, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Ricci, G.; Basta, M.; Cali, V.; Pagliai, V.

    1989-05-01

    This paper reports the second part of a general study carried out at the Nuclear Fuel Division aiming at verifying the possible application of the radioactive waste solidification processes to industrial hazardous wastes (RTN). The cement solidification of several RTN types has been taken into consideration, both from the technical and from the economic point of view. After a short examination of the Italian juridical and economical situation in the field, which demonstrates the need of the RTN solidification, the origin and characteristics of the RTN considered in the study and directly provided by the producing industries are reviewed. The laboratory experimental results of the cementation of RTN produced by gold manufacturing industries and by galvanic industries are reported. The cementation process can be considered a very effective mean for reducing both the RTN management costs and the environmental impact of RTN disposal. (author)

  19. On the Role of Mantle Overturn during Magma Ocean Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukaré, C. E.; Parmentier, E.; Parman, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solidification of potential global magma ocean(s) (MO) early in the history of terrestrial planets may play a key role in the evolution of planetary interiors by setting initial conditions for their long-term evolution. Constraining this initial structure of solid mantles is thus crucial but remains poorly understood. MO fractional crystallization has been proposed to generate gravitationally unstable Fe-Mg chemical stratification capable of driving solid-state mantle overturn. Fractional solidification and overturn hypothesis, while only an ideal limiting case, can explain important geochemical features of both the Moon and Mars. Current overturn models consider generally post-MO overturn where the cumulate pile remains immobile until the end of MO solidification. However, if the cumulate pile overturns during MO solidification, the general picture of early planet evolution might differ significantly from the static crystallization models. We show that the timing of mantle overturn can be characterized with a dimensionless number measuring the ratio of the MO solidification time and the purely compositional overturn timescale. Syn-solidification overturn occurs if this dimensionless parameter, Rc, exceeds a critical value. Rc is mostly affected by the competition between the MO solidification time and mantle viscosity. Overturn that occurs during solidification can result in smaller scales of mantle chemical heterogeneity that could persist for long times thus influencing the whole evolution of a planetary body. We will discuss the effects of compaction/percolation on mantle viscosity. If partially molten cumulate do not have time to compact during MO solidification, viscosity of cumulates would be significantly lower as the interstitcial melt fraction would be large. Both solid mantle remelting during syn-solidification overturn and porous convection of melt retained with the cumulates are expected to reduce the degree of fractional crystallization. Syn-solidification

  20. Containerless solidification of acoustically levitated Ni-Sn eutectic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, D.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B. [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an (China)

    2012-10-15

    Containerless solidification of Ni-18.7at%Sn eutectic alloy has been achieved with a single-axis acoustic levitator. The temperature, motion, and oscillation of the sample were monitored by a high speed camera. The temperature of the sample can be determined from its image brightness, although the sample moves vertically and horizontally during levitation. The experimentally observed frequency of vertical motion is in good agreement with theoretical prediction. The sample undergoes shape oscillation before solidification finishes. The solidification microstructure of this alloy consists of a mixture of anomalous eutectic plus regular lamellar eutectic. This indicates the achievement of rapid solidification under acoustic levitation condition. (orig.)

  1. Solidification and vitrification life-cycle economics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Ex-situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450 000 cm 3 of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper summarizes a detailed study done to: (1) compare the economics of the solidification and vitrification processes, (2) determine if the stigma assigned to vitrification is warranted and, (3) determine if investing millions of dollars into vitrification development, along with solidification development, at Fernald is warranted

  2. Solidification of Hypereutectic Thin Wall Ductile Cast Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2006-01-01

    solidification. The first stage, which was relatively short, had none or very little recalescence. Further under cooling, followed by reheating during recalescence, was necessary to initiate the second part of the eutectic solidification. Both the secondary under cooling and recalescence was larger in the 3 mm...... a higher Si content in the ferrite around the larger nodules compared to the ferrite around the rest of the nodules. This indicates that solidification took place along the following path: The solidification starts with nucleation and growth of primary graphite nodules. This probably starts during...

  3. Aspects of the transitory deformations correlated with the cracking at heat in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclosi, V.; Solomon, G.; Tonoiu, I.

    1993-01-01

    The cracking at heat is one of the main problems which appear at the austenitic steel welding, especially for the austenitics steel without delta ferite. The susceptibility regarding the cracking at heat can be studied analitically by the correlation between two factors: the factor stress constituted by the tension and the deformations which appear in the welding process (FS) and the resistance factor constituted by the capacity of the material to take the stress and the deformations appeared (FR). As a result of the interaction of the both factors is the possibility of cracking or not cracking into a concrete case, named generally the susceptibility at the heat cracking. The tendency at the cracking at heat can be appreciate with a quantitative estimation, named critical speed of cracking (Vcf). The practical determination of these speed supposed for an concrete example, the knowledge of real plastic deformation at the weld, which are determinated in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of Helicopter Longeron Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurgical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  5. Crack detecting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michiko; Aida, Shigekazu

    1998-01-01

    A penetration liquid or a slow drying penetration liquid prepared by mixing a penetration liquid and a slow drying liquid is filled to the inside of an artificial crack formed to a member to be detected such as of boiler power generation facilities and nuclear power facilities. A developing liquid is applied to the periphery of the artificial crack on the surface of a member to be detected. As the slow-drying liquid, an oil having a viscosity of 56 is preferably used. Loads are applied repeatedly to the member to be detected, and when a crack is caused to the artificial crack, the permeation liquid penetrates into the crack. The penetration liquid penetrated into the crack is developed by the developing liquid previously coated to the periphery of the artificial crack of the surface of the member to be detected. When a crack is caused, since the crack is developed clearly even if it is a small opening, the crack can be recognized visually reliably. (I.N.)

  6. Phase-field simulation of peritectic solidification closely coupled with directional solidification experiments in an Al-36 wt% Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siquieri, R; Emmerich, H; Doernberg, E; Schmid-Fetzer, R

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present experimental and theoretical investigations of the directional solidification of Al-36 wt% Ni alloy. A phase-field approach (Folch and Plapp 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 011602) is coupled with the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method to be able to simulate directional solidification of Al-Ni alloy including the peritectic phase Al 3 Ni. The model approach is calibrated by systematic comparison to microstructures grown under controlled conditions in directional solidification experiments. To illustrate the efficiency of the model it is employed to investigate the effect of temperature gradient on the microstructure evolution of Al-36 wt% Ni during solidification.

  7. Environmentally assisted cracking in LWR materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Park, J.H.; Shack, W.J.; Zhang, J.; Brust, F.W.; Dong, P.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of dissolved oxygen level on fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels is discussed and the results of a detailed study of the effect of the environment on the growth of cracks during fatigue initiation are presented. Initial test results are given for specimens irradiated in the Halden reactor. Impurities introduced by shielded metal arc welding that may affect susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are described. Results of calculations of residual stresses in core shroud weldments are summarized. Crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys under cyclic loading with R ratios from 0.2--0.95 in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 C are summarized

  8. Crack initiation behavior of neutron irradiated model and commercial stainless steels in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, Kale J., E-mail: kalejs@umich.edu; Was, Gary S.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Environmental constant extension rate tensile tests were performed on neutron irradiated steel. • Percentage of intergranular cracking quantified the cracking susceptibility. • Cracking susceptibility varied with test environment, solute addition, and cold work. • No singular microstructural change could explain increases in cracking susceptibility with irradiation dose. • The increment of yield strength due to irradiation correlated well with cracking susceptibility. -- Abstract: The objective of this study was to isolate key factors affecting the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) susceptibility of eleven neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steel alloys. Four commercial purity and seven high purity stainless steels were fabricated with specific changes in composition and microstructure, and irradiated in a fast reactor spectrum at 320 °C to doses between 4.4 and 47.5 dpa. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests were performed in normal water chemistry (NWC), hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), or primary water (PW) environments to isolate the effects of environment, elemental solute addition, alloy purity, alloy heat, alloy type, cold work, and irradiation dose. The irradiated alloys showed a wide variation in IASCC susceptibility, as measured by the relative changes in mechanical properties and crack morphology. Cracking susceptibility measured by %IG was enhanced in oxidizing environments, although testing in the lowest potential environment caused an increase in surface crack density. Alloys containing solute addition of Ni or Ni + Cr exhibited no IASCC. Susceptibility was reduced in materials cold worked prior to irradiation, and increased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation-induced hardening was accounted for by the dislocation loop microstructure, however no relation between crack initiation and radiation hardening was found.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Fraser; Newman, Roger

    2010-12-01

    A critical review is presented of the possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper canisters in a deep geological repository in the Fennoscandian Shield. Each of the four main mechanisms proposed for the SCC of pure copper are reviewed and the required conditions for cracking compared with the expected environmental and mechanical loading conditions within the repository. Other possible mechanisms are also considered, as are recent studies specifically directed towards the SCC of copper canisters. The aim of the review is to determine if and when during the evolution of the repository environment copper canisters might be susceptible to SCC. Mechanisms that require a degree of oxidation or dissolution are only possible whilst oxidant is present in the repository and then only if other environmental and mechanical loading conditions are satisfied. These constraints are found to limit the period during which the canisters could be susceptible to cracking via film rupture (slip dissolution) or tarnish rupture mechanisms to the first few years after deposition of the canisters, at which time there will be insufficient SCC agent (ammonia, acetate, or nitrite) to support cracking. During the anaerobic phase, the supply of sulphide ions to the free surface will be transport limited by diffusion through the highly compacted bentonite. Therefore, no HS. will enter the crack and cracking by either of these mechanisms during the long term anaerobic phase is not feasible. Cracking via the film-induced cleavage mechanism requires a surface film of specific properties, most often associated with a nano porous structure. Slow rates of dissolution characteristic of processes in the repository will tend to coarsen any nano porous layer. Under some circumstances, a cuprous oxide film could support film-induced cleavage, but there is no evidence that this mechanism would operate in the presence of sulphide during the long-term anaerobic period because copper sulphide

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of copper canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Fraser (Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada)); Newman, Roger (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    2010-12-15

    A critical review is presented of the possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper canisters in a deep geological repository in the Fennoscandian Shield. Each of the four main mechanisms proposed for the SCC of pure copper are reviewed and the required conditions for cracking compared with the expected environmental and mechanical loading conditions within the repository. Other possible mechanisms are also considered, as are recent studies specifically directed towards the SCC of copper canisters. The aim of the review is to determine if and when during the evolution of the repository environment copper canisters might be susceptible to SCC. Mechanisms that require a degree of oxidation or dissolution are only possible whilst oxidant is present in the repository and then only if other environmental and mechanical loading conditions are satisfied. These constraints are found to limit the period during which the canisters could be susceptible to cracking via film rupture (slip dissolution) or tarnish rupture mechanisms to the first few years after deposition of the canisters, at which time there will be insufficient SCC agent (ammonia, acetate, or nitrite) to support cracking. During the anaerobic phase, the supply of sulphide ions to the free surface will be transport limited by diffusion through the highly compacted bentonite. Therefore, no HS. will enter the crack and cracking by either of these mechanisms during the long term anaerobic phase is not feasible. Cracking via the film-induced cleavage mechanism requires a surface film of specific properties, most often associated with a nano porous structure. Slow rates of dissolution characteristic of processes in the repository will tend to coarsen any nano porous layer. Under some circumstances, a cuprous oxide film could support film-induced cleavage, but there is no evidence that this mechanism would operate in the presence of sulphide during the long-term anaerobic period because copper sulphide

  11. Curvilinear crack layer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexander; Chaoui, Kamel; Moet, Abdelsamie

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of an experiment designed to allow observation of the effect of damage orientation on the direction of crack growth in the case of crack layer propagation, using polystyrene as the model material. The direction of crack advance under a given loading condition is noted to be determined by a competition between the tendency of the crack to maintain its current direction and the tendency to follow the orientation of the crazes at its tip. The orientation of the crazes is, on the other hand, determined by the stress field due to the interaction of the crack, the crazes, and the hole. The changes in craze rotation relative to the crack define the active zone rotation.

  12. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  13. Interface stability during rapid directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoglund, D.E.; Aziz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at the solidification velocities observed during pulsed laser annealing, the planar interface between solid and liquid is stabilized by capillarity and nonequilibrium effects such as solute trapping. The authors used Rutherford backscattering and electron microscopy to determine the nonequilibrium partition coefficient and critical concentration for breakdown of the planar interface as a function of interface velocity for Sn-implanted silicon. This allows the authors to test the applicability of the Mulliins-Sekerka stability theory to interfaces not in local equilibrium and to test the Coriell-Sekerka and other theories for oscillatory instabilities

  14. Modular radwaste volume reduction and solidification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes both the modular transportable and the modular mobile liquid radwaste volume reduction and solidification units based on a General Electric Company developed and patented process called AZTECH (a trademark of GE). An AZTECH system removes all water by azeotropic distillation and encapsulates the remaining solids in a polyester compound. The resulting monolith is suitable for either long term above ground storage or shallow land burial. Pilot and demonstration plant testing has confirmed the design parameters. The three processing modules are covered together with data which resulted in Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval on Dec. 30, 1985

  15. Solidification with back-diffusion of irregular eutectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska-Łent

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the α - parameter back-diffusion has been introduced in the work. The alternative models of solidification were describedtaking into consideration back-diffusion process. The possibility of using those models for eutectic alloys solidification is worthyof interest.

  16. The solidification velocity of nickel and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgilbers, Alex Sho

    2002-09-01

    The solidification velocity of several Ni-Ti, Ni-Sn, Ni-Si, Ti-Al and Ti-Ni alloys were measured as a function of undercooling. From these results, a model for alloy solidification was developed that can be used to predict the solidification velocity as a function of undercooling more accurately. During this investigation a phenomenon was observed in the solidification velocity that is a direct result of the addition of the various alloying elements to nickel and titanium. The additions of the alloying elements resulted in an additional solidification velocity plateau at intermediate undercoolings. Past work has shown a solidification velocity plateau at high undercoolings can be attributed to residual oxygen. It is shown that a logistic growth model is a more accurate model for predicting the solidification of alloys. Additionally, a numerical model is developed from simple description of the effect of solute on the solidification velocity, which utilizes a Boltzmann logistic function to predict the plateaus that occur at intermediate undercoolings.

  17. The Influence of Alloy Composition on the Hot Tear Susceptibility of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee-Hun; Jo, Jae-Sub; Sim, Woo-Jeong; Im, Hang-Joon

    2012-01-01

    Hot tearing was the most significant casting defect when the castability evaluation of the Al- Zn-Mg-Cu alloy system was conducted. It was related to the solidification range of the alloy. Therefore, the hot tear susceptibility of the AA7075 alloy, whose solidification range is the widest, was evaluated. The hot tear susceptibility was evaluated by using a mold for a hot tearing test designed to create the condition for the occurrence of hot tear in 8 steps. According to the tearing location and shape, a hot tear susceptibility index (HTS) score was measured. The solidification range of each alloy and hot tear susceptibility was compared and thereafter the microstructure of a near tear defect was observed. As a result, the HTS of the AA7075 alloy was found to be 67. Also, the HTS in relation to a change in Zn, Mg, Cu composition showed a difference of about 6-11% compared to the AA7075 alloy.

  18. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  19. ''New ' technology of solidification of liquid radioactive waste'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytyl, V.A.; Svistova, L.M.; Spiridonova, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the best method of processing of radioactive waste is its solidification and then storage. At present time, three methods of solidification of radioactive waste are widely used in the world: cementation, bituminous grouting and vitrification. But they do not solve the problem of ecologically processing of waste because of different disadvantages. General disadvantages are: low state of filling, difficulties in solidification of the crystalline hydrated forms of radioactive waste; particular sphere of application and economical difficulties while processing the great volume of waste. In connection with it the urgent necessity is emerging: to develop less expensive and ecologically more reliable technology of solidification of radioactive waste. A new method of solidification is presented with its technical schema. (N.C.)

  20. INTERRELATION OF RHOMBICITY AND OCCURRENCE OF INTERNAL CRACKS AT CONTINUOUS CASTING OF SORTED SLUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. A. Samojlovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of deformations and stresses in cross section of sorted uninterruptedly-casted slugs at their solidification and cooling within limits of crystallizer with the aim of determination of possibilities for occurrence of internal cracks of diagonal type is carried out on basis of mathematical modeling, the peculiarities of the slug skin cooling at its shrinkage and separation from crystallizer wall are revealed.

  1. Analysis of diffusive mass transport in a cracked buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Garisto, F.

    1989-11-01

    In the disposal vault design for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, cylindrical containers of used nuclear fuel would be placed in vertical boreholes in rock and surrounded with a bentonite-based buffer material. The buffer is expected to absorb and/or retard radionuclides leaching from the fuel after the containers fail. There is some evidence, however, that the buffer may be susceptible to cracking. In this report we investigate numerically the consequences of cracking on uranium diffusion through the buffer. The derivation of the mass-transport equations and the numerical solution method are presented for the solubility-limited diffusion of uranium in a cracked buffer system for both swept-away and semi-impermeable boundary conditions at the rock-buffer interface. The results indicate that for swept-away boundary conditions the total uranium flux through the cracked buffer system is, as expected, greater than through the uncracked buffer. The effect of the cracks is strongly dependent on the ratio D/D eff , where D and D eff are the pore-water and the effective buffer diffusion coefficient, respectively. However, although a decrease in D eff enhances the effect of cracks on the total cumulative flux (relative to the uncracked buffer), it also decreases the total cumulative flux through the cracked buffer system (relative to a cracked buffer with a larger D eff value). Finally, for semi-impermeable boundary conditions, the effect of cracks on the total radionuclide flux is relatively small

  2. Epitaxial Growth and Cracking Mechanisms of Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Splats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-jun

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the epitaxial growth and cracking mechanisms of thermally sprayed ceramic splats were explored. We report, for the first time, the epitaxial growth of various splat/substrate combinations at low substrate temperatures (100 °C) and large lattice mismatch (- 11.26%). Our results suggest that thermal spray deposition was essentially a liquid-phase epitaxy, readily forming chemical bonding. The interface temperature was also estimated. The results convincingly demonstrated that atoms only need to diffuse and rearrange over a sufficiently short range during extremely rapid solidification. Concurrently, severe cracking occurred in the epitaxial splat/substrate systems, which indicated high tensile stress was produced during splat deposition. The origin of the tensile stress was attributed to the strong constraint of the locally heated substrate by its cold surroundings.

  3. The melting and solidification of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, B. J.; Myers, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the melting of nanowires. The first section of the paper deals with a standard theoretical situation, where the wire melts due to a fixed boundary temperature. This analysis allows us to compare with existing results for the phase change of nanospheres. The equivalent solidification problem is also examined. This shows that solidification is a faster process than melting; this is because the energy transfer occurs primarily through the solid rather than the liquid which is a poorer conductor of heat. This effect competes with the energy required to create new solid surface which acts to slow down the process, but overall conduction dominates. In the second section, we consider a more physically realistic boundary condition, where the phase change occurs due to a heat flux from surrounding material. This removes the singularity in initial melt velocity predicted in previous models of nanoparticle melting. It is shown that even with the highest possible flux the melting time is significantly slower than with a fixed boundary temperature condition.

  4. The melting and solidification of nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, B. J.; Myers, T. G.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the melting of nanowires. The first section of the paper deals with a standard theoretical situation, where the wire melts due to a fixed boundary temperature. This analysis allows us to compare with existing results for the phase change of nanospheres. The equivalent solidification problem is also examined. This shows that solidification is a faster process than melting; this is because the energy transfer occurs primarily through the solid rather than the liquid which is a poorer conductor of heat. This effect competes with the energy required to create new solid surface which acts to slow down the process, but overall conduction dominates. In the second section, we consider a more physically realistic boundary condition, where the phase change occurs due to a heat flux from surrounding material. This removes the singularity in initial melt velocity predicted in previous models of nanoparticle melting. It is shown that even with the highest possible flux the melting time is significantly slower than with a fixed boundary temperature condition.

  5. Solidification microstructure of centrifugally cast Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal casting is a foundry process allowing the production of near net-shaped axially symmetrical components. The present study focuses on the microstructural characterization of centrifugally cast alloys featuring different chemical compositions for the construction of spheres applied in valves made of alloy IN625 for operation at high pressure. Control of the solidification microstructure is needed to assure the reliability of the castings. Actually, a Ni-base superalloy such as this one should have an outstanding combination of mechanical properties, high temperature stability and corrosion resistance. Alloys such as IN625 are characterised by a large amount of alloying elements and a wide solidification range, so they can be affected by micro-porosity defects, related to the shrinkage difference between the matrix and the secondary reinforcing phases (Nb-rich carbides and Laves phase. In this study, the microstructure characterization was performed as a function of the applied heat treatments and it was coupled with a calorimetric analysis in order to understand the mechanism ruling the formation of micro-porosities that can assure alloy soundness. The obtained results show that the presence of micro-porosities is governed by morphology and by the size of the secondary phases, and the presence of the observed secondary phases is detrimental to corrosion resistance.

  6. Solidification processing of high-Tc superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shiohara, Y; Nakamura, Y; Izumi, T

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in the solidification processing of RE-system (RE:Y, Sm, Nd etc.) oxide superconducting materials is reviewed. The superconducting YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/(Y123) phase is solidified from Y/sub 2/BaCuO/sub 5/(Y211) and liquid phases, by a peritectic reaction. The solidified micro and macro structure can not be explained by the peritectic reaction with diffusion in the solid but rather by diffusion in the liquid. A solidification model for this reaction is developed. It is confirmed that the prediction from the model calculation is in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the basic idea is expanded to develop a novel single crystal pulling process. Y211 powders were placed at the bottom of the crucible as the solute source for the growth and a BaO-CuO composite (Ba to Cu cation ratio was 3 to 5) was placed on the layer of Y211 powders. Temperature gradient was provided in the melt. Large bulk single crystals were obtained by this technique, and the growth mechanism was al...

  7. The melting and solidification of nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, B. J., E-mail: brendan.florio@ul.ie [University of Limerick, Mathematics Applications Consortium for Science and Industry (MACSI), Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Ireland); Myers, T. G., E-mail: tmyers@crm.cat [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the melting of nanowires. The first section of the paper deals with a standard theoretical situation, where the wire melts due to a fixed boundary temperature. This analysis allows us to compare with existing results for the phase change of nanospheres. The equivalent solidification problem is also examined. This shows that solidification is a faster process than melting; this is because the energy transfer occurs primarily through the solid rather than the liquid which is a poorer conductor of heat. This effect competes with the energy required to create new solid surface which acts to slow down the process, but overall conduction dominates. In the second section, we consider a more physically realistic boundary condition, where the phase change occurs due to a heat flux from surrounding material. This removes the singularity in initial melt velocity predicted in previous models of nanoparticle melting. It is shown that even with the highest possible flux the melting time is significantly slower than with a fixed boundary temperature condition.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Hot Cracking in Laser-Hybrid Welded Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Oliver Gebhardt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In welding experiments conducted on heavy wall pipes, the penetration mode (full or partial penetration occurred to be a significant factor influencing appearance of solidification cracks. To explain the observed phenomena and support further optimization of manufacturing processes, a computational model was developed, which used a sophisticated strategy to model the material. High stresses emerged in the models in regions which showed cracking during experiments. In partial penetration welding, they were caused by the prevention of weld shrinkage due to the cold and strong material below the joint. Another identified factor having an influence on high stress localization is bulging of the weld.

  9. A study on stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Seiichi; Fujii, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Sakuma, Koosuke; Hibi, Seiji; Morimoto, Hiroyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part are conducted. SUS 304 stainless steel is used as testing material. The distribution of residual stress in plug and tube plate after plugging is obtained. The effect of residual stress on the stress corrosion cracking is studied. Residual stress in tube plate near the plug is compressive and stress corrosion cracking dose not occur in the tube plate there, and it occurs on the inner surface of plug because of residual tensile stress in axial direction of the plug. Stress corrosion test in MgCl 2 solution under constant load is conducted. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of the explosive bonded boundary is lower than that of base metal because of greater resistance to plastic deformation. Stress corrosion test in high temperature and high pressure pure water is also conducted by means of static type of autoclave but stress corrosion cracking does not occur under the testing condition used. (author)

  10. Low-temperature susceptibility of concentrated magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnikov, Alexander F.; Lebedev, Alexander V.

    2004-09-01

    The initial susceptibility of concentrated magnetic fluids (ferrocolloids) has been experimentally investigated at low temperatures. The results obtained indicate that the interparticle dipole-dipole interactions can increase the susceptibility by several times as compared to the Langevin value. It is shown that good agreement between recent theoretical models and experimental observations can be achieved by introducing a correction for coefficients in the series expansion of susceptibility in powers of density and aggregation parameter. A modified equation for equilibrium susceptibility is offered to sum over corrections made by Kalikmanov (Statistical Physics of Fluids, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001) and by B. Huke and M. Lücke (Phys. Rev. E 67, 051403, 2003). The equation gives good quantitative agreement with the experimental data in the wide range of temperature and magnetic particles concentration. It has been found that in some cases the magnetic fluid solidification occurs at temperature several tens of kelvins higher than the crystallization temperature of the carrier liquid. The solidification temperature of magnetic fluids is independent of particle concentration (i.e., magneto-dipole interparticle interactions) and dependent on the surfactant type and carrier liquid. This finding allows us to suggest that molecular interactions and generation of some large-scale structure from colloidal particles in magnetic fluids are responsible for magnetic fluid solidification. If the magnetic fluid contains the particles with the Brownian relaxation mechanism of the magnetic moment, the solidification manifests itself as the peak on the "susceptibility-temperature" curve. This fact proves the dynamic nature of the observed peak: it arises from blocking the Brownian mechanism of the magnetization relaxation.

  11. Cracks assessment using ultrasonic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria Pia; Tomasella, Marcelo [OLDELVAL S.A. Oleoductos del Valle, Rio Negro (Argentina). Pipeline Integrity Dept.

    2005-07-01

    The goal of Oldelval Integrity Program is to prevent ruptures and leaks, developing strategies for a better handling of the integrity of our pipelines. In order to achieve it we have studied and modeled each process that involved in the integrity pipeline. Those processes are mainly based on defects reported by an internal inspection tool and supplied with field inspection and monitoring data. Years of evaluation, study and the continuous effort overturned towards a phenomenon that worries to the industry, as it is the SCC. Since 1998 up to 2004 SCC was included in the integrity program with some preventive maintenance programs. The accomplishment of the inspection based on ultrasound tools, is the culmination of years of evaluation and investigations supported by field digs and materials susceptibility. This paper describes Oldelval's results with ultrasonic crack detection tool, and how it can be reliably to detect SCC. (author)

  12. Crack layer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  13. Atomistics of crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieradzki, K.; Dienes, G.J.; Paskin, A.; Massoumzadeh, B.

    1988-01-01

    The molecular dynamic technique is used to investigate static and dynamic aspects of crack extension. The material chosen for this study was the 2D triangular solid with atoms interacting via the Johnson potential. The 2D Johnson solid was chosen for this study since a sharp crack in this material remains stable against dislocation emission up to the critical Griffith load. This behavior allows for a meaningful comparison between the simulation results and continuum energy theorems for crack extension by appropriately defining an effective modulus which accounts for sample size effects and the non-linear elastic behavior of the Johnson solid. Simulation results are presented for the stress fields of moving cracks and these dynamic results are discussed in terms of the dynamic crack propagation theories, of Mott, Eshelby, and Freund

  14. Reheat cracking in 1/2 CrMoV steel. Heat affected zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, A.D.; Miller, R.C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Low alloy creep resisting steels are inherently susceptible to cracking during stress relief heat treatment (reheat cracking) though few welds give rise to problems in manufacture or service. Mechanical tests on simulated affected zone structures in CrMoV forgings have shown that cracking occurs when the high temperature ductility is inadequate to accommodate the residual welding strain. Differences in susceptibility result from differences in heat affected zone grain size if the purity level is sufficiently high; reheat cracking may then be avoided by ensuring complete grain refinement during welding. The susceptibility of a lower purity forging was insensitive to grain size; heat affected zone refinement is unlikely to eliminate cracking in such steel. (orig.) [de

  15. Relationships Between Solidification Parameters in A319 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersluis, E.; Ravindran, C.

    2018-03-01

    The design of high-performance materials depends on a comprehensive understanding of the alloy-specific relationships between solidification and properties. However, the inconsistent use of a particular solidification parameter for presenting materials characterization in the literature impedes inter-study comparability and the interpretation of findings. Therefore, there is a need for accurate expressions relating the solidification parameters for each alloy. In this study, A319 aluminum alloy castings were produced in a permanent mold with various preheating temperatures in order to control metal cooling. Analysis of the cooling curve for each casting enabled the identification of its liquidus, Al-Si eutectic, and solidus temperatures and times. These values led to the calculation of the primary solidification rate, total solidification rate, primary solidification time, and local solidification time for each casting, which were related to each other as well as to the average casting SDAS and material hardness. Expressions for each of their correlations have been presented with high coefficients of determination, which will aid in microstructural prediction and casting design.

  16. A dendritic solidification experiment under large gravity - implications for the Earth's inner core solidification regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Alboussière, T.; Brito, D.; La Rizza, P.; Masson, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Earth's inner core solidification regime is usually thought to be dendritic, which should results in the formation of a mushy layer at the inner core boundary, possibly extending deep in the inner core. The release of latent heat and solute associated with crystallization provides an important boyancy source to drive thermo- chemical convection in the core. In the laboratory, two modes of convection associated with the crystallization of mushy layers have been observed. One is a boundary layer mode originating from the destabilisation of the chemical boundary layer present at the mush-liquid interface; the second is the so-called 'mushy layer mode' which involves the whole mushy layer. In the mushy layer mode, convection usually takes the form of narrow plumes rising through crystal free conduits called chimneys. One particularity of inner core crystallization is its extremely small solidification rate compared to typical outer core convective timescales. We have designed and build an experiment devoted to the study of crystallization under a large gravity field, using a centrifuge, of an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride, which is a good analogue to metallic alloys. The large gravity field allows to reach Rayleigh numbers much larger than in typical solidification experiments. Under large gravity fields, we observe the disappearance of chimney convection and show that the large gravity field promotes the boundary layer convection mode at the expent of the mushy layer mode. As the gravitationnal forcing is increased, convective heat and solute transport are significantly enhanced, which results in larger solid fraction directly below the mush-liquid interface. The increase in solid fraction results in a dramatic decrease of the permeability in the mushy layer, which eventually becomes subcritical in respect to the mushy layer mode. Because of the very slow solidification rate of the inner core, convective transport of heat and solute from the ICB is

  17. Directional solidification of C8-BTBT films induced by temperature gradients and its application for transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Iizuka, Naoki; Onishi, Yosuke

    2015-03-01

    Because charge transport in a single crystal is anisotropic in nature, directional growth of single crystals would enhance device performance and reduce its variation among devices. For an organic thin film, a method based on a temperature gradient would offer advantages in throughput and cleanliness. In experiments, a temperature gradient was established in a spin-coated film of 2,7-dioctyl [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) by two methods. First, a sample was placed on a metal plate bridging two heat stages. When one of the heat stages was cooled, the material started to solidify from the colder region. The melt-solid interface proceeded along the temperature gradient. Cracks were formed perpendicular to the solidification direction. Second, a line-shaped region on the film was continuously exposed to the light from a halogen lamp. After the heat stage was cooled, cracks similar to the first experiment were observed, indicating that the melt-solid interface moved laterally. We fabricated top-contact, bottom-gate transistors with these films. Despite the cracks, field-effect mobility of the transistors fabricated with these films was close to 6 cm2 /Vs and 4 cm2 /Vs in the first and second experiment, respectively. Elimination of cracks would improve charge transport and reduce performance variation among devices. It should be noted that the intense light from the halogen lamp did not damage the C8-BTBT films. The vast knowledge on laser annealing is now available for directional growth of this type of materials. The associated cost would be much smaller because an organic thin film melts at a low temperature.

  18. Cracking in fusion zone and heat affected zone of electron beam welded Inconel-713LC gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamanfar, A., E-mail: achamanfar@gmail.com [Département de Génie Mécanique, École de Technologie Supérieure, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada); Jahazi, M. [Département de Génie Mécanique, École de Technologie Supérieure, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada); Bonakdar, A.; Morin, E. [Siemens Canada Limited, 9545 Côte-de-Liesse, Dorval, Québec, Canada H9P 1A5 (Canada); Firoozrai, A. [Département de Génie Mécanique, École de Technologie Supérieure, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada)

    2015-08-26

    Electron beam welding (EBW) of shrouds in Inconel-713LC low pressure gas turbine blades was associated with cracking in fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) leading to a high scrap rate in manufacturing of gas turbine blades. In this study, in order to develop a detailed map of cracks and understand the root cause of cracking, a comprehensive microstructural and numerical analysis was performed. The elemental mapping in scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectral analysis revealed segregation of alloying elements in the cracked area of FZ and HAZ. In other words, one of the cracking mechanisms in FZ and HAZ was found to be segregation induced liquation and subsequent cracking due to thermal and mechanical tensile stresses generated during EBW. Cracking in FZ also occurred because of low strength of the solidifying weld metal as well as solidification contraction. As well, γ′ dissolution and reprecipitation in HAZ leading to decreased ductility and generation of contraction stresses was another mechanism for cracking in HAZ. The numerical model was capable to predict the cracking location as well as cracking orientation with respect to the weld line.

  19. Fluid flow solidification simulation of molten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschnitz, E.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to minimize costs and to obtain optimum designs, computer simulation of shape casting processes is more and more used as a development tool. Accurate predictions are possible by means of three dimensional fluid flow and solidification modelling. The bases of the model are the transient laminar Navier-Stokes-equations for a Newtonian fluid including the tracking of the free surface. They are describing the melt flow pattern during the mold filling sequence. Simultaneously, the temperature development in the alloy and mold is calculated using Fourier's heat transfer equation. At OEGI, a commercial software package (MAGMAsoft) with a finite difference equation solver is used for improvement of casting processes. Different examples of industrial applications will be shown. (author)

  20. The cement solidification systems at LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veazey, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    There are two major cement solidification systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both are focused primarily around treating waste from the evaporator at TA-55, the Plutonium Processing Facility. The evaporator receives the liquid waste stream from TA-55's nitric acid-based, aqueous-processing operations and concentrates the majority of the radionuclides in the evaporator bottoms solution. This is sent to the TA-55 cementation system. The evaporator distillate is sent to the TA-50 facility, where the radionuclides are precipitated and then cemented. Both systems treat TRU-level waste, and so are operated according to the criteria for WIPP-destined waste, but they differ in both cement type and mixing method. The TA-55 systems uses Envirostone, a gypsum-based cement and in-drum prop mixing; the TA-50 systems uses Portland cement and drum tumbling for mixing

  1. Evaluation of stabilization-solidification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubier, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that among the techniques applied to treat polluting residue in France for the past ten years has been the mixing of pollutants with reactive agents in order to fix the contaminants and to give them a solid consistency. The first applications of these stabilization/solidification processes occurred in 1978 in the treatment of oil residues from the AMOCO CADIZ spill. They have also been used for the treatment of a mayor dump site for petroleum residues, for the disposal of mineral sludges of a detoxication plant, and for the rehabilitation of sites contaminated by various industrial residues, specially acid tars generated by oil refining plants. Although from the beginning these techniques appeared to be able to transform filthy lagoons into solid and apparently safe areas, it was necessary to evaluate their efficiency and to determine the conditions and limits of application

  2. Plastic solidification method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihide; Inakuma, Masahiko.

    1992-01-01

    Condensed liquid wastes in radioactive wastes are formed by mixing and condensing several kinds of liquid wastes such as liquid wastes upon regeneration of ion exchange resins, floor draining liquid wastes and equipment draining liquid wastes. Accordingly, various materials are contained, and it is found that polymerization reaction of plastics is inhibited especially when reductive material, such as sodium nitrite is present. Then, in the present invention, upon mixing thermosetting resins to radioactive wastes containing reducing materials, an alkaline material is admixed to an unstaturated polyester resin. This can inactivate the terminal groups of unsaturated polyester chain, to prevent the dissociation of the reducing agent such as sodium nitrite. Further, if an unsaturated polyester resin of low acid value and a polymerization initiator for high temperature are used in addition to the alkaline material, the effect is further enhanced, thereby enabling to obtain a strong plastic solidification products. (T.M.)

  3. Cracked gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J; Schuster, H D; Gabler, R

    1976-11-17

    A small cracked-gas generator in a vehicle driven, in particular, by an air combustion engine has been proposed for the economic production of the gases necessary for low toxicity combustion from diesel fuel. This proceeds via catalytic crack-gasification and exploitation of residual heat from exhaust gases. This patent application foresees the insertion of one of the catalysts supporting the cracked-gas reaction in a container through which the reacting mixture for cracked-gas production flows in longitudinal direction. Further, air ducts are embedded in the catalyst through which exhaust gases and fresh air flow in counter direction to the cracked gas flow in the catalyst. The air vents are connected through heat conduction to the catalyst. A cracked gas constituting H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O can be produced from the air-fuel mixture using appropriate catalysts. By the addition of 5 to 25% of cracked gas to the volume of air drawn in by the combustion engine, a more favourable combustion can be achieved compared to that obtained under normal combustion conditions.

  4. Solidification paths in modified Inconel 625 weld overlay material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2009-01-01

    Inconel 625 is commonly used for overlay welding to protect the base metal against high temperature corrosion. The efficiency of corrosion protection depends on effective mixing of the overlay weld with the base metal and the subsequent segregation of alloy elements during solidification....... Metallographic analysis of solidified samples of Inconel 625 with addition of selected elements is compared with thermodynamic modelling of segregation during solidification. The influence of changes in the melt chemistry on the formation of intermetallic phases during solidification is shown. In particular...

  5. Inverse thermal analysis method to study solidification in cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dioszegi, Atilla; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Solidification modelling of cast metals is widely used to predict final properties in cast components. Accurate models necessitate good knowledge of the solidification behaviour. The present study includes a re-examination of the Fourier thermal analysis method. This involves an inverse numerical...... solution of a 1-dimensional heat transfer problem connected to solidification of cast alloys. In the analysis, the relation between the thermal state and the fraction solid of the metal is evaluated by a numerical method. This method contains an iteration algorithm controlled by an under relaxation term...... inverse thermal analysis was tested on both experimental and simulated data....

  6. Study on crack generation at root of socket welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Matsuda, F.; Sato, M.; Nayama, M.; Akitomo, N.

    1996-01-01

    Because a power generation facility is made up of structures that contain a large number of welds, the reliability of weld joints is important to ensure the safety of power plants. Surveys and research are conducted on special weld joints to verify the reliability of power plants. The results of the investigation to verify the relation between the welding conditions and quality of small-diameter socket joints are described. Some defects are observed in the roots of socket-pipe joints of carbon steel in this project. The authors investigate experimentally the effect of the welding parameters on the generation of defects. The defects of the root are found experimentally to be solidification cracking (hot cracking). It is also revealed that a higher heat input and lower wire feed rate generate more hot cracking at the root of a weld. The authors also give a hypothesis that explains the generation mechanism of hot cracks at the root of a socket-pipe joint, based on finite element modelling analysis and other information. (orig.)

  7. Oxidization and stress corrosion cracking initiation of austenitic alloys in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnamian, Y.; Li, M.; Luo, J.L.; Chen, W.X.; Zheng, W.; Guzonas, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of austenitic alloys in pure supercritical water. Austenitic stainless steels 310S, 316L, and Inconel 625 were tested as static capsule samples at 500 o C for up to 5000 h. After that period, crack initiations were readily observed in all samples, signifying susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The microcracks in 316L stainless steel and Inconel 625 were almost intergranular, whereas transgranular microcrack initiation was observed in 310S stainless steel. (author)

  8. Time-dependent corrosion fatique crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research is to characterize environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth for the susceptible short-longitudinal orientation of aluminum alloy 7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution. This work is necessary in order to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA-FLAGRO (NASGRO). This effort concentrates on determining relevant inputs to a superposition model in order to more accurately model environmental fatigue crack propagation.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Ananya

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these steels in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless steels. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized corrosion susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless steels due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC

  11. Inspecting cracks in foam insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, L. W.; Jung, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Dye solution indicates extent of cracking by penetrating crack and showing original crack depth clearly. Solution comprised of methylene blue in denatured ethyl alcohol penetrates cracks completely and evaporates quickly and is suitable technique for usage in environmental or structural tests.

  12. The solidification of aluminum production waste in geopolymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 84, DEC 1 (2014), s. 657-662 ISSN 0959-6526 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : aluminum waste * solidification * recycling * geopolymer Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 3.844, year: 2014

  13. Particle Trapping and Banding in Rapid Colloidal Solidification

    KAUST Repository

    Elliott, J. A. W.; Peppin, S. S. L.

    2011-01-01

    We derive an expression for the nonequilibrium segregation coefficient of colloidal particles near a moving solid-liquid interface. The resulting kinetic phase diagram has applications for the rapid solidification of clay soils, gels, and related

  14. Effect Of Natural Convection On Directional Solidification Of Pure Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the modeling of the directional solidification process of pure metal. During the process the solidification front is sharp in the shape of the surface separating liquid from solid in three dimensional space or a curve in 2D. The position and shape of the solid-liquid interface change according to time. The local velocity of the interface depends on the values of heat fluxes on the solid and liquid sides. Sharp interface solidification belongs to the phase transition problems which occur due to temperature changes, pressure, etc. Transition from one state to another is discontinuous from the mathematical point of view. Such process can be identified during water freezing, evaporation, melting and solidification of metals and alloys, etc.

  15. Simulations of rapid pressure-induced solidification in molten metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Mehul V.; Streitz, Frederick H.

    2004-01-01

    The process of interest in this study is the solidification of a molten metal subjected to rapid pressurization. Most details about solidification occurring when the liquid-solid coexistence line is suddenly transversed along the pressure axis remain unknown. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of this process for both simple models of metals (Cu) and more sophisticated material models (MGPT potentials for Ta). Atomistic (molecular dynamics) simulations are used to extract details such as the time and length scales that govern these processes. Starting with relatively simple potential models, we demonstrate how molecular dynamics can be used to study solidification. Local and global order parameters that aid in characterizing the phase have been identified, and the dependence of the solidification time on the phase space distance between the final (P,T) state and the coexistence line has been characterized

  16. Plastic solidification system at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Hiroyuki; Iokibe, Hiroyuki; Tsukiyama, Shigeru; Suzuki, Michio; Yamaguchi, Masato

    1987-01-01

    In Unit 1 and 2 of the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, radioactive waste was previously solidified in cement. By this method, the quantity of waste thus treated is relatively small, resulting in large number of the solidified drums. In order to solve this problem, the solidification facility using a thermosetting resin was employed, which is in operation since January 1986 for Unit 1, 2 and 3. As compared with the cement solidification, the solidified volume of concentrated liquid is about 1/12 and of spent-resin slurry is about 1/4 in plastic solidification. The following are described: course leading to the employment, the plastic solidification facility, features of the facility, operation results so far with the facility, etc. (Mori, K.)

  17. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF ORGANICS AND INORGANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidification refers to techniques that encapsulate hazardous waste into a solid material of high structural integrity. Encapsulation involves either fine waste particles (microencapsulation) or a large block or container of wastes (macroencapsulation). Stabilization refe...

  18. Residual stress and crack initiation in laser clad composite layer with Co-based alloy and WC + NiCr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changmin; Park, Hyungkwon; Yoo, Jaehong; Lee, Changhee; Woo, WanChuck; Park, Sunhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Major problem, clad cracking in laser cladding process, was researched. • Residual stress measurements were performed quantitatively by neutron diffraction method along the surface of specimens. • Relationship between the residual stress and crack initiation was showed clearly. • Ceramic particle effect in the metal matrix was showed from the results of residual stress measurements. • Initiation sites of generating clad cracks were specifically studied in MMC coatings. - Abstract: Although laser cladding process has been widely used to improve the wear and corrosion resistance, there are unwanted cracking issues during and/or after laser cladding. This study investigates the tendency of Co-based WC + NiCr composite layers to cracking during the laser cladding process. Residual stress distributions of the specimen are measured using neutron diffraction and elucidate the correlation between the residual stress and the cracking in three types of cylindrical specimens; (i) no cladding substrate only, (ii) cladding with 100% stellite#6, and (iii) cladding with 55% stellite#6 and 45% technolase40s. The microstructure of the clad layer was composed of Co-based dendrite and brittle eutectic phases at the dendritic boundaries. And WC particles were distributed on the matrix forming intermediate composition region by partial melting of the surface of particles. The overlaid specimen exhibited tensile residual stress, which was accumulated through the beads due to contraction of the coating layer generated by rapid solidification, while the non-clad specimen showed compressive. Also, the specimen overlaid with 55 wt% stellite#6 and 45 wt% technolase40s showed a tensile stress higher than the specimen overlaid with 100% stellite#6 possibly, due to the difference between thermal expansion coefficients of the matrix and WC particles. Such tensile stresses can be potential driving force to provide an easy crack path ways for large brittle fractures

  19. Residual stress and crack initiation in laser clad composite layer with Co-based alloy and WC + NiCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changmin; Park, Hyungkwon; Yoo, Jaehong [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changhee, E-mail: chlee@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, WanChuck [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sunhong [Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Hyo-ja-dong, Po-Hang, Kyoung-buk, San 32 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Major problem, clad cracking in laser cladding process, was researched. • Residual stress measurements were performed quantitatively by neutron diffraction method along the surface of specimens. • Relationship between the residual stress and crack initiation was showed clearly. • Ceramic particle effect in the metal matrix was showed from the results of residual stress measurements. • Initiation sites of generating clad cracks were specifically studied in MMC coatings. - Abstract: Although laser cladding process has been widely used to improve the wear and corrosion resistance, there are unwanted cracking issues during and/or after laser cladding. This study investigates the tendency of Co-based WC + NiCr composite layers to cracking during the laser cladding process. Residual stress distributions of the specimen are measured using neutron diffraction and elucidate the correlation between the residual stress and the cracking in three types of cylindrical specimens; (i) no cladding substrate only, (ii) cladding with 100% stellite#6, and (iii) cladding with 55% stellite#6 and 45% technolase40s. The microstructure of the clad layer was composed of Co-based dendrite and brittle eutectic phases at the dendritic boundaries. And WC particles were distributed on the matrix forming intermediate composition region by partial melting of the surface of particles. The overlaid specimen exhibited tensile residual stress, which was accumulated through the beads due to contraction of the coating layer generated by rapid solidification, while the non-clad specimen showed compressive. Also, the specimen overlaid with 55 wt% stellite#6 and 45 wt% technolase40s showed a tensile stress higher than the specimen overlaid with 100% stellite#6 possibly, due to the difference between thermal expansion coefficients of the matrix and WC particles. Such tensile stresses can be potential driving force to provide an easy crack path ways for large brittle fractures

  20. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  1. Cracking the Gender Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    extensive work to raise the proportion of women. This has helped slightly, but women remain underrepresented at the corporate top. Why is this so? What can be done to solve it? This article presents five different types of answers relating to five discursive codes: nature, talent, business, exclusion...... in leadership management, we must become more aware and take advantage of this complexity. We must crack the codes in order to crack the curve....

  2. Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Cracking in TRIP-Aided Lean-Alloyed Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Papula

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According to the conducted deep drawing tests and constant load tensile testing, the studied materials seem not to be particularly susceptible to delayed cracking. Delayed cracks were only occasionally initiated in two of the materials at high local stress levels. However, if a delayed crack initiated in a highly stressed location, strain-induced martensite transformation decreased the crack arrest tendency of the austenite phase in a duplex microstructure. According to electron microscopy examination and electron backscattering diffraction analysis, the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage, and cracks propagated along the body-centered cubic (BCC phases ferrite and α’-martensite. The BCC crystal structure enables fast diffusion of hydrogen to the crack tip area. No delayed cracking was observed in the stainless steel that had high austenite stability. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of α’-martensite increases the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility.

  3. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials

  4. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Doobay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”

  5. Natural zeolite bitumen cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznicki, S.M.; McCaffrey, W.C.; Bian, J.; Wangen, E.; Koenig, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate how low cost heavy oil upgrading in the field could reduce the need for diluents while lowering the cost for pipelining. Low cost field upgrading could also contribute to lowering contaminant levels. The performance of visbreaking processes could be improved by using disposable cracking agents. In turn, the economics of field upgrading of in-situ derived bitumen would be improved. However, in order to be viable, such agents would have to be far less expensive than current commercial cracking catalysts. A platy natural zeolite was selected for modification and testing due to its unique chemical and morphological properties. A catalyst-bearing oil sand was then heat-treated for 1 hour at 400 degrees C in a sealed microreactor. Under these mild cracking conditions, the catalyst-bearing oil sand produced extractable products of much lower viscosity. The products also contained considerably more gas oil and middle distillates than raw oil sand processed under the same conditions as thermal cracking alone. According to model cracking studies using hexadecane, these modified mineral zeolites may be more active cracking agents than undiluted premium commercial FCC catalyst. These materials hold promise for partial upgrading schemes to reduce solvent requirements in the field. tabs., figs.

  6. Multi-scale Modeling of Dendritic Alloy Solidification

    OpenAIRE

    Dagner, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Solidification of metallic melts is one of the most important processes in material science. The microstructure, which is formed during freezing, determines the mechanical properties of the final product largely. Many physical phenomena influence the solidification process and hence the resulting microstructure. One important parameter is influence of melt flow, which may modify heat and species transport on a large range of length- and time-scales. On the micro-scale, it influences the conce...

  7. Solute redistribution in dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, S.; Poirier, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of solute redistribution during dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid has been performed using numerical techniques. The extent of diffusion is characterized by the instantaneous and average diffusion parameters. These parameters are functions of the diffusion Fourier number, the partition ratio and the fraction solid. Numerical results are presented as an approximate model, which is used to predict the average diffusion parameter and calculate the composition of the interdendritic liquid during solidification.

  8. Workshop on initiation of stress corrosion cracking under LWR conditions: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Cubicciotti, D.; Licina, G.J.

    1988-05-01

    A workshop titled ''Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracking under LWR Conditions'' was held in Palo Alto, California on November 13, 1986, hosted by the Electric Power Research Institute. Participants were experts on the topic from nuclear steam supply and component manufacturers, public and private research laboratories, and university environments. Presentations included discussions on the definition of crack initiation, the effects of environmental and electrochemical variables on cracking susceptibility, and detection methods for the determination of crack initiation events and measurement of critical environmental and stress parameters. Examination of the questions related to crack initiation and its relative importance to the overall question of cracking of LWR materials from these perspectives provided inputs to EPRI project managers on the future direction of research efforts designed to prevent and control cracking. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately

  9. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of sensitized stainless steels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, B.; Isaacs, H.S.; Weeks, J.R.

    1976-12-01

    A study was conducted of the intergranular stress corrosion cracking of materials used in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) aimed at developing an understanding of the mechanism(s) of this mode of failure and at developing tests to determine the susceptibility of a given material to this form of attack

  10. Ultrasonic sizing of fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    Surface and buried fatigue cracks in steel plates have been sized using immersion probes as transmitters-receivers, angled to produce shear waves in the steel. Sizes have been estimated by identifying the ultrasonic waves diffracted from the crack tip and by measuring the time taken for a signal to travel to and from the crack tip. The effects of compression normal to a fatigue crack and of crack front curvature are discussed. Another diffraction technique, developed by UKAEA, Harwell, is reviewed

  11. Solidification and vitrification life-cycle economics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method, whereas vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ex situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450,000 m 3 of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper s a detailed study done to: compare the economics of the solidification and vitrification processes; determine if the stigma assigned to vitrification is warranted; determine if investing millions of dollars into vitrification development, along with solidification development, at Fernald is warranted. Common parameters were determined and detailed life-cycle cost estimates were made. Incorporating the unit costs into a computer spreadsheet allowed 'what if' scenarios to be performed. Some scenarios investigated included variation of: remediation times, amount of wastes treated, treatment efficiencies, electrical and material costs and escalation

  12. Remote detection of stress corrosion cracking: Surface composition and crack detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Jovanovic, Igor; Motta, Arthur T.; Xiao, Xuan; Le Berre, Samuel; Fobar, David; Cho, Hwanjeong; Choi, Sungho

    2018-04-01

    Chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel is a potential issue in long term dry storage of spent nuclear fuel canisters. In order for SCC to occur there must be a corrosive environment, a susceptible material, and a driving force. Because it is likely that the material in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welded stainless steel structures has been sensitized as a result of chromium depletion at the grain boundaries and a thermal residual stress driving force is likely present if solution annealing is not performed, two issues are critical. Is the environment corrosive, i.e., are chlorides present in solution on the surface? And then, are there cracks that could propagate? Remote detection of chlorides on the surface can be accomplished by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), while cracks can be detected by shear horizontal guided waves generated by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). Both are noncontact methods that are amenable to robotic delivery systems and harsh environments. The sensitivity to chlorine on stainless steel of a LIBS system that employs optical fiber for pulse delivery is demonstrated. Likewise, the ability of the EMAT system to detect cracks of a prescribed size and orientation is shown. These results show the potential for remote detection of Cl and cracks in dry storage spent fuel canisters.

  13. Stress corrosion crack growth rate in dissimilar metal welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M. P.; Lapena, J.; Lancha, A. M.; Perosanz, F. J.; Navas, M.

    2000-01-01

    Dissimilar welds, used to join different sections in light water reactors, are potentially susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aqueous mediums characteristic of nuclear plants. However, the study of these The ma has been limited to evaluating the weld material susceptibility in these mediums. Little scarce data are available on crack growth rates due, fundamentally, to inadequate testing techniques. In order to address this lack of information the crack growth rate at the interface of ferritic SA 533 B-1 alloy and alloy I-82, in a dissimilar weld (SA533B-1/I-82/316L), was studied. Experiments were conducted in water at 288 degree centigrade, 8 ppm of O 2 and 1 μS/cm conductivity. (Author) 33 refs

  14. Modeling of multiphase flow with solidification and chemical reaction in materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuan

    moving the side insulation layer upward. It is possible to produce high quality crystal with a good combination of heating and cooling. SiC based ceramic materials fabricated by polymer pyrolysis and synthesis becomes a promising candidate for nuclear applications. To obtain high uniformity of microstructure/concentration fuel without crack at high operating temperature, it is important to understand transport phenomena in material processing at different scale levels. In our prior work, a system level model based on reactive porous media theory was developed to account for the pyrolysis process in uranium-ceramic nuclear fabrication In this thesis, a particle level mesoscopic model based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is developed for modeling the synthesis of filler U3O8 particles and SiC matrix. The system-level model provides the thermal boundary conditions needed in the particle level simulation. The evolution of particle concentration and structure as well as composition of composite produced will be investigated. Since the process temperature and heat flux play the important roles in material quality and uniformity, the effects of heating rate at different directions, filler particle size and distribution on uniformity and microstructure of the final product are investigated. Uncertainty issue is also discussed. For the multiphase flow with directional solidification, a system level based on FVM is established. In this model, melt convection, temperature distribution, phase change and solidification interface can be investigated. For the multiphase flow with chemical reaction, a particle level model based on SPH method is developed to describe the pyrolysis and synthesis process of uranium-ceramic nuclear fuel. Due to its mesh-free nature, SPH can easily handle the problems with multi phases and components, large deformation, chemical reactions and even solidifications. A multi-scale meso-macroscopic approach, which combine a mesoscopic model based

  15. Computational multiscale modeling of intergranular cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, Igor; Cizelj, Leon

    2011-01-01

    A novel computational approach for simulation of intergranular cracks in a polycrystalline aggregate is proposed in this paper. The computational model includes a topological model of the experimentally determined microstructure of a 400 μm diameter stainless steel wire and automatic finite element discretization of the grains and grain boundaries. The microstructure was spatially characterized by X-ray diffraction contrast tomography and contains 362 grains and some 1600 grain boundaries. Available constitutive models currently include isotropic elasticity for the grain interior and cohesive behavior with damage for the grain boundaries. The experimentally determined lattice orientations are employed to distinguish between resistant low energy and susceptible high energy grain boundaries in the model. The feasibility and performance of the proposed computational approach is demonstrated by simulating the onset and propagation of intergranular cracking. The preliminary numerical results are outlined and discussed.

  16. Environmentally assisted cracking of Inconel X750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeldon, P.; Lowick, J.H.B.; Hurst, P.

    1987-05-01

    The resistance of different heat treatments of Inconel X750 to environmentally assisted cracking in simulated PWR primary water at 340 0 C has been assessed by slow strain rate, U-bend and bent beam tests. At the corrosion potential (ca - 670 mV (Ag/AgCl)), in low oxygen conditions (≤ 2 ppb) a single-stage ageing (704 0 C/20 h) gives much improved resistance compared with two-stage ageing (885 0 C/24 h + 704 0 C/20 h). However, material given the former ageing treatment can be susceptible to cracking at highly anodic potentials (> - 200 mV (Ag/AgCl)) if the alloy is significantly sensitized. (author)

  17. A consistent partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Jesper L.; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto

    2007-01-01

    Present extended finite element method (XFEM) elements for cohesive crack growth may often not be able to model equal stresses on both sides of the discontinuity when acting as a crack-tip element. The authors have developed a new partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth with extra...... enrichments to the cracked elements. The extra enrichments are element side local and were developed by superposition of the standard nodal shape functions for the element and standard nodal shape functions for a sub-triangle of the cracked element. With the extra enrichments, the crack-tip element becomes...... capable of modelling variations in the discontinuous displacement field on both sides of the crack and hence also capable of modelling the case where equal stresses are present on each side of the crack. The enrichment was implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and a standard algorithm...

  18. A crack growth evaluation method for interacting multiple cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    When stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue occurs, multiple cracks are frequently initiated in the same area. According to section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, multiple cracks are considered as a single combined crack in crack growth analysis, if the specified conditions are satisfied. In crack growth processes, however, no prescription for the interference between multiple cracks is given in this code. The JSME Post-Construction Code, issued in May 2000, prescribes the conditions of crack coalescence in the crack growth process. This study aimed to extend this prescription to more general cases. A simulation model was applied, to simulate the crack growth process, taking into account the interference between two cracks. This model made it possible to analyze multiple crack growth behaviors for many cases (e.g. different relative position and length) that could not be studied by experiment only. Based on these analyses, a new crack growth analysis method was suggested for taking into account the interference between multiple cracks. (author)

  19. The influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and nickel on the stress corrosion cracking of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihal, V.

    1985-01-01

    From the results of the stress corrosion cracking tests it is evident that austenitic alloys with a phosphorus content 0.01% causes a strong increase in stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of alloys with a nickel content in the range 33 to 38%. With a nickel content of approx. 35%, an increase of nitrogen concentration to approx. 0.15% also produces a significant effect on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. A sulphur content up to 0.033% does not produce a significant effect on stress corrosion cracking. (author)

  20. Technique to eliminate helium induced weld cracking in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin-An Wang; Chin, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have shown that Type 316 stainless steel is susceptible to heat-affected-zone (HAZ) cracking upon cooling when welded using the gas tungsten arc (GTA) process under lateral constraint. The cracking has been hypothesized to be caused by stress-assisted helium bubble growth and rupture at grain boundaries. This study utilized an experimental welding setup which enabled different compressive stresses to be applied to the plates during welding. Autogenous GTA welds were produced in Type 316 stainless steel doped with 256 appm helium. The application of a compressive stress, 55 Mpa, during welding suppressed the previously observed catastrophic cracking. Detailed examinations conducted after welding showed a dramatic change in helium bubble morphology. Grain boundary bubble growth along directions parallel to the weld was suppressed. Results suggest that stress-modified welding techniques may be used to suppress or eliminate helium-induced cracking during joining of irradiated materials

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of uranium--niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, N.J.

    1978-03-01

    The stress corrosion cracking behavior of U-2 1 / 4 , 4 1 / 2 , 6 and 8 wt % Nb alloys was evaluated in laboratory air and in aqueous Cl - solutions. Thresholds for crack propagation were obtained in these environments. The data showed that Cl - solutions are more deleterious than air environments. Tests were also conducted in pure gases to identify the species in the air responsible for cracking. These data showed the primary stress corrodent is water vapor for the most reactive alloy, U-2 1 / 4 % Nb, while O 2 is primarily responsible for cracking in the more corrosion resistant alloys, U-6 and 8% Nb. The 4 1 / 2 % alloy was found to be susceptible in both H 2 O and O 2 environments

  2. The effects of solidification on sill propagation dynamics and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanceaux, L.; Menand, T.

    2016-05-01

    Sills are an integral part of the formation and development of larger plutons and magma reservoirs. Thus sills are essential for both the transport and the storage of magma in the Earth's crust. However, although cooling and solidification are central to magmatism, their effects on sills have been so far poorly studied. Here, the effects of solidification on sill propagation dynamics and morphology are studied by means of analogue laboratory experiments. Hot fluid vegetable oil (magma analogue), that solidifies during its propagation, is injected as a sill in a colder layered gelatine solid (elastic host rock analogue). The injection flux and temperature are maintained constant during an experiment and systematically varied between each experiment, in order to vary and quantify the amount of solidification between each experiments. The oil is injected directly at the interface between the two gelatine layers. When solidification effects are small (high injection temperatures and fluxes), the propagation is continuous and the sill has a regular and smooth surface. Inversely, when solidification effects are important (low injection temperatures and fluxes), sill propagation is discontinuous and occurs by steps of surface-area creation interspersed with periods of momentary arrest. The morphology of these sills displays folds, ropy structures on their surface, and lobes with imprints of the leading fronts that correspond to each step of area creation. These experiments show that for a given, constant injected volume, as solidification effects increase, the area of the sills decreases, their thickness increases, and the number of propagation steps increases. These results have various geological and geophysical implications. The morphology of sills, such as lobate structures (interpretation of 3D seismic studies in sedimentary basin) and ropy flow structures (field observations) can be related to solidification during emplacement. Moreover, a non-continuous morphology

  3. Electric melting furnace for waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    To avoid electric troubles or reduction of waste processing performance even when platinum group elements are contained in wastes to be applied with glass solidification. For this purpose, a side electrode is disposed to the side wall of a melting vessel and a central electrode serving as a counter electrode is disposed about at the center inside the melting vessel. With such a constitution, if conductive materials are deposited at the bottom of the furnace or the bottom of the melting vessel, heating currents flow selectively between the side electrode and the central electrode. Accordingly, no electric currents flow through the conductive deposits thereby enabling to prevent abnormal heating in the bottom of the furnace. Further, heat generated by electric supply between the side electrode and the central electrode is supplied efficiently to raw material on the surface of the molten glass liquid to improve the processing performance. Further, disposition of the bottom electrode at the bottom of the furnace enables current supply between the central electrode and the bottom electrode to facilitate the temperature control for the molten glass in the furnace than in the conventional structure. (I.S.)

  4. Glass solidification material confinement test device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, Shigekazu.

    1997-01-01

    In a device for confining glass solidification materials, a pipeline connecting a detection vessel and a detector is formed to have a double walled structure, and air blowing holes are formed on the wall of the inner pipe, and an air supply mechanism is connected to inner and outer pipes for supplying blowing air thereby preventing deposition on the inner pipe wall. The air blowing holes are formed by constituting the pipe by using a porous sintered material and porous portions thereof are defined as the air blowing holes, or holes are formed on the pipe wall made of a metal by machining. A blowing boundary layer is formed by blowing the supplied air along the pipe wall of the inner pipe, by which deposition of the sucked materials to the inner wall of the inner pipe is prevented, and all of the materials sucked from the detection vessel are collected to the detector. In addition, an air exit pipe is formed into a double walled structure so as to be supplied blowing air from the air supply mechanism thereby enabling to prevent deposition of sucked materials more reliably. (N.H.)

  5. Properties and solidification of decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.

    1983-01-01

    LWRs will require one or more chemical decontaminations to achieve their designed lifetimes. Primary system decontamination is designed to lower radiation fields in areas where plant maintenance personnel must work. Chemical decontamination methods are either hard (concentrated chemicals, approximately 5 to 25 weight percent) or soft (dilute chemicals less than 1 percent by weight). These methods may have different chemical reagents, some tailor-made to the crud composition and many methods are and will be proprietary. One factor common to most commercially available processes is the presence of organic acids and chelates. These types of organic reagents are known to enhance the migration of radionuclides after disposal in a shallow land burial site. The NRC sponsors two programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory that are concerned with the management of decontamination wastes which will be generated by the full system decontamination of LWRs. These two programs focus on potential methods for degrading or converting decontamination wastes to more acceptable forms prior to disposal and the impact of disposing of solidified decontamination wastes. The results of the solidification of simulated decontamination resin wastes will be presented. Recent results on combustion of simulated decontamintion wastes will be described and procedures for evaluating the release of decontamination reagents from solidified wastes will be summarized

  6. Interface Pattern Selection in Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Rohit; Tewari, Surendra N.

    2001-01-01

    The central focus of this research is to establish key scientific concepts that govern the selection of cellular and dendritic patterns during the directional solidification of alloys. Ground-based studies have established that the conditions under which cellular and dendritic microstructures form are precisely where convection effects are dominant in bulk samples. Thus, experimental data can not be obtained terrestrially under pure diffusive regime. Furthermore, reliable theoretical models are not yet possible which can quantitatively incorporate fluid flow in the pattern selection criterion. Consequently, microgravity experiments on cellular and dendritic growth are designed to obtain benchmark data under diffusive growth conditions that can be quantitatively analyzed and compared with the rigorous theoretical model to establish the fundamental principles that govern the selection of specific microstructure and its length scales. In the cellular structure, different cells in an array are strongly coupled so that the cellular pattern evolution is controlled by complex interactions between thermal diffusion, solute diffusion and interface effects. These interactions give infinity of solutions, and the system selects only a narrow band of solutions. The aim of this investigation is to obtain benchmark data and develop a rigorous theoretical model that will allow us to quantitatively establish the physics of this selection process.

  7. Method of manufacturing borosilicate glass solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tsuneya.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain glass solidification products efficiently in a dry process from medium and high level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from PWR type reactors. Method: Boric acid-containing radioactive liquid wastes generated from primary coolants of PWR type reactors are evaporated to condensate as the pre-treatment. The concentrated liquid wastes are supplied to a drum type rotary kiln. While on the other hand, usual glass frits are introduced into the kiln. The liquid wastes are dried in the rotary kiln, as well as B 2 O 3 and the glass frits in the liquid wastes are combined into glass particles. In this case, since the kiln is rotated, no glass particles are deposited on the wall of the kiln. Then, the glass particles are introduced for melting into a high frequency melting furnace made of metal. The melting temperature is set to 1100 - 1150 deg C. The molten borosilicate glass is recovered from the bottom of the melting furance, contained in a canister and cooled for several hours, and then a cover is welded to the canister. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Microstructural characterization of hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel by EBSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureys, A., E-mail: Aurelie.Laureys@UGent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Depover, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Petrov, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Verbeken, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking by performing an elaborate EBSD (Electron BackScatter Diffraction) study in a steel with transformation induced plasticity (TRIP-assisted steel). This type of steel exhibits a multiphase microstructure which undergoes a deformation induced phase transformation. Additionally, each microstructural constituent displays a different behavior in the presence of hydrogen. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding on the mechanisms governing hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation in the hydrogen saturated multiphase structure. Tensile tests on notched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. The tests were interrupted at stresses just after reaching the tensile strength, i.e. before macroscopic failure of the material. This allowed to study hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EBSD. A correlation was found between the presence of martensite, which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and the initiation of hydrogen induced cracks. Initiation seems to occur mostly by martensite decohesion. High strain regions surrounding the hydrogen induced crack tips indicate that further crack propagation may have occurred by the HELP (hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity) mechanism. Small hydrogen induced cracks located nearby the notch are typically S-shaped and crack propagation was dominantly transgranularly. The second stage of crack propagation consists of stepwise cracking by coalescence of small hydrogen induced cracks. - Highlights: • Hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel is evaluated by EBSD. • Tensile tests were conducted on notched hydrogen saturated samples. • Crack initiation occurs by a H-Enhanced Interface DEcohesion (HEIDE) mechanism. • Crack propagation involves growth and coalescence of small cracks. • Propagation is governed by the characteristics of

  9. Microstructural characterization of hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel by EBSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureys, A.; Depover, T.; Petrov, R.; Verbeken, K.

    2016-01-01

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking by performing an elaborate EBSD (Electron BackScatter Diffraction) study in a steel with transformation induced plasticity (TRIP-assisted steel). This type of steel exhibits a multiphase microstructure which undergoes a deformation induced phase transformation. Additionally, each microstructural constituent displays a different behavior in the presence of hydrogen. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding on the mechanisms governing hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation in the hydrogen saturated multiphase structure. Tensile tests on notched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. The tests were interrupted at stresses just after reaching the tensile strength, i.e. before macroscopic failure of the material. This allowed to study hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EBSD. A correlation was found between the presence of martensite, which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and the initiation of hydrogen induced cracks. Initiation seems to occur mostly by martensite decohesion. High strain regions surrounding the hydrogen induced crack tips indicate that further crack propagation may have occurred by the HELP (hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity) mechanism. Small hydrogen induced cracks located nearby the notch are typically S-shaped and crack propagation was dominantly transgranularly. The second stage of crack propagation consists of stepwise cracking by coalescence of small hydrogen induced cracks. - Highlights: • Hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel is evaluated by EBSD. • Tensile tests were conducted on notched hydrogen saturated samples. • Crack initiation occurs by a H-Enhanced Interface DEcohesion (HEIDE) mechanism. • Crack propagation involves growth and coalescence of small cracks. • Propagation is governed by the characteristics of

  10. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  11. Stress corrosion cracking of highly irradiated 316 stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Morihito; Fukuya, Koji; Fujii, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Nobuo; Furutani, Gen [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Mechanical property tests, grain boundary (GB) composition analysis and slow strain rate test (SSRT) in simulated PWR primary water changing dissolved hydrogen (DH) and dissolved oxygen (DO) content were carried out on cold-worked (CW) 316 stainless steels which were irradiated to 1-8x10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) in a Japanese PWR in order to evaluate irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) susceptibility. Highly irradiated stainless steels were susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in both hydrogenated water and oxygenated water and to intergranular cracking in inert gas atmosphere. IASCC susceptibility increased with increasing DH content (0-45 ccH{sub 2}/kgH{sub 2}O). Hydrogen content of the section containing fracture surface was higher than that of the section far from fracture surface. These results suggest that hydrogen would have an important role for IASCC. While mechanical property was saturated, GB segregation and IASCC susceptibility increased with an increase in fluence, suggesting that GB segregation would have a dominant role for an increase in IASCC susceptibility at this high fluence region. (author)

  12. The Evolution of Cast Microstructures on the HAZ Liquation Cracking of Mar-M004 Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsin Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of liquation cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ of a cast Mar-M004 superalloy weld were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD were applied to identify the final microconstituents at the solidification boundaries of the cast alloy. Fine borides and lamellar eutectics were present in front of some γ-γ′ colonies, which were expected to be liquefied prematurely during welding. The metal carbide (MC enriched in Nb, Hf; M3B2 and M5B3 borides enriched in Cr and Mo; and lamellar Ni-Hf intermetallics were mainly responsible for the induced liquation cracking of the Mar-M004 weld, especially the MC carbides. Scanning electron microscope (SEM fractographs showed that the fracture features of those liquation cracks were associated with the interdendritic constituents in the cast superalloy.

  13. Solidification effects on sill formation: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanceaux, L.; Menand, T.

    2014-10-01

    Sills represent a major mechanism for constructing continental Earth's crust because these intrusions can amalgamate and form magma reservoirs and plutons. As a result, numerous field, laboratory and numerical studies have investigated the conditions that lead to sill emplacement. However, all previous studies have neglected the potential effect magma solidification could have on sill formation. The effects of solidification on the formation of sills are studied and quantified with scaled analogue laboratory experiments. The experiments presented here involved the injection of hot vegetable oil (a magma analogue) which solidified during its propagation as a dyke in a colder and layered solid of gelatine (a host rock analogue). The gelatine solid had two layers of different stiffness, to create a priori favourable conditions to form sills. Several behaviours were observed depending on the injection temperature and the injection rate: no intrusions (extreme solidification effects), dykes stopping at the interface (high solidification effects), sills (moderate solidification effects), and dykes passing through the interface (low solidification effects). All these results can be explained quantitatively as a function of a dimensionless temperature θ, which describes the experimental thermal conditions, and a dimensionless flux ϕ, which describes their dynamical conditions. The experiments reveal that sills can only form within a restricted domain of the (θ , ϕ) parameter space. These experiments demonstrate that contrary to isothermal experiments where cooling could not affect sill formation, the presence of an interface that would be a priori mechanically favourable is not a sufficient condition for sill formation; solidification effects restrict sill formation. The results are consistent with field observations and provide a means to explain why some dykes form sills when others do not under seemingly similar geological conditions.

  14. Rate of solidification of aluminium casting in varying wall thickness of cylindrical metallic moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of final casting mainly depends on the rate of solidification as rapid solidification produces fine grains structures with better mechanical properties. The analysis of heat transfer during the casting and solidification of aluminium alloy as well as the experimental investigation of the rate of solidification in varying thicknesses of cylindrical metallic mould was carried out. The temperature variation with time of the casting was recorded from which cooling curves were obtained for the determination of solidification time of the cast. The results showed that as the cylindrical mould thickness increases the solidification time decreases due to the chilling effect of the mould.

  15. Control of microstructure to increase the tolerance of zirconium alloys to hydride cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Sagat, S.; Amouzouvi, K.F.

    1987-12-01

    The microstructure of Zr-2.5 Nb has been altered in three ways in attempts to increase the alloy's tolerance to delayed hydride cracking, namely by breaking up the β-phase which reduces diffusivity of hydrogen and decreases crack velocity, by means of a gettering element (yttrium) which reduces susceptibility to cracking although the yttrium alloy has low toughness and poor corrosion resistance, and by reducing the number of basal plane normals in the main stressing direction which improves resistance to crack growth

  16. Statistical crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Although it is possible to simulate the ground blast from a single explosive shot with a simple computer algorithm and appropriate constants, the most commonly used modelling methods do not account for major changes in geology or shot energy because mechanical features such as tectonic stresses, fault structure, microcracking, brittle-ductile transition, and water content are not represented in significant detail. An alternative approach for modelling called Statistical Crack Mechanics is presented in this paper. This method, developed in the seventies as a part of the oil shale program, accounts for crack opening, shear, growth, and coalescence. Numerous photographs and micrographs show that shocked materials tend to involve arrays of planar cracks. The approach described here provides a way to account for microstructure and give a representation of the physical behavior of a material at the microscopic level that can account for phenomena such as permeability, fragmentation, shear banding, and hot-spot formation in explosives

  17. Crack propagation during fatigue in cast duplex stainless steels: influence of the microstructure, of the aging and of the test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonne, V.

    2001-07-01

    Duplex stainless steels are used as cast components in nuclear power plants. At the service temperature of about 320 C, the ferrite phase is thermally aged and embrittled. This induces a significant decrease in fracture properties of these materials. The aim of this work consists in studying Fatigue Crack Growth Rates (FCGR) and Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms (FCGM) as a function of thermal ageing and test temperature (20 C/320 C). Two cast duplex stainless steels (30% ferrite) are tested. In order to better understand the influence of the crystallographic orientation of the phases on the FCGM, the solidification structure of the material is studied by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and by Unidirectional Solidification Quenching. Fatigue crack growth tests are also performed in equiaxed and basaltic structures. Microstructure, fatigue crack growth mechanical properties and mechanisms are thus studied in relation to each other. In the studied range of delta K, the crack propagates without any preferential path by successive ruptures of phase laths. The macroscopic crack propagation plane, as determined by EBSD, depends on the crystallographic orientation of the ferrite grain. So, according to the solidification structure, secondary cracks can appear, which in turn influences the FCGR. Fatigue crack closure, which has to be determined to estimate the intrinsic FCGR, decreases with increasing ageing. This can be explained by a decrease in the kinematic cyclic hardening. The Paris exponent as determined from intrinsic FCGR increases with ageing. Intrinsic FCGR can then be separated in two ranges: one with lower FCGR in aged materials than in un-aged and one with the reversed tendency. (author)

  18. Role of ferrite and phosphorus plus sulphur in the crack sensitivity of autogenously welded type 309 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    A study on autogenous welding of Type 309 thin stainless steel sheet was made after experiencing cracking difficulties on several commercial heats. A relationship exists between the sum of the phosphorus plus sulfur, the ferrite control of the weld metal, and the crack sensitivity of autogenously made welds. A new simple weld test for thin-gage sheet is utilized for studying the susceptibility to cracking. A chemistry modification is suggested to alleviate possible weld cracking when autogenously welding this grade. The principles of crack sensitivity prediction could apply to other austenitic stainless steel types where chemistry limits are such that ferrite is possible

  19. Cracking the Cipher Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Singh, Simon

    2002-01-01

    In the back of 'The Code Book', a history of cryptography, Simon Singh included a series of 10 encoded messages, each from a different period of history. The first person to crack all 10 messages would win a prize of £10,000. Now that the prize has been won, Simon can reveal the story behind the Cipher Challenge. Along the way he will show how mathematics can be used to crack codes, the role it played in World War Two and how it helps to guarantee security in the Information Age.

  20. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of ion irradiated 304L stainless steel in PWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    IASCC is irradiation - assisted enhancement of intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel. It is a complex degrading phenomenon which can have a significant influence on maintenance time and cost of PWRs' core internals and hence, is an issue of concern. Recent studies have proposed using ion irradiation (to be specific, proton irradiation) as an alternative of neutron irradiation to improve the current understanding of the mechanism. The objective of this study was to investigate the cracking susceptibility of irradiated SA 304L and factors contributing to cracking, using two different ion irradiations; iron and proton irradiations. Both resulted in generation of point defects in the microstructure and thereby causing hardening of the SA 304L. Material (unirradiated and iron irradiated) showed no susceptibility to intergranular cracking on subjection to SSRT with a strain rate of 5 * 10 -8 s -1 up to 4 % plastic strain in inert environment. But, irradiation (iron and proton) was found to increase intergranular cracking severity of material on subjection to SSRT in simulated PWR primary water environment at 340 C. Correlation between the cracking susceptibility and degree of localization was studied. Impact of iron irradiation on bulk oxidation of SA 304L was studied as well by conducting an oxidation test for 360 h in simulated PWR environment at 340 C. The findings of this study indicate that the intergranular cracking of 304L stainless steel in PWR environment can be studied using Fe irradiation despite its small penetration depth in material. Furthermore, it has been shown that the cracking was similar in both iron and proton irradiated samples despite different degrees of localization. Lastly, on establishing iron irradiation as a successful tool, it was used to study the impact of surface finish and strain paths on intergranular cracking susceptibility of the material. (author) [fr

  1. Assessment of pressurized water reactor control rod drive mechanism nozzle cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report surveys the field experience related to cracking of pressurized water reactor (PWR) control rod drive mechanism nozzles (Alloy 600 material); evaluates design, fabrication, and operating conditions for the nozzles in US PWR; and evaluates the safety significance of nozzle cracking. Inspection at 78 overseas and one US PWR has revealed mainly axial cracks in 101 nozzles. The cracking is caused by primary water stress corrosion cracking, which requires the simultaneous presence of high tensile stresses, high operating temperatures, and susceptible microstructure. CRDM nozzle cracking is not a short-term safety issue. An axial crack is not likely to grow above the vessel head to a critical length because the stresses are not high enough to support the growth away from the attachment weld. Primary coolant leaking through an axial crack could cause a short circumferential crack on the outside surface. However, this crack is not likely to propagate through the nozzle wall to cause rupture. Leakage of the primary coolant from a through-wall crack could cause boric acid corrosion of the vessel head and challenge the structural integrity of the head, but it is very unlikely that the accumulated deposits of boric acid crystals resulting from such leakage could remain undetected

  2. Microstructural modelling of creep crack growth from a blunted crack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.; Giessen, E. van der

    1998-01-01

    The effect of crack tip blunting on the initial stages of creep crack growth is investigated by means of a planar microstructural model in which grains are represented discretely. The actual linking-up process of discrete microcracks with the macroscopic crack is simulated, with full account of the

  3. Linear Cracking in Bridge Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Concrete cracking in bridge decks remains an important issue relative to deck durability. Cracks can allow increased penetration of chlorides, which can result in premature corrosion of the reinforcing steel and subsequent spalling of the concrete de...

  4. Crack detection '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The participants of the conference heard 36 papers of which 13 were incorporated in INIS. The incorporated papers deal with the quality control of the equipment of nuclear power plants, with technical specifications and possibilities of diverse crack detection devices, as well as with personnel training for nondestructive materials testing. (E.S.)

  5. Rapid solidification growth mode transitions in Al-Si alloys by dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, John D.; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Gibbs, John W.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Mertens, James C.E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Clarke, Amy J.; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    In situ dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) imaging of Al-Si thin-film alloys was performed to investigate rapid solidification behavior. Solidification of alloys with compositions from 1 to 15 atomic percent Si was imaged during pulsed laser melting and subsequent solidification. Solely α-Al solidification was observed in Al-1Si and Al-3Si alloys, and solely kinetically modified eutectic growth was observed in Al-6Si and Al-9Si alloys. A transition in the solidification mode in eutectic and hypereutectic alloys (Al-12Si and Al-15Si) from nucleated α-Al dendrites at lower solidification velocities to planar eutectic growth at higher solidification velocities was observed, departing from trends previously seen in laser-track melting experiments. Comparisons of the growth modes and corresponding velocities are compared with previous solidification models, and implications regarding the models are discussed.

  6. In-vitro characterization of stress corrosion cracking of aluminium-free magnesium alloys for temporary bio-implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Singh Raman, R K; Hofstetter, Joelle; Uggowitzer, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    The complex interaction between physiological stresses and corrosive human body fluid may cause premature failure of metallic biomaterials due to the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking. In this study, the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of biodegradable and aluminium-free magnesium alloys ZX50, WZ21 and WE43 was investigated by slow strain rate tensile testing in a simulated human body fluid. Slow strain rate tensile testing results indicated that each alloy was susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, and this was confirmed by fractographic features of transgranular and/or intergranular cracking. However, the variation in alloy susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking is explained on the basis of their electrochemical and microstructural characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stabilization/Solidification Remediation Method for Contaminated Soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, S. A. A.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Nabila, A. T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) is typically a process that involves a mixing of waste with binders to reduce the volume of contaminant leachability by means of physical and chemical characteristics to convert waste in the environment that goes to landfill or others possibly channels. Stabilization is attempts to reduce the solubility or chemical reactivity of the waste by changing the physical and chemical properties. While, solidification attempt to convert the waste into easily handled solids with low hazardous level. These two processes are often discussed together since they have a similar purpose of improvement than containment of potential pollutants in treated wastes. The primary objective of this review is to investigate the materials used as a binder in Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) method as well as the ability of these binders to remediate the contaminated soils especially by heavy metals.

  8. Linear Stability of Binary Alloy Solidification for Unsteady Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the Mullins and Sekerka (MS) linear stability analysis to the unsteady growth rate case is considered for dilute binary alloys. In particular, the stability of the planar interface during the initial solidification transient is studied in detail numerically. The rapid solidification case, when the system is traversing through the unstable region defined by the MS criterion, has also been treated. It has been observed that the onset of instability is quite accurately defined by the "quasi-stationary MS criterion", when the growth rate and other process parameters are taken as constants at a particular time of the growth process. A singular behavior of the governing equations for the perturbed quantities at the constitutional supercooling demarcation line has been observed. However, when the solidification process, during its transient, crosses this demarcation line, a planar interface is stable according to the linear analysis performed.

  9. Matemathical description of solidification cooling curves of pure metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Müller

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of an "incubation time" to the Schwarz classical mathematical description of metals solidification, resulted in a new model called Modified Schwarz Model. By doing so it was possible to identify and quantify the "delay time" that separates the two heat waves traveling independently in a casting during the solidification: the Supercooled / Superheated Liquid and the Solid / Liquid. The thermal shock produced in the initial stage of the undercooling generation process, can be used as an important parameter in the forecasting of the solidification's behavior of pure metals and alloys, when changing mold's materials, pouring and ambient temperatures. The hypercooling proneness degree of metals and alloys, can also be calculated.

  10. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  11. Crack closure, a literature study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, M.

    1993-08-01

    In this report crack closure is treated. The state of the art is reviewed. Different empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other, and their benefits are discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are discussed, and some results from fatigue tests are also reported. Experimental data from the literature are reported.

  12. Microstructural investigation of D2 tool steel during rapid solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshad Khatibi, Pooya

    Solidification is considered as a key processing step in developing the microstructure of most metallic materials. It is, therefore, important that the solidification process can be designed and controlled in such a way so as to obtain the desirable properties in the final product. Rapid solidification refers to the system's high undercooling and high cooling rate, which can yield a microstructure with unique chemical composition and mechanical properties. An area of interest in rapid solidification application is high-chromium, high-carbon tool steels which experience considerable segregation of alloying elements during their solidification in a casting process. In this dissertation, the effect of rapid solidification (undercooling and cooling rate) of D2 tool steel on the microstructure and carbide precipitation during annealing was explored. A methodology is described to estimate the eutectic and primary phase undercooling of solidifying droplets. The estimate of primary phase undercooling was confirmed using an online measurement device that measured the radiation energy of the droplets. The results showed that with increasing primary phase and eutectic undercooling and higher cooling rate, the amount of supersaturation of alloying element in metastable retained austenite phase also increases. In the case of powders, the optimum hardness after heat treatment is achieved at different temperatures for constant periods of time. Higher supersaturation of austenite results in obtaining secondary hardness at higher annealing temperature. D2 steel ingots generated using spray deposition have high eutectic undercooling and, as a result, high supersaturation of alloying elements. This can yield near net shape D2 tool steel components with good mechanical properties (specifically hardness). The data developed in this work would assist in better understanding and development of near net shape D2 steel spray deposit products with good mechanical properties.

  13. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  14. Environmentally assisted cracking behaviour of copper in simulated ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Ehrnsten, U.; Saario, T.

    1996-05-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behaviour of pure oxygen free copper in simulated ground water with additions of sodium nitrite was studied. Low frequency corrosion fatigue tests with high positive load ratio values under crosshead speed control were performed using precracked diskshaped compact specimens C(T). The load ratio values were about 0.9 and the frequencies were between 0.0008 and 0.0017 Hz. Tests were performed under electrochemical potential control in an autoclave at room temperature and at 80 deg C. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of repository environment on environmentally assisted cracking susceptibility of pure copper. (5 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.)

  15. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  16. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  17. Solidification of radioactive waste in a cement/lime mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a cement/lime mixture for use as a solidification agent for different types of wastes was investigated. This work includes studies directed towards determining the wasted/binder compositional field over which successful solidification occurs with various wastes and the measurement of some of the waste from properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment. In this study, four types of low-level radioactive wastes were simulated for incorporation into a cement/lime mixture. These were boric acid waste, sodium sulfate wastes, aion exchange resins and incinerator ash. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  18. Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Mathis

    2007-05-01

    The phase-field method has become the method of choice for simulating microstructural pattern formation during solidification. One of its main advantages is that time-dependent three-dimensional simulations become feasible, which makes it possible to address long-standing questions of pattern stability and pattern selection. Here, a brief introduction to the phase-field model and its implementation is given, and its capabilities are illustrated by examples taken from the directional solidification of binary alloys. In particular, the morphological stability of hexagonal cellular arrays and of eutectic lamellar patterns is investigated.

  19. Solidification processing of intermetallic Nb-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston P.; Oliver, Ben F.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    Several Nb-Al alloys, including single-phase NbAl3 and the eutectic of Nb2Al and NbAl3, were prepared either by nonconsumable arc melting in Ar or by zone processing in He following initial induction melting and rod casting, and the effect of the solidification route on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys was investigated. Automated control procedures and melt conditions for directional solidification of NbAl3 and the Nb2Al/Nb3Al eutectic were developed; high purity and stoichiometry were obtained. The effects of ternary additions of Ti and Ni are described.

  20. Some techniques for the solidification of radioactive wastes in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Neilson, R. Jr.

    1976-06-01

    Some techniques for the solidification of radioactive wastes in concrete are discussed. The sources, storage, volume reduction, and solidification of liquid wastes at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using the cement-vermiculite process is described. Solid waste treatment, shipping containers, and off-site shipments of solid wastes at BNL are also considered. The properties of low-heat-generating, high-level wastes, simulating those in storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), solidified in concrete were determined. Polymer impregnation was found to further decrease the leachability and improve the durability of these concrete waste forms

  1. Solidification observations and sliding wear behavior of vacuum arc melting processed Ni–Al–TiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantzalis, A.E.; Lekatou, A.; Tsirka, K.

    2012-01-01

    Monolithic Ni 3 Al and Ni–25 at.%Al intermetallic matrix TiC-reinforced composites were successfully produced by vacuum arc melting. TiC crystals were formed through a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism and their final morphology is explained by means of a) Jackson's classical nucleation and growth phenomena and b) solidification rate considerations. The TiC presence altered the matrix microconstituents most likely due to specific melt–particle interactions and crystal plane epitaxial matching. TiC particles caused a significant decrease on the specific wear rate of the monolithic Ni 3 Al alloy and the possible wear mechanisms are approached by means of a) surface oxidation, b) crack/flaws formation, c) material detachment and d) debris–counter surfaces interactions. - Highlights: ► Vacuum arc melting (VAM) of Ni-Al based intermetallic matrix composite materials. ► Solidification phenomena examination. ► TiC crystal formation and growth mechanisms. ► Sliding wear examination.

  2. Welding hot cracking in an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrouault, N.

    2001-01-01

    validated, the thermomechanical simulation brings new interpretations of the tests observations and instrumentation results. The comparison of experimental and numerical results make it possible to determine a thermomechanical welding hot cracking criterion during solidification. This criterion simultaneously considers mechanical (strain and strain rates threshold) and thermal (temperature range, thermal gradient) parameters which give the position and orientation of the first crack initiation. The criterion precision are in good agreement with the observations on the two considered weldability tests. (author)

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4 in non-aqueous iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Sanchez, Andrea V.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the susceptibility to intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4 in different iodine alcoholic solutions was studied. The influence of different variables such as the molecular weight of the alcohols, the water content of the solutions, the alcohol type (primary, secondary or tertiary) and the temperature was evaluated. To determine the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking the slow strain rate technique was used. Specimens of Zircaloy-4 were also exposed between 0.5 and 300 hours to the solutions without applied stress to evaluate the susceptibility to intergranular attack. The electrochemical behavior of the material in the corrosive media was studied by potentiodynamic polarization tests. It was determined that the active species responsible for the stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy-4 in iodine alcoholic solutions is a molecular complex between the alcohol and iodine. The intergranular attack precedes the 'true' stress corrosion cracking phenomenon (which is associated to the transgranular propagation of the crack) and it is controlled by the diffusion of the active specie to the tip of the crack. Water acts as inhibitor to intergranular attack. Except for methanolic solutions, the minimum water content necessary to inhibit stress corrosion cracking was determined. This critical water content decreases when increasing the molecular weight of the alcohol. An explanation for this behavior is proposed. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking also depends on the type of the alcohol used as solvent. The temperature dependence of the crack propagation rate is in agreement with a thermal activated process, and the activation energy is consistent with a process controlled by the volume diffusion of the active species. (author) [es

  4. Choked flow through cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feburie, V.; Giot, M.; Granger, S.; Seynhaeve, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The leaks through steam-generator cracks are the subject of a research carried out in cooperation between EDF and UCL. A software called ECREVISSE to predict the mass flow rate has been developed and has been successfully validated. The purpose of the paper is to present the mathematical model used in ECREVISSE as well as some comparison between the results and the presently available data. The model takes into account the persistence of some metastable liquid in the crack and the special flow pattern which appears in such particular geometry. Although the model involves the use of several correlations (friction, heat transfer), no adjustment of parameters against the data has been needed, neither in the single-phase part of the flow, or in the two-phase part. (authors). 8 figs., 1 tab., 20 refs

  5. Delayed hydride cracking: alternative pre-cracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, Juan I.; Ponzoni, Lucio M.E.; Vigna, Gustavo L.; Domizzi, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    The internal components of nuclear reactors built-in Zr alloys are prone to a failure mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC). This situation has triggered numerous scientific studies in order to measure the crack propagation velocity and the threshold stress intensity factor associated to DHC. Tests are carried out on fatigued pre-crack samples to ensure similar test conditions and comparable results. Due to difficulties in implementing the fatigue pre-crack method it would be desirable to replace it with a pre-crack produced by the same process of DHC, for which is necessary to demonstrate equivalence of this two methods. In this work tests on samples extracted from two Zr-2.5 Nb tubes were conducted. Some of the samples were heat treated to obtain a range in their metallurgical properties as well as different DHC velocities. A comparison between velocities measured in test samples pre-cracked by fatigue and RDIH is done, demonstrating that the pre-cracking method does not affect the measured velocity value. In addition, the incubation (t inc ), which is the time between the application of the load and the first signal of crack propagation, in samples pre-cracked by RDIH, was measured. It was found that these times are sufficiently short, even in the worst cases (lower speed) and similar to the ones of fatigued pre-cracked samples. (author)

  6. Fatigue Crack Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    alloys (2). [--I Fig. 6. Fatigue fracture in Nitrile- butadien rubber ( NBR ). Fig. 7. The characteristic features of fatigue fracture in press moulded...in plastics and even in rubber . It follows therefore, that fatigue fractures must also occur in the mineral layers of our earth or in the rock on...effective until the weakest point yields and forms a crack. To get a feeling for this process, you can imagine that the stressed article is made of rubber

  7. Distributed password cracking

    OpenAIRE

    Crumpacker, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Password cracking requires significant processing power, which in today's world is located at a workstation or home in the form of a desktop computer. Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is the conduit to this significant source of processing power and John the Ripper is the key. BOINC is a distributed data processing system that incorporates client-server relationships to generically process data. The BOINC structu...

  8. Utopia Cracks and Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-339, 23 April 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a pattern of polygonal cracks and aligned, elliptical pits in western Utopia Planitia. The picture covers an area about 3 km (about 1.9 mi) wide near 44.9oN, 274.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  9. Feasibility study of solidification for low-level liquid waste generated by sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    We studied cement-like solidification process for low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete of the planned repository, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of the pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Therefore, the present solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO 4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH) 2 ·8H 2 O to the liquid waste. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid waste containing BaSO 4 precipitate. We show the range of appropriate Ba/SO 4 molar ratio is from 1.1 to 1.5 in the present solidification process by leaching tests for some kinds of solid waste samples. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% at a typical CIS condition, i.e. Ba/SO 4 molar ratio=1.3, reaction temperature=60 deg C, and time=3 hr. (author)

  10. Feasibility study of solidification for low-level liquid waste generated by sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity is generated by the sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin used in water purification systems of nuclear power plants. We studied cement-like solidification process for this type waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Our solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO 4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH) 2 ·8H 2 O to the liquid waste when the Ba/SO 4 molar ratio > 1. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid wastes containing Ba S O 4 precipitate. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% and the pH of pore water of the solid waste is 11.5 or less. Therefore, we think that our solidification process is one of the best methods for treating liquid waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. (author)

  11. Cracking hydrocarbons. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1926-05-06

    The vapors from a still in which oils, coal tar, pitch, creosote, and c. or solid carbonaccous material such as coal or shale are cracked by being heated to 600/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C. are passed through a fractionating column to remove high-boiling constituents which are passed into a second cracking still. The vapors from this still are treated to separate high-boiling fractions which are passed into a third still. The sills preferably contain removable troughs or liners, which are freed from carbon deposits either after removal from the still or by a scraping disc which is rotated in and moved along the trough. Oil to be cracked is forced by a pump through a preheater to a still. Vapours pass through a carbon separator and dephlegmator to a condenser. The reflux from the dephlegmator is forced by a pump to a still, the vapors from which pass through a carbon separator and a dephlegmator, the reflux from which is passed into a third still fitted with a separate carbon separator, dephlegmator and final condenser.

  12. Zircaloy-4 stress corrosion by iodine: crack kinetics and influence of irradiation on the crack initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, A.

    2008-01-01

    During the PWR power transients, iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) is one of the potential failure modes of Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings under Pellet-Cladding Interaction conditions. The primary objective of this study is to distinguish the parameters that contribute to the I-SCC phenomenon in iodized methanol solutions at ambient temperature, on notched tensile specimens, using crack growth rate measurements provided by Direct Current Potential Drop. The results show that for a KI lower than 20 MPa.m 1/2 , the IG and mixed IG/TG velocity of propagation is a linear function of KI, regardless of the propagation mode. Between 20 and 25 MPa.m 1/2 , the TG crack growth rate also depends linearly on KI, but increases at a faster rate with respect to KI than during the IG and mixed IG/TG propagation steps. The crack propagation direction and plane (LT and TL) have an impact on the propagation modes, but no impact on the kinetics. The increase of iodine content induces an increase of the crack growth rate for a given KI, and a decrease of the KI, threshold, allowing the crack propagation. This work enables us to quantify the effect of iodine content and of KI on the crack propagation step, propose a propagation law taking into accounts these parameters, and improve the I-SCC description for models. During operation, a zirconium cladding is neutron-irradiated, modifying its microstructure and deformation modes. The second objective of the study is therefore to investigate the impact of these modifications on I-SCC. For that purpose, smooth specimens in recrystallized Zircaloy-4 are proton-irradiated to 2 dpa at 305 C, the microstructure and deformation modes of unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloy-4 are characterized by TEM and SEM, and the influence of these radiation-induced modifications on the I-SCC susceptibility is studied. The Laves phases precipitates are slightly modified by irradiation. The formation of P -type dislocation loops correlated with

  13. Rapid solidification for preparation of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    High Tc superconducting oxides are prepared in two different ways using rapid solidification: by oxidation of microcrystalline or amorphous tapes obtained by quenching the liquid alloy and via crystallisation of the amorphous oxide obtained by rapid quenching of the oxide melt. This technique is applied for the first time to the BiCaSrCuO family [fr

  14. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended.

  15. Solidification technique of radioactive elements. Research using zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Susumu; Ito, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Proton type zirconium phosphates HZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , NASICON type three-dimensional net work structure, is used for solidification of Cs in the high level radioactive waste. Two kinds of solidification methods such as the dry method and autoclave method are explained. Cs ion entered into 0.6nm space of HZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , and formed ionic bonding, which made the difficult situation to remove. When mixture of HZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and 23 kinds of M(NO 3 )n (M= Li, Na, K, Pb, Sr, Bi, Y, Mg, Ca, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, La, Ce, Tl, and Pb; n=1,2 or 3) was treated at 400-700degC by dry method, solidification of the subject metals was succeeded. Amount of solidification of Cs by autoclave at 250degC is almost same as the dry method and its leachability resistance increased 40 times than that of dry method after heat treatment in atmosphere at 700degC. (S.Y.)

  16. Overview of the Tusas Code for Simulation of Dendritic Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, Amelia J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Newman, Christopher Kyle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The aim of this project is to conduct a parametric investigation into the modeling of two dimensional dendrite solidification, using the phase field model. Specifically, we use the Tusas code, which is for coupled heat and phase-field simulation of dendritic solidification. Dendritic solidification, which may occur in the presence of an unstable solidification interface, results in treelike microstructures that often grow perpendicular to the rest of the growth front. The interface may become unstable if the enthalpy of the solid material is less than that of the liquid material, or if the solute is less soluble in solid than it is in liquid, potentially causing a partition [1]. A key motivation behind this research is that a broadened understanding of phase-field formulation and microstructural developments can be utilized for macroscopic simulations of phase change. This may be directly implemented as a part of the Telluride project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), through which a computational additive manufacturing simulation tool is being developed, ultimately to become part of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program within the U.S. Department of Energy [2].

  17. Particle Trapping and Banding in Rapid Colloidal Solidification

    KAUST Repository

    Elliott, J. A. W.

    2011-10-11

    We derive an expression for the nonequilibrium segregation coefficient of colloidal particles near a moving solid-liquid interface. The resulting kinetic phase diagram has applications for the rapid solidification of clay soils, gels, and related colloidal systems. We use it to explain the formation of bandlike defects in rapidly solidified alumina suspensions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. Solidification of Waste Steel Foudry Dust with Portland Cement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvára, F.; Kaštánek, František; Pavelková, I.; Šolcová, Olga; Maléterová, Ywetta; Schneider, Petr

    B89, č. 1 (2001), s. 67-81 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/99/0440 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:MSM 223100002 Keywords : solidification, * foundry dust * cement Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.497, year: 2001

  19. Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings | Opete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings. SEO Opete, IA Mangibo, ET Iyagba. Abstract. In the Nigerian oil and gas industry, large quantities of oily and synthetic drill cuttings are produced annually. These drill cuttings are heterogeneous wastes which comprises of hydrocarbons, heavy metals and ...

  20. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  1. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended

  2. Origin of grain orientation during solidification of an aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, H.L.; Elmer, J.W.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of grain morphology during solidification of a moving aluminum alloy pool is simulated by considering heat transfer, flow of liquid metal in the molten pool and solidification parameters. The computationally efficient model consists of a 3D coupled heat transfer and fluid flow simulation to predict the molten pool shape and temperature field, and a 2D model of grain formation in the molten pool. The results demonstrate that columnar grains grow in a curved pattern rather than along straight lines from the fusion boundary towards the center of the molten pool. The calculated results are validated with independent experimental data. The computed ratio of local temperature gradient to solidification rate, G/R, is used to model the columnar to equiaxed transition during solidification. The simulated results show that only curved columnar grains are formed when the scanning speed is low (2.0 mm/s). In contrast, a transition from curved columnar to equiaxed morphologies occurs at the higher scanning speeds of 8.0 mm/s and 11.5 mm/s, with higher equiaxed grain fraction at higher speed. The similarities between the physical processes governing fusion welding and additive manufacturing (AM) make the model capable of predicting grain orientation in both processes.

  3. Decontamination impacts on solidification and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; Soo, P.

    1988-01-01

    Research to determine chemical and physical conditions which could lead to thermal excursions, gas generation, and/or general degradation of decontamination-reagent-loaded resins has shown that IRN-78, IONAC A-365, and IRN-77 organic ion exchange resin moisture contents vary significantly depending on the counter ion ''loading.'' The extent/vigor of the reaction is very highly dependent on the degree of dewatering of the resins and on the method of solution addition. The heat generation may be due, in part, to the heat of neutralization. In studies of the long-term compatibility effects of decontamination waste resins in contact with waste package container materials in the presence of decontamination reagents, radiolysis products and gamma irradiation, it has been found that the corrosion of carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel in mixed bed resins is enhanced by gamma irradiation. However, cracking in high density polyethylene is essentially eliminated because of the rapid removal of oxygen from the environment by gamma-induced oxidation of the large resin mass. 13 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  5. Investigation of Cracks Found in Helicopter Longerons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurigical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  6. Modified Dugdale crack models - some easy crack relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    the same strength as a plain Dugdale model. The critical energy release rates Gamma_CR, however, become different. Expressions (with easy computer algorithms) are presented in the paper which relate critical energy release rates and crack geometry to arbitrary cohesive stress distributions.For future...... lifetime analysis of viscoelastic materials strain energy release rates, crack geometries, and cohesive stress distributions are considered as related to sub-critical loads sigma stress-deformation tests......The Dugdale crack model is widely used in materials science to predict strength of defective (cracked) materials. A stable Dugdale crack in an elasto-plastic material is prevented from spreading by uniformly distributed cohesive stresses acting in narrow areas at the crack tips. These stresses...

  7. Crack coke in layer heat transfer analysis; Kiretsu no shinten wo tomonau kokusu sonai dennetsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hideyuki [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    The research method heat transfer process by physical change of the coke by heat transfer from furnace wall in the retorting of coal seam filled in coke oven and flow of the gas is very complicated chamber oven style, and it does not become clear. For the purpose of the elucidation of in layer crack generation and progress mechanism, he is (1) The expansion of the softening cohesive layer. (2) Programming rate dependence of the heat. Mechanical property value on coal seam and semi- coke layer in the retorting. (3) The creep property of softening cohesive layer and semi- coke layer. (4) The setting of crack growth condition of stress intensity factor in crack tip and fracture property value of the coke by the comparison. (5) By considering the radiative heat transfer in the crack, coke in layer thermal stress analysis was carried out. The validity of these analytical result it was confirmed by the comparison with the experimental result of crack growth. Deformation behavior in the small dry distillation furnace, and crack growth mechanism in the coke layer became clear, and the prediction of the stress as micro-crack cause of generation of heating surface side coke surface and inside became possible. The numerical analysis method of the above crack growth mechanism greatly contributes to the prediction of dry distillation heating requirement and grain size of coke lump which is an index to the coke quality. Heat on material process which is accompanied by the solidification. Contraction from the softening and material migration phenomenon have been clarified by the creative research method, while this research is directly useful for energy saving of pig ironmaking process of becoming one of the ringleaders of the CO{sub 2} generation. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Xin, R.C.; Liu, Y.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Several high-temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to support these processes. This research project involves an experimental investigation of the melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal and the development of an efficient separation technology. The ultimate goal of this project is to find an efficient way to separate the slag phase from the metal phase in the molten state. This two-year project commenced in October 1995 (FY96). In the first fiscal year, the following tasks were accomplished: (1) A literature review and an assessment of the baseline glass and metal separation technologies were performed. The results indicated that the baseline technology yields a high percentage of glass in the metal phase, requiring further separation. (2) The main melting and solidification system setup was established. A number of melting and solidification tests were conducted. (3) Temperature distribution, solidification patterns, and flow field in the molten metal pool were simulated numerically for the solidification processes of molten aluminum and iron steel. (4) Initial designs of the laboratory-scale DCS and CS technologies were also completed. The principal demonstration separation units were constructed. (5) An application for a patent for an innovative liquid-liquid separation technology was submitted and is pending

  9. Finite-element solidification modelling of metals and binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, P.M.

    1986-12-01

    In the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, cast metals and alloys are being evaluated for their ability to support a metallic fuel waste container shell under disposal vault conditions and to determine their performance as an additional barrier to radionuclide release. These materials would be cast to fill residual free space inside the container and allowed to solidify without major voids. To model their solidification characteristics following casting, a finite-element model, FAXMOD-3, was adopted. Input parameters were modified to account for the latent heat of fusion of the metals and alloys considered. This report describes the development of the solidification model and its theoretical verification. To model the solidification of pure metals and alloys that melt at a distinct temperature, the latent heat of fusion was incorporated as a double-ramp function in the specific heat-temperature relationship, within an interval of +- 1 K around the solidification temperature. Comparison of calculated results for lead, tin and lead-tin eutectic melts, unidirectionally cooled with and without superheat, showed good agreement with an alternative technique called the integral profile method. To model the solidification of alloys that melt over a temperature interval, the fraction of solid in the solid-liquid region, as calculated from the Scheil equation, was used to determine the fraction of latent heat to be liberated over a temperature interval within the solid-liquid zone. Comparison of calculated results for unidirectionally cooled aluminum-4 wt.% copper melt, with and without superheat, showed good agreement with alternative finite-difference techniques

  10. Crack retardation by load reduction during fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture life and crack retardation behavior were examined experimentally using CT specimens of aluminum alloy 5083. Crack retardation life and fracture life were a wide difference between 0.8 and 0.6 in proportion to ratio of load reduction. The wheeler model retardation parameter was used successfully to predict crack growth behavior. By using a crack propagation rule, prediction of fracture life can be evaluated quantitatively. A statistical approach based on Weibull distribution was applied to the test data to evaluate the dispersion in the retardation life and fracture life by the change of load reduction

  11. Ductile crack growth simulation from near crack tip dissipated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Chapuliot, S.

    2000-01-01

    A method to calculate ductile tearing in both small scale fracture mechanics specimens and cracked components is presented. This method is based on an estimation of the dissipated energy calculated near the crack tip. Firstly, the method is presented. It is shown that a characteristic parameter G fr can be obtained, relevant to the dissipated energy in the fracture process. The application of the method to the calculation of side grooved crack tip (CT) specimens of different sizes is examined. The value of G fr is identified by comparing the calculated and experimental load line displacement versus crack extension curve for the smallest CT specimen. With this identified value, it is possible to calculate the global behaviour of the largest specimen. The method is then applied to the calculation of a pipe containing a through-wall thickness crack subjected to a bending moment. This pipe is made of the same material as the CT specimens. It is shown that it is possible to simulate the global behaviour of the structure including the prediction of up to 90-mm crack extension. Local terms such as the equivalent stress or the crack tip opening angle are found to be constant during the crack extension process. This supports the view that G fr controls the fields in the vicinity near the crack tip. (orig.)

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiya, P.S.; Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.

    1989-09-01

    Types 304L and 316L stainless steel (SS), Incoloy 825, Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7%Al have been selected as candidate materials for the containment of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. The susceptibility of these materials to stress corrosion cracking has been investigated by slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in water which simulates that from well J-13 (J-13 water) and is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site. The SSRTs were performed on specimens exposed to simulated J-13 water at 93 degree C and at a strain rate 10 -7 s -1 under crevice conditions and at a strain rate of 10 -8 s -1 under both crevice and noncrevice conditions. All the tests were interrupted after nominal elongation strains of 1--4%. Examination by scanning electron microscopy showed some crack initiation in virtually all specimens. Optical microscopy of metallographically prepared transverse sections of Type 304L SS suggests that the crack depths are small (<10 μm). Preliminary results suggest that a lower strain rate increases the severity of cracking of Types 304L and 316L SS, Incoloy 825, and Cu but has virtually no effect on Cu-30%Ni and Cu-7%Al. Differences in susceptibility to cracking were evaluated in terms of a stress ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the increase in stress after local yielding in the environment to the corresponding stress increase in an identical test in air, both computed at the same strain. On the basis of this stress ratio, the ranking of materials in order of increasing resistance to cracking is: Types 304L SS < 316L SS < Incoloy 825 congruent Cu-30%Ni < Cu congruent Cu-7%Al. 9 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Cracking of anisotropic cylindrical polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardan, S.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    We study the appearance of cracking in charged anisotropic cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation. We investigate the existence of cracking in two different kinds of polytropes existing in the literature through two different assumptions: (a) local density perturbation with conformally flat condition, and (b) perturbing polytropic index, charge and anisotropy parameters. We conclude that cracking appears in both kinds of polytropes for a specific range of density and model parameters. (orig.)

  14. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, W.; Turnbull, A.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive Structural Integrity is a reference work which covers all activities involved in the assurance of structural integrity. It provides engineers and scientists with an unparalleled depth of knowledge in the disciplines involved. The new online Volume 11 is dedicated to the mechanical characteristics of materials. This paper contains the chapter 11.03 and is structured as follows: General aspects of SCC testing; Non-precracked specimens; Precracked specimens - the fracture mechanics approach to SCC; Crack growth measurement; Limitations of the LEFM approach to SCC; The use of SCC data; Guide to selection of mechanical scc test method

  16. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  17. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was, G. S.; Ampornrat, P.; Gupta, G.; Teysseyre, S.; West, E. A.; Allen, T. R.; Sridharan, K.; Tan, L.; Chen, Y.; Ren, X.; Pister, C.

    2007-09-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) has attracted increasing attention since SCW boiler power plants were implemented to increase the efficiency of fossil-based power plants. The SCW reactor (SCWR) design has been selected as one of the Generation IV reactor concepts because of its higher thermal efficiency and plant simplification as compared to current light water reactors (LWRs). Reactor operating conditions call for a core coolant temperature between 280 °C and 620 °C at a pressure of 25 MPa and maximum expected neutron damage levels to any replaceable or permanent core component of 15 dpa (thermal reactor design) and 100 dpa (fast reactor design). Irradiation-induced changes in microstructure (swelling, radiation-induced segregation (RIS), hardening, phase stability) and mechanical properties (strength, thermal and irradiation-induced creep, fatigue) are also major concerns. Throughout the core, corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and the effect of irradiation on these degradation modes are critical issues. This paper reviews the current understanding of the response of candidate materials for SCWR systems, focusing on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking response, and highlights the design trade-offs associated with certain alloy systems. Ferritic-martensitic steels generally have the best resistance to stress corrosion cracking, but suffer from the worst oxidation. Austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys have better oxidation resistance but are more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The promise of grain boundary engineering and surface modification in addressing corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance is discussed.

  18. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  19. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1999-12-31

    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  20. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  1. Crack closure and growth behavior of short fatigue cracks under random loading (part I : details of crack closure behavior)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Young; Song, Ji Ho

    2000-01-01

    Crack closure and growth behavior of physically short fatigue cracks under random loading are investigated by performing narrow-and wide-band random loading tests for various stress ratios. Artificially prepared two-dimensional, short through-thickness cracks are used. The closure behavior of short cracks under random loading is discussed, comparing with that of short cracks under constant-amplitude loading and also that of long cracks under random loading. Irrespective of random loading spectrum or block length, the crack opening load of short cracks is much lower under random loading than under constant-amplitude loading corresponding to the largest load cycle in a random load history, contrary to the behavior of long cracks that the crack opening load under random loading is nearly the same as or slightly higher than constant-amplitude results. This result indicates that the largest load cycle in a random load history has an effect to enhance crack opening of short cracks

  2. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the problem of describing the asymptotic fields around a slowly growing crack in a linearly viscoelastic material is considered. It is shown that for plane mixed mode problems the asymptotic fields must be described by 6 parameters: 2 stress intensity factors and 4 deformation...... intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  3. Corrosion fatigue cracking behavior of Inconel 690 (TT) in secondary water of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jun; Chen Luyao; Qiu Shaoyu; Chen Yong; Lin Zhenxia; Fu Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    Inconel 690 (TT) is one of the key materials for tubes of steam generators for pressurized water reactors, where it is susceptible to corrosion fatigue cracking. In this paper, the corrosion fatigue cracking behavior of Inconel 690 (TT) was investigated under small scale yielding conditions, in the simulated secondary water of pressurized water reactor. It was observed that the fatigue crack growth rate was accelerated by a maximum factor up to 3 in the simulated secondary water, comparing to that in room temperature air. In addition, it was found that the accelerating effect was influenced by out-of-plane cracking of corrosion fatigue cracks and also correlated with stress intensity factor range, maximum stress intensity factor and stress ratio. (authors)

  4. Anodic characteristics and stress corrosion cracking behavior of nickel rich alloys in bicarbonate and buffer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, Natalia S.; Giordano, Mabel C.; Ares, Alicia E.; Carranza, Ricardo M.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate which element in alloy C-22 may be responsible for the cracking susceptibility of the high nickel alloy. • Six nickel based alloys with different amount of Cr and Mo were selected for the electrochemical tests and response to SSRT. • Polarization tests showed that an anodic peak appear in the passive region in Cr containing alloys. • Cracking of Ni alloys in carbonate solutions seem to be a consequence of the instability of the passivating chromium oxide. • Alloys containing both Cr and Mo have the highest susceptibility. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate which alloying element in C-22 is responsible for the cracking susceptibility of the alloy in bicarbonate and two buffer solutions (tungstate and borate). Six nickel based alloys, with different amount of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) were tested using electrochemical methods and slow strain rate tests (SSRT) at 90 °C. All Cr containing alloys had transgranular cracking at high anodic potential; however, C-22 containing high Cr and high Mo was the most susceptible alloy to cracking. Bicarbonate was the most aggressive of three tested environments of similar pH.

  5. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  6. Oxidization and stress corrosion cracking initiation of austenitic alloys in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnamian, Y.; Li, M.; Luo, J.L.; Chen, W.X. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Zheng, W. [Materials Technology Laboratory, NRCan, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Guzonas, D.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This study determined the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of austenitic alloys in pure supercritical water. Austenitic stainless steels 310S, 316L, and Inconel 625 were tested as static capsule samples at 500{sup o}C for up to 5000 h. After that period, crack initiations were readily observed in all samples, signifying susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The microcracks in 316L stainless steel and Inconel 625 were almost intergranular, whereas transgranular microcrack initiation was observed in 310S stainless steel. (author)

  7. Computer assisted tomography for the non-destructive evaluation of hydrogen-induced cracking in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Sawicka, B.D.

    1986-06-01

    Computer assisted tomography (CAT) was used to assess hydrogen-induced cracking in steel exposed to an H 2 S-saturated ('sour') environment. In this case the environment was the NACE TM-02-84 test for susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking. The feasibility of using CAT in this application was shown in a previous paper. This study extends the application of CAT to a quantitative assessment of the cracking. Optimal parameters for CAT imaging in such an application are determined and the advantages of using CAT in comparison to traditional inspection methods are discussed

  8. Considering the edge-crack sensitivity of a hot-rolled steel in forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläsner, T.; Schneider, M.; Troitzsch, M.; Westhäuser, S.

    2016-11-01

    The formability of sheet metal materials is locally reduced by shear cutting operations, and as a result the risk of a crack during further processing is increased at the edge. Materials particularly susceptible to this are described as sensitive to edge-cracking. A procedure for quantitatively determining edge-crack sensitivity and for applying corresponding characteristic values has not been previously established. Below, two test methods and an approach for using the results in an extended forming limit diagram are presented. The producibility of a collar drawn test component as well as a chassis component is reevaluated using this extended forming limit diagram.

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Singh Raman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution.

  10. Mobile concrete solidification systems for power reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Bordas, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In late 1988 SGN received an order from Electricite de France (EDF) for the construction of a mobile concrete solidification system to process secondary system resins generated by the P'4 and N4 series PWR power plants in France. This order was placed in view of SGN's experience with low- and medium-level radioactive waste treatment and conditioning over a period of almost 20 years. In addition to the construction of fixed waste processing facilities using more conventional technologies, SGN has been involved in application of the mobile system concept to the bituminization process in the United States, which led to the construction and commissioning of two transportable systems in collaboration with its American licensee US Ecology. It has also conducted large-scale R ampersand D on LLW/MLW concrete solidification, particularly for ion exchange resins. 5 figs

  11. Remotely operated facility for in situ solidification of fissile uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Collins, E.D.; Patton, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    A heavily shielded, remotely operated facility, located within the Radiochemical processing Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been designed and is being operated to convert approx.1000 kg of fissile uranium (containing approx.75% 235 U, approx.10% 233 U, and approx.140 ppM 232 U) from a nitrate solution (130 g of uranium per L) to a solid oxide form. This project, the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Program (CEUSP), is being carried out in order to prepare a stable uranium form for longterm storage. This paper describes the solidification process selected, the equipment and facilities required, the experimental work performed to ensure successful operation, some problems that were solved, and the initial operations

  12. Study of plastic solidification process on solid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Weiguan; Zhang Yinsheng; Qian Wenju

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons between the plastic solidification conditions of incinerated ash and waste cation resin by using thermosetting plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE), and identified physico-chemical properties and irradiation resistance of solidified products were presented. These solidified products have passed through different tests as compression strength, leachability, durability, stability, permeability and irradiation resistance (10 6 Gy) etc. The result showed that the solidified products possessed stable properties and met the storage requirement. The waste tube of radioimmunoassay, being used as solidification medium to contain incinerated ash, had good mechanical properties and satisfactory volume reduction. This process may develop a new way for disposal solid radioactive waste by means of re-using waste

  13. Continuous Solidification of Immiscible Alloys and Microstructure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxiang; Zhao, Jiuzhou

    2018-05-01

    Immiscible alloys have aroused considerable interest in last few decades due to their excellent physical and mechanical characteristics as well as potential industrial applications. Up to date, plenty of researches have been carried out to investigate the solidification of immiscible alloys on the ground or in space and great progress has been made. It is demonstrated that the continuous solidification technique have great future in the manufacturing of immiscible alloys, it also indicates that the addition of surface active micro-alloying or inoculants for the nucleation of the minority phase droplets and proper application of external fields, e.g., static magnetic field, electric current, microgravity field, etc. may promote the formation of immiscible alloys with an expected microstructure. The objective of this article is to review the research work in this field.

  14. Fluid mechanics of directional solidification at reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide additional groundbased support for the flight experiment 'Casting and Solidification Technology' (CAST). This experiment is to be performed in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) scheduled to be flown on a space shuttle mission scheduled for 1992. In particular, we will provide data on the convective motion and freckle formation during directional solidification of NH4Cl from its aqueous solution at simulated parameter ranges equivalent to reducing the gravity from the sea-level value down to 0.1 g or lower. The secondary objectives of the proposed research are to examine the stability phenomena associated with the onset of freckles and the mechanisms for their subsequent growth and decline (to eventual demise of some) by state-of-the-art imaging techniques and to formulate mathematical models for the prediction of the observed phenomena.

  15. Glass-solidification method for high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kometani, Masayuki; Sasage, Ken-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    High level liquid wastes are removed with precipitates mainly comprising Mo and Zr, thereafter, the high level liquid wastes are mixed with a glass raw material comprising a composition having a B 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ratio of not less than 0.41, a ZnO/Li 2 O ratio of not less than 1.00, and an Al 2 O 3 /Li 2 O ratio of not less than 2.58, and they are melted and solidified into glass-solidification products. The liquid waste content in the glass-solidification products can be increased up to about 45% by using the glass raw material having such a predetermined composition. In addition, deposition of a yellow phase does not occur, and a leaching rate identical with that in a conventional case can be maintained. (T.M.)

  16. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  17. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes by solidification with cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Matsuura, Hiroyuki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To subject radioactive liquid wastes to a cement solidification treatment after heating and drying it by a thin film scrape-off drier to render it into the form of power, and then molding it into pellets for the treatment. Structure: Radioactive liquid wastes discharged from a nuclear power plant or nuclear reactor are supplied through a storage tank into a thin film scrape-off drier. In the drier, the radioactive liquid wastes are heated to separate the liquid, and the residue is taken out as dry powder from the scrape-off apparatus. The powder obtained in this way is molded into pellets of a desired form. These pellets are then packed in a drum can or similar container, into which cement paste is then poured for solidification. (Moriyama, K.)

  18. Solidification and performance of cement doped with phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Krishnan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Treating mixed hazardous wastes using the solidification/stabilization technology is becoming a critical element in waste management planning. The effect of phenol, a primary constituent in many hazardous wastes, on the setting and solidification process of Type I Portland cement was evaluated. The leachability of phenol from solidified cement matrix (TCLP test) and changes in mechanical properties were studied after curing times up to 28 days. The changes in cement hydration products due to phenol were studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder technique. Results show that phenol interferes with initial cement hydration by reducing the formation of calcium hydroxide and also reduces the compressive strength of cement. A simple model has been proposed to quantify the phenol leached from the cement matrix during the leachate test

  19. Solidification of radioactive wastes with inorganic binders (literature survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, G.; Koester, R.

    A survey is provided on solidification of radioactive waste solutions, sludges and tritium waste water through cement and other inorganic binders. A general survey of the possibilities described in the literature is followed by a somewhat more detailed description of the work carried on at four research establishments in the United States, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, supplemented by personal information. Additional sections describe the experiences with various types of cement and the possibilities for improvement of solidification products through preliminary fixation of the toxic nuclides (transformation into insoluble products or absorption); there is a further possibility of post-treatment through polymer impregnation. Finally, definition and determination of leachability are provided and some results compiled. 74 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  20. Modeling of solidification of MMC composites during gravity casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zagórski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with computer simulation of gravity casting of the metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramics (MMC into sand mold. The subject of our interest is aluminum matrix composite (AlMMC reinforced with ceramic particles i.e. silicon carbide SiC and glass carbon Cg. The created model describes the process taking into account solidification and its influence on the distribution of reinforcement particles. The computer calculation has been carried out in 2D system with the use of Navier-Stokes equations using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The Volume of Fluid approach (VOF and enthalpy method have been used to model the air-fluid free surface (and also volume fraction of particular continuous phases and the solidification of the cast, respectively.

  1. Techniques for the solidification of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the long-term management of the high-level wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is receiving world-wide attention. While the majority of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of commercial fuels are currently being stored in stainless-steel tanks, increasing effort is being devoted to developing technology for the conversion of these wastes into solids. A number of full-scale solidification facilities are expected to come into operation in the next decade. The object of this report is to survey and compare all the work currently in progress on the techniques available for the solidification of high-level wastes. It will examine the high-level liquid wastes arising from the various processes currently under development or in operation, the advantages and disadvantages of each process for different types and quantities of waste solutions, the stages of development, the scale-up potential and flexibility of the processes

  2. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Hwan Young; Kim, In Tae [and others

    1999-02-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs.

  3. Metastable and unstable cellular solidification of colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sylvain; Maire, Eric; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Lasalle, Audrey; Bogner, Agnès; Gauthier, Catherine; Leloup, Jérôme; Guizard, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Colloidal particles are often seen as big atoms that can be directly observed in real space. They are therefore becoming increasingly important as model systems to study processes of interest in condensed-matter physics such as melting, freezing and glass transitions. The solidification of colloidal suspensions has long been a puzzling phenomenon with many unexplained features. Here, we demonstrate and rationalize the existence of instability and metastability domains in cellular solidification of colloidal suspensions, by direct in situ high-resolution X-ray radiography and tomography observations. We explain such interface instabilities by a partial Brownian diffusion of the particles leading to constitutional supercooling situations. Processing under unstable conditions leads to localized and global kinetic instabilities of the solid/liquid interface, affecting the crystal morphology and particle redistribution behaviour.

  4. Numerical model for dendritic solidification of binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicelli, S. D.; Heinrich, J. C.; Poirier, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    A finite element model capable of simulating solidification of binary alloys and the formation of freckles is presented. It uses a single system of equations to deal with the all-liquid region, the dendritic region, and the all-solid region. The dendritic region is treated as an anisotropic porous medium. The algorithm uses the bilinear isoparametric element, with a penalty function approximation and a Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Numerical simulations are shown in which an NH4Cl-H2O mixture and a Pb-Sn alloy melt are cooled. The solidification process is followed in time. Instabilities in the process can be clearly observed and the final compositions obtained.

  5. Analysis of stress corrosion cracking in alloy 718 following commercial reactor exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Keith J., E-mail: leonardk@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stevens, Jacqueline N. [AREVA Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Alloy 718 is generally considered a highly corrosion-resistant material but can still be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The combination of factors leading to SCC susceptibility in the alloy is not always clear enough. In the present work, alloy 718 leaf spring (LS) materials that suffered stress corrosion damage during two 24-month cycles in pressurized water reactor service, operated to >45 MWd/mtU burn-up, was investigated. Compared to archival samples fabricated through the same processing conditions, little microstructural and property changes occurred in the material with in-service irradiation, contrary to high dose rate laboratory-based experiments reported in literature. Though the lack of delta phase formation along grain boundaries would suggest a more SCC resistant microstructure, grain boundary cracking in the material was extensive. Crack propagation routes were explored through focused ion beam milling of specimens near the crack tip for transmission electron microscopy as well as in polished plan view and cross-sectional samples for electron backscatter diffraction analysis. It has been shown in this study that cracks propagated mainly along random high-angle grain boundaries, with the material around cracks displaying a high local density of dislocations. The slip lines were produced through the local deformation of the leaf spring material above their yield strength. The cause for local SCC appears to be related to oxidation of both slip lines and grain boundaries, which under the high in-service stresses resulted in crack development in the material.

  6. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of dissolved metallurgical sulfides in pressure vessel and piping steels has been linked to Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC), a phenomenon observed in laboratory tests that results in fatigue crack growth rates as high as 100 times that in air. Previous experimental and analytical work based on diffusion as the mass transport process has shown that surface cracks that are initially clean of sulfides will not initiate EAC in most applications. This is because the average crack tip velocity would not be sufficiently high to expose enough metallurgical sulfides per unit time and produce the sulfide concentration required for EAC. However, there is a potential concern for the case of a relatively large embedded crack breaking through to the wetted surface. Such a crack would not be initially clean of sulfides, and EAC could initiate. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on two heats of an EAC susceptible, high-sulfur, low-alloy steel in 243 degrees C low-oxygen water to further study the phenomenon of EAC persistence at low crack tip velocities. A load cycle profile that incorporated a significant load dwell period at minimum load was used. In one experiment, the fatigue cycling history was such that relatively high crack tip velocities at the start of the experiment produced a persistent case of EAC even when crack tip velocities were later reduced to levels below the EAC initiation velocity. The other series of experiments used initial crack tip velocities that were much lower and probably more realistic. Air precracking of the compact tension specimens produced an initial inventory of undissolved sulfides on the crack flanks that directly simulates the array of sulfides expected from the breakthrough of an embedded crack. In all cases, results showed EAC ceased after several hundred hours of cycling

  7. Solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A panel on waste solidification was formed at the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to study the scientific and technological problems associated with the conversion of liquid and semiliquid high-level radioactive wastes into a stable form suitable for transportation and disposition. Conclusions reached and recommendations made are as follows. Many solid forms described in this report could meet standards as stringent as those currently applied to the handling, storage, and transportation of spent fuel assemblies. Solid waste forms should be selected only in the context of the total radioactive waste management system. Many solid forms are likely to be satisfactory for use in an appropriately designed system, The current United States policy of deferring the reprocessing of commercial reactor fuel provides additional time for R and D solidification technology for this class of wastes. Defense wastes which are relatively low in radioactivity and thermal power density can best be solidified by low-temperature processes. For solidification of fresh commercial wastes that are high in specific activity and thermal power density, the Panel recommends that, in addition to glass, the use of fully-crystalline ceramics and metal-matrix forms be actively considered. Preliminary analysis of the characteristics of spent fuel pins indicates that they may be eligible for consideration as a waste form. Because the differences in potential health hazards to the public resulting from the use of various solid form and disposal options are likely to be small, the Panel concludes that cost, reliability, and health hazards to operating personnel will be major considerations in choosing among the options that can meet safety requiremens. The Panel recommends that responsibility for all radioactive waste management operations (including solidification R and D) should be centralized

  8. Dynamics of liquid solidification thermal resistance of contact layer

    CERN Document Server

    Lipnicki, Zygmunt

    2017-01-01

    This monograph comprehensively describes phenomena of heat flow during phase change as well as the dynamics of liquid solidification, i.e. the development of a solidified layer. The book provides the reader with basic knowledge for practical designs, as well as with equations which describe processes of energy transformation. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of heat flow, but the book may also be beneficial for both practicing engineers and graduate students.

  9. Interface Pattern Selection Criterion for Cellular Structures in Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, R.; Tewari, S. N.; Kurtze, D.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to establish key scientific concepts that govern the selection of cellular and dendritic patterns during the directional solidification of alloys. We shall first address scientific concepts that are crucial in the selection of interface patterns. Next, the results of ground-based experimental studies in the Al-4.0 wt % Cu system will be described. Both experimental studies and theoretical calculations will be presented to establish the need for microgravity experiments.

  10. Remediation of SRS Basins by In Situ Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the late summer of 1998, the Savannah River Site began remediation of two radiologically contaminated basins using in situ stabilization. These two high-risk, unlined basins contain radiological contaminants, which potentially pose significant risks to human health and the environment. The selected remedy involves in situ stabilization/solidification of the contaminated wastes (basin and pipeline soils, pipelines, vegetation, and other debris) followed by installation of a low permeability soil cover

  11. Formation of Nitrogen Bubbles During Solidification of Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaiju; Wang, Bo; Xue, Fei; Liu, Shanshan; Huang, Junkai; Zhang, Jieyu

    2018-04-01

    The nucleation and growth of nitrogen bubbles for duplex stainless steels are of great significance for the formation mechanism of bubbles during solidification. In the current study, numerical method and theoretical analysis of formula derivation were used to study the formation of nitrogen bubbles during solidification. The critical sizes of the bubble for homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation at the solid-liquid interface during solidification were derived theoretically by the classical nucleation theory. The results show that the calculated values for the solubility of nitrogen in duplex stainless steel are in good agreement with the experimental values which are quoted by references: for example, when the temperature T = 1823 K and the nitrogen partial pressure P_{{N2 }} = 40P^{Θ} , the calculated value (0.8042 wt pct) for the solubility of Fe-12Cr alloy nitrogen in molten steel is close to the experimental value (0.780 wt pct). Moreover, the critical radii for homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation are identical during solidification. On the one hand, with the increasing temperature or the melt depth, the critical nucleation radius of bubbles at the solid-liquid interface increases, but the bubble growth rate decreases. On the other hand, with the decreasing initial content of nitrogen or the cooling rate, the critical nucleation radius of bubbles at the solid-liquid interface increases, but the bubble growth rate decreases. Furthermore, when the melt depth is greater than the critical depth, which is determined by the technological conditions, the change in the Gibbs free energy for the nucleation is not conducive enough to form new bubbles.

  12. Evaluation of SCC susceptibility of alloy 800 under CANDU SG secondary-side conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Lu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a coordinated program, AECL is developing a set of tools to aid with the prediction and management of steam generator performance. Although stress corrosion cracking (of Alloy 800) has not been detected in any operating steam generator, for life management it is necessary to develop mechanistic models to predict the conditions under which stress corrosion cracking is plausible. Therefore, constant extension rate tests were carried out for Alloy 800 under various steam generator crevice chemistry conditions at applied potentials. These tests were designed to evaluate the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 under CANDU( steam generator operating conditions. Based on the experimental results, the recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone for Alloy 800 determined by electrochemical polarization measurements was verified with the respect of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. The effects of lead contamination on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 tubing were also evaluated. The experimental results from constant extension rate tests obtained under applied potentials suggest that Alloy 800 has good performance inside much of a previously recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone determined by electrochemical analysis. Alloy 800 is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under normal CANDU steam generator operating conditions. However, Alloy 800 may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under near-neutral crevice chemistry conditions in the presence of oxidants. In addition, stress corrosion cracking susceptibility is increased by lead contamination. This observation suggests that the previously defined electrochemical corrosion potential limit under near-neutral crevice conditions could be modified to minimize stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 800. The test results from this work also suggest that the pH dependency of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800

  13. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  14. Crack tip stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, D.

    1975-01-01

    The study of potential energy variations in a loaded elastic solid containing a crack leads to determination of the crack driving force G. Generalization of this concept to cases other than linear elasticity leads to definition of the integral J. In a linear solid, the crack tip stress field is characterized by a single parameter: the stress-intensity factor K. When the crack tip plastic zone size is confined to the elastic singularity J=G, it is possible to establish relationship between these parameters and plastic strain (and in particular the crack tip opening displacement delta). The stress increases because of the triaxiality effect. This overload rises with increasing strain hardening. When the plastic zone size expands, using certain hypotheses, delta can be calculated. The plastic strain intensity is exclusively dependent on parameter J [fr

  15. Improved cement solidification of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Cementation was the first and is still the most widely applied technique for the conditioning of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Compared with other solidification techniques, cementation is relatively simple and inexpensive. However, the quality of the final cemented waste forms depends very much on the composition of the waste and the type of cement used. Different kinds of cement are used for different kinds of waste and the compatibility of a specific waste with a specific cement type should always be carefully evaluated. Cementation technology is continuously being developed in order to improve the characteristics of cemented waste in accordance with the increasing requirements for quality of the final solidified waste. Various kinds of additives and chemicals are used to improve the cemented waste forms in order to meet all safety requirements. This report is meant mainly for engineers and designers, to provide an explanation of the chemistry of cementation systems and to facilitate the choice of solidification agents and processing equipment. It reviews recent developments in cementation technology for improving the quality of cemented waste forms and provides a brief description of the various cement solidification processes in use. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Non-Equilibrium Solidification of Undercooled Metallic Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter M. Herlach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If a liquid is undercooled below its equilibrium melting temperature an excess Gibbs free energy is created. This gives access to solidification of metastable solids under non-equilibrium conditions. In the present work, techniques of containerless processing are applied. Electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation enable to freely suspend a liquid drop of a few millimeters in diameter. Heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely avoided leading to large undercoolings. The freely suspended drop is accessible for direct observation of rapid solidification under conditions far away from equilibrium by applying proper diagnostic means. Nucleation of metastable crystalline phases is monitored by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation during non-equilibrium solidification. While nucleation preselects the crystallographic phase, subsequent crystal growth controls the microstructure evolution. Metastable microstructures are obtained from deeply undercooled melts as supersaturated solid solutions, disordered superlattice structures of intermetallics. Nucleation and crystal growth take place by heat and mass transport. Comparative experiments in reduced gravity allow for investigations on how forced convection can be used to alter the transport processes and design materials by using undercooling and convection as process parameters.

  17. Solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel filler metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Goodwin, G.M.; Braski, D.N.

    1980-02-01

    Thermal analysis and interrupted solidification experiments on selected austenitic stainless steel filler metals provided an understanding of the solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel welds. The sequences of phase separations found were for type 308 stainless steel filler metal, L + L + delta + L + delta + γ → γ + delta, and for type 310 stainless steel filler metal, L → L + γ → γ. In type 308 stainless steel filler metal, ferrite at room temperature was identified as either the untransformed primary delta-ferrite formed during the initial stages of solidification or the residual ferrite after Widmanstaetten austenite precipitation. Microprobe and scanning transmission electron microscope microanalyses revealed that solute extensively redistributes during the transformation of primary delta-ferrite to austenite, leading to enrichment and stabilization of ferrite by chromium. The type 310 stainless steel filler metal investigated solidifies by the primary crystallization of austenite, with the transformation going to completion at the solidus temperature. In our samples residual ferrite resulting from solute segregation was absent at the intercellular or interdendritic regions

  18. Prediction of Crack Growth Aqueous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS SRI International 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, CA 94025 II...34no crack" has at least a vestigial rupture, associated with cyclic loading of the oxide film at the crack tip. The curve labeled "crack" was obtained...be an effect of crack opening. For the data set labeled "crack", the vestigial crack, although short, is very tight and the impedance is large. Under

  19. Tensile cracks in creeping solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, H.; Rice, J.R.

    1979-02-01

    The loading parameter determining the stress and strain fields near a crack tip, and thereby the growth of the crack, under creep conditions is discussed. Relevant loading parameters considered are the stress intensity factor K/sub I/, the path-independent integral C*, and the net section stress sigma/sub net/. The material behavior is modelled as elastic-nonlinear viscous where the nonlinear term describes power law creep. At the time t = 0 load is applied to the cracked specimen, and in the first instant the stress distribution is elastic. Subsequently, creep deformation relaxes the initial stress concentration at the crack tip, and creep strains develop rapidly near the crack tip. These processes may be analytically described by self-similar solutions for short times t. Small scale yielding may be defined. In creep problems, this means that elastic strains dominate almost everywhere except in a small creep zone which grows around the crack tip. If crack growth ensues while the creep zone is still small compared with the crack length and the specimen size, the stress intensity factor governs crack growth behavior. If the calculated creep zone becomes larger than the specimen size, the stresses become finally time-independent and the elastic strain rates can be neglected. In this case, the stress field is the same as in the fully-plastic limit of power law hardening plasticity. The loading parameter which determines the near tip fields uniquely is then the path-independent integral C*.K/sub I/ and C* characterize opposite limiting cases. The case applied in a given situation is decided by comparing the creep zone size with the specimen size and the crack length. Besides several methods of estimating the creep zone size, a convenient expression for a characteristic time is derived, which characterizes the transition from small scale yielding to extensive creep of the whole specimen

  20. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance Property of a Zn-AI-Mg Alloy with Different Solidification Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Guang-rui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating attracted much attention due to its high corrosion resistance properties, especially high anti-corrosion performance at the cut edge. As the Zn-Al-Mg alloy coating was usually produced by hot-dip galvanizing method, solidification process was considered to influence its microstructure and corrosion properties. In this work, a Zn-Al-Mg cast alloy was melted and cooled to room temperature with different solidification processes, including water quench, air cooling and furnace cooling. Microstructure of the alloy with different solidification processes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Result shows that the microstructure of the Zn-Al-Mg alloy are strongly influenced by solidification process. With increasing solidification rate, more Al is remained in the primary crystal. Electrochemical analysis indicates that with lowering solidification rate, the corrosion current density of the Zn-Al-Mg alloy decreases, which means higher corrosion resistance.

  1. Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohammed Hussein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

  2. Benefits of high gradient solidification for creep and low cycle fatigue of AM1 single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuer, S., E-mail: Susanne.Steuer@ensma.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS – ENSMA – Université de Poitiers, UPR CNRS 3346, Department of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, ENSMA – Téléport 2, 1 avenue Clément Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Villechaise, P. [Institut Pprime, CNRS – ENSMA – Université de Poitiers, UPR CNRS 3346, Department of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, ENSMA – Téléport 2, 1 avenue Clément Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Pollock, T.M. [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Cormier, J. [Institut Pprime, CNRS – ENSMA – Université de Poitiers, UPR CNRS 3346, Department of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, ENSMA – Téléport 2, 1 avenue Clément Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)

    2015-10-01

    The influence of high thermal gradient processing on the creep and low cycle fatigue properties of the AM1 Ni-based single crystal superalloy has been studied. Isothermal creep (from 750 °C up to 1200 °C) and low cycle fatigue (750 °C and 950 °C) experiments were performed for AM1 alloy solidified with a conventional radiation cooled (Bridgman) and higher thermal gradient liquid-metal cooled (LMC) casting process to produce coarse and finer-scaled dendritic structures, respectively. There was no significant effect of the casting technique on creep properties, due to the very similar microstructures (γ′-size and γ-channel width) established after full heat treatment of both Bridgman and LMC samples. For low cycle fatigue properties, the benefit of the higher gradient LMC process was dependent on the testing temperature. At 750 °C, cracks primarily initiated at pores created by solidification shrinkage in both Bridgman and LMC samples. Samples produced by the LMC technique demonstrated fatigue lives up to 4 times longer, compared to the Bridgman samples, due to refined porosity. At 950 °C the low cycle fatigue properties of the LMC and conventionally solidified material were not distinguishable due to a shift of crack initiation sites from internal pores to oxidized surface layers or near-surface pores. The benefit of the LMC approach was, however, apparent in fatigue at 950 °C when testing in a vacuum environment. Based on these results, a crack initiation model based on the local slip activity close to casting defect is proposed.

  3. Analysis of short and long crack behavior and single overload effect by crack opening stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sam Hong; Lee, Kyeong Ro

    1999-01-01

    The study analyzed the behaviors of short and long crack as well as the effect of single tensile overload on the crack behaviors by using fatigue crack opening behavior. Crack opening stress is measured by an elastic compliance method which may precisely and continuously provide many data using strain gages during experiment. The unusual growth behaviors of short crack and crack after the single tensile overload applied, was explained by the variations of crack opening stress. In addition, fatigue crack growth rate was expressed as a linear form for short crack as for long crack by using effective stress intensity factor range as fracture mechanical parameter, which is based on crack closure concept. And investigation is performed with respect to the relation between plastic zone size formed at the crack tip and crack retardation, crack length and the number of cycles promoted or retarded, and the overload effect on the fatigue life

  4. Application of the Method of Direct Solidification for Obtaining New Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grankin, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the method of direct solidification on the formation of the material structure has been considered. The main methods of single crystal growth have been described. A considerable influence of the crystal growth parameters (temperature gradient at the front of solidification and the speed of moving of the front of solidification) on the type of the structure and morphology of single crystals has been shown. The examples of application of the method of direct solidification in experimental and industrial production are showed: production of directly crystallized blades for turbines of nuclear power plants and gas-turbine engines

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium and its alloys in halogenide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Silvia B.

    2001-01-01

    A doctoral thesis developed at the corrosion labs in CNEA a few years ago showed that zirconium and Zircaloy-4 were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride aqueous solutions at potentials above the pitting potential. However, the nature of the phenomenon was not elucidated. On the other hand, references about the subject were scarce and contradictory. The development of new SCC models, in particular, the surface mobility SCC mechanism suggested a review of zirconium and Zircaloy-4 SCC in halogenide aqueous solutions. This mechanism predicts that zirconium should be susceptible to SCC not only in chloride solutions but also in bromide and iodide solutions due to the low melting point of the surface compounds formed by the interaction between the metal and the environment. The present work was aimed to determine the conditions under which SCC takes place and the mechanism operating during this process. For that purpose, the effect of electrochemical potential, strain rate and temperature on the SCC susceptibility of both, zirconium and Zircaloy-4 in chloride, bromide and iodide solutions was investigated. It was observed that those materials undergo stress corrosion cracking only at potentials higher than the breakdown potential. The crack velocity increased slightly with the applied potential, and the strain rate had an accelerating effect on the crack propagation rate. In both materials two steps were found during cracking. The first one was characterized as intergranular attack assisted by stress due to an anodic dissolution process. This step is followed by a transition to a transgranular mode of propagation, which was considered as the 'true' stress corrosion cracking step. The intergranular attack is the rate-determining step due to the fact that the transgranular propagation rate is higher than the intergranular propagation rate. Several stress corrosion cracking mechanisms were analyzed to explain the transgranular cracking. The predictions

  6. Effects of grain size on the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium by cooling rate-controlled solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichi; Liu, Debao; You, Chen; Chen, Minfang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium developed for biomedical applications. High-purity magnesium samples with different grain size were prepared by the cooling rate-controlled solidification. Electrochemical and immersion tests were employed to measure the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium with different grain size. The electrochemical polarization curves indicated that the corrosion susceptibility increased as the grain size decrease. However, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and immersion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium is improved as the grain size decreases. The improvement in the corrosion resistance is attributed to refine grain can produce more uniform and density film on the surface of sample.

  7. Strain-induced corrosion cracking in ferritic components of BWR primary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.-P.; Ritter, S.; Ineichen, U.; Tschanz, U.; Gerodetti, B.

    2003-04-01

    The present final report of the RIKORR project is a summary of a literature survey and of the experimental work performed by PSI on the environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) and dynamic strain ageing (DSA) susceptibility of low-alloy steels (LAS) in high-temperature (HT) water. Within this project, the EAC crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy RPV steels, weld filler and weld heat-affected zone materials has been investigated under simulated transient and steady-state BWR/NWC power operation conditions. The strain-induced corrosion cracking (SICC) / low-frequency corrosion fatigue (CF) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack growth behaviour of different low-alloy RPV steels under simulated transient and stationary BWR/NWC conditions was characterized by slow rising load / low-frequency corrosion fatigue and constant load / periodical partial unloading / ripple load tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens in oxygenated HT water at temperatures of either 288, 250, 200 or 150 o C. Modern high-temperature water loops, on-line crack growth monitoring and fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to quantify the cracking response. (author)

  8. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  9. Multispecimen fatigue crack propagation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.; Bauer, R.E.; Chin, B.A.; Straalsund, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Chains of miniature center-cracked-tension specimens were tested on a conventional testing machine and on a prototypic in-reactor fatigue machine as part of the fusion reactor materials alloy development program. Annealed and 20 percent cold-worked 316 stainless steel specimens were cycled under various conditions of temperature, frequency, stress ratio and chain length. Crack growth rates determined from multispecimen visual measurements and from an electrical potential technique were consistent with those obtained by conventional test methods. Results demonstrate that multispecimen chain testing is a valid method of obtaining fatigue crack propagation information for alloy development. 8 refs

  10. Monitoring crack growth using thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djedjiga, Ait Aouita; Abdeldjalil, Ouahabi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a novel strategy for real-time monitoring crack growth of materials. The process is based on the use of thermal data extracted along the horizontal axis of symmetry of single edge notch tension (SENT) specimens, during fatigue tests. These data are exploited using an implemented program to detect in situ the growth of fatigue crack, with the critical size and propagation speed of the crack. This technique has the advantage to be applicable to a wide range of materials regardless of their electrical conductivity and their surface texture. (authors)

  11. Password Cracking Using Sony Playstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Hugo; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Law enforcement agencies frequently encounter encrypted digital evidence for which the cryptographic keys are unknown or unavailable. Password cracking - whether it employs brute force or sophisticated cryptanalytic techniques - requires massive computational resources. This paper evaluates the benefits of using the Sony PlayStation 3 (PS3) to crack passwords. The PS3 offers massive computational power at relatively low cost. Moreover, multiple PS3 systems can be introduced easily to expand parallel processing when additional power is needed. This paper also describes a distributed framework designed to enable law enforcement agents to crack encrypted archives and applications in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  12. Modeling and Optimization of Direct Chill Casting to Reduce Ingot Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Ningileri, S.; Long, Z.; Saito, K.; Khraisheh, M.; Hassan, M.H.; Kuwana, K.; Han, Q.; Viswanathan, S.; Sabau, A.S.; Clark, J.; Hyrn, J. (ANL)

    2006-08-15

    Approximately 68% of the aluminum produced in the United States is first cast into ingots prior to further processing into sheet, plate, extrusions, or foil. The direct chill (DC) semi-continuous casting process has been the mainstay of the aluminum industry for the production of ingots due largely to its robust nature and relative simplicity. Though the basic process of DC casting is in principle straightforward, the interaction of process parameters with heat extraction, microstructural evolution, and development of solidification stresses is too complex to analyze by intuition or practical experience. One issue in DC casting is the formation of stress cracks [1-15]. In particular, the move toward larger ingot cross-sections, the use of higher casting speeds, and an ever-increasing array of mold technologies have increased industry efficiencies but have made it more difficult to predict the occurrence of stress crack defects. The Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap [16] has recognized the challenges inherent in the DC casting process and the control of stress cracks and selected the development of 'fundamental information on solidification of alloys to predict microstructure, surface properties, and stresses and strains' as a high-priority research need, and the 'lack of understanding of mechanisms of cracking as a function of alloy' and 'insufficient understanding of the aluminum solidification process', which is 'difficult to model', as technology barriers in aluminum casting processes. The goal of this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project was to assist the aluminum industry in reducing the incidence of stress cracks from the current level of 5% to 2%. Decreasing stress crack incidence is important for improving product quality and consistency as well as for saving resources and energy, since considerable amounts of cast metal could be saved by eliminating ingot cracking, by reducing the scalping thickness of

  13. Subsurface metals fatigue cracking without and with crack tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shanyavskiy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue regime for metals was considered and mechanisms of the subsurface crack origination were introduced. In many metals first step of crack origination takes place with specific area formation because of material pressing and rotation that directed to transition in any volume to material ultra-high-plasticity with nano-structure appearing. Then by the border of the nano-structure takes place volume rotation and fracture surface creates with spherical particles which usually named Fine-Granular-Area. In another case there takes place First-Smooth-Facet occurring in area of origin due to whirls appearing by the one of the slip systems under discussed the same stress-state conditions. Around Fine-Granular-Area or First-Smooth-Facet there plastic zone appeared and, then, subsurface cracking develops by the same manner as for through cracks. In was discussed quantum-mechanical nature of fatigue crack growth in accordance with Yang’s modulus quantization for low level of deformations. New simply equation was considered for describing subsurface cracking in metals out of Fine-Granular-Area or Fist-Smooth-Facet.

  14. An investigation of reheat cracking in the weld heat affected zone of type 347 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung-On, Isaratat

    2007-12-01

    Reheat cracking has been a persistent problem for welding of many alloys such as the stabilized stainless steels: Types 321 and 347 as well as Cr-Mo-V steels. Similar problem occurs in Ni-base superalloys termed "strain-age cracking". Cracking occurs during the post weld heat treatment. The HAZ is the most susceptible area due to metallurgical reactions in solid state during both heating and cooling thermal cycle. Many investigations have been conducted to understand the RHC mechanism. There is still no comprehensive mechanism to explain its underlying mechanism. In this study, there were two proposed cracking mechanisms. The first is the formation of a PFZ resulting in local weakening and strain localization. The second is the creep-like grain boundary sliding that causes microvoid formation at the grain boundaries and the triple point junctions. Cracking occurs due to the coalescence of the microvoids that form. In this study, stabilized grade stainless steel, Type 347, was selected for investigation of reheat cracking mechanism due to the simplicity of its microstructure and understanding of its metallurgical behavior. The Gleeble(TM) 3800 system was employed due to its capability for precise control of both thermal and mechanical simulation. Cylindrical samples were subjected to thermal cycles for the HAZ simulation followed by PWHT as the reheat cracking test. "Susceptibility C-curves" were plotted as a function of PWHT temperatures and time to failure at applied stress levels of 70% and 80% yield strength. These C-curves show the possible relationship of the reheat cracking susceptibility and carbide precipitation behavior. To identify the mechanism, the sample shape was modified containing two flat surfaces at the center section. These flat surfaces were electro-polished and subjected to the HAZ simulation followed by the placement of the micro-indentation arrays. Then, the reheat cracking test was performed. The cracking mechanism was identified by tracing

  15. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-Al-C Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-04-01

    To assist developments of the continuous-casting technology of Fe-Mn-Al-C steels, the solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-Al-C steel ingots with different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by FactSage (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada). The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is the highest, whereas the thermal conductivity of the 8Mn steel is slightly higher than that of the 17Mn steel. Increasing the manganese content promotes a columnar solidification structure and coarse grains in steel. With the increase of manganese content, the mass fraction of austenite phase is increased. Finally, a single austenite phase is formed in the 17Mn steel. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.3 × 10-5 to 2.3 × 10-5 K-1, and these values increase with the increase of manganese content. The ductility of the 17Mn steel and the 8Mn steel are higher than 40 pct in the temperature range from 873 K to 1473 K (600 °C to 1200 °C), and the cracking during the straightening operation should be avoided. However, the ductility of the 0Mn steel is lower than 40 pct at 973 K and 1123 K (700 °C and 850 °C), which indicates that the temperature of the straightening operation during the continuous-casting process should be above 1173 K (900 °C). Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region. At the 2.1 mass pct aluminum level, the precipitate temperature of AlN is high. Thus, the formed AlN is too coarse to deteriorate the hot ductility of steel.

  16. Cracks in Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Many of the craters found on the northern plains of Mars have been partly filled or buried by some material (possibly sediment). The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image presented here (MOC2-136b, above left) shows a high-resolution view of a tiny portion of the floor of one of these northern plains craters. The crater, located in Utopia Planitia at 44oN, 258oW, is shown on the right (MOC2-136a)with a small white box to indicate the location of the MOC image. The MOC image reveals that the material covering the floor of this crater is cracked and pitted. The origin and source of material that has been deposited in this crater is unknown.The MOC image was acquired in June 1999 and covers an area only 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) wide at a resolution of 1.8 meters (6 feet) per pixel. The context picture is a mosaic of Viking 2 orbiter images 010B53 and 010B55, taken in 1976. Both images are illuminated from the left. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  17. Super oil cracking update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulraney, D.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of residual fuel oil to usable middle distillates was discussed. The residue conversion processing paths are usually based on separation, carbon rejection, or hydrogen addition principles. Super Oil Cracking (SOC) uses a slurry catalyst system in a new, tubular reactor to achieve high levels of hydrothermal conversion. SOC can upgrade a variety of heavy, high metals residue feedstocks with high yields of middle distillates. The SOC products can also be further treated into feedstocks for FCC or hydrocracking. The SOC process can be incorporated easily into a refinery to obtain incremental residue conversion directly. It can also be integrated with other residue processes, acting as a demetallization and decarbonization step which results in enhanced overall conversion. The relative rate of coke formation and its handling are distinguishing characteristics between residue upgrading technologies. The SOC process operates at higher temperatures that other residue hydrocracking processes resulting in higher rates of thermal decomposition, thus preventing coke formation. SOC process can operate as a stand-alone upgrader or can be integrated with other bottoms processing steps to extend the refiner's range of options for increasing bottoms conversion.3 tabs., 14 figs

  18. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari (Boeing)

    2014-10-01

    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  19. Shapes formed by interacting cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Brittle failure through multiple cracks occurs in a wide variety of contexts, from microscopic failures in dental enamel and cleaved silicon to geological faults and planetary ice crusts. In each of these situations, with complicated stress geometries and different microscopic mechanisms, pairwise interactions between approaching cracks nonetheless produce characteristically curved fracture paths. We investigate the origins of this widely observed ``en passant'' crack pattern by fracturing a rectangular slab which is notched on each long side and subjected to quasi-static uniaxial strain from the short side. The two cracks propagate along approximately straight paths until they pass each other, after which they curve and release a lens-shaped fragment. We find that, for materials with diverse mechanical properties, each curve has an approximately square-root shape, and that the length of each fragment is twice its width. We are able to explain the origins of this universal shape with a simple geometrical model.

  20. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  1. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0.41 mPai and a 0.18 MPa, and predicted a theoretical kinking angle of 84°whichagreed well with experimentally measured angle. After crack kinking...Consistent crack branching’at KIb = 2.04 MPaI -i- and r = 1.3 mm verified this crack branching criterion. The crack branching angle predicted by--.’ DD

  2. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  3. Crack propagation in dynamic thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    We study the singular thermoelastic fields near the crack tip, in the linear strain assumption. The equations are coupled and non linear. The asymptotic expansions of the displacement and the temperature are given for the first and the second order. It is shown that the temperature is singular when the crack propagates. However, this field does not change the dominant singularity of the mechanical field which is the same as that obtained in the theory of isothermal elasticity [fr

  4. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH 2 ) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na 2 SO 4 can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Development of Stable Solidification Method for Insoluble Ferrocyanides-13170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikarashi, Yuki; Masud, Rana Syed; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Ishizaki, Eiji; Matsukura, Minoru [UNION SHOWA K.K. 17-20, Mita 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The development of stable solidification method of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge is an important subject for the safety decontamination in Fukushima NPP-1. By using the excellent immobilizing properties of zeolites such as gas trapping ability and self-sintering properties, the stable solidification of insoluble ferrocyanides was accomplished. The immobilization ratio of Cs for K{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O saturated with Cs{sup +} ions (Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O) was estimated to be less than 0.1% above 1,000 deg. C; the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions are completely volatilized. In contrast, the novel stable solid form was produced by the press-sintering of the mixture of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O and zeolites at higher temperature of 1,000 deg. C and 1,100 deg. C; Cs volatilization and cyanide release were completely depressed. The immobilization ratio of Cs, under the mixing conditions of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O:CP= 1:1 and calcining temperature: 1,000 deg. C, was estimated to be nearly 100%. As for the kinds of zeolites, natural mordenite (NM), clinoptilolite (CP) and Chabazite tended to have higher immobilization ratio compared to zeolite A. This may be due to the difference in the phase transformation between natural zeolites and synthetic zeolite A. In the case of the composites (K{sub 2-X}Ni{sub X/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O loaded natural mordenite), relatively high immobilization ratio of Cs was also obtained. This method using zeolite matrices can be applied to the stable solidification of the solid wastes of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of crack interaction effect for in-plane surface cracks using elastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Su; Choi, Suhn; Park, Keun Bae; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    The crack-tip stress fields and fracture mechanics assessment parameters, such as the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral, for a surface crack can be significantly affected by adjacent cracks. Such a crack interaction effect due to multiple cracks can magnify the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. There are many factors to be considered, for instance the relative distance between adjacent cracks, crack shape and loading condition, to quantify a crack interaction effect on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Thus, the current guidance on a crack interaction effect (crack combination rule), including ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API RP579, provide different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. The present paper investigates a crack interaction effect by evaluating the elastic stress intensity factor of adjacent surface cracks in a plate along the crack front through detailed 3-dimensional elastic finite element analyses. The effects of the geometric parameters, the relative distance between cracks and the crack shape, on the stress intensity factor are systematically investigated. As for the loading condition, only axial tension is considered. Based on the elastic finite element results, the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance was investigated, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks in a plate were discussed

  7. The effect of texture on delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta Levi, R.; Sagat, S

    1999-09-01

    Pressure tubes for CANDU reactors are made of Zr-2.5Nb alloy. They are produced by hot extrusion followed by cold work, which results in a material with a pronounced crystallographic texture with basal plane normals of its hexagonal structure around the circumferential direction. Under certain conditions, this material is susceptible to a cracking mechanism called delayed hydride cracking (DHC). Our work investigated the susceptibility of Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube to DHC in this pressure tube material, in terms of crystallographic texture and grain shape. The results are presented in terms of crack velocity obtained on different planes and directions of the pressure tube. The results show that it is more difficult for a crack to propagate at right angles to crystallographic basal planes (which are close to the precipitation habit plane of hydrides) than for it to propagate parallel to the basal plane. However, if the cracking plane is oriented parallel to preexisting hydrides (hydrides formed as a result of the manufacturing process), the crack propagates along these hydrides easily, even if the hydride habit planes are not oriented favourably. (author)

  8. Divorced Eutectic Solidification of Mg-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monas, Alexander; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kim, Se-Jong; Yim, Chang Dong; Höche, Daniel; Steinbach, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    We present simulations of the nucleation and equiaxed dendritic growth of the primary hexagonal close-packed -Mg phase followed by the nucleation of the -phase in interdendritic regions. A zoomed-in region of a melt channel under eutectic conditions is investigated and compared with experiments. The presented simulations allow prediction of the final properties of an alloy based on process parameters. The obtained results give insight into the solidification processes governing the microstructure formation of Mg-Al alloys, allowing their targeted design for different applications.

  9. Crystal Growth and Fluid Mechanics Problems in Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Saleh A.; Baker, Gregory R.; Foster, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    Our work in directional solidification has been in the following areas: (1) Dynamics of dendrites including rigorous mathematical analysis of the resulting equations; (2) Examination of the near-structurally unstable features of the mathematically related Hele-Shaw dynamics; (3) Numerical studies of steady temperature distribution in a vertical Bridgman device; (4) Numerical study of transient effects in a vertical Bridgman device; (5) Asymptotic treatment of quasi-steady operation of a vertical Bridgman furnace for large Rayleigh numbers and small Biot number in 3D; and (6) Understanding of Mullins-Sererka transition in a Bridgman device with fluid dynamics is accounted for.

  10. Solidification process of a tool steel with niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makray, E.T.; Bresciani Filho, E.; Martinez Nazar, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The solidification process of M2 high speed steel where tungsten was totally substituted by niobium was analysed. It occurs through a eutectic type reaction, in four steps. It was verified that one can apply the Coupled Zone Concept to explain the solification mechanism of this alloy: there is a primary phase (NbC), which is envolved by the other phase (ferrite) as a halo in order to send the composition back to the coupled growth region, where the binary eutectic forms. The last step is the formation of other compounds at the grain boundary. (Author) [pt

  11. Isothermal solidification based packaging of biosensors at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.P.; Khanna, P.K.; Kumar, D.

    2010-01-01

    Thick film Au printed square contact pads are interconnected to Cu substrates at constant pressure and temperature using the isothermal solidification of Bi-In alloy on the joining surfaces. The effect of reaction time on the mechanical strength of the package has been analyzed. Thermal stability of the fabricated specimens have been measured and discussed. The delaminated surfaces examined optically reveal the morphology of the metallization zones on the joining substrates. The scanning electron microscopy of these surfaces is reported in this paper. Tests for thermal shock, pH resistivity and shelf life have been carried out to predict the reliability of the packaging for long term applications.

  12. Solidification of HLLW by glass-ceramic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguino, N.; Masuda, S.; Tsunoda, N.; Yamanaka, T.; Ninomiya, M.; Sakane, T.; Nakamura, S.; Kawamura, S.

    1979-01-01

    The compositions of glass-ceramics for the solidification of HLLW were studied, and the glass-ceramics in the diopside system was concluded to be the most suitable. Compared with the properties of HLW borosilicate glasses, those of diopside glass-ceramic were thought to be almost equal in leach rate and superior in thermal stability and mechanical strength. It was also found that the glass in this system can be crystallized simply by pouring it into a thermally insulated canister and then allowing it to cool to room temperature. 2 figures, 5 tables

  13. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with rapid solidification of AB{sub 5} materials suitable for electrochemical hydrogen storage. The primary objective of the work has been to characterise the microstructure and crystal structure of the produced AB{sub 5} materials as a function of the process parameters, e.g. the cooling rate during rapid solidification, the determination of which has been paid special attention to. The thesis is divided into 6 parts, of which Part I is a literature review, starting with a short presentation of energy storage alternatives. Then a general review of metal hydrides and their utilisation as energy carriers is presented. This part also includes more detailed descriptions of the crystal structure, the chemical composition and the hydrogen storage properties of AB{sub 5} materials. Furthermore, a description of the chill-block melt spinning process and the gas atomisation process is given. In Part II of the thesis a digital photo calorimetric technique has been developed and applied for obtaining in situ temperature measurements during chill-block melt spinning of a Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5} hydride forming alloy (Mm = Mischmetal of rare earths). Compared with conventional colour transmission temperature measurements, this technique offers a special advantage in terms of a high temperature resolutional and positional accuracy, which under the prevailing experimental conditions were found to be {+-}29 K and {+-} 0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, it is shown that the cooling rate in solid state is approximately 2.5 times higher than that observed during solidification, indicating that the solid ribbon stayed in intimate contact with the wheel surface down to very low metal temperatures before the bond was broken. During this contact period the cooling regime shifted from near ideal in the melt puddle to near Newtonian towards the end, when the heat transfer from the solid ribbon to the wheel became the rate controlling step. In Part III of the

  14. Fractal growth in impurity-controlled solidification in lipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1987-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional microscopic model is proposed to describe solidifcation processes in systems with impurities which are miscible only in the fluid phase. Computer simulation of the model shows that the resulting solids are fractal over a wide range of impurity concentrations and impurity...... diffusional constants. A fractal-forming mechanism is suggested for impurity-controlled solidification which is consistent with recent experimental observations of fractal growth of solid phospholipid domains in monolayers. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  15. In-situ solidification cleans up old gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, A.D.; Dennis, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    A manufactured gas plant site in Columbus, Georgia, was the location of an environmental cleanup in 1992. Manufactured gas was produced at this site from 1854 to 1931 with the availability of natural gas from a transmission pipeline causing its demise. However, waste products, primarily coal tar from the earlier years of plant operation, remained with the site. In-situ solidification was chosen as the cleanup method. Post monitoring activities show that the project was successful and the site is now a park and a leading part of river front development

  16. Solidification in direct metal deposition by LENS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, William; Griffith, Michelle

    2001-09-01

    Thermal imaging and metallographic analysis were used to study Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) processing of 316 stainless steel and H13 tool steel. The cooling rates at the solid-liquid interface were measured over a range of conduction conditions. The length scale of the molten zone controls cooling rates during solidification in direct metal deposition. In LENS processing, the molten zone ranges from 0.5 mm in length to 1.5 mm, resulting in cooling rates at the solid-liquid interface ranging from 200 6,000 Ks-1.

  17. Mixed and chelated waste test programs with bitumen solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, S.I.; Morris, M.; Vidal, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of bitumen solidification tests on mixed wastes and chelated wastes. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) performed demonstration tests on radioactive wastes contaminated with chelating agents for Associated Technologies, Inc. (ATI). The chelated wastes were produced and concentrated by Commonwealth Edison Co. as a result of reactor decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Station, Unit 1. Law Engineering in Charlotte, N. C. produced samples and performed tests on simulated heavy metal laden radioactive waste (mixed) to demonstrate the quality of the bituminous product. The simulation is intended to represent waste produced at Oak Ridge National Labs operated by Martin-Marietta

  18. Densities of Pb-Sn alloys during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Data for the densities and expansion coefficients of solid and liquid alloys of the Pb-Sn system are consolidated in this paper. More importantly, the data are analyzed with the purpose of expressing either the density of the solid or of the liquid as a function of its composition and temperature. In particular, the densities of the solid and of the liquid during dendritic solidification are derived. Finally, the solutal and thermal coefficients of volume expansion for the liquid are given as functions of temperature and composition.

  19. Grain-boundary microchemistry and intergranular cracking of irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Kassner, T.F.

    1993-01-01

    Constant-extension-rate tensile tests and grain-boundary analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy were conducted on high and commercial-purity (HP and CP) Type 304 stainless steel (SS) specimens from irradiated boiling-water reactor (BWR) components to identify the mechanisms of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Contrary to previous beliefs, susceptibility to intergranular fracture could not be correlated with radiation-induced segregation of impurities such as Si, P, C, or S, but a correlation was obtained with grain-boundary Cr concentration, indicating a role for Cr depletion. Detailed analysis of grain-boundary chemistry was conducted on BWR neutron absorber tubes that were fabricated from two similar heats of HP Type 304 SS of virtually identical bulk chemical composition but exhibiting a significant difference in susceptibility to IASCC after irradiation to ∼2 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). Grain-boundary concentrations of Cr Ni, Si, P, S, and C of the cracking-resistant and -susceptible HP heats were virtually identical. However, grain boundaries of the cracking-resistant material contained less N and more B and Li than those of the cracking-susceptible material. This observation indicates that, besides the deleterious effect of grain-boundary Cr depletion, a synergism between grain-boundary segregation of N and B and transmutation to H and Li plays an important role in IASCC

  20. Diffractive optics for reduction of hot cracking in pulsed mode Nd:YAG laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olesen, Søren; Roos, Sven-Olov

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the susceptibility to hot cracking in pulsed mode laser welding of austenitic stainless steel, an optical system for reduction of the cooling rate is sought developed. Based on intensive numerical simulations, an optical system producing three focused spots is made. In a number...

  1. Corrosion fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel welds in PWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, W.H.; Ceschini, L.J.; Moon, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate behavior of several pressure vessel steel welds in PWR environment is discussed. The behavior is compared with associated heat-affected zone behavior, and with comparable base metal results. The welds show different degrees of susceptibility to the environmental influence, and this is discussed in some detail, along with fractographic observations on the tested specimens

  2. Closed solutions to a differential-difference equation and an associated plate solidification problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layeni, Olawanle P; Akinola, Adegbola P; Johnson, Jesse V

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct and novel formalisms for deriving exact closed solutions of a class of variable-coefficient differential-difference equations arising from a plate solidification problem are introduced. Thereupon, exact closed traveling wave and similarity solutions to the plate solidification problem are obtained for some special cases of time-varying plate surface temperature.

  3. Solidification behaviors of a single-crystal superalloy under lateral constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuangqi Hu; Huaming Wang

    1993-01-01

    The effect of lateral constraints ahead of solidification interface on the solidification behaviors of a newly developed hot corrosion resistant single-crystal nickel-base superalloy was investigated under commercial single-crystal production conditions. The lateral constraints or section variations ahead of solidification front were found to have drastic influences both on the modes of solidification and the profiles of solute segregation. As lateral constraints were imposed ahead of the directionally solidifying interface, the solidification microstructure of the single-crystal superalloy changed suddenly, through a γ/γ' eutectic-free zone which is characterized by an extremely-fine and highly-developed dendrite network, from the original well-branched dendritic structure to a fine cellular-dendrite or regular cell structure, accompanying which the primary arm spacing, the severity of segregation and the amount of microporosity decreased remarkably. The newly formed cellular dendrite or cell structure transforms always gradually to the initial coarse dendrite structure as the lateral constraint is finally released whether gradually or sharply. Moreover, an abnormal porosity zone was readily observed in the initial section beneath and away from the eutectic-free zone. The solidification microstructural changes were attributed to the drastic dynamical changes in local solidification cooling conditions and in momentum transport during solidification due to the presence of lateral constraint

  4. Nucleation and solidification of thin walled ductile iron - Experiments and numerical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of solidification of thin walled ductile cast iron has been performed based on experiments and numerical simulation. The experiments were based on temperature and microstructure examination. Results of the experiments have been compared with a 1-D numerical solidification model...

  5. Effects Disposal Condition and Ground Water to Leaching Rate of Radionuclides from Solidification Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlan Martono; Wati

    2008-01-01

    Effects disposal condition and ground water to leaching rate of radionuclides from solidification products have been studied. The aims of leaching test at laboratory to get the best composition of solidified products for continuous process or handling. The leaching rate of radionuclides from the many kinds of matrix from smallest to bigger are glass, thermosetting plastic, urea formaldehyde, asphalt, and cement. Glass for solidification of high level waste, thermosetting plastic and urea formaldehyde for solidification of low and intermediate waste, asphalt and cement for solidification of low and intermediate level waste. In shallow land burial, ground water rate is fast, debit is high, and high permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is occur. The pH of ground water increasing leaching rate, but cation in the ground water retard leaching rate. Effects temperature radiation and radiolysis to solidification products is not occur. In the deep repository, ground water rate is slow, debit is small, and low permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is very small. There are effect cooling time and distance between pits to rock temperature. Alfa radiation effects can be occur, but there is no contact between solidification products and ground water, so that there is not radiolysis. (author)

  6. Compressive failure with interacting cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guoping; Liu Xila

    1993-01-01

    The failure processes in concrete and other brittle materials are just the results of the propagation, coalescence and interaction of many preexisting microcracks or voids. To understand the real behaviour of the brittle materials, it is necessary to bridge the gap from the relatively matured one crack behaviour to the stochastically distributed imperfections, that is, to concern the crack propagation and interaction of microscopic mechanism with macroscopic parameters of brittle materials. Brittle failure in compression has been studied theoretically by Horii and Nemat-Nasser (1986), in which a closed solution was obtained for a preexisting flaw or some special regular flaws. Zaitsev and Wittmann (1981) published a paper on crack propagation in compression, which is so-called numerical concrete, but they did not take account of the interaction among the microcracks. As for the modelling of the influence of crack interaction on fracture parameters, many studies have also been reported. Up till now, some researcher are working on crack interaction considering the ratios of SIFs with and without consideration of the interaction influences, there exist amplifying or shielding effects of crack interaction which are depending on the relative positions of these microcracks. The present paper attempts to simulate the whole failure process of brittle specimen in compression, which includes the complicated coupling effects between the interaction and propagation of randomly distributed or other typical microcrack configurations step by step. The lengths, orientations and positions of microcracks are all taken as random variables. The crack interaction among many preexisting random microcracks is evaluated with the help of a simple interaction matrix (Yang and Liu, 1991). For the subcritically stable propagation of microcracks in mixed mode fracture, fairly known maximum hoop stress criterion is adopted to compute branching lengths and directions at each tip of the crack

  7. Modelling of solidification processing and continuous strip casting for copper-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Jafar [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Processing

    2000-04-01

    An experimental and numerical study was carried out to investigate the solidification process in a copper continuous strip casting process. Heat flow and solidification process has been experimentally studied. Cooling curves during solidification were registered using a thermocouple of type K connected to a data acquisition system. Temperature measurements in the mould and cooling water were also performed. The numerical model considers a generalized set of mass, momentum and heat equations that is valid for the solid, liquid and solidification interval in the cast. A k-{epsilon} turbulence model, produced with the commercial program CFX, is used to analyse the solidification process of pure copper in the mould region of the caster. The fluid flow, temperature and heat flux distributions in the mould region of the caster were computed. The shape and location of the solidification front were also determined. The effects of the parameters such as heat transfer coefficient, casting speed, casting temperature, heat of fusion and specific heat on the shape and location of the solidification front and the heat transport at the mould-cast interface were investigated. The predicted temperature and heat flux distributions were compared with experimental measurements, and reasonable agreement was obtained. The solidification behaviour of pure copper and different copper base alloys has been studied. A series of solidification experiments using DTA furnace, mirror furnace and levitation technique were performed on different copper-base alloys. The undercooling, cooling rates of the liquid and the solid states, solidification times and temperatures were evaluated from the curves. The cooling curves for different samples were simulated using a FEM solidification program. It was found that the calculated values of the heat of fusion were much lower than the tabulated ones. The fraction of solid formed before quenching, in the DTA experiments, has been observed to be much higher

  8. Heat transfer and solidification processes of alloy melt with undercooling: I. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hideaki; Tada, Yukio; Kunimine, Kanji; Furuichi, Taira; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2006-01-01

    The solidification process of Pb-Sn and Bi-Sn alloy melts is discussed to obtain a basic understanding of the essential phenomena of solidification with undercooling. First, from macroscopic observations, it is shown that the solidification process consists of the following three stages: (1) free growth with recalescence dissipation of thermal undercooling (2) expansion of crystals with the relaxation of constitutional undercooling or with the recovering process of interrupted quasi-steady heat conduction, and (3) equilibrium solidification. The specific features of free growth under non-uniform undercooling are also shown by comparison with the Lipton, Glicksman, and Kurz model. Next, from microscopic observations, the distribution of the solute concentration and the change of crystal morphology in the solidified materials were investigated quantitatively using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Finally, the solidification path during the above three fundamental processes is dynamically represented on phase diagrams

  9. Microstructural evolution in Mg-Zn alloys during solidification: An experimental and simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Manas; Jung, In-Ho

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive microstructural evolution of Mg-1.5, 4.0 and 5.5 wt% Zn alloys with respect to the solidification parameters such as thermal gradient (G), solidification velocity (V), cooling rate (GV) and solute (Zn) content were investigated in the present study. Solidification techniques such as directional solidification and wedge casting were employed in order to obtain cooling rates between 0.05 and 250 K/s. Microstructural features such as secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), microsegregration along the secondary dendrites and secondary phase fractions were experimentally determined. A solidification model that incorporates solute back diffusion, secondary arm coarsening, dendrite tip undercooling and dynamically linked with accurate thermodynamic databases is used to explain the experimental results.

  10. Solidification analysis of a centrifugal atomizer using the Al-32.7wt.% Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Matthew G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    A centrifugal atomizer (spinning disk variety) was designed and constructed for the production of spherical metal powders, 100-1,000 microns in diameter in an inert atmosphere. Initial atomization experiments revealed the need for a better understanding of how the liquid metal was atomized and how the liquid droplets solidified. To investigate particle atomization, Ag was atomized in air and the process recorded on high-speed film. To investigate particle solidification, Al-32.7 wt.% Cu was atomized under inert atmosphere and the subsequent particles were examined microscopically to determine solidification structure and rate. This dissertation details the experimental procedures used in producing the Al-Cu eutectic alloy particles, examination of the particle microstructures, and determination of the solidification characteristics (e.g., solidification rate) of various phases. Finally, correlations are proposed between the operation of the centrifugal atomizer and the observed solidification spacings.

  11. Choosing solidification or vitrification for low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method. Whereas, vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ironically, economic studies, as presented in this paper, show that vitrification may be more competitive in some high volume applications. Ex-situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450 000m 3 of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper summarizes how Fernald is choosing between solidification and vitrification as the primary waste treatment method

  12. Choosing solidification or vitrification for low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimpel, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification (making concrete) and vitrification (making glass) are frequently the treatment methods recommended for treating inorganic or radioactive wastes. Solidification is generally perceived as the most economical treatment method. Whereas, vitrification is considered (by many) as the most effective of all treatment methods. Unfortunately, vitrification has acquired the stigma that it is too expensive to receive further consideration as an alternative to solidification in high volume treatment applications. Ironically, economic studies, as presented in this paper, show that vitrification may be more competitive in some high volume applications. Ex-situ solidification and vitrification are the competing methods for treating in excess of 450,000 m 3 of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP or simply, Fernald) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper summarized how Fernald is choosing between solidification and vitrification as the primary waste treatment method

  13. Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels in BWR Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Chopra, O. K.; Gruber, Eugene E.; Shack, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The internal components of light water reactors are exposed to high-energy neutron irradiation and high-temperature reactor coolant. The exposure to neutron irradiation increases the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because of the elevated corrosion potential of the reactor coolant and the introduction of new embrittlement mechanisms through radiation damage. Various nonsensitized SSs and nickel alloys have been found to be prone to intergranular cracking after extended neutron exposure. Such cracks have been seen in a number of internal components in boiling water reactors (BWRs). The elevated susceptibility to SCC in irradiated materials, commonly referred to as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), is a complex phenomenon that involves simultaneous actions of irradiation, stress, and corrosion. In recent years, as nuclear power plants have aged and irradiation dose increased, IASCC has become an increasingly important issue. Post-irradiation crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests have been performed to provide data and technical support for the NRC to address various issues related to aging degradation of reactor-core internal structures and components. This report summarizes the results of the last group of tests on compact tension specimens from the Halden-II irradiation. The IASCC susceptibility of austenitic SSs and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials sectioned from submerged arc and shielded metal arc welds was evaluated by conducting crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests in a simulated BWR environment. The fracture and cracking behavior of HAZ materials, thermally sensitized SSs and grain-boundary engineered SSs was investigated at several doses (3 dpa). These latest results were combined with previous results from Halden-I and II irradiations to analyze the effects of neutron dose, water chemistry, alloy compositions, and welding and processing conditions on IASCC. The

  14. Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate solution on stress corrosion cracking of annealed carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Takumi; Zhu, Liehong; Murakami, Makoto; Shibata, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of annealed SM 400 B carbon steel has been investigated in bicarbonate solutions at 343 K. The surface of annealed specimen had decarburized layer of about 0. 5 mm thickness. A potentiostatic slow strain rate testing apparatus equipped with a charge coupled device camera system was employed to evaluate SCC susceptibility from the viewpoint of the crack behavior. In a constant bicarbonate concentration of 1 M, cracks were observed in the potential range from -800 to 600 mV Ag/ A gCl . and especially, the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were accelerated at -600 mV. At a constant potential of -600 mV, cracks were observed in the concentration range from 0.001 to 1 M, and the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were suppressed as the concentration decreased. Polarization curves for the decarburized surface were measured with two different scan rates. High SCC susceptibility may be expected in the potential range where the difference between the two current densities is large. It was found in this system that the potential with the maximum difference in the current density was -600 mV for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and the potential increased with a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate. This means that an applied potential of -600 mV provides the highest SCC susceptibility for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and that the SCC susceptibility decreases as the concentration decreases. These findings support the dependence of the actual SCC behavior on the potential and the concentration of bicarbonate. (author)

  15. Thermo-mechanical modelling of high temperature crack growth in electron beam welding of a CuCrZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisniewski, J.

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this research thesis is to find out which crack initiation criteria can be applied in the case of electron beam welding of CuCrZr alloy components. After a literature survey on the high temperature cracking phenomenon, the author describes its microscopic origins and presents the main high temperature crack growth criteria. He reports metallurgical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of the studied alloy performed by optical, scanning electronic and transmission electronic microscopy, crystallographic analysis, residual stress determination using the hole method, mechanical testing at room and high temperature (from room temperature to 1000 C), determination of solidification route and of thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion measurements. He describes electron beam weldability tests performed on the alloy. As these tests are performed on simple geometry samples, they allow the high temperature crack growth to be observed. These experiments are then modelled using two finite element codes, Castem and Calcosoft. Then, after a presentation of the main hypotheses used in these numerical models, the author applies the high temperature crack growth criteria. Results obtained for theses criteria are then analysed and discussed

  16. Crack propagation behavior of Ti-5Ta alloy in boiling nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    1999-05-01

    The crack propagation behavior of Ti-5Ta alloy both in boiling nitric acid solution and in air at room temperature has been investigated. The crack growth rate of Ti-5Ta alloy was measured as a function of the stress intensity factor range. After the tests, the fracture surface morphology was observed by a scanning electron microscope and the crystallographic orientation was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Difference in the crack growth behavior was not observed in both environments. The crack growth rate in boiling nitric acid solution was similar to that in air at room temperature. Moreover, the crystallographic orientation of Ti-5Ta alloy had little effect on the fatigue behavior, because this alloy does not have the susceptibility to SCC in nitric acid solution. (author)

  17. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Zircaloy-4 in Halide Solutions: Effect of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Zircaloy-4 was found to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in 1 M NaCl, 1 M KBr and 1 M KI aqueous solutions at potentials above the pitting potential. In all the solutions tested crack propagation was initially intergranular and then changed to transgranular. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the SCC propagation was investigated. An increase in the strain rate was found to lead to an increase in the crack propagation rate. The crack propagation rate increases in the three solutions tested as the temperatures increases between 20 and 90 °C. The Surface-Mobility SCC mechanism accounts for the observation made in the present work, and the activation energy predicted in iodide solutions is similar to that found in the literature.

  18. Review of current research and understanding of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Andresen, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns for irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of reactor internals are increasing, especially for components that are not readily replaceable. Both laboratory and field data show that intergranular stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys can result from long term exposure to the high energy neutron and gamma radiation that exists in the core of light water reactors (LWR's). Radiation affects cracking susceptibility via changes in material micro-chemistry (radiation induced segregation, or RIS), water chemistry (radiolysis) and material properties/stress (e.g., radiation induced creep and hardening). Based on many common dependencies, e.g., to solution purity, corrosion potential, crevicing and stress, IASCC falls within the continuum of environmental cracking phenomenon in high temperature water

  19. A Review of Permanent Magnet Stirring During Metal Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Chen, Weiqing; Yang, Yindong; Mclean, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Rather than using conventional electromagnetic stirring (EMS) with three-phase alternating current, permanent magnet stirring (PMS), based on the use of sintered NdFeB material which has excellent magnetic characteristics, can be employed to generate a magnetic field for the stirring of liquid metal during solidification. Recent experience with steel casting indicates that PMS requires less than 20 pct of the total energy compared with EMS. Despite the excellent magnetic density properties and low power consumption, this relatively new technology has received comparatively little attention by the metal casting community. This paper reviews simulation modeling, experimental studies, and industrial trials of PMS conducted during recent years. With the development of magnetic simulation software, the magnetic field and associated flow patterns generated by PMS have been evaluated. Based on the results obtained from laboratory experiments, the effects of PMS on metal solidification structures and typical defects such as surface pinholes and center cavities are summarized. The significance of findings obtained from trials of PMS within the metals processing sector, including the continuous casting of steel, are discussed with the aim of providing an overview of the relevant parameters that are of importance for further development and industrial application of this innovative technology.

  20. Containerless solidification of undercooled oxide and metallic eutectic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingjun; Nagashio, Kosuke; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    A high-speed video was employed to monitor the in situ recalescence of undercooled oxide Al 2 O 3 -36.8 at.% ZrO 2 and metallic Ni-18.7 at.% Sn eutectics that were processed on an aero-acoustic levitator and an electromagnetic levitator, respectively. For the oxide eutectic, the entire sample becomes brighter and brighter without any clear recalescence front during spontaneous crystallization. When the sample was seeded at desired undercoolings, crystallization started from the seeding point and then spread through the entire sample. Microstructures of the oxide solidified via both the spontaneous crystallization and external seeding consist of many independent eutectic colonies at the sample surface, indicating that copious nucleation takes place regardless of melt undercooling and solidification mode. For the metallic eutectics, two kinds of recalescence are visualized. The surface and cross sectional microstructures reveal that copious nucleation is also responsible for the formation of independent eutectic colonies distributing within the entire sample. It is not possible to measure the growth velocity of a single eutectic colony using optical techniques under the usual magnification. The conventional nucleation concept derived from single-phase alloys may not be applicable to the free solidification of the undercooled double-phase oxide and metallic eutectic systems

  1. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  2. Solidification treatment of thiophene and BTEX contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarlinski, S.J.; Kingham, N.W.; Blevins, J.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination at the McColl Superfund Site, located in Fullerton, California, is due to the disposal, in pits, of spent sulfuric acid sludge from the production of aviation fuel. A treatability study was performed to evaluate the electiveness of in situ solidification treatment of materials contaminated with high concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), as well as thiophene and other organic compounds. The contaminated materials were extremely acidic (pH<1) and had high organic and sulfur contents of greater than 70 percent and 10 percent, respectively. A total of 150 mixtures were screened to evaluate the effectiveness of 15 reagents. Based on the preliminary screening results, six mixtures were selected as being the most effective at treating the contaminated materials. Comprehensive evaluations of the candidate mixtures included (1) quantitative glovebag volatilization studies, (2) chemical characterization of the treated materials, (3) strength characterizations at multiple cure times of up to 60 days, (4) emissions monitoring of the treated materials at cure times of 7 and 14 days, and (5) the evaluation of oxidation reagents for treatment of the thiophene contamination. The treatability study demonstrated that solidification treatment is an effective alternative for remediation of the thiophene and BTEX contaminated materials

  3. Wax solidification of drying agents containing tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishikawa, M.; Kido, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary to immobilize the tritium not to give any impact on the environmental biosphere because tritium may give profound effects in the metabolic pathway. One of the most probable methods of immobilizing tritium would be incorporation of tritiated water in solid forms. Any drying or dehydration technique would be effective in a tritium cleanup system for off-gas streams containing tritium or tritiated water. Commonly used drying agents such as activated alumina, silica gel, molecular sieves and calcium sulfate are of value for removal of water vapour from air or other gases. For long term tritium storage, however, these adsorptive materials should be enveloped to prevent contact with water or water vapour because the rate of leaching, evaporation or diffusion of tritium from these porous materials is so large. The beeswax solidification method of the packed bed of drying agents adsorbing tritiated water is developed in this study, where the wax solidification procedure is performed by pouring the melt of wax into the void space of the packed bed of the drying agents and successive gradual cooling. The observed values of diffusivity or permeability of tritium in the wax solidified materials are about one-thousandth of those obtained for the cement block. Effect of coating on the rate of leaching is also discussed

  4. Numerical Model for Solidification Zones Selection in the Large Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołczyński W.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A vertical cut at the mid-depth of the 15-ton forging steel ingot has been performed by curtesy of the CELSA - Huta Ostrowiec plant. Some metallographic studies were able to reveal not only the chilled undersized grains under the ingot surface but columnar grains and large equiaxed grains as well. Additionally, the structural zone within which the competition between columnar and equiaxed structure formation was confirmed by metallography study, was also revealed. Therefore, it seemed justified to reproduce some of the observed structural zones by means of numerical calculation of the temperature field. The formation of the chilled grains zone is the result of unconstrained rapid solidification and was not subject of simulation. Contrary to the equiaxed structure formation, the columnar structure or columnar branched structure formation occurs under steep thermal gradient. Thus, the performed simulation is able to separate both discussed structural zones and indicate their localization along the ingot radius as well as their appearance in term of solidification time.

  5. Search for a solute-drag effect in dendritic solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckler, K.; Herlach, D.M.; Aziz, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the results of an indirect experimental test for the solute-drag effect in alloy solidification by fitting the data of Eckler et.al. for Ni-B dendrite tip velocities vs undercooling to models in several ways. The unknown equilibrium partition coefficient, k e , was varied as a fitting parameter. When they combine the dendrite growth model of Boettinger et al. with the Continuous Growth Model (CGM) of Aziz and Kaplan with solute drag, they cannot fit the data for any value of k e . When they combine dendrite growth theory with the CGM without solute drag, they obtain a reasonable fit to the data for k e = 4 x 10 -6 . When they combine dendrite growth theory with a new partial-solute-drag interpolation between the with-solute-drag and the without-solute-drag versions of the CGM, they obtain a still better fit to the data for k e = 2.8 x 10 - 4. This result points out the possibility of partial solute-drag during solidification and the importance of an independent determination of k e in order to distinguish between models

  6. Simulation of spreading with solidification: assessment synthesis of Thema code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, B.; Veteau, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes Thermohydrauliques et Technologiques, 38 (France)

    2004-07-01

    After a presentation of the models included in THEMA code, which simulates the spreading of a fluid with solidification, the whole assessment calculations are presented. The first series concerns the comparison with analytical or numerical solutions: dam break, conduction for the heat transfer in the substrate, crust growth. The second series concerns the comparison with the CORINE isothermal tests (simulating fluid at low temperature). The third series concerns the CORINE tests with heat transfer. The fourth series concerns the tests with simulating materials at medium or high temperature (RIT, KATS). The fifth series concerns the tests with prototypical materials (COMAS, FARO, VULCANO). Finally the blind simulations of the ECOKATS tests are presented. All the calculations are performed with the same physical models (THEMA version 2.5), without any variable tuning parameter according to the test under consideration. Sensitivity studies concern the influence of the viscosity model in the solidification interval, and for the tests with prototypical materials the inlet temperature and the solid fraction. The relative difference between the calculated and measured spreading areas is generally less than 20 % except for the test with prototypical materials, for which the assessment is not easy due to the large experimental uncertainties. The level of validation of THEMA is considered as satisfactory, taking into account the required accuracy. (authors)

  7. Crystallographic investigation of grain selection during initial solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, H; Shinozuka, K; Kataoka, Y

    2016-01-01

    Normally, macroscopic solidified structure consists of chill, columnar and equiaxed zones. In a chill zone, many fine grains nucleate on the mold surface and grow their own preferred growth direction. Only a few of them continue to grow because of grain selection. In order to understand the grain selection process, crystallographic investigation has been carried out in the zone of initial solidification in this study. 10 g of Al-6 wt%Si alloy was melted at 850 °C and poured on the thick copper plate. Longitudinal cross section of the solidified shell was observed by a SEM and analyzed by EBSD. The result of EBSD mapping reveals that crystallographic orientation was random in the range of initial solidification. Further, some grains are elongated along their <100> direction. Columnar grains, whose growth directions are almost parallel to the heat flow direction, develop via grain selection. Here, a dendrite whose growth direction is close to the heat flow direction overgrows the other dendrite whose growth direction is far from the heat flow direction. However, sometimes we observed that dendrite, whose zenith angle is large, overgrew the other dendrite. It can be deduced that the time of nucleation on the mold surface is not constant. (paper)

  8. The solidification behavior of dilute aluminium-scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.F.; Prangnell, P.B.; McEwen, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    The solidification behavior of dilute Sc containing Al alloys has been investigated. In binary Al-Sc alloys, Sc additions greater than the eutectic composition (0.55 wt%) were found to produce a remarkable refinement in the grain size of aluminum castings, of two orders of magnitude, due to the formation of the primary Al 3 Sc intermetallic phase during solidification. The refinement in grain size only occurred in hypereutectic compositions and was shown to be far greater than can be achieved by conventional Al grain refiners. Grain refinement by the addition of Sc is accompanied by a change in growth morphology from dendritic, in the large unrefined grains, to fine spherical grains with a divorced eutectic appearing on the grain boundaries in the refined castings. Similar levels of refinement were observed in Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Cu-Sc alloys. In the latter, a change in the segregation behavior of Cu was observed, from a strongly interdendritic segregation pattern to a more homogeneous distribution. The supersaturated Al-Sc solid solution can decompose via a discontinuous precipitation reaction to form coherent rod-like precipitates of the L1 2 Al 3 Sc phase

  9. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.

    2005-12-01

    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  10. Simulation of spreading with solidification: assessment synthesis of Thema code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, B.; Veteau, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    After a presentation of the models included in THEMA code, which simulates the spreading of a fluid with solidification, the whole assessment calculations are presented. The first series concerns the comparison with analytical or numerical solutions: dam break, conduction for the heat transfer in the substrate, crust growth. The second series concerns the comparison with the CORINE isothermal tests (simulating fluid at low temperature). The third series concerns the CORINE tests with heat transfer. The fourth series concerns the tests with simulating materials at medium or high temperature (RIT, KATS). The fifth series concerns the tests with prototypical materials (COMAS, FARO, VULCANO). Finally the blind simulations of the ECOKATS tests are presented. All the calculations are performed with the same physical models (THEMA version 2.5), without any variable tuning parameter according to the test under consideration. Sensitivity studies concern the influence of the viscosity model in the solidification interval, and for the tests with prototypical materials the inlet temperature and the solid fraction. The relative difference between the calculated and measured spreading areas is generally less than 20 % except for the test with prototypical materials, for which the assessment is not easy due to the large experimental uncertainties. The level of validation of THEMA is considered as satisfactory, taking into account the required accuracy. (authors)

  11. Mechanism of flow reversal during solidification of an anomalous liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virkeshwar; Kumawat, Mitesh; Srivastava, Atul; Karagadde, Shyamprasad

    2017-12-01

    In a wide variety of fluidic systems involving thermal and compositional gradients, local density changes lead to the onset of natural convection that influences the process itself, for example, during phase-change phenomena and magmatic flows. Accurate knowledge of the flow characteristics is essential to quantify the impact of the flow of the processes. In this work, the first-ever demonstration of flow reversal during bottom-up solidification of water using full-field thermal and flow measurements and its direct impact on the solidifying interface is presented. Based on prior optical interferometric measurements of full-field temperature distribution in water during solidification, we use the particle image velocimetry technique to quantify and reveal the changing natural convection pattern arising solely due to the density anomaly of water between 0 °C and 4 °C. The independently captured thermal and flow fields show striking similarities and clearly elucidate the plausible mechanism explaining the formation of a curved interface at the stagnation point and the subsequent reversal of flow direction due to a changed interface morphology. A control volume analysis is further presented to estimate the energy invested in the formation of a perturbation and the resulting flip in the flow direction caused by this perturbation.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 82 in hydrogenated steam at 400 C: influence of microstructural and mechanical parameters on initiation of SCC cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumun, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In Pressurize Water Reactors (PWR), Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is the mean degradation mode of components pieced together by welding. Nickel based alloys are, among others, used in dissimilar metal welding (DMW). International report showed only 3 cracking cases in Alloy 82 out of 300 cracking cases concerned on nickel based alloys DMW in primary water circuit. The aim of this study is to identify which microstructural and local mechanism parameters at microstructure scale provide the initiation of SCC cracks. Characterizations performed on specimen surface to identify those parameters are composed of chemical composition analysis and EBSD analysis (Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction) to know the morphology and the crystallography of grains for microstructure features on one hand, and experimental strain fields measured by Digital Imaging Correlation (DIC) of gold micro-grids deposed by electronic lithography on U-bend specimen surface and stress fields calculated along grains boundaries by finite element for local mechanical features on the other hand. The correlation between those characterizations and localization of initiation sites of SCC cracks, obtained on U-bend specimens tested in autoclave in hydrogen steam water at 400 C and 188 bar for 3500 hours, confirmed the susceptibility of the Alloy 82 in SCC conditions with intergranular SCC cracks. The perpendicular position to the loading direction (mode I) is the worst conditions for grains boundary in SCC. The others points concern the chemical composition (precipitation, impurities) around grain boundary and the grain boundary type which is more susceptible when it is a High Angle Grain Boundary. It is following by the mechanical characterization (stress and strain gradient) along grain boundary. This methodology can be used to other material and helped to define which microstructural and mechanical parameter can be define the initiation of SCC cracks. (author) [fr

  13. Solidification of eutectic system alloys in space (M-19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Atsumi

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that in the liquid state eutectic alloys are theoretically homogeneous under 1 g conditions. However, the homogeneous solidified structure of this alloy is not obtained because thermal convection and non-equilibrium solidification occur. The present investigators have clarified the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic system alloys under 1 g conditions by using the in situ observation method; in particular, the primary crystals of the eutectic system alloys never nucleated in the liquid, but instead did so on the mold wall, and the crystals separated from the mold wall by fluid motion caused by thermal convection. They also found that the equiaxed eutectic grains (eutectic cells) are formed on the primary crystals. In this case, the leading phase of the eutectic must agree with the phase of the primary crystals. In space, no thermal convection occurs so that primary crystals should not move from the mold wall and should not appear inside the solidified structure. Therefore no equiaxed eutectic grains will be formed under microgravity conditions. Past space experiments concerning eutectic alloys were classified into two types of experiments: one with respect to the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic alloys and the other to the unidirectional solidification of this alloy. The former type of experiment has the problem that the solidified structures between microgravity and 1 g conditions show little difference. This is why the flight samples were prepared by the ordinary cast techniques on Earth. Therefore it is impossible to ascertain whether or not the nucleation and growth of primary crystals in the melt occur and if primary crystals influence the formation of the equiaxed eutectic grains. In this experiment, hypo- and hyper-eutectic aluminum copper alloys which are near eutectic point are used. The chemical compositions of the samples are Al-32.4mass%Cu (Hypo-eutectic) and Al-33.5mass%Cu (hyper-eutectic). Long rods for the samples are

  14. Improvement of elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth evaluation method. 2. Crack opening behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yukio [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of crack growth behavior under cyclic loading is often required in the structural integrity assessment of cracked components. Closing and re-opening of the crack give large influence on crack growth rate through the change of fracture mechanics parameters. Based on the finite element analysis for a center-cracked plate, dependency of crack opening ratio on applied stress range and mean stress was examined. Simple formulae for representing the results were derived for plane stress and plane strain conditions. (author)

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloys. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubicciotti, D.; Jones, R.L.; Syrett, B.C.

    1980-03-01

    The overall aim has been to develop an improved understanding of the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanism considered to be responsible for pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failures of nuclear fuel rods. The objective of the present phase of the project was to investigate the potential for improving the resistance of Zircaloy to iodine-induced SCC by modifying the manufacturing techniques used in the commercial production of fuel cladding. Several aspects of iodine SCC behavior of potential relevance to cladding performance were experimentally investigated. It was found that the SCC susceptibility of Zircaloy tubing is sensitive to crystallographic texture, surface condition, and residual stress distribution and that current specifications for Zircaloy tubing provide no assurance of an optimum resistance to SCC. Additional evidence was found that iodine-induced cracks initiate at local chemical inhomogeneities in the Zircaloy surface, but laser melting to produce a homogenized surface layer did not improve the SCC resistance. Several results were obtained that should be considered in models of PCI failure. The ratio of axial to hoop stress and the temperature were both shown to affect the SCC resistance whereas the difference in composition between Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 had no detectable effect. Damage accumulation during iodine SCC was found to be nonlinear: generally, a given life fraction at low stress was more damaging than the same life fraction at higher stress. Studies of the thermochemistry of the zirconium-iodine system (performed under US Department of Energy sponsorship) revealed many errors in the literature and provided important new insights into the mechanism of iodine SCC of Zircaloys

  16. Cracking in Flexural Reinforced Concrete Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    The system of cracks developing in reinforced concrete is in many aspects essential when modelling structures in both serviceability- and ultimate limit state. This paper discusses the behavior concerning crack development in flexural members observed from tests and associates it with two different...... existing models. From the investigations an approach is proposed on how to predict the crack pattern in flexural members involving two different crack systems; primary flexural cracks and local secondary cracks. The results of the approach is in overall good agreement with the observed tests and captures...... the pronounced size effect associated with flexural cracking in which the crack spacing and crack widths are approximately proportional to the depth of the member....

  17. Dynamic ductile fracture of a central crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. M.

    1976-01-01

    A central crack, symmetrically growing at a constant speed in a two dimensional ductile material subject to uniform tension at infinity, is investigated using the integral transform methods. The crack is assumed to be the Dugdale crack, and the finite stress condition at the crack tip is satisfied during the propagation of the crack. Exact expressions of solution are obtained for the finite stress condition at the crack tip, the crack shape, the crack opening displacement, and the energy release rate. All those expressions are written as the product of explicit dimensional quantities and a nondimensional dynamic correction function. The expressions reduce to the associated static results when the crack speed tends to zero, and the nondimensional dynamic correction functions were calculated for various values of the parameter involved.

  18. Studies of the corrosion and cracking behavior of steels in high temperature water by electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.F.; Bullerwell, J.; Steward, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical methods were used to study the corrosion and cracking behavior of five Fe-Cr alloy steels and 304L stainless steel in high temperature water. A layer of magnetite film forms on the metal surface, which decreases the corrosion rate in high temperature water. Passivity can be achieved on A-106 B carbon steel with a small content of chromium, which cannot be passivated at room temperature. The formation rate and the stability of the passive film (magnetite film) increased with increasing Cr-content in the steels. A mechanistic model was developed to simulate the corrosion and cracking processes of steels in high temperature water. The crack growth rate on steels was calculated from the maximum current of the repassivation current curves according to the slip-oxidation model. The highest crack growth rate was found for 304L stainless steel in high temperature water. Of the four Fe-Cr alloys, the crack growth rate was lower on 0.236% Cr- and 0.33% Cr-steels than on 0.406% Cr-steel and 2.5% Cr-1% Mo steel. The crack growth rate on 0.33% Cr-steel was the smallest over the tested potential range. A higher temperature of the electrolyte led to a higher rate of electrochemical dissolution of steel and a higher susceptibility of steel to cracking, as shown by the positive increase of the electrochemical potential. An increase in Cr-content in the steel is predicted to reduce the corrosion rate of steel at high temperatures. However, this increase in Cr-content is predicted not to reduce the susceptibility of steel to cracking at high temperatures. (author)

  19. Steel weldability. Underbead cold cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, F.; Defourny, J.; Bragard, A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of underbead cold cracking has been studied by the implant technique. This approach allows to take into account in a quantitative manner the different factors acting on the cold cracking phenomenon: structure under the weld bead, level of restraint, hydrogen content in the molten metal. The influence of the metallurgical factors depending from the chemical composition of the steel has been examined. It appeared that carbon equivalent is an important factor to explain cold cracking sensitivity but that it is not sufficient to characterize the steel. The results have shown that vanadium may have a deleterious effect on the resistance to cold cracking when the hydrogen content is high and that small silicon additions are beneficient. The influence of the diffusible hydrogen content has been checked and the important action of pre- and postheating has been shown. These treatments allow the hydrogen to escape from the weld before the metal has been damaged. Some inclusions (sulphides) may also decrease the influence of hydrogen. A method based on the implant tests has been proposed which allows to choose and to control safe welding conditions regarding cold cracking

  20. Role of hydrogen in stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical basis for differentiation between hydrogen embrittlement and active path corrosion or anodic dissolution crack growth mechanisms is examined. The consequences of recently demonstrated acidification in crack tip region irrespective of electrochemical conditions at the bulk surface of the sample are that the hydrogen can evolve within the crack and may be involved in the cracking process. There are basically three aspects of hydrogen involvement in stress corrosion cracking. In dissolution models crack propagation is assumed to be caused by anodic dissolution on the crack tip sustained by cathodic reduction of hydrogen from electrolyte within the crack. In hydrogen induced structural transformation models it is postulated that hydrogen is absorbed locally at the crack tip producing structural changes which facilitate crack propagation. In hydrogen embrittlement models hydrogen is absorbed by stressed metal from proton reduction from the electrolyte within the crack and there is interaction between lattice and hydrogen resulting in embrittlement of material at crack tip facilitating crack propagation. In the present paper, the role of hydrogen in stress corrosion crack growth in high strength steels, austenitic stainless steels, titanium alloys and high strength aluminium alloys is discussed. (author)

  1. Some engineering aspects of the investigation into the cracking of pressure tubes in the Pickering reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross-Ross, P.A.; Towgood, G.R.; Hunter, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1974, Pickering Unit 3 (514 MWe) was shutdown for a period of 8 months because of cracks in 17 of the 390 pressure tubes. The cracks were a result of incorrect installation procedures during construction. Improper positioning of the rolling tool used to join the Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube to the end fitting produced very high residual tensile stresses. High stresses in combination with periods with the tubes cold caused the cracking. Crack propagation was by fracture of hydrides which are brittle when cold. Subsequent investigation confirmed that properly rolled joints are not susceptible to such cracking. The resources of Canadian industry, Ontario Hydro and Atomic Energy of Canada were coordinated to find engineering solutions to the crack program. The defective tubes were removed from reactor, thoroughly examined to identify the cause of the cracks, and thoroughly tested to prove safety. Non-destructive techniques were quickly adopted for inspection of tubes in Pickering. Tools and procedures for retubing the 17 channels were prepared and Pickering Unit 3 was returned to service at the end of March 1975. (author)

  2. A crack opening stress equation for fatigue crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A general crack opening stress equation is presented which may be used to correlate crack growth rate data for various materials and thicknesses, under constant amplitude loading, once the proper constraint factor has been determined. The constraint factor, alpha, is a constraint on tensile yielding; the material yields when the stress is equal to the product of alpha and sigma. Delta-K (LEFM) is plotted against rate for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy specimens 2.3 mm thick at various stress ratios. Delta-K sub eff was plotted against rate for the same data with alpha = 1.8; the rates correlate well within a factor of two.

  3. Seismic behaviour of un-cracked and cracked thin pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blay, N.; Brunet, G.; Gantenbein, F.; Aguilar, J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate the seismic behaviour of un-cracked and cracked thin pipes, subjected to high acceleration levels, seismic tests and calculations have been performed on straight thin pipes made of 316L stainless steel, loaded in pure bending by a permanent static and dynamic loading. The seismic tests were carried out on the AZALEE shaking table of the CEA laboratory TAMARIS. The influence of the elasto-plastic model with isotropic or kinematic hardening are studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures; Modelisation de la solidification colonnaire et equiaxe de melanges binaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, P

    2005-12-15

    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the current status of hydrogen embrittlement and stress-corrosion cracking in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, N.R.

    1981-12-01

    A review of recent studies on hydrogen embrittlement and stress-corrosion cracking in steels shows there are several critical areas where data is either ambiguous, contradictory, or non-existent. A relationship exists between impurity segregation and hydrogen embrittlement effects but it is not known if the impurities sensitize a preferred crack path for hydrogen-induced failure or if impurity and hydrogen effects are additive. Furthermore, grain boundary impurities may enhance susceptibility through interactions with some environments. Some studies show that an increase in grain size increases susceptibility; at least one study shows an opposite effect. Recent work also shows that fracture initiates at different locations for external and internal hydrogen environments. How this influences susceptibility is unknown.

  6. Preliminary assessment of stress corrosion cracking of nickel based alloy 182 in nuclear reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Luciana Iglesias Lourenco; Bracarense, Alexandre Queiroz; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca; Quinan, Marco Antonio Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) in a primary circuit of a nuclear pressurized water reactor consists of a degradation process in which aggressive media, stress and material susceptibility are present. Over the last thirty years, SCC has been observed in dissimilar metal welds. This study presents a comparative work between the SCC in the alloy 182 filler metal weld in two different hydrogen concentrations (25 e 50 cm 3 H 2 /kg H 2 O) in primary water. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was assessed using the slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The results of the SSRT test indicated that the material is more susceptible to SCC at 25 cm 3 H 2 /kg H 2 O. (author)

  7. Controlling BWR pipe cracking by residual stress modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, J.D.; Giannuzzi, A.J.; Childs, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking may occur in the weld heat-affected zone of susceptible stainless steel materials which have been used in some boiling water reactor piping systems. One of the prerequisite conditions for stress corrosion attack is a high tensile stress in the exposed, locally sensitized material near the weld root. Several processes have been developed which can deter stress corrosion attack by altering the residual stress distributions near the welds to ensure that low stresses prevail in critical locations. These residual stress modification remedies and their qualification testing are described in this paper. (author)

  8. Stress corrosion cracking properties of 15-5PH steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ferdinand

    1993-01-01

    Unexpected occurrence of failures, due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of structural components, indicate a need for improved characterization of materials and more advanced analytical procedures for reliably predicting structures performance. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the stress corrosion susceptibility of 15-5PH steel over a wide range of applied strain rates in a highly corrosive environment. The selected environment for this investigation was a highly acidified sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution. The selected alloy for the study was a 15-5PH steel in the H900 condition. The slow strain rate technique was selected to test the metals specimens.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking mitigation by ultrasound induced cavitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, C.; Lee, Y.C. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.K. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Cavitation is usually considered as a damaging mechanism under erosion corrosion condition. However, if used appropriately, cavitation can be applied as a peening technique for surface stress modification process. The aim of surface stress modification is to alter the stress state of processed surface through direct or indirect thermo-mechanical treatments to reduce cracking problems initiated from surface. Ultrasonic devices are used to generate cavitation bubbles which when collapse will produce high intensity shock waves and high velocity micro-jet streams. The cavitation impact when properly controlled will create plastically deformed compressive layers in nearby surfaces and minimize cracking susceptibility in corrosive environments. This study is to investigate the effectiveness of Ultrasound Induced Cavitation (UIC) technique in surface stress improvement. Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of SS304 stainless steel under pure water is carried out with different controlling parameters. The cavitation impact on SS304 surface is measured in terms of surface roughness, surface strain, hardness, and microstructural characteristics. The in-depth residual stress distribution and crack mitigation effect are also evaluated. Test result indicates ultrasound induced cavitation treatment only has minor effect on surface physical characteristics. The extent of compressive stress produced on top surface exceeds the yield strength and can reach a depth above 150 μm. The maximum surface strain measured is generally below 20%, which is not considered detrimental to accelerate crack initiation. Stress corrosion verification tests show UIC treatment is capable in preventing environmental assisted cracking of stainless steels in severely corrosive conditions. In view of the test results, UIC technique has demonstrated to be a low cost, low contaminating, and effective surface stress improvement technology. (author)

  10. Stress corrosion cracking mitigation by ultrasound induced cavitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Lee, Y.C.; Yeh, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation is usually considered as a damaging mechanism under erosion corrosion condition. However, if used appropriately, cavitation can be applied as a peening technique for surface stress modification process. The aim of surface stress modification is to alter the stress state of processed surface through direct or indirect thermo-mechanical treatments to reduce cracking problems initiated from surface. Ultrasonic devices are used to generate cavitation bubbles which when collapse will produce high intensity shock waves and high velocity micro-jet streams. The cavitation impact when properly controlled will create plastically deformed compressive layers in nearby surfaces and minimize cracking susceptibility in corrosive environments. This study is to investigate the effectiveness of Ultrasound Induced Cavitation (UIC) technique in surface stress improvement. Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of SS304 stainless steel under pure water is carried out with different controlling parameters. The cavitation impact on SS304 surface is measured in terms of surface roughness, surface strain, hardness, and microstructural characteristics. The in-depth residual stress distribution and crack mitigation effect are also evaluated. Test result indicates ultrasound induced cavitation treatment only has minor effect on surface physical characteristics. The extent of compressive stress produced on top surface exceeds the yield strength and can reach a depth above 150 μm. The maximum surface strain measured is generally below 20%, which is not considered detrimental to accelerate crack initiation. Stress corrosion verification tests show UIC treatment is capable in preventing environmental assisted cracking of stainless steels in severely corrosive conditions. In view of the test results, UIC technique has demonstrated to be a low cost, low contaminating, and effective surface stress improvement technology. (author)

  11. Mechanics of quasi-static crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1978-10-01

    Results on the mechanics of quasi-static crack growth are reviewed. These include recent studies on the geometry and stability of crack paths in elastic-brittle solids, and on the thermodynamics of Griffith cracking, including environmental effects. The relation of crack growth criteria to non-elastic rheological models is considered and paradoxes with energy balance approaches, based on singular crack models, are discussed for visco-elastic, diffuso-elastic, and elastic-plastic materials. Also, recent approaches to prediction of stable crack growth in ductile, elastic-plastic solids are discussed.

  12. Cracking on anisotropic neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A. M.; Sulaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of cracking of a local anisotropic neutron star (NS) due to small density fluctuations. It is assumed that the neutron star core consists of leptons, nucleons and hyperons. The relativistic mean field model is used to describe the core of equation of state (EOS). For the crust, we use the EOS introduced by Miyatsu et al. [1]. Furthermore, two models are used to describe pressure anisotropic in neutron star matter. One is proposed by Doneva-Yazadjiev (DY) [2] and the other is proposed by Herrera-Barreto (HB) [3]. The anisotropic parameter of DY and HB models are adjusted in order the predicted maximum mass compatible to the mass of PSR J1614-2230 [4] and PSR J0348+0432 [5]. We have found that cracking can potentially present in the region close to the neutron star surface. The instability due cracking is quite sensitive to the NS mass and anisotropic parameter used.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels in NaCl-AlCl/sub 3/ at 175C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in chloride media. A test that is often used to determine the susceptibility of a new alloy involves boiling aqueous MgCl/sub 2/ solutions. The compositions of the solution is not controlled in the tests, and changes as water is evaporated. The pH may change as well. Such poorly defined conditions make any mechanistic interpretation very tenuous, and the results may be tabulated as purely empirical data. the choice of the molten salt in the present investigation was made for two reasons. First, the studies could be carried in the molten salt media with the exclusion of H/sub 2/O. Second, the crack propagation could be investigated under well controlled electrochemical conditions. Therefore, the results may help to identify the controlling processes that occur during stress corrosion cracking, and the comparison to results in boiling MgCl/sub 2/ may help to reveal the controlling processes in that medium as well. Crack propagation has been studied for several nitronic stainless steels in the molten salt medium under controlled electrochemical potential conditions. The alloys were studied under fully austenitic conditions. The material was studied in the annealed and work hardened condition, and both were susceptible to cracking in the molten salt. The velocity of cracking was studied as a function of applied stress at several electrochemical potentials

  14. Crack propagation during fatigue in cast duplex stainless steels: influence of the microstructure, of the aging and of the test temperature; Propagation de fissure par fatigue dans les aciers austeno-ferritiques moules: influence de la microstructure, du vieillissement et de la temperature d'essai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, V

    2001-07-15

    Duplex stainless steels are used as cast components in nuclear power plants. At the service temperature of about 320 C, the ferrite phase is thermally aged and embrittled. This induces a significant decrease in fracture properties of these materials. The aim of this work consists in studying Fatigue Crack Growth Rates (FCGR) and Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms (FCGM) as a function of thermal ageing and test temperature (20 C/320 C). Two cast duplex stainless steels (30% ferrite) are tested. In order to better understand the influence of the crystallographic orientation of the phases on the FCGM, the solidification structure of the material is studied by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and by Unidirectional Solidification Quenching. Fatigue crack growth tests are also performed in equiaxed and basaltic structures. Microstructure, fatigue crack growth mechanical properties and mechanisms are thus studied in relation to each other. In the studied range of delta K, the crack propagates without any preferential path by successive ruptures of phase laths. The macroscopic crack propagation plane, as determined by EBSD, depends on the crystallographic orientation of the ferrite grain. So, according to the solidification structure, secondary cracks can appear, which in turn influences the FCGR. Fatigue crack closure, which has to be determined to estimate the intrinsic FCGR, decreases with increasing ageing. This can be explained by a decrease in the kinematic cyclic hardening. The Paris exponent as determined from intrinsic FCGR increases with ageing. Intrinsic FCGR can then be separated in two ranges: one with lower FCGR in aged materials than in un-aged and one with the reversed tendency. (author)

  15. Theoretical modeling of cellular and dendritic solidification microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younggil

    In this dissertation, we use three-dimensional (3D) phase-field (PF) modeling to investigate (i) 3D solid-liquid interface dynamics observed in microgravity experiments, and (ii) array patterns in a thin-sample geometry. In addition, using the two-dimensional (2D) dendritic-needle-network (DNN) model, we explore (iii) secondary sidebranching dynamics. Recently, solidification experiments are carried out in the DSI (Directional Solidification Insert) of the DECLIC (Device for the study of Critical LIquids and Crystallization) facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Thus, the directional solidification experiments are achieved under limited convective currents, and the experimental observations reveal unique dynamics of 3D microstructure in a purely diffusive growth regime. In this directional solidification setup, a temperature field between heat sources could evolve due to two main factors: (i) heat transfer within an adiabatic zone and (ii) latent heat rejection at the interface. These two thermal effects are phenomenologically characterized using a time-dependent thermal shift. In addition, we could quantitatively account for these thermal factors using a numerical calculation of the evolution of temperature field. We introduce these phenomenological and quantitative thermal representations into the PF model. The performed simulations using different thermal descriptions are compared to the experimental measurements from the initial planar interface dynamics to the final spacing selection. The DECLIC-DSI experimental observations exhibit complex grain boundary (GB) dynamics between large grains with a small misorientation. In the observations, several large grains with a small misorientation with respect to the temperature gradient are formed during solidification. Specifically, at a convergent GB, a localized group of misoriented cells penetrates into a nearby grain, which yields the morphological instability of grain boundaries. Remarkably, while

  16. Correlation between Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior and Fracture Surface Roughness on Cold-Rolled Austenitic Stainless Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Cheng Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels are often considered candidate materials for use in hydrogen-containing environments because of their low hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. In this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior of the solution-annealed and cold-rolled 301, 304L, and 310S austenitic stainless steels was characterized in 0.2 MPa gaseous hydrogen to evaluate the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth and correlate the fatigue crack growth rates with the fracture feature or fracture surface roughness. Regardless of the testing conditions, higher fracture surface roughness could be obtained in a higher stress intensity factor (∆K range and for the counterpart cold-rolled specimen in hydrogen. The accelerated fatigue crack growth of 301 and 304L in hydrogen was accompanied by high fracture surface roughness and was associated with strain-induced martensitic transformation in the plastic zone ahead of the fatigue crack tip.

  17. Dynamic experiments on cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Brunet, G.; Buland, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the leak before break concept to piping systems, the behavior of cracked pipes under dynamic, and especially seismic loading must be studied. In a first phase, an experimental program on cracked stainless steel pipes under quasi-static monotonic loading has been conducted. In this paper, the dynamic tests on the same pipe geometry are described. These tests have been performed on a shaking table with a mono frequency input signal. The main parameter of the tests is the frequency of excitation versus the frequency of the system

  18. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  19. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  20. Stress corrosion cracking of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys in acid sulfate environments relevant to CANDU steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, S.Y.; Carcea, A.G., E-mail: suraj.persaud@mail.utoronto.ca [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Huang, J.; Korinek, A.; Botton, G.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Newman, R.C. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Ni-Fe-Cr alloys used in nuclear plants have been found susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in acid sulfate environments. Electrochemical measurements and SCC tests were done using Ni, Alloy 600, and Alloy 800 in acid sulfate solutions at 315 {sup o}C. Electrochemical measurements suggested that sulfate is a particularly aggressive anion in mixed chloride systems. Cracks with lengths in excess of 300 μm were present on stressed Alloy 800 samples after 60 hours. High resolution analytical electron microscopy was used to extract a crack tip from an Alloy 800 sample and draw final conclusions with respect to the mechanism of SCC. (author)