Sample records for solid-state yellow lasers

  1. Solid state laser (United States)

    Rines, Glen A. (Inventor); Moulton, Peter F. (Inventor); Harrison, James (Inventor)


    A wavelength-tunable, injection-seeded, dispersion-compensated, dispersively-pumped solid state laser includes a lasing medium; a highly reflective mirror; an output coupler; at least one isosceles Brewster prism oriented to the minimum deviation angle between the medium and the mirror for directing light of different wavelengths along different paths; means for varying the angle of the highly reflective mirror relative to the light from at least one Brewster angle for selecting a predetermined laser operating wavelength; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the lasing medium; a laser injection seeding port disposed between the dispersion compensation apparatus and one of the mirror and coupler and including a reflective surface at an acute non-Brewster angle to the laser beam for introducing a seed input; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the laser medium including opposite chirality optical elements; the lasing medium including a pump surface disposed at an acute angle to the laser beam to define a discrete path for the pumping laser beam separate from the pumped laser beam.

  2. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien


    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  3. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  4. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  5. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering is written from an industrial perspective and discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction and practical problems of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations, with a phenomenological treatment using modelsbeing preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has been updated and revised to include important developments, concepts and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first edition.

  6. Solid-State Laser Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Written from an industrial perspective, Solid-State Laser Engineering discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. Since its first edition almost 30 years ago this book has become the standard in the field of solid-state lasers for scientists,engineers and graduate students. This new edition has been extensively revised and updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials and nonlinear crystals. Completely new sections have been added dealing with frequency control, the theory of mode-locking, femto second lasers, high efficiency harmonic generation, passive and acousto-optic Q-switching, semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM) and peridically poled nonlinear crystals.

  7. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.


    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  8. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  9. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A


    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  10. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  11. Efficient all solid-state continuous-wave yellow-orange light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW IR lasers using periodically poled KTP. The system is based on the 1064 and 1342 nm laser-lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range. The system is optimized in terms...

  12. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K


    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  13. Solid-state semiconducting polymer lasers (United States)

    Hide, Fumitomo

    A comprehensive review of the recent emergence of semiconducting pi-conjugated polymers as solid-state laser materials is presented. With the notable exception of semiconducting polymer laser diodes, high performance photonic and electronic devices have been fabricated from semiconducting polymers, with their performance parameters approaching or even surpassing those of their inorganic counterparts in some cases. As the first step in exploring the feasibility of 'plastic' laser diodes, optically pumped stimulated emission, gain, and lasing have recently been observed in over a dozen different semiconducting polymers representing a variety of molecular structures with emission wavelengths spanning the visible spectrum. Resonant structures for providing the feedback required for lasing or gain narrowing in submicron thick films, neat and undiluted, of photoluminescent thin solid films of conjugated polymers include: planar waveguides, microcavities, distributed feedback (DFB) structures, and high-Q microresonators. Lasing and gain narrowing have been compared using two of these structures: waveguides and microcavities. In both cases, the gain narrowing or lasing threshold is at 0.05-0.1 muJ per 10 ns pulse focused to ˜1.5 mm. Single-mode microcavity lasers are obtained when a microcavity resonance occurs at the wavelength where the gain of the polymer is maximum. High efficiency Stokes-shifted photoluminescence (PL) and high gain are features that make undiluted semiconducting polymers uniquely attractive as solid-state laser materials. These features also make the same polymers attractive as active components in InGaN/semiconducting polymer hybrid LEDs, where the blue emission from the InGaN LED provides the blue component, and simultaneously, serves as the short wavelength pump source for exciting the PL of the polymer film(s). White, green, green-yellow, and yellow emitting InGaN/polymer hybrid LED prototypes have been demonstrated simply by dip-coating pre

  14. Advances in tunable solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.


    Continuing problems in solid-state lasers including low efficiency and lack of frequency diversity have limited their applicability in past years. Through recent materials technological developments, both of these problems are starting to be solved. Many new tunable lasers operating at wavelengths ranging from 650 nm to have been demonstrated in the laboratory, and applications now are being considered for space and terrestrial remote sensors. Comparable progress also has been made towards more efficient solid-state lasers, for example, new neodymium (Nd) lasers having 6% overall efficiency. These advances in solid-state lasers depend on the interplay between the fields of materials science and lasers. To develop this association between the two disciplines, an Optical Society of America (OSA) topical meeting on Tunable Solid State lasers was held in Zigzag, Oreg. As well as covering research and development of tunable lasers based on ion-doped dielectric solids, this meeting discussed crystal growth and laser applications. Also included were rare earth laser sources operating at new wavelengths, an expansion in the agenda from the first meeting, held last year in May in Arlington, Va.

  15. Diode pumped solid state lasers (United States)

    Gluch, Richard P., Jr.


    I've come here today to share with you the experiences of an emerging company that has its hands around an emerging technology, and an interesting approach. And I'd like to make a few conmients today from a business aspect about the iaarketplace as they relate to our formulation of our market or business strategy. I'll share with you the direction on what the business strategy is and then trace with you some of the technical developments that are occurring at Laser Diode Products in St. Louis as they all relate directly to a customer requirernent.

  16. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M


    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  17. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 6. Pulsed ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped solid state laser; super-Gaussian pump profile. Abstract. Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse.

  18. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.


    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  19. Diode pumped solid-state laser oscillators for spectroscopic applications (United States)

    Byer, R. L.; Basu, S.; Fan, T. Y.; Kozlovsky, W. J.; Nabors, C. D.; Nilsson, A.; Huber, G.


    The rapid improvement in diode laser pump sources has led to the recent progress in diode laser pumped solid state lasers. To date, electrical efficiencies of greater than 10 percent were demonstrated. As diode laser costs decrease with increased production volume, diode laser and diode laser array pumped solid state lasers will replace the traditional flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser sources. The use of laser diode array pumping of slab geometry lasers will allow efficient, high peak and average power solid state laser sources to be developed. Perhaps the greatest impact of diode laser pumped solid state lasers will be in spectroscopic applications of miniature, monolithic devices. Single-stripe diode-pumped operation of a continuous-wave 946 nm Nd:YAG laser with less than 10 m/w threshold was demonstrated. A slope efficiency of 16 percent near threshold was shown with a projected slope efficiency well above a threshold of 34 percent based on results under Rhodamine 6G dye-laser pumping. Nonlinear crystals for second-harmonic generation of this source were evaluated. The KNbO3 and periodically poled LiNbO3 appear to be the most promising.

  20. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  1. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    References. [1] P Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki et al, Appl. Surf. Sci. 148, 92 (1999). [2] Th Skoulikidis et al, LACONA, Workshop on Lasers in Conservation of Artworks,. (1995). [3] Veronique Verges-Belmin et al, J. Cultural Heritage 4, 238s (2003). [4] V Zafiropulos et al, LACONA V Springer Proceedings in Physics 100, 313 (2003).

  2. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... Author Affiliations. M B Sai Prasad1 Salvatore Siano2. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India; CNR-IFAC, Polo Scientifico di Sesto Fiorentino, Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI)-50019, Italy ...

  3. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk


    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  4. Solid state laser systems for space application (United States)

    Kay, Richard B.


    Since the last report several things have happened to effect the research effort. In laser metrology, measurements using Michelson type interferometers with an FM modulated diode laser source have been performed. The discrete Fourier transform technique has been implemented. Problems associated with this technique as well as the overall FM scheme were identified. The accuracy of the technique is not at the level we would expect at this point. We are now investigating the effect of various types of noise on the accuracy as well as making changes to the system. One problem can be addressed by modifying the original optical layout. Our research effort was also expanded to include the assembly and testing of a diode pumped\\Nd:YAG laser pumped\\Ti sapphire laser for possible use in sounding rocket applications. At this stage, the diode pumped Nd:YAG laser has been assembled and made operational.

  5. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems (United States)

    Huffaker, R. Milton


    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  6. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael


    significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...... lighting is that the high efficiency can be obtained at high light lumen levels in a single element emitter and thus less light sources are required to achieve a desired light level. Furthermore, the high directionality of the generated light from laser diodes increases the energy savings in many...... applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting...

  7. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders


    We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...... propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...

  8. High power solid state laser modulator (United States)

    Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.


    A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

  9. Photodynamics and Physics behind Tunable Solid-State Lasers (United States)


    Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers Departments of Physics and Electrical Enginnering City College of New York 138th St. at Convent Avenue, New York...fiber optic communications along with basic scienuiic research. In this article, we will introduce a new tunable solid- state laser system : Chromium...a well de- fined wavelength of 694.3nm. Four different hosts are necessary to cover the 700-UOOnm range. The Cr>~: MgjSiO, system extends the range

  10. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.


    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  11. Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Chenais, Sébastien; 10.1002/pi.3173


    Organic solid-state lasers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on works published during the last decade. Referring originally to dyes in solid-state polymeric matrices, organic lasers also include the rich family of organic semiconductors, paced by the rapid development of organic light emitting diodes. Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources are potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. In this review, we describe the basic photophysics of the materials used as gain media in organic lasers with a specific look at the distinctive feature of dyes and semiconductors. We also outline the laser architectures used in state-of-the-art organic lasers and the performances of these devices with regard to output power, lifetime, and beam quality. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments in terms of wavelength coverage, wavelength agility, efficiency and compactness, or towards integrated low-cost sources, with a special focus on the gr...

  12. All solid-state high power visible laser (United States)

    Grossman, William M.


    The overall objective of this Phase 2 effort was to develop and deliver to NASA a high repetition rate laser-diode-pumped solid-state pulsed laser system with output in the green portion of the spectrum. The laser is for use in data communications, and high efficiency, short pulses, and low timing jitter are important features. A short-pulse 1 micron laser oscillator, a new multi-pass amplifier to boost the infrared power, and a frequency doubler to take the amplified infrared pulsed laser light into the green. This produced 1.5 W of light in the visible at a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz in the laboratory. The pulses have a full-width at half maximum of near 1 ns. The results of this program are being commercialized.

  13. Diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons-Karavassilis, D


    This thesis describes research carried out by the within the Physics Department at Imperial College that was aimed at developing novel all-solid-state laser sources and investigating potential applications of this technology. A description of the development, characterisation and application of a microjoule energy level, diode-pumped all-solid-state Cr:LiSGAF femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier system is presented. The femtosecond oscillator was pumped by two commercially available laser diodes and produced an approx 80 MHz pulse train of variable pulse duration with approx 30 mW average output power and a tuning range of over approx 60 nm. This laser oscillator was used to seed a regenerative amplifier, resulting in adjustable repetition rate (single pulse to 20 kHz) approx 1 mu J picosecond pulses. These pulses were compressed to approx 150 fs using a double-pass twin-grating compressor. The amplifier's performance was investigated with respect to two different laser crystals and different pul...

  14. Single-frequency diode-pumped solid state lasers (United States)

    Bollig, Christoph


    The work discussed in this thesis covers two broad areas: Novel techniques for the single-frequency operation of miniature, diode-pumped solid-state lasers and the high- power (i.e. multi-watt) operation of diode-bar end-pumped lasers in the eyesafe 2 μm wavelength region. A monolithic Nd-doped phosphate glass laser is described, in which unidirectional, hence single-frequency operation is enforced by the acousto-optic effect in the laser medium. The loss difference for the two counter- propagating waves relies on an acousto-optic self- feedback mechanism which can yield high loss differences even for very small diffraction efficiencies. Reliable single-frequency output is maintained indefinitely with an applied radio-frequency power of 0.2 W. Single- frequency output powers up to 30 mW for 400 mW of pump power are demonstrated. A technique is developed which facilitates reliable single-frequency operation of actively Q-switched lasers at repetition rates beyond the inverse lifetime of the upper laser level. Stable single-frequency operation of a Q-switched laser requires the initial establishment of a stable prelase which is free from spiking. Relying on the natural decay of spiking limits repetition rates and hence average power. Using feedback suppression of spiking, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated which operates on a single frequency at repetition rates up to 25 kHz, with 88% of available cw power extracted. In the second part of this thesis, the high-power operation of diode-bar end-pumped solid-state lasers operating in the eyesafe 2 μm wavelength region is discussed. Efficient operation of a Tm:YAG laser end- pumped by a beam-shaped 20 W diode bar is demonstrated. At a mount temperature of 20oC an output beam of 4.1 W with M2 values of 1.2 and 1.4 in the orthogonal planes is obtained for 13.5 W of diode power incident on the rod. This laser is then used to intracavity-pump a Ho:YAG laser, which avoids the upconversion problems usually associated

  15. All-Solid-State Four-Color Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, T.R.; Xie, P.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to develop a solid state laser that produces visible output wavelengths, including the commercially compelling blue wavelength. The basic architecture of the device consists of a single-mode optical fiber doped with Pr{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions. When the ions are simultaneously pumped with a near infrared laser (860 nm), complex energy transfer processes involving multiple excited ions leads to population of a high-lying energy level of Pr{sup 3+}. Results include the demonstration of the existence of a photon avalanche mechanism responsible for creation of the population inversion and demonstration of the highest optical-to-optical efficiency of any up-conversion laser reported to date. A US Patent was awarded for this invention in 1998.

  16. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D


    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  17. Design of a miniaturized solid state laser for automated assembly (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Dolkemeyer, Jan; Morasch, Valentin; Loosen, Peter


    A miniaturized solid state laser for marking applications has been developed featuring novel assembly strategies to reduce size, cost and assembly effort. Design and setup have been laid out with future automation of the assembly in mind. Using a high precision robot the optical components composing the laser system are directly placed on a planar substrate providing accurate positioning and alignment within a few microns. No adjustable mounts for mirrors and lenses are necessary, greatly simplifying the setup. Consisting of either a ND:YAG or a Nd:YVO4 crystal pumped with a fiber coupled diode laser, a q-switch for pulse generation and a beam expander the entire assembly is confined in a 100ml space and delivers 4 W of continuous output power at 1.064 μm with an efficiency greater than 40%. Pulse lengths of 10-20 ns and repetition rates of up to 150 kHz have been obtained with an acousto-optic modulator. In addition, a custom designed electro-optic modulator with integrated high voltage switch has been realized. A supply unit for the entire system, including scanner and water cooling, is integrated in a 19" industrial chassis and can be operated via a graphical user interface on a standard personal computer.

  18. Solid state lasers for photodynamic therapy of malignant neoplasm (United States)

    Khulugurov, Vitaliy M.; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Mayorov, Alexander; Bordzilovsky, Dnitri; Masycheva, Valentina; Danilenko, Elena; Chung, Moon-Kwan


    This work demonstrates the possibility of treating animals with malignant neoplasms using 608 nm of laser radiation by means of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The intracavity transformation of the Nd:YAP main radiation 1079 nm was Raman converted in barium nitrate crystal, and the Stokes frequency (1216 nm) was doubled using KTP or RTA crystals. The LiF or Cr:YAG crystals are used for the Q-switch. The radiation parameters were obtained at 100 Hz pump repetition frequency. The average power at 608-nm radiation with LiF and KTP was 700 mW at multimode generation. The 3-6 single 10-15 ns pulses were generated during one cycle of pumping. The doubling efficiency with RTA was two times more than with KTP. The cells of Ehrlich adenocarcinoma (0.1 ml) were implanted in hind thighs of ICR white non-imbred mice. Photosensitizer HpD was i.v. administered in a dose of 10 mg/kg. Ten animals were treated (2 as a control). There was a 9-30% decrease in the tumor growth depending on the irradiation dose. The better result (30%) was for the 200 J/cm2 dose radiation. These results show the possibility of using all solid state lasers with wavelength of 608 nm for PDT.

  19. Mode-locked solid state lasers using diode laser excitation (United States)

    Holtom, Gary R [Boston, MA


    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. An asymmetric cavity provides relatively large beam spot sizes in gain medium to permit efficient coupling to a volume pumped by a laser diode bar. The cavity can include a collimation region with a controlled beam spot size for insertion of a saturable absorber and dispersion components. Beam spot size is selected to provide stable mode locking based on Kerr lensing. Pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved in Yb:KGW.

  20. Crystal structure and tautomerism of Pigment Yellow 138 determined by X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gumbert, Silke D.; Körbitzer, Meike; Alig, Edith


    The crystal structure of C.I. Pigment Yellow 138 was determined from X-ray powder diffraction data using real-space methods with subsequent Rietveld refinements. The tautomeric state was investigated by solid-state 1D and 2D multinuclear NMR experiments. In the crystals, the compound exhibits...... is not a packing effect, but caused by intramolecular steric hindrance....

  1. Laser Based Phosphor Converted Solid State White Light Emitters (United States)

    Cantore, Michael

    Artificial lighting and as a consequence the ability to be productive when the sun does not shine may be a profound achievement in society that is largely taken for granted. As concerns arise due to our dependence on energy sources with finite lifespan or environmentally negative effects, efforts to reduce energy consumption and create clean renewable alternatives has become highly valued. In the scope of artificial lighting, the use of incandescent lamps has shifted to more efficient light sources. Fluorescent lighting made the first big gains in efficiency over incandescent lamps with peak efficiency for mature designs reaching luminous efficacy of approximately 90 lm/W; more than three times as efficient as an incandescent lamp. Lamps based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) which can produce light at even greater efficiency, color quality and without the potential for hazardous chemical release from lamp failure. There is a significant challenge with LED based light sources. Their peak efficiency occurs at low current densities and then droops as the current density increases. Laser diodes (LDs) do not suffer from decreasing efficiency due to increased current. An alternative solid state light source using LDs has potential to make further gains in efficiency as well as allow novel illuminant designs which may be impractical or even impossible even with LED or other conventional sources. While similar to LEDS, the use of LDs does present new challenges largely due to the increased optical power density which must be accommodated in optics and phosphor materials. Single crystal YAG:Ce has been shown to be capable of enduring this more extreme operating environment while retaining the optical and fluorescing qualities desired for use as a wavelength converter in phosphor converted LD based white emitting systems. The incorporation of this single crystal phosphor in a system with a commercial laser diode with peak wall plug efficiency of 31% resulted in emission of

  2. Single longitudinal mode operation of a solid-state dye laser oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, G; Kim, H S; Cha, B H; Lee, J M


    We have operated a single longitudinal mode of a solid-state dye laser oscillator in a Littman configuration. The host material of the solid-state gain medium was rhodamine dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate). The pumping source was the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measured linewidth of the laser output was about 1.5 GHz.

  3. Study of all-solid-state high-power continuous-wave tunable blue laser (United States)

    Wang, Shou-peng; Wang, Li; Mao, Li-qin; Tian, Hong-bin; Shan, Song; Dai, Jian-guang


    During the past few years, study of the all-solid-state blue laser has been focused on laser field applications in many fields and potential value of commerce. There has been much work done in order to obtain an efficient and simple solid-state blue laser source, this device being of interest for applications such as display technologies, production of high-density optical disk systems, high-resolution printing, or medical diagnostics. This paper discusses three means to realize all-solid-state blue lasers, including blue-emitting diode laser, direct frequency doubling of infrared laser diode (LD), diode-laser pumped all-solid-state blue lasers, respectively. However, direct emitters based on II - VI semiconductors are limited by the lifetime of laser diode. A practical and the most used way is the frequency-doubling of the 946-nm in Nd:YAG. In the field of nonlinear frequency conversion, we compare some different frequency-doubling crystals with improved optical characteristics, including higher nonlinear coefficient, wider transmission range, and more flexible phase-matching (PM) properties. Some nonlinear optical crystals usually used in solid-state laser are analyzed and compared, including KNbO 3, LBO, BBO, BiBO, CBO (CsB 3O 5), KBBF (KBe IIBO 3F II). The recent progress on solid-state blue laser has resulted research in from gain media, frequency-doubled crystals, and configurations of the cavities. Two difficulties which are the coating techniques and the blue noise problem (the fluctuation of the laser output power) in the development of solid-state lasers are pointed out, and the techniques of solving blue noise problem that have been usually used in the past research are presented.

  4. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  5. Short-pulse generation in a diode-end-pumped solid-state laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available theoretical PQSML,th of 2.08W. Short-Pulse Generation in a Diode-End-Pumped Solid-State Laser S. Ngcobo1,2, C. Bollig1 and H. Von Bergmann2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Laser Research Center, University... in the picosecond region with a maximum average output power of 2.8W. Passive modelocking of the Nd:YVO4 laser has been demonstrated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). THEORETICAL ANALYSIS Ultra-fast solid state lasers are a key component...

  6. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD


    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  7. Hybrid heat capacity-moving slab solid-state laser (United States)

    Stappaerts, Eddy A.


    Laser material is pumped and its stored energy is extracted in a heat capacity laser mode at a high duty factor. When the laser material reaches a maximum temperature, it is removed from the lasing region and a subsequent volume of laser material is positioned into the lasing region to repeat the lasing process. The heated laser material is cooled passively or actively outside the lasing region.

  8. Holmium-doped laser materials for eye-safe solid state laser application (United States)

    Kim, Woohong; Bowman, Steven R.; Baker, Colin; Villalobos, Guillermo; Shaw, Brandon; Sadowski, Bryan; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar; Sanghera, Jasbinder


    Trivalent holmium has 14 laser channels from 0.55 to 3.9 μm. The laser emission of most interest is the transition 5I7→5I8 near 2 μm because of its potential for use in eye-safe systems and medical applications. In this paper, we present our recent results in the development of Ho3+ doped laser materials for eye-safe solid state lasers. We report a calorimetric study of non-radiative losses in two micron pumped holmium doped laser host materials such as silica glass, yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) crystal and Lu2O3 ceramics. Optical, spectral and morphological properties as well as the lasing performance from highly transparent ceramics are presented.

  9. Corneal refractive surgery using an ultraviolet (213 nm) solid state laser (United States)

    Ren, Qiushi; Gailitis, Raymond P.; Thompson, Keith P.; Penney, Carl M.; Lin, Jui T.; Waring, George O., III


    The authors demonstrate the use of a frequency multiplied Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to generate the fifth (213 nm) and the fourth (266 nm) harmonic frequencies to ablate porcine corneas and synthetic collagen materials. This new strategy is discussed for corneal refractive surgery using a solid state laser. The potential for spatially resolved refractive correction based on a 213 nm solid state laser is reviewed in light of new corneal imaging technology that can detect localized refractive errors of the eye. Finally, the authors discuss remaining problems that need to be addressed before this technology can be applied to clinical investigation.

  10. Discrete excitation of mode pulses using a diode-pumped solid-state digital laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, Sandile


    Full Text Available In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate novel method of generating discrete excitation of on-demand Lagaurre-Gaussian (LG) mode pulses, in a diode pumped solid-state digital laser. The digital laser comprises of an intra-cavity spatial light...

  11. All-solid-state cavity-dumped sub-5-fs laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltuska, A.; Wei, Z; Pshenichnikov, M.S; Wiersma, D. A.; Szipocs, R.

    We discuss in detail a compact all-solid-state laser delivering sub-5-fs, 2-MW pulses at repetition rates up to 1 MHz. The shortest pulse generated thus far measures only 4.6 fs. The laser system employed is based on a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire oscillator whose output is chirped in a single-mode

  12. Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian Beams Using a Diode Pumped Solid-State Digital Laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho


    Full Text Available The solid state digital laser was used in generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, LGpl, of different orders. This work demonstrates that we can generate high-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes with high purity using a digital laser....

  13. Self-Mixing Thin-Slice Solid-State Laser Metrology (United States)

    Otsuka, Kenju


    This paper reviews the dynamic effect of thin-slice solid-state lasers subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback, which led to the discovery of the self-mixing modulation effect, and its applications to quantum-noise-limited versatile laser metrology systems with extreme optical sensitivity. PMID:22319406

  14. UV solid state laser ablation of intraocular lenses (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, A.; Lagiou, D. P.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.


    Commercially available intraocular lenses (IOLs) are manufactured from silicone and acrylic, both rigid (e.g. PMMA) and foldable (hydrophobic or hydrophilic acrylic biomaterials), behaving different mechanical and optical properties. Recently, the use of apodizing technology to design new diffractive-refractive multifocals improved the refractive outcome of these intraocular lenses, providing good distant and near vision. There is also a major ongoing effort to refine laser refractive surgery to correct other defects besides conventional refractive errors. Using phakic IOLs to treat high myopia potentially provides better predictability and optical quality than corneal-based refractive surgery. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of laser ablation on IOL surface shaping, by drilling circular arrays of holes, with a homemade motorized rotation stage, and scattered holes on the polymer surface. In material science, the most popular lasers used for polymer machining are the UV lasers, and, therefore, we tried in this work the 3rd and the 5th harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=355 nm and λ=213 nm respectively). The morphology of the ablated IOL surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fei - Innova Nanoscope) at various laser parameters. Quantitative measurements were performed with a contact profilometer (Dektak-150), in which a mechanical stylus scanned across the surface of gold-coated IOLs (after SEM imaging) to measure variations in surface height and, finally, the ablation rates were also mathematically simulated for depicting the possible laser ablation mechanism(s). The experimental results and the theoretical modelling of UV laser interaction with polymeric IOLs are discussed in relation with the physical (optical, mechanical and thermal) properties of the material, in addition to laser radiation parameters (laser energy fluence, number of pulses). The qualitative aspects of laser ablation at λ=213 nm reveal a

  15. Mid - infrared solid state lasers for spectroscopic applications (United States)

    Terekhov, Yuri

    This work is devoted to study of novel high power middle-infrared (Mid-IR) laser sources enabling development of portable platform for sensing of organic molecules with the use of recently discovered Quartz Enhanced Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS). The ability to detect small concentrations is beneficial to monitor atmosphere pollution as well for biomedical applications such as analysis of human breath to detect earlier stages of cancer or virus activities. A QEPAS technique using a quartz tuning fork (QTF) as a detector enables a strong enhancement of measured signal when pump laser is modulated with a frequency coinciding with a natural frequency of a QTF. It is known that the detectability of acousto-optics based sensors is proportional to the square root of the laser intensity used for detection of analyte. That is the reason why commercially available semiconductor Mid-IR lasers having small output power limit sensitivity of modern QEPAS based sensors. The lack of high power broadly tunable lasers operating with a modulation frequency of quartz forks (~ 32.768 kHz) is the major motivation of this study. Commercially available Mid-IR (2-3.3 microm), single frequency, continuous wave (CW) fiber pumped lasers based on transition metal doped chalcogenides (e.g. Cr:ZnSe) prove to be efficient laser sources for organic molecules detection. However, their direct modulation is limited to several kHz, and cannot be directly used in combination with QEPAS. Hence, one objective of this work is to study and develop fiber laser pumped Ho:YAG (Er:YAG)/Cr:ZnSe tandem laser system/s. Ho (Holmium) and/or Er (Erbium) ions having long radiation lifetime (~ 10 ms) can effectively accumulate population inversion under CW fiber laser excitation. Utilization of acousto-optic (AO) modulators in the cavity of Ho:YAG (Er:YAG) laser will enable effective Q-Switching with repetition rate easily reaching the resonance frequency of a QTF. It is expected that utilization of Ho:YAG (Er

  16. Measurement of product of solid state laser materials by an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    average pump area is measured by Gaussian fit to the intensity profiles of the pump beam. The value of στ product of .... °И and °c repre- sent the Gaussian beam radii of the pump and signal (circulating intensity inside the laser .... of pump and laser beams, an edge filter was used to block the pump beam. Figure 2 shows.

  17. Laser Submerged Arc Welding (LUPuS) with Solid State Lasers (United States)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Olschok, Simon; Jakobs, Stefan

    The laser beam-submerged arc hybrid welding method originates from the knowledge that, with increasing penetration depth, the laser beam process has a tendency to pore formation in the lower weld regions. The coupling with the energy-efficient submerged-arc process improves degassing and reduces the tendency to pore formation. The newly developed hybrid welding process allows the welding of plates with a thickness larger than 20 mm in a single pass and the welding of thicker plates with the double-sided single pass technique. In this special hybrid process, the use of CO2-lasers causes problems when forward sliding flux of slag meets the laser beam path and forms an uncontrollable plasma plume in the beam path. This plasma then shields the work piece from the laser power and thus provokes the collapse of the laser keyhole and leads to process instability. The substitution of the CO2-laser with a modern solid-state laser significantly improves the performance and the stability of the hybrid process. This contribution will demonstrate the latest results and improvements by means of welding results gained with steel plates with a thickness of up to 40mm.

  18. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T


    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  19. Solid-state ring laser gyro for aerospace applications (United States)

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Gutty, François; Feugnet, Gilles; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Desilles, Gaël.


    We report on the development of a prototype solidstate ring laser gyro based on a diode-pumped neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal as the gain medium. We describe in this paper how we circumvent mode competition between the counter-propagating modes using a feedback loop acting on the differential losses. We then show how the non-linear frequency response can be significantly improved by vibrating the gain medium along the laser axis, leading to a behavior similar as a typical Helium-Neon ring laser gyro. We finally discuss the undergoing improvements for achieving high inertial performance with this device, with significant potential benefits in terms of cost and robustness as compared to other highperformance gyro technologies.

  20. Continuous-wave solid-state polymer laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivas, C.; Yang, J.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Pollnau, Markus

    Stable, continuous-wave laser emission near 1060 nm for a period of at least 2 h was demonstrated in polymer channel waveguides doped with a Nd-complex. Lasing was also achieved on the 878-nm, quasi-three-level transition.

  1. Ultra high brightness laser diode arrays for pumping of compact solid state lasers and direct applications (United States)

    Kohl, Andreas; Fillardet, Thierry; Laugustin, Arnaud; Rabot, Olivier


    High Power Laser Diodes (HPLD) are increasingly used in different fields of applications such as Industry, Medicine and Defense. Our significant improvements of performances (especially in power and efficiency) and a reproducible manufacturing process have led to reliable, highly robust components. For defense and security applications these devices are used predominantly for pumping of solid state lasers (ranging, designation, countermeasures, and sensors). Due to the drastically falling price per watt they are more and more replacing flash lamps as pump sources. By collimating the laser beam even with a bar to bar pitch of only 400μm. cutting edge brightness of our achieved Due the extremely high brightness and high power density these stacks are an enabling technology for the development of compact highly efficient portable solid state lasers for applications as telemeters and designators on small platforms such as small UAVs and handheld devices. In combination with beam homogenizing optics their compact size and high efficiency makes these devices perfectly suited as illuminators for portable active imaging systems. For gated active imaging systems a very short pulse at high PRF operation is required. For this application we have developed a diode driver board with an efficiency several times higher than that of a standard driver. As a consequence this laser source has very low power consumption and low waste heat dissipation. In combination with its compact size and the integrated beam homogenizing optics it is therefore ideally suited for use in portable gated active imaging systems. The kWatt peak power enables a range of several hundred meters. The devices described in this paper mostly operate at wavelength between 800 nm and 980nm. Results from diodes operating between 1300 nm and 1550 nm are presented as well.

  2. Army Solid State Laser Program: Design, Operation, and Mission Analysis for a Heat-Capacity Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K


    Solid-state lasers have held great promise for the generation of high-average-power, high-quality output beams for a number of decades. However, the inherent difficulty of scaling the active solid-state gain media while continuing to provide efficient cooling has limited demonstrated powers to <5kW. Even at the maximum demonstrated average powers, the output is most often delivered as continuous wave (CW) or as small energy pulses at high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and the beam divergence is typically >10X the diffraction limit. Challenges posed by optical distortions and depolarization arising from internal temperature gradients in the gain medium of a continuously cooled system are only increased for laser designs that would attempt to deliver the high average power in the form of high energy pulses (>25J) from a single coherent optical aperture. Although demonstrated phase-locking of multiple laser apertures may hold significant promise for the future scaling of solid-state laser systems,1 the continuing need for additional technical development and innovation coupled with the anticipated complexity of these systems effectively limits this approach for near-term multi-kW laser operation outside of a laboratory setting. We have developed and demonstrated a new operational mode for solid-state laser systems in which the cooling of the gain medium is separated in time from the lasing cycle. In ''heat-capacity'' operation, no cooling takes place during lasing. The gain medium is pumped very uniformly and the waste heat from the excitation process is stored in the solid-state gain medium. By depositing the heat on time scales that are short compared to thermal diffusion across the optical aperture, very high average power operation is possible while maintaining low optical distortions. After a lasing cycle, aggressive cooling can then take place in the absence of lasing, limited only by the fracture limit of the solid-state medium. This mode

  3. Inkjet-printed vertically emitting solid-state organic lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mhibik, Oussama; Forget, Sébastien; Defranoux, Christophe; Sanaur, Sébastien


    In this paper, we show that Inkjet Printing can be successfully applied to external-cavity vertically-emitting thin-film organic lasers, and can be used to generate a diffraction-limited output beam with an output energy as high as 33.6 uJ with a slope efficiency S of 34%. Laser emission shows to be continuously tunable from 570 to 670 nm using an intracavity polymer-based Fabry-Perot etalon. High-optical quality films with several um thicknesses are realized thanks to ink-jet printing. We introduce a new optical material where EMD6415 commercial ink constitutes the optical host matrix and exhibits a refractive index of 1.5 and an absorption coefficient of 0.66 cm-1 at 550-680 nm. Standard laser dyes like Pyromethene 597 and Rhodamine 640 are incorporated in solution to the EMD6415 ink. Such large size " printed pixels " of 50 mm 2 present uniform and flat surfaces, with roughness measured as low as 1.5 nm in different locations of a 50um x 50um AFM scan. Finally, as the gain capsules fabricated by Inkjet pri...

  4. High Power Laser Diode Arrays for 2-Micron Solid State Coherent Lidars Applications (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra; Sudesh, Vikas; Baker, Nathaniel


    Laser diode arrays are critical components of any diode-pumped solid state laser systems, constraining their performance and reliability. Laser diode arrays (LDAs) are used as the pump source for energizing the solid state lasing media to generate an intense coherent laser beam with a high spatial and spectral quality. The solid state laser design and the characteristics of its lasing materials define the operating wavelength, pulse duration, and power of the laser diodes. The pump requirements for high pulse energy 2-micron solid state lasers are substantially different from those of more widely used 1-micron lasers and in many aspects more challenging [1]. Furthermore, the reliability and lifetime demanded by many coherent lidar applications, such as global wind profiling from space and long-range clear air turbulence detection from aircraft, are beyond the capability of currently available LDAs. In addition to the need for more reliable LDAs with longer lifetime, further improvement in the operational parameters of high power quasi-cw LDAs, such as electrical efficiency, brightness, and duty cycle, are also necessary for developing cost-effective 2-micron coherent lidar systems for applications that impose stringent size, heat dissipation, and power constraints. Global wind sounding from space is one of such applications, which is the main driver for this work as part of NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program. This paper discusses the current state of the 792 nm LDA technology and the technology areas being pursued toward improving their performance. The design and development of a unique characterization facility for addressing the specific issues associated with the LDAs for pumping 2-micron coherent lidar transmitters and identifying areas of technological improvement will be described. Finally, the results of measurements to date on various standard laser diode packages, as well as custom-designed packages with potentially longer lifetime, will be reported.

  5. Enhanced 2D-image upconversion using solid-state lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Karamehmedovic, Emir; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin


    the image inside a nonlinear PPKTP crystal located in the high intra-cavity field of a 1342 nm solid-state Nd:YVO4 laser, an upconverted image at 488 nm is generated. We have experimentally achieved an upconversion efficiency of 40% under CW conditions. The proposed technique can be further adapted for high...

  6. Nonlinear Effects in CW Mode-Locked Solid-State Lasers with Semiconductor Saturable Absorbers


    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Krimer, D.O.


    The influence of nonlinear properties of semiconductor saturable absorbers on ultrashort pulse generation was investigated. It was shown, that linewidth enhancement, quadratic and linear ac Stark effect contribute essentially to the mode locking in cw solid-state lasers, that can increase the pulse stability, decrease pulse duration and reduce the mode locking threshold

  7. An analysis of the temperature distribution in finite solid-state laser rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrukh, U.O. (Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA 23668 (US)); Buoncristiani, A.M.; Byvik, C.E. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665 (US))


    An expression for the time-dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid-state laser rod, for an arbitrary distribution of pump energy, has been derived. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beams is included. This formulation was employed to predict the time evolution of temperature in Ti:sapphire laser rods and in Nd:YAG rods of specific dimensions.

  8. An analysis of the temperature distribution in finite solid-state laser rods (United States)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.; Buoncristiani, A. Martin; Byvik, Charles E.


    An expression for the time-dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid-state laser rod, for an arbitrary distribution of pump energy, has been derived. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beams is included. This formulation was used to predict the time evolution of temperature in Ti:sapphire laser rods and in Nd:YAG rods of specific dimensions.

  9. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianquan


    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper is the first of a four series treating, theoretically with experimental comparison, the issue of solid state laser passive optical Q-switching regime. In this first paper the technique of solid state lasers passive optical Q-switching is numerically investigated considering the case of longitudinally and transversally uniform photon, population inversion and absorption centres densities. The coupled differential equations defining photon, population inversion and absorption centres densities are numerically solved being the basis of passively optical Q-switched laser functional simulation. The numerical simulations are performed using the several software packages, mostly SCILAB programs. The developed SCILAB programs can be used for a large range of saturable absorption centre and active media parameters, mainly the initial (low signal optical transmittance of the passive optical Q-switch. The developed FORTRAN and SCILAB programs can be applied for passively Q-switched solid state lasers of several types emitting at several NIR wavelengths, in domain 1 ÷ 2 μm. For validating the numerical simulation results are compared with The results of the numerical simulation are compared with experimentally obtained ones, in the case of a LiF:F2- passively Q-switched Nd:YAG. A good agreement between the two kinds of results is observed.

  11. Advanced 2-micron Solid-state Laser for Wind and CO2 Lidar Applications (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  12. Bistability of self-modulation oscillations in an autonomous solid-state ring laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudetskii, V Yu [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)


    Bistable self-modulation regimes of generation for a ring YAG : Nd chip laser with the counterpropagating waves asymmetrically coupled via backward scattering are simulated numerically. Two branches of bistable self-modulation regimes of generation are found in the domain of the parametric resonance between the selfmodulation and relaxation oscillations. The self-modulation regimes observed in earlier experiments pertain to only one of the branches. Possible reasons for such a discrepancy are considered, related to the influence of technical and natural noise on the dynamics of solid-state ring lasers. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  13. Mercury and beyond: diode-pumped solid-state lasers for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeau, C.; Beach, R.J.; Bayramian, A.; Chanteloup, J.C.; Ebbers, C.A.; Emanuel, M.A.; Orth, C.D.; Rothenberg, J.E.; Schaffers, K.I.; Skidmore, J.A.; Sutton, S.B.; Zapata, L.E.; Payne, S.A.; Powell, H.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    We have begun building the 'Mercury' laser system as the first in a series of new generation diode-pumped solid-state lasers for inertial fusion research. Mercury will integrate three key technologies: diodes, crystals, and gas cooling, within a unique laser architecture that is scalable to kilo-joule energy levels for fusion energy applications. The primary performance goals include 10% electrical efficiencies at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length at 1.047 {mu}m wavelength. When completed, Mercury will allow rep-rated target experiments with multiple target chambers for high energy density physics research. (authors)

  14. Study of a QCW light-emitting-diode (LED)-pumped solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kangin; Bae, Sangyoon; Gwag, Jinseog; Kwon, Jinhyuk; Yi, Jonghoon [Yeungnam University, Gyeungsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The lasing of solid-state lasers pumped by light emitting diodes (LEDs) was studied to replace the quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) laser diode in pulse laser pumping. The investigated solid-state gain media included Nd-doped solid-state materials (Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, Nd/Cr:YAG), Ti:sapphire, and solid dye. The gain medium was surrounded by arrays of LEDs very closely. The distribution of the LED radiation absorbed in the gain medium was calculated by using non-sequential ray tracing software. The calculated data transferred to the cavity analysis software and the lasing characteristics were simulated. The calculated results for the absorbed LED distribution and the absorption efficiency in the Nd:YAG rod were compared to experimentally measured fluorescence profile and the absorption efficiency and were found to be accurate within an error of 11%. Among the investigated gain media, Nd/Cr:YAG showed the lowest lasing threshold. We also found that the use of reflector in the pumping chamber could lower the lasing threshold of Nd:YAG to half the lasing threshold without the reflector.

  15. High peak power solid-state laser for micromachining of hard materials (United States)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Quitter, John P.; Ray, Gregory M.; Kuntze, Thomas; Wiessner, Alexander O.; Govorkov, Sergei V.; Heglin, Mike


    Laser micromachining has become a key enabling technology in the ever-continuing trend of miniaturization in microelectronics, micro-optics, and micromechanics. New applications have become commercially viable due to the emergence of innovative laser sources, such as diode pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL), and the progress in processing technology. Examples of industrial applications are laser-drilled micro-injection nozzles for highly efficient automobile engines, or manufacturing of complex spinnerets for production of synthetic fibers. The unique advantages of laser-based techniques stem from their ability to produce high aspect ratio holes, while yielding low heat affected zones with exceptional surface quality, roundness and taper tolerances. Additionally, the ability to drill blind holes and slots in very hard materials such as diamond, silicon, sapphire, ceramics and steel is of great interest for many applications in microelectronics, semiconductor and automotive industry. This kind of high quality, high aspect ratio micromachining requires high peak power and short pulse durations.

  16. Single-mode, All-Solid-State Nd:YAG Laser Pumped UV Converter (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Armstrong, Darrell, J.; Edwards, William C.; Singh, Upendra N.


    In this paper, the status of a high-energy, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser pumped nonlinear optics based UV converter development is discussed. The high-energy UV transmitter technology is being developed for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms using differential lidar technique. The goal is to generate greater than 200 mJ/pulse with 10-50 Hz PRF at wavelengths of 308 nm and 320 nm. A diode-pumped, all-solid-state and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser designed to provide conductively cooled operation at 1064 nm has been built and tested. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of >1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of UV converter arrangement basically consists of an IR Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and a Sum Frequency Generator (SFG) setups that are pumped by 532 nm wavelength obtained via Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In this paper, the operation of an inter cavity SFG with CW laser seeding scheme generating 320 nm wavelength is presented. Efforts are underway to improve conversion efficiency of this mJ class UV converter by modifying the spatial beam profile of the pump laser.

  17. Development of mid-infrared solid state lasers for spaceborne lidar (United States)

    Whitney, Donald A.; Kim, Kyong H.


    This semiannual progress report covers work performed during the period from April 13, 1988 to October 13, 1988 under NASA grant number NAG-1-877 entitled, Development of mid-infrared solid state lasers for spaceborne lidar. We have designed a flashlamp-pumped Cr3(+);GSAG laser of pulsed laser energy greater than 200 mJ and of pulse width of 1 ms FWHM to simulate a high-power laser diode in pumping mid-infrared laser crystals such as Tm3(+), Er3(+), and/or Ho3(+)-ion doped YAG, YLF or other host materials. This Cr3(+);GSAG laser will be used to determine optimum conditions for laser diode pumped mid-infrared lasers, maximum energy extraction limit with longitudinal pumping, thermal damage limit, and other problems related to high power laser diode pumping. We have completed a modification of an existing flashlamp-pumped and liquid nitrogen cooled rare earth laser system for 60 J electrical input energy and a 500 micron pulse width, and have carried out preliminary experiments with a Ho(+):Er3(+):Tm3(+):YAG crystal to test the system performance. This flashlamp-pumped rare earth laser system will be used to determine optimum Tm3(+)-ion concentration in Ho3(+):Cr3(+):Tm3(+):YAG crystal in the remaining research period.

  18. Diode laser pumped solid state laser. Part IV. ; Noise analysis. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 4. ; Noise kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, H.; Seno, T.; Tanabe, Y. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Concerning the second harmonic generation(SHG) of diode laser pumped solid state laser using a nonlinear optical material, the researches are carried out to pracitically apply to the optical pickup. Therefore, the reduction of output optical noise has become the important researching subject. The theoretical and experimental analyses of noise generating mechanism were carried out for the system in which Nd;YAG as the laser diode and KTP (KTiOPO {sub 4}) as the nonlinear optical crystal were used. The following findings for the noise generating mechanism could be obtained: The competitive interaction between the polarization modes was dominant noise mechanism in the high frequency range from 1 to 20MHz and the noise could be removed sufficiently by using the QWP(quarter wave plate). On the other hand, the noise observed in the low frequency range from 100 to 200kHz depended on the resonance length, agreed qualitatively with the theoretical analysis of the noise to the competitive longitudinal modes and agreed quantitatively with the noise generating frequency range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Solar radiation pumped solid state of lasers for Solar Power Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ruiyi [New Jersey (United States)


    The Laser Solar Power Satellites (L-SPS) is the most promising way to overcome global energy and environmental and economical problems. The purpose was to use the favorable combination of solar radiation, modern lasers and the extremely promising phenomenon Optical Phase Conjugation (OPC). Direct conversion of solar energy to energy of a high-power laser beam has the advantage of high efficiency and precise energy transportation. In this paper, direct solar radiation pumping of the laser is compared with the pumping using the intermediate stage of the conversion of the solar radiation in electrical energy. Possible solid-state lasers that can be used in L-SPS are also discussed (including optical system and cooling system). [Spanish] Los Satelites de Energia Solar Laser (L-SPS) son la forma mas prometedora para contrarrestar los problemas globales de energia, ambientales y problemas economicos. El proposito fue el de usar la combinacion favorable de radiacion solar, laseres modernos y el fenomeno extremadamente prometedor de conjugacion de fase optica (OPC). La conversion directa de energia solar a energia de un rayo laser de alta potencia tiene la ventaja de la alta eficiencia y precision de la transportacion de la energia. En este documento la radiacion solar directa impulsada por el laser se compara con la impulsion usando el estado intermedio de conversion de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Tambien se analizan los posibles laseres de estado solido que pueden usarse en L-SPS (incluyendo el sistema optico y el sistema de enfriamiento).

  20. Solderjet bumping technique used to manufacture a compact and robust green solid-state laser (United States)

    Ribes, P.; Burkhardt, T.; Hornaff, M.; Kousar, S.; Burkhardt, D.; Beckert, E.; Gilaberte, M.; Guilhot, D.; Montes, D.; Galan, M.; Ferrando, S.; Laudisio, M.; Belenguer, T.; Ibarmia, S.; Gallego, P.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.


    Solder-joining using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glasses, ceramics and optical crystals due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. The Solderjet Bumping technique is used to assemble a miniaturized laser resonator in order to obtain higher robustness, wider thermal conductivity performance, higher vacuum and radiation compatibility, and better heat and long term stability compared with identical glued devices. The resulting assembled compact and robust green diode-pumped solid-state laser is part of the future Raman Laser Spectrometer designed for the Exomars European Space Agency (ESA) space mission 2018.

  1. High Energy, Single-Mode, All-Solid-State and Tunable UV Laser Transmitter (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Hovis, FLoyd


    A high energy, single mode, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser primarily for pumping an UV converter is developed. Greater than 1 J/pulse at 50 HZ PRF and pulse widths around 22 ns have been demonstrated. Higher energy, greater efficiency may be possible. Refinements are known and practical to implement. Technology Demonstration of a highly efficient, high-pulse-energy, single mode UV wavelength generation using flash lamp pumped laser has been achieved. Greater than 90% pump depletion is observed. 190 mJ extra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency > 21% (> 27% for 1 mJ seed). 160 mJ intra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency up to 24% Fluence laser is being refined to match or exceed the above UV converter results. Currently the Nd:YAG pump laser development is a technology demonstration. System can be engineered for compact packaging.

  2. Transient analytical solution of temperature distribution and fracture limits in pulsed solid-state laser rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibib Khalid S.


    Full Text Available The exact analytical solution of axis-symmetry transient temperature and Tresca failure stress in pulsed mode solid-state laser rod is derived using integral transform method. The result obtained from this work is compared with previously published data and good agreement is found. The effect of increasing period is studied, and it is found that at constant pulse width as the period is increased, the allowable pumping power is increased too. Furthermore, the effect of changing pulse width with a constant period is studied, and it is found that as the pulse width is increased, the allowable pumping power is decreased. The effect of duty cycle is studied also and it is found that as duty cycle is increased the allowable pumping power is decreased. This work permits proper selection of pulse width, period and duty cycle to avoid laser rod fracture while obtaining maximum output laser power in the designing of laser system.

  3. Compact, diode-pumped, solid-state lasers for next generation defence and security sensors (United States)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; McRae, I.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.


    Low-cost semiconductor laser diode pump sources have made a dramatic impact in sectors such as advanced manufacturing. They are now disrupting other sectors, such as defence and security (D&S), where Thales UK is a manufacturer of sensor systems for application on land, sea, air and man portable. In this talk, we will first give an overview of the market trends and challenges in the D&S sector. Then we will illustrate how low cost pump diodes are enabling new directions in D&S sensors, by describing two diode pumped, solid- state laser products currently under development at Thales UK. The first is a new generation of Laser Target Designators (LTD) that are used to identify targets for the secure guiding of munitions. Current systems are bulky, expensive and require large battery packs to operate. The advent of low cost diode technology, merged with our novel solid-state laser design, has created a designator that will be the smallest, lowest cost, STANAG compatible laser designator on the market. The LTD delivers greater that 50mJ per pulse up to 20Hz, and has compact dimensions of 125×70×55mm. Secondly, we describe an ultra-compact, eye-safe, solid-state laser rangefinder (LRF) with reduced size, weight and power consumption compared to existing products. The LRF measures 100×55×34mm, weighs 200g, and can range to greater than 10km with a single laser shot and at a reprate of 1Hz. This also leverages off advances in laser pump diodes, but also utilises low cost, high reliability, packaging technology commonly found in the telecoms sector. As is common in the D&S sector, the products are designed to work in extreme environments, such as wide temperature range (-40 to +71°C) and high levels of shock and vibration. These disruptive products enable next- generation laser sensors such as rangefinders, target designators and active illuminated imagers.

  4. Tunable line width all solid state double spectral line sodium beacon laser (United States)

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xiafei; Ren, Huaijin; Wei, Bin; Yuan, Liao; Gong, Shenggang; Li, Tao; Gu, Jingliang; Wan, Min; Fan, Guobin


    We developed a tunable-line-width 101 W average-power all-solid-state 589nm double spectral line sodium beacon laser. The laser was based on the technical route of 1064nm and 1319nm Nd:YAG laser extra cavity sum frequency generation. The laser contained two spectral lines: 589.1591 nm and 589.1571 nm. The former line was matched to the sodium D2a absorption line with the average power of 81W, while the other line was matched to the sodium D2b absorption line with the average power of 20W. The beam quality of the two spectral line lasers was both less than 1.3. The two lasers were polarized-combined to transmit coaxially. The initial line width of the laser was about 0.3GHz, which was in the comb-like discrete structure of about three longitudinal modes. We used a white noise generator to modulate the 1064nm single frequency seed laser in frequency domain. The line width's tunability was accomplished by tuning the driving power of the white noise generator. The final line width tuning range of the 589nm laser was 0.3GHz to 1.1GHz.

  5. Broadly tunable (440-670 nm) solid-state organic laser with disposable capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Mhibik, Oussama; Siove, Alain; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sébastien


    An innovative concept of thin-film organic solid-state laser is proposed, with diffraction-limited output and a broad tuning range covering the visible spectrum under UV optical pumping. The laser beam is tunable over 230 nm, from 440 to 670 nm, with a 3 nm full width at half maximum typical spectral width. The structure consists of a compact fixed bulk optical cavity, a polymeric intracavity etalon for wavelength tuning, as well as five different disposable glass slides coated with a dye-doped polymer film, forming a very simple and low-cost gain medium. The use of interchangeable/disposable "gain capsules" is an alternative solution to photodegradation issues, since gain chips can be replaced without realignment of the cavity. The laser lifetime of a single chip in ambient conditions and without encapsulation was extrapolated to be around 107 pulses at a microjoule energy-per-pulse level.

  6. Computational model for operation of 2 mum co-doped Tm,Ho solid state lasers. (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A; Urata, Yoshiharu; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi


    A computational model for operation of co-doped Tm,Ho solid-state lasers is developed coupling (i) 8-level rate equations with (ii) TEM00 laser beam distribution, and (iii) complex heat dissipation model. Simulations done for Q-switched approximately 0.1 J giant pulse generation by Tm,Ho:YLF laser show that approximately 43% of the 785 nm light diode side-pumped energy is directly transformed into the heat inside the crystal, whereas approximately 45% is the spontaneously emitted radiation from (3)F(4), (5)I(7) , (3)H(4) and (3)H(5) levels. In water-cooled operation this radiation is absorbed inside the thermal boundary layer where the heat transfer is dominated by heat conduction. In high-power operation the resulting temperature increase is shown to lead to (i) significant decrease in giant pulse energy and (ii) thermal lensing.

  7. An all-solid-state laser source at 671 nm for cold atom experiments with lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Ulrich; Canalias, Carlota; Zukauskas, Andrius; Trénec, Gérard; Vigué, Jacques; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe


    We present an all solid-state narrow line-width laser source emitting $670\\,\\mathrm{mW}$ output power at $671\\,\\mathrm{nm}$ delivered in a diffraction-limited beam. The source is based on a frequency-doubled diode-end-pumped ring laser operating on the ${^4F}_{3/2} \\rightarrow {^4I}_{13/2}$ transition in Nd:YVO$_4$. By using periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (ppKTP) in an external build-up cavity, doubling efficiencies of up to 86% are obtained. Tunability of the source over $100\\,\\rm GHz$ is accomplished. We demonstrate the suitability of this robust frequency-stabilized light source for laser cooling of lithium atoms. Finally a simplified design based on intra-cavity doubling is described and first results are presented.

  8. Reconfigurable Solid-state Dye-doped Polymer Ring Resonator Lasers (United States)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Fan, Xudong


    This paper presents wavelength configurable on-chip solid-state ring lasers fabricated by a single-mask standard lithography. The single- and coupled-ring resonator hosts were fabricated on a fused-silica wafer and filled with 3,3′-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3), Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and 3,3′-Diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide (CY5)-doped polymer as the reconfigurable gain media. The recorded lasing threshold was ~220 nJ/mm2 per pulse for the single-ring resonator laser with R6G, marking the lowest threshold shown by solid-state dye-doped polymer lasers fabricated with a standard lithography process on a chip. A single-mode lasing from a coupled-ring resonator system with the lasing threshold of ~360 nJ/mm2 per pulse was also demonstrated through the Vernier effect. The renewability of the dye-doped polymer was examined by removing and redepositing the dye-doped polymer on the same resonator hosts for multiple cycles. We recorded consistent emissions from the devices for all trials, suggesting the feasibility of employing this technology for numerous photonic and biochemical sensing applications that entail for sustainable, reconfigurable, and low lasing threshold coherent light sources on a chip. PMID:26674508

  9. Solid state amorphization of nanocrystalline nickel by cryogenic laser shock peening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Chang, E-mail:; Ren, Zhencheng; Zhao, Jingyi; Hou, Xiaoning; Dong, Yalin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325 (United States); Liu, Yang; Sang, Xiahan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)


    In this study, complete solid state amorphization in nanocrystalline nickel has been achieved through cryogenic laser shock peening (CLSP). High resolution transmission electron microscopy has revealed the complete amorphous structure of the sample after CLSP processing. A molecular dynamic model has been used to investigate material behavior during the shock loading and the effects of nanoscale grain boundaries on the amorphization process. It has been found that the initial nanoscale grain boundaries increase the initial Gibbs free energy before plastic deformation and also serve as dislocation emission sources during plastic deformation to contribute to defect density increase, leading to the amorphization of pure nanocrystalline nickel.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of heat generation and efficient measurement of fractional thermal loading in a solid-state laser medium (United States)

    Wang, Y. T.; Zhang, R. H.


    In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of heat generation in a solid-state laser medium. The fractional thermal loadings are different for different physical processes in a laser medium, including the fluorescence process, stimulated emission, energy transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption. Applying this theoretical analysis in a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1342 nm, and using a simple and efficient method to measure the thermal loading of the solid-state laser medium presented, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically calculated results.

  11. Single-mode solid-state polymer dye laser fabricated with standard I-line UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Mironov, Andrej; Nilsson, Daniel


    We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G.......We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G....

  12. Microdrilling and micromachining with diode-pumped solid-state lasers (United States)

    Otani, T.; Herbst, L.; Heglin, M.; Govorkov, S. V.; Wiessner, A. O.

    The trend of the ever-continuing miniaturization requires fast and flexible processing tools. Lasers are flexible tools which have proven their reliability in manufacturing of macrofeatures for many years already. However, to process small features the requirements of the laser source, e.g. in regard to the beam profile, are very high. Innovative laser sources which meet these requirements, such as diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and the progress in processing technology, have made microfeature processing commercially viable during recent years. Examples of industrial applications are laser-drilled micro-injection nozzles for highly efficient automobile engines or manufacturing of complex spinnerets for production of synthetic fibers. The unique advantages of laser-based techniques stem from their ability to produce high-aspect-ratio holes, while yielding small heat-affected zones with exceptional surface quality, roundness and taper tolerances. Additionally, the ability to drill blind holes and slots in very hard materials such as diamond, silicon, sapphire, ceramics and steel is of great interest for many applications in the microelectronics, semiconductor and automotive industries. This kind of high-quality, high-aspect-ratio micromachining requires high peak powers and short pulse durations.

  13. All-solid-state passively Q -switched mode-locked Nd-doped fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenteno, L.A.; Po, H.; Cho, N.M. (Polaroid Corporation, 38 Henry Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (US))


    We report the generation of {ital Q}-switched mode-locked pulses from a Nd-doped fiber laser that uses a solid-state solution of BDN-I dye as the saturable absorber and is pumped by a GaAlAs laser diode. For an absorbed pump power of 110 m W, pulses of 8-nsec duration at a repetition rate of 14 MHz can be generated under an 800-nsec-wide {ital Q}-switched envelope at a repetition rate of 100 kHz, yielding an average output power of 8 m W near 1.06 {mu}m. This corresponds to approximately 9 W of peak power in the main mode-locked pulse.

  14. Graphene oxide reduction by solid-state laser irradiation for bolometric applications (United States)

    Kondrashov, Vladislav A.; Struchkov, Nikolay S.; Rozanov, Roman Yu; Nevolin, Vladimir K.; Kopylova, Daria S.; Nasibulin, Albert G.


    We present a method for reduced graphene oxide (GO) patterning on the surface of GO film by a 445 nm solid-state laser with the adjustable fluence from 0.2–20 kJ cm‑2. We demonstrate that the optimal argon concentration in air to obtain good quality reduced GO films is 90%. Varying the laser irradiation energy density allows controlling the resistance and I G /I D and I G /I 2D ratios of Raman peak intensities. As a result, we demonstrate the possibility of forming of conductive patterns with a sheet resistance of 189 Ohm/□ and ∼1 μm film thickness by a local reduction of the GO. The fabricated structures reveal excellent bolometric response with a high speed and sensitivity to the radiation in the visible wavelength region.

  15. Generation of double-scale pulses in a LD-pumped Yb:phosphate solid-state laser. (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-Biao; Feng, Guo-Ying; Zhou, Shou-Huan


    We have demonstrated a generation of double-scale in a laser diode (LD)-pumped Yb:phosphate solid-state laser. The double-scale pulse with a spectrum bandwidth of 4.6 nm is obtained at a central wavelength of 1030 nm with maximum output power of 377 mW and 80 MHz repetition rate. The autocorrelation function of the double-scale pulse contained a 510 fs short peak and 12.51 ps long pedestal. To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a double-scale pulse mode-locked solid-state laser.

  16. Flame Characterization Using a Tunable Solid-State Laser with Direct UV Pumping (United States)

    Kamal, Mohammed M.; Dubinskii, Mark A.; Misra, Prabhakar


    Tunable solid-state lasers with direct UV pumping, based on d-f transitions of rare earth ions incorporated in wide band-gap dielectric crystals, are reliable sources of laser radiation that are suitable for excitation of combustion-related free radicals. We have employed such a laser for analytical flame characterization utilizing Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. LIF spectra of alkane-air flames (used for studying combustion processes under normal and microgravity conditions) excited in the region of the A-X (0,0) OH-absorption band have been recorded and found to be both temperature-sensitive and positionally-sensitive. In addition, also clearly noticeable was the sensitivity of the spectra to the specific wavelength used for data registration. The LiCAF:Ce laser shows good prospects for being able to cover the spectral region between 280 and 340 nm and therefore be used excitation of combustion-intermediates such as the hydroxyl OH, methoxy CH30 and methylthio CH3S radicals.

  17. Laguerre-Gaussian modes selection in diode-pumped solid-state lasers (United States)

    Senatsky, Yury; Bisson, Jean-François; Li, Jianlang; Shirakawa, Akira; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi; Ueda, Ken-ichi


    Over the last twenty years, diode pumping of solid-state lasers has opened new prospects for the mode control and formation of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams, enabling a large variety of applications. Experiments on scalar and vector LG modes selection in Nd3+- and Yb3+-doped ceramics and crystal lasers carried out at the Institute for Laser Science, Tokyo are reviewed. Selection of LG modes from low to high orders using intra-cavity elements, polarization-selective mirrors, or shaping the pump beam profile, is considered. Illustrations of record-high-order LG hollow modes, multiring modes with highly directional propagation properties, characteristics of cw and pulsed lasers with radially or azimuthally polarized beams of high polarization purity are presented. General solutions of the wave equation for the axi-symmetric electric field, which describe LG beams of various profiles, are proposed for data analysis. In parallel, a short review on LG modes selection studies carried out at other laboratories is given.

  18. Intense Plasma Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz Probe Science with Ultrafast Lasers for Solid State Physics (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0029 Intense Plasma-Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz probe science with ultrafast lasers for Solid State Physics ...Plasma-Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz probe science with ultrafast lasers for Solid State Physics , 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT... Physics Matter Probe 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER OF PAGES  11  19a.  NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  19. All-solid-state deep ultraviolet laser for single-photon ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Yuan, Chengqian; Liu, Xianhu; Zeng, Chenghui; Zhang, Hanyu; Jia, Meiye; Wu, Yishi; Luo, Zhixun; Fu, Hongbing; Yao, Jiannian


    We report here the development of a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer utilizing single-photon ionization based on an all-solid-state deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser system. The DUV laser was achieved from the second harmonic generation using a novel nonlinear optical crystal KBe2BO3F2 under the condition of high-purity N2 purging. The unique property of this laser system (177.3-nm wavelength, 15.5-ps pulse duration, and small pulse energy at ∼15 μJ) bears a transient low power density but a high single-photon energy up to 7 eV, allowing for ionization of chemicals, especially organic compounds free of fragmentation. Taking this advantage, we have designed both pulsed nanospray and thermal evaporation sources to form supersonic expansion molecular beams for DUV single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (DUV-SPI-MS). Several aromatic amine compounds have been tested revealing the fragmentation-free performance of the DUV-SPI-MS instrument, enabling applications to identify chemicals from an unknown mixture.

  20. Develop Solid State Laser Sources for High Resolution Video Projection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickeen, B.K.


    Magic Lantern and Honeywell FM and T worked together to develop lower-cost, visible light solid-state laser sources to use in laser projector products. Work included a new family of video displays that use lasers as light sources. The displays would project electronic images up to 15 meters across and provide better resolution and clarity than movie film, up to five times the resolution of the best available computer monitors, up to 20 times the resolution of television, and up to six times the resolution of HDTV displays. The products that could be developed as a result of this CRADA could benefit the economy in many ways, such as: (1) Direct economic impact in the local manufacture and marketing of the units. (2) Direct economic impact in exports and foreign distribution. (3) Influencing the development of other elements of display technology that take advantage of the signals that these elements allow. (4) Increased productivity for engineers, FAA controllers, medical practitioners, and military operatives.

  1. Diode-pumped solid state laser. (Part V). ; Short pulse laser oscillation. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 5. ; Tan pulse hasshin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, M.; Bando, N. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A semiconductor laser (LD) excited solid state laser using an LD as an excited light source is under discussion for its practical applications to measurements, processing, communications, office automation, and medical areas. This paper describes the discussions given on the short pulse transmission using AOQ switching elements in the LD excited solid state laser with a long wave length band (1.3{mu}m), which is expected of its application in the communications and measurements area. Based on a possibility of raising a measurements resolution by making the pluses in the LD excited solid state laser, and experiments were performed using Nd:YLF as a laser host. as a results, it was found that the smaller the effective mode volume V {sub eff},the smaller the pulse width, and that the ratio of number of initial inversion distribution (N{sub i}/N{sub t}), an important parameter to determine pulse widths, can be obtained from the ratio of the LD exciting light to the input power (P{sub in}/P{sub t}). 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J


    Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

  3. Wavelength tunable dual channel solid state laser for terahertz difference frequency generation (United States)

    Hale, Evan; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Venus, George; Divliansky, Ivan; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L.; Glebov, Leonid


    The generation of tunable narrowband terahertz (THz) radiation has shown much interest in recent years. THz systems are used for rotational-vibrational spectroscopy, nondestructive inspection, security screening and others. Monochromatic THz emission has been generated by means of THz parametric oscillation, nonlinear difference frequency generation, and quantum cascade lasers. Intracavity difference frequency generation (DFG) in the nonlinear crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) is known as an efficient way to generate a continuous wave THz radiation. A novel high power solid state resonator is presented with the use of volume Bragg grating (VBG) technology to create a dual channel system by spectral beam combination. The system consists of two separate Tm:YLF crystals and two VBGs for narrowband wavelength selection. At the end of the resonator both channels share common spherical mirrors, which provide feedback and focuses the beam for nonlinear purposes. This allows each channel to be independent in power and wavelength, eliminating gain competition and allowing individual wavelength tunability. The VBGs are recorded in photo-thermo-refractive glass, which has a high laser induced damage threshold and can withstand the high intracavity power present in the resonator. Tunability of the system has shown spectral spacing from 5 to 20 nm, 0.4 - 1.7 THz, and intracavity continuous wave power levels from 80 to 100 W. By placing the GaAs crystal near the waist, THz radiation can be extracted from the cavity.

  4. Synthesis, structure, and physical properties of hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state dye lasers. (United States)

    García-Moreno, I; Costela, A; Cuesta, A; García, O; del Agua, D; Sastre, R


    We report on the synthesis, structural characterization, physical properties, and lasing action of two organic dyes, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and Pyrromethene 597 (PM597), incorporated into new hybrid organic-inorganic materials, where the organic component was either poly(2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate) (PHEMA) or copolymers of HEMA with methyl methacrylate (MMA), and the inorganic counterpart consisted of silica derived from hydrolysis-condensation of methyltriethoxysilane (TRIEOS) in weight proportion of up to 30%. Lasing efficiencies of up 23% and high photostabilities, with no sign of degradation in the initial laser output after 100 000 pump pulses at 10 Hz, were demonstrated when pumping the samples transversely at 534 nm with 5.5 mJ/pulse. A direct relationship could be established between the structure of the hybrid materials, analyzed by solid-state NMR, and their laser behavior. An inorganic network dominated by di-/tri- substituted silicates in a proportion approximately 35:65, corresponding to samples of HEMA with 15 and 20 wt % proportion of TRIEOS, optimizes the lasing photostability. The thermal properties of these materials, together with the high homogeneity revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, even in compounds with high silica content, indicate their microstructure to be a continuous phase, corresponding to the polymer matrix, which "traps" the silica components at molecular level via covalent bonding, with few or no silica islands.

  5. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  6. Graded Reflectivity Mirror for the Solid State Heat Capacity Laser Final Report CRADA No. TC-2085-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Boeing Company, to develop a Graded Reflectivity Mirror (GRM) to achieve improved near field fill and higher brightness in the far field output of LLNL’s Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL).

  7. Mode-locking of solid-state lasers by single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotermund, F; Cho, W B; Choi, S Y; Baek, I H; Yim, J H; Lee, S; Schmidt, A; Steinmeyer, G; Griebner, U; Yeom, D I; Kim, K; Petrov, V


    Universal use of single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorber devices for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers between 0.8 and 2 {mu}m is discussed. The advantages in comparison to semiconductor saturable absorbers are emphasised. We briefly describe the manufacturing process and the essential optical properties, and review experimental results obtained with various types of femtosecond and picosecond solid-state lasers in the steady-state regime. We also demonstrate that a single hybrid saturable absorber used in transmission can be used to mode-lock four different types of lasers operating between 1 and 2 {mu}m. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  8. Synchronously pumped continuous-wave mode-locked yellow Raman laser at 559 nm. (United States)

    Granados, Eduardo; Pask, Helen M; Spence, David J


    We demonstrate the operation of a continuous-wave (CW) picosecond yellow laser operating at 559 nm. A solid-state Raman laser using a KGW crystal was synchronously pumped by an 80 MHz laser operating at 532 nm. The output pulses were compressed from 10 ps at 532 nm down to 3.2 ps at 559 nm, strongly depending on the cavity length detuning. Slope efficiencies up to 42% were observed when the system was optimized for maximum output power. This technique can be extended to a range of visible wavelengths between 550-600 nm by using different Raman materials, and by cascaded conversion.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center); Welch, A.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)); Motamedi, M. (Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch); Rastegar, S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)); Tittel, F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)); Esterowitz, L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))


    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  11. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  12. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.


    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  13. Solid state laser employing diamond having color centers as a laser active material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, S.C.; De Shazer, L.G.


    A laser is described comprising: resonant cavity means for supporting coherent radiation; a diamond containing color centers as a laser active material; means for exciting the color centers to emit coherent radiation; and optical path means for providing an exit path for the radiation from the resonant cavity means.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of Dy3 + ion doped tellurite glasses for solid state lasers and white LEDs (United States)

    Himamaheswara Rao, V.; Syam Prasad, P.; Mohan Babu, M.; Venkateswara Rao, P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Luís F., Santos; Veeraiah, N.


    Rare earth ion Dy3 +-doped tellurite glasses were synthesised in the system of (75-x)TeO2-15Sb2O3-10WO3-xDy2O3 (TSWD glasses). XRD and FTIR characterizations were used to find the crystalline and structural properties. The intensities of the electronic transitions and the ligand environment around the Dy3 + ion were determined using the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory on the absorption spectra of the glasses. The measured luminescence spectra exhibit intense emissions at 574 and 484 nm along with less intense emissions around 662 and 751 nm. Various radiative properties of the 4F9/2 excited level of Dy3 + ion were calculated for the glasses. Decay profiles were measured to find the life times and quantum efficiencies. Yellow to blue intensity ratio (Y/B), CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT) values are calculated using the emission spectra to evaluate the emitted light. The obtained results suggest the utility of the glasses for potential yellow laser and white LED's applications.

  15. The high frequency characteristics of laser reflection and visible light during solid state disk laser welding (United States)

    Gao, Xiangdong; You, Deyong; Katayama, Seiji


    Optical properties are related to weld quality during laser welding. Visible light radiation generated from optical-induced plasma and laser reflection is considered a key element reflecting weld quality. An in-depth analysis of the high-frequency component of optical signals is conducted. A combination of a photoelectric sensor and an optical filter helped to obtain visible light reflection and laser reflection in the welding process. Two groups of optical signals were sampled at a high sampling rate (250 kHz) using an oscilloscope. Frequencies in the ranges 1-10 kHz and 10-125 kHz were investigated respectively. Experimental results showed that there was an obvious correlation between the high-frequency signal and the laser power, while the high-frequency signal was not sensitive to changes in welding speed. In particular, when the defocus position was changed, only a high frequency of the visible light signal was observed, while the high frequency of the laser reflection signal remained unchanged. The basic correlation between optical features and welding status during the laser welding process is specified, which helps to provide a new research focus for investigating the stability of welding status.

  16. Tetravalent chromium (Cr(4+)) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers (United States)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, Robert R.


    Generation of femtosecond pulses from a continuous-wave mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite (Cr(4+):Mg2SiO4) laser has been accomplished. The forsterite laser was actively mode-locked using an acousto-optic modulator operating at 78 MHz with two Brewster high-dispersion glass prisms for intra-cavity chirp compensation. Transform-limited sub-100-fs pulses were routinely generated in the TEM(sub 00) mode with 85 mW of continuous power (with 1 percent output coupler), tunable over 1230-1280 nm. The shortest pulses of 60-fs pulsewidth were measured.

  17. Development of laser diode pumped solid state green laser for the pumping of wavelength tunable laser. 1. Development of single-pass Nd:YAG MOPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Kato, Masaaki; Oba, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    For the pumping of wavelength tunable laser, a high repetition rate, high average power solid state laser pumped by a high duty laser diode (LD) array has been developed. The solid state laser using Nd:YAG zigzag slab crystals consists of an oscillator and an amplifier. Using this Nd:YAG MOPA system, the maximum fundamental average power of 33 W is obtained. The wavefront distortion of amplified laser beam is within 0.3 wavelength. M{sup 2} measured is about 1.5 which means the laser beam is near diffraction limited. By using nonlinear crystals, fundamental laser radiation is converted to second, third and fourth harmonics. The average power is 15.5 W at 532 nm, 1.2 W at 355 nm and 2.3 W at 266 nm. The beam quality of the second harmonic is good. With the measurement of the laser parameters, it is confirmed that the high repetition rate, high power and high quality second harmonic can be produced by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser MOPA system. (author)

  18. LASER PHYSICS: Solid-state ring laser with a nonlinear absorber (United States)

    Klochan, E. L.; Lariontsev, E. G.; Naniĭ, O. E.; Shelaev, A. N.


    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made of the feasibility of controlling the amplitude and frequency characteristics of a YAG:Nd3+ ring laser by self-diffraction of opposite (counterpropagating) light waves on gratings of the absorption coefficient and refractive index induced in nonlinear absorbers. These absorbers were unpumped YAG:N3+ crystals or crystals of LiF containing F2- centers. It was established that in the absence of an offset between the centers of the gain and absorption lines the competition between the opposite waves in the ring laser was reduced. In the presence of an offset an amplitude nonreciprocity was observed and it was proportional to the difference between the frequencies of the opposite waves. However, when fast-response nonlinear absorbers were used, suppression of one of the opposite waves could be weak even in the case of a large offset. The distortions of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of a rotating ring laser were shown to be small in the presence of nonlinear absorbers with a short relaxation time and a low initial absorption coefficient.

  19. Bio-optimized energy transfer in densely packed fluorescent protein enables near-maximal luminescence and solid-state lasers. (United States)

    Gather, Malte C; Yun, Seok Hyun


    Bioluminescent organisms are likely to have an evolutionary drive towards high radiance. As such, bio-optimized materials derived from them hold great promise for photonic applications. Here, we show that biologically produced fluorescent proteins retain their high brightness even at the maximum density in solid state through a special molecular structure that provides optimal balance between high protein concentration and low resonance energy transfer self-quenching. Dried films of green fluorescent protein show low fluorescence quenching (-7 dB) and support strong optical amplification (gnet=22 cm(-1); 96 dB cm(-1)). Using these properties, we demonstrate vertical cavity surface emitting micro-lasers with low threshold (lasers) and self-assembled all-protein ring lasers. Moreover, solid-state blends of different proteins support efficient Förster resonance energy transfer, with sensitivity to intermolecular distance thus allowing all-optical sensing. The design of fluorescent proteins may be exploited for bio-inspired solid-state luminescent molecules or nanoparticles.

  20. Solid-state laser source of narrowband ultraviolet B light for skin disease care with advanced performance (United States)

    Tarasov, Aleksandr A.; Chu, Hong; Buchwald, Kristian


    Two years ago we reported about the development of solid state laser source for medical skin treatment with wavelength 310.6 nm and average power 200 mW. Here we describe the results of investigation of the advanced version of the laser, which is a more compact device with increased output power and flat top beam profile. Ti: Sapphire laser, the main module of our source, was modified and optimized such, that UV average power of the device was increased 1.7 times. Fiber optic homogenizer was replaced by articulated arm with diffraction diffuser, providing round spot with flat profile at the skin. We investigated and compare characteristics of Ti: Sapphire lasers with volume Bragg grating and with fused silica transmission grating, which was used first time for Ti: Sapphire laser spectral selection and tuning. Promising performance of last gratings is demonstrated.

  1. Epi-detecting label-free multimodal imaging platform using a compact diode-pumped femtosecond solid-state laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreana, Marco; Le, Tuan; Hansen, Anders Kragh


    We have developed an epi-detected multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy platform based on a compact and cost-effective laser source featuring simultaneous acquisition of signals arising from hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon fluorescence, and second harmonic...... for these three modalities, achieving sufficient spectral resolution for CARS in the lipid region. The experimental results on a biological tissue reveal that the combination of the epi-detection scheme and the use of a compact diode-pumped femtosecond solid-state laser in the nonlinear optical microscope...

  2. All-optical Q-switching limiter for high-power gigahertz modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers. (United States)

    Klenner, Alexander; Keller, Ursula


    Passively modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) with pulse repetition rates in the gigahertz regime suffer from an increased tendency for Q-switching instabilities. Low saturation fluence intracavity saturable absorbers - such as the semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) - can solve this problem up to a certain average output power limited by the onset of SESAM damage. Here we present a passive stabilization mechanism, an all-optical Q-switching limiter, to reduce the impact of Q-switching instabilities and increase the potential output power of SESAM modelocked lasers in the gigahertz regime. With a proper cavity design a Kerr lens induced negative saturable absorber clamps the maximum fluence on the SESAM and therefore limits the onset of Q-switching instabilities. No critical cavity alignment is required because this Q-switching limiter acts well within the cavity stability regime. Using a proper cavity design, a high-power diode-pumped Yb:CALGO solid-state laser generated sub-100 fs pulses with an average output power of 4.1 W at a pulse repetition rate of 5 GHz. With a pulse duration of 96 fs we can achieve a peak power as high as 7.5 kW directly from the SESAM modelocked laser oscillator without any further external pulse amplification and/or pulse compression. We present a quantitative analysis of this Kerr lens induced Q-switching limiter and its impact on modelocked operation. Our work provides a route to compact high-power multi-gigahertz frequency combs based on SESAM modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers without any additional external amplification or pulse compression.

  3. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian


    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  4. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  5. Sub-100 attosecond timing jitter from low-noise passively mode-locked solid-state laser at telecom wavelength. (United States)

    Portuondo-Campa, E; Paschotta, R; Lecomte, S


    We report on the ultralow timing jitter of the 100 MHz pulse trains generated by two identical passively mode-locked diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) emitting at 1556 nm. Ultralow timing jitter of 83 as (integrated from 10 kHz to 50 MHz) for one laser has been measured with a balanced optical cross-correlator as timing discriminator. Extremely low intensity noise has been measured as well. Several measurement techniques have been used and show similar jitter results. Different possible noise sources have been theoretically investigated and compared to the measured jitter power spectral density. It is found that although the measured integrated jitter is quite low, it is still significantly above the quantum limit in the considered frequency span. Therefore, there is a substantial potential for technical improvements that could make passively mode-locked DPSSL outperform fiber lasers as source of microwaves with low phase noise.

  6. Compact Solid-State 213 nm Laser Enables Standoff Deep Ultraviolet Raman Spectrometer: Measurements of Nitrate Photochemistry. (United States)

    Bykov, Sergei V; Mao, Michael; Gares, Katie L; Asher, Sanford A


    We describe a new compact acousto-optically Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) intracavity frequency-tripled neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate laser capable of producing ~100 mW of 213 nm power quasi-continuous wave as 15 ns pulses at a 30 kHz repetition rate. We use this new laser in a prototype of a deep ultraviolet (UV) Raman standoff spectrometer. We use a novel high-throughput, high-resolution Echelle Raman spectrograph. We measure the deep UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra of solid and solution sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) at a standoff distance of ~2.2 m. For this 2.2 m standoff distance and a 1 min spectral accumulation time, where we only monitor the symmetric stretching band, we find a solid state NaNO3 detection limit of ~100 μg/cm(2). We easily detect ~20 μM nitrate water solutions in 1 cm path length cells. As expected, the aqueous solutions UVRR spectra of NaNO3 and NH4NO3 are similar, showing selective resonance enhancement of the nitrate (NO3(-)) vibrations. The aqueous solution photochemistry is also similar, showing facile conversion of NO3(-) to nitrite (NO2(-)). In contrast, the observed UVRR spectra of NaNO3 and NH4NO3 powders significantly differ, because their solid-state photochemistries differ. Whereas solid NaNO3 photoconverts with a very low quantum yield to NaNO2, the NH4NO3 degrades with an apparent quantum yield of ~0.2 to gaseous species.

  7. Development and application investigation of an ICSHG 532 nm diode-pumped solid-state laser system (United States)

    Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Tu, Trung Chan; Thuat Nguyen, Tran; Chien Nguyen, Thanh; Chien Dang, Mau


    A diode-pump solid-state laser system emitting a 532 nm beam has been developed. The pump source is an 808 nm diode laser, which has gained wide acceptance in research as well as in commercial production due to its effectiveness and reasonable price. The active medium was chosen to be Nd:YVO4 (neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate), a material with many advantages over traditional Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) such as a low lasing threshold and linearly polarized beam. However, the thermal conductivity of Nd:YVO4 is not as good as Nd:YAG, thus the thermal lens effect inside Nd:YVO4 under high pumping intensity becomes severe and detrimental to the laser performance. Our work showed that careful adjustments of Nd:YVO4 temperature as well as of the cavity's parameters played an important role in the performance of the laser. Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), a nonlinear optics crystal, was used to convert the fundamental 1064 nm laser radiation from Nd:YVO4 into 532 nm. The 532 nm laser beam has been successfully proven to cut wood, plastic and aluminum.

  8. Ultraviolet-Diode Pump Solid State Laser Removal of Titanium Aluminium Nitride Coating from Tungsten Carbide Substrate (United States)

    See, Tian Long; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Royer, Raphael; Metsios, Ioannis; Antar, Mohammad; Marimuthu, Sundar


    This paper presents an investigation on the titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coating removal from tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using a diode pump solid state (DPSS) ultraviolet (UV) laser with maximum average power of 90 W, wavelength of 355 nm and pulse width of 50 ns. The TiAlN coating of 1.5 μm thickness is removed from the WC-Co substrate with laser fluence of 2.71 J/cm2 at 285.6 number of pulses (NOP) and with NOP of 117.6 at 3.38 J/cm2 fluence. Titanium oxide formation was observed on the ablated surface due to the re-deposition of ablated titanium residue and also attributed to the high temperature observed during the laser ablation process. Crack width of around 0.2 μm was observed over both TiAlN coating and WC-Co substrate. The crack depth ranging from 1 to 10 μm was observed and is related to the thickness of the melted carbide. The crack formation is a result of the thermal induced stresses caused by the laser beam interaction with the material as well as the higher thermal conductivity of cobalt compared to WC. Two cleaning regions are observed and is a consequence of the Gaussian distribution of the laser beam energy. The surface roughness of the ablated WC-Co increased with increasing laser fluence and NOP.

  9. Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film. (United States)

    Fong, Kok Hann; Kikuchi, Kazuro; Goh, Chee S; Set, Sze Y; Grange, Rachel; Haiml, Markus; Schlatter, Adrian; Keller, Ursula


    We design single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin-film saturable absorbers (SAs) integrated onto semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors for mode-locking solid-state Er:Yb:glass lasers. We characterize the low nonsaturable loss, high-damage-threshold SWNT SAs and verify their operation up to a pulse fluence of 2 mJ/cm(2). We demonstrate passive fundamental continuous-wave mode locking with and without group-delay dispersion compensation. Without compensation the laser produces chirped 1.8 ps pulses with a spectral width of 3.8 nm. With compensation, we obtain 261 fs Fourier-transform-limited pulses with a spectral width of 9.6 nm.

  10. Processes and strategies for solid state Q-switch laser marking of polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, Johan


    The overview of all laser marking processes for a wide range of materials shows the versatile aspect of laser technology. The statement that all materials can be written by laser is temping but not correct. The writing of liquids and gasses is possible but not practical. The overview of processes

  11. Deflagration-induced flash of solid pyrotechnics as pumps for high-energy solid state lasers (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoli; Liu, Liming; Tang, Yongjian


    Using the flash produced by deflagration of solid pyrotechnics to pump the laser gain medium is a potentially effective way to develop portable high power lasers. The purpose of this work is to examine the effect of some optimization or modifications in terms of compositions and distribution of the pyrotechnic pumping sources on the laser output. The optimization means the transmittance of the output couple. Modifications include: (1) pyrotechnic compositions are improved by adding small amounts of nano Al powders; (2) distribution of pumping light around the laser rod is changed through changing the discrete pyrotechnic tablets into continuous pyrotechnic bars. Results showed that laser output energy reached the maximum of 656 mJ when the transmittance of output mirror raised to10%; after adding nano Al powders into pyrotechnic compositions, laser energy increased by 80% at addition of 2% in the case of discrete distribution, while in the case of continuous distribution, even the mass of pyrotechnics was halved, laser energy still increased to the maximum of 442 mJ with 1% nano Al added. Besides, typical temporal waveform and spot of the laser as well as the light radiation performance of the pyrotechnic tablet are measured to help analyze the laser output performance. It is suggested that the mechanisms of the three modifications we employed are different though they all lead to increase in laser output.

  12. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  13. Development of State of the Art Solid State Lasers for Altimetry and other LIDAR Applications (United States)

    Kay, Richard B.


    This report describes work performed and research accomplished through the end of 1997. During this time period, we have designed and fabricated two lasers for flight LIDAR applications to medium altitudes (Laser Vegetation Imaging System designs LVIS 1 and LVIS 2), designed one earth orbiting LIDAR transmitter (VCL-Alt), and continued work on a high rep-rate LIDAR laser (Raster Scanned Altimeter, RASCAL). Additionally, a 'White Paper' was prepared which evaluates the current state of the art of Nd:YAG lasers and projects efficiencies to the year 2004. This report is attached as Appendix 1 of this report.

  14. Model of Laser-Induced Temperature Changes in Solid-State Optical Refrigerators (United States)


    thermic , and the material cools as a result of laser excitation. Two-band differential luminescence thermometry TBDLT, a technique that measures laser...boundary at a given temperature, or Neu- mann boundary conditions, which hold the boundary at a given heat flow rate e.g., imperfect insulation . Here

  15. Manufacturing Technology Development of Advanced Components for High Power Solid State Lasers (United States)


    controlled KTiOP04 optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 32, 274-276 (2007). [2] P. B. Phua, B. S. Tan, R. F. Wu, K. S. Lai, L. Chia , E. Lau...ultrafast seed laser, 1st amplifier stage, 2 a amplifier stage, and beam characterization equipment. 4. Ti:Sapphire Laser Oscillator, Pre-Amplifier, and

  16. Diode-pumped solid-state laser for bonding orthodontic brackets: effect of light intensity and light-curing time. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Oh; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung; Ko, Ching-Chang; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon


    This study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to teeth using a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser of 473 nm with various light intensity and light-curing settings. For the study, a total of 150 extracted human teeth were divided into ten groups. In the control group, the brackets were bonded to the teeth using a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light with an intensity of 900 mW/cm(2). In the experimental groups, the brackets were bonded using a DPSS laser with three different light intensities and light-curing times. The same bracket type and adhesive were used in all groups throughout the study. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the SBS, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) among the groups. As results, brackets bonded using the DPSS laser with an intensity of 700 mW/cm(2) for 40 s (totally) showed a slightly higher SBS (12.2 ± 1.8 MPa) than that of those bonded using a QTH light (control; 11.6 ± 1.6 MPa). The SBS values linearly increased with increasing energy density (light intensity × light-curing time) of the DPSS laser (R = 0.95, p light-curing conditions. A comparison of the ARI scores among the groups suggested a similar bracket failure mode.

  17. Solid-State Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II we will develop transparent Nd:Yttria ceramic laser materials that can operate at 914 nm and 946 nm suitable for applications in ozone LIDAR systems. We...

  18. Power and Energy Storage Requirements for Ship Integration of Solid-State Lasers on Naval Platforms (United States)


    XE 70 Genesis battery (lead acid) .............................................................24 Figure 12. Saft VL 30 PFe lithium ion battery...light at a certain frequency . Once the population inversion has occurred, laser light is emitted due to the constructive interference of photons...generated as electrons drop from an excited state to a less excited state. The frequency of the laser light is dependent on this change in energy and so

  19. Robust modeling and performance analysis of high-power diode side-pumped solid-state laser systems. (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer; Ghoniemy, Samy; Mokhtar, Ayman


    In this paper, we present an enhanced high-power extrinsic diode side-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) model to accurately predict the dynamic operations and pump distribution under different practical conditions. We introduce a new implementation technique for the proposed model that provides a compelling incentive for the performance assessment and enhancement of high-power diode side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers using cooperative agents and by relying on the MATLAB, GLAD, and Zemax ray tracing software packages. A large-signal laser model that includes thermal effects and a modified laser gain formulation and incorporates the geometrical pump distribution for three radially arranged arrays of laser diodes is presented. The design of a customized prototype diode side-pumped high-power laser head fabricated for the purpose of testing is discussed. A detailed comparative experimental and simulation study of the dynamic operation and the beam characteristics that are used to verify the accuracy of the proposed model for analyzing the performance of high-power DPSSLs under different conditions are discussed. The simulated and measured results of power, pump distribution, beam shape, and slope efficiency are shown under different conditions and for a specific case, where the targeted output power is 140 W, while the input pumping power is 400 W. The 95% output coupler reflectivity showed good agreement with the slope efficiency, which is approximately 35%; this assures the robustness of the proposed model to accurately predict the design parameters of practical, high-power DPSSLs.

  20. High power and high repetition solid state laser for EUV lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H.; Mitra, A.; Wang, T. and the others [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)


    We have been developing a high repetition (5 kHz) and high power (5kW) Nd:YAG laser system for EUV lithography. Key subjects are (1) reliable front-end, (2) uniform and high density pumping of main amplifier rods, and (3) compensation of thermal effects. A stable and reliable front-end based on fiber lasers has been developed. As a cw oscillator using Yb-doped silica fiber operates single longitudinal mode at 1030 nm to 1080nm, various laser materials (Yb:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:YAG, Nd:YAP, etc) can be used as main laser medium. A fast LN EO modulator switches out arbitrary pulse shape with response time of 100 ps. Laser pulses from the modulator are amplified by 3 stage fiber amplifiers up to 1 J. We will focus our efforts to attain 1 mJ output from the fiber front-end. Output pulses from the front-end are amplified to 100 mJ level by two 4-mm rod amplifiers (Nd:YAG) and two 6-mm rod amplifiers. Main amplifier chain consists of eight 12-mm rod amplifiers pumped by cw laser diodes. Total output power of the laser diodes is 28.8 kW. Double pass geometry is required to get enough gain and to compensate thermal effects. Spatial filters are installed to adjust thermal lens in the amplifiers and to send an image into just the center of the amplifiers. Ninty degree rotators and faraday rotators are installed in order to compensate thermal birefringence. A test amplifier module was made for investigation on uniform pumping, thermal effects, gain properties, and so on. Six laser diode modules with 4.5 kW total output power are installed in symmetric configuration. Active medium is Nd:YAG rod with 0.6% doping. Diameter and length of the rod are 12 mm and 150 mm, respectively. Peak gain of 1.67 was obtained at 4.2 kW pumping power and 200s pumping duration. Pumping uniformity was measured by both gain distribution and spontaneous emission from the laser rod. Fairly good uniformity was achieved by adjusting pumping geometry. Detail system analysis suggests that 8 amplifier modules

  1. The design and construction of a solid state femtosecond laser system and its application to chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Tompkins, R J


    have also been successfully tackled and both the x-ray yield and output spectrum have been measured. Future experiments designed to measure x-ray diffraction from liquid water are also presented. This thesis outlines the design and construction of an amplified ultrashort pulse femtosecond laser system specifically for use as a tool for the analysis of chemical and biochemical systems. A summary of the problems associated with such a laser system and a stage by stage description of the design will be given along with a selection of experimental results aimed at emphasising the versatility of the system. Three separate experimental arrangements have been constructed for use with the laser system, all of which can be run at the same time: pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy using a 400nm pump, and a white-light continuum probe, using 4% of the laser output, photon echo and transient grating spectroscopy, again using 4% of the laser output and ultrashort x-ray production using a novel liquid jet target f...

  2. Status of the High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser Development at HiLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Novák


    Full Text Available An overview of the latest developments of kilowatt-level diode pumped solid state lasers for advanced applications at the HiLASE Centre is presented. An overview of subcontracted and in-house-developed laser beamlines is presented. The aim of development is to build kW-class beamlines delivering picosecond pulses between 1- and 100-kHz repetition rates and high-energy nanosecond pulses at 10 Hz. The picosecond beamlines are based on Yb:YAG thin-disk amplifiers and chirped pulse amplification. The current status of the beamlines’ performance is reported. The advantages of zero-phonon line and pulsed pumping are demonstrated with respect to efficiency, thin disk temperature and beam quality. New diagnostics methods supporting the high average power lasers’ development, such as the high-resolution spectroscopy of Yb-doped materials, in situ thin disk deformation measurements, single-shot M2 measurement, realization of wavefront correction by a deformable mirror and the laser performance of a new mixed garnet ceramics, are described. The energetic, thermal and fluid-mechanical numerical modeling for the optimization of the multi-slab amplifiers is also described.

  3. Intense-Laser Solid State Physics: Unraveling the Difference between Semiconductors and Dielectrics (United States)

    McDonald, C. R.; Vampa, G.; Corkum, P. B.; Brabec, T.


    Experiments on intense laser driven dielectrics have revealed population transfer to the conduction band to be oscillatory in time. This is in stark contrast to ionization in semiconductors and is currently unexplained. Current ionization theories neglect coupling between the valence and conduction band and therewith, the dynamic Stark shift. Our single-particle analysis identifies this as a potential reason for the different ionization behavior. The dynamic Stark shift increases the band gap with increasing laser intensities, thus suppressing ionization to an extent where virtual population oscillations become dominant. The dynamic Stark shift plays a role dominantly in dielectrics which, due to the larger band gap, can be exposed to significantly higher laser intensities.

  4. Micro-fabricated solid state dye lasers based on a photo-definable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Balslev, Søren; Gregersen, Misha Marie


    We present a solid polymer dye laser based on a single-mode planar waveguide. The all-polymer device is self-contained in the photodefinable polymer SU-8 and may therefore easily be placed on any substrate and be integrated with polymer-based systems. We use as the active medium for the laser...... the commercially available laser dye Rhodamine 6G, which is incorporated into the SU-8 polymer matrix. The single-mode slab waveguide is formed by three-step spin-coating deposition: a buffer layer of undoped SU-8, a core layer of SU-8 doped with Rhodamine, and a cladding layer of undoped SU-8. (c) 2005 Optical...

  5. Solar pumping of solid state lasers for space mission: a novel approach (United States)

    Boetti, N. G.; Lousteau, J.; Negro, D.; Mura, E.; Scarpignato, G. C.; Perrone, G.; Milanese, D.; Abrate, S.


    Solar pumped laser (SPL) can find wide applications in space missions, especially for long lasting ones. In this paper a new technological approach for the realization of a SPL based on fiber laser technology is proposed. We present a preliminary study, focused on the active material performance evaluation, towards the realization of a Nd3+ -doped fiber laser made of phosphate glass materials, emitting at 1.06 μm. For this research several Nd3+ -doped phosphate glass samples were fabricated, with concentration of Nd3+ up to 10 mol%. Physical and thermal properties of the glasses were measured and their spectroscopic properties are described. The effect of Nd3+ doping concentration on emission spectra and lifetimes was investigated in order to study the concentration quenching effect on luminescence performance.

  6. Impact of the spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions on solid-state laser systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The electronic energy level schemes within the 4f subshells of rare-earth ions give rise to a number of fluorescence transitions ranging from the near-UV to the mid-IR spectral region. A large variety of laser lines have been demonstrated based on these fluorescence transitions. Depending on the

  7. Optimization of an intracavity Q-switched solid-state second order Raman laser (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiong; Fu, Xihong; Peng, Hangyu; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Li; Ning, Yongqiang


    In this paper, the model of an intracavity Q-switched second order Raman laser is established, the characteristics of the output 2nd Stokes are simulated. The dynamic balance mechanism among intracavity conversion rates of stimulated emission, first order Raman and second order Raman is obtained. Finally, optimization solutions for increasing output 2nd Stokes pulse energy are proposed.

  8. High-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers for optical space communications (United States)

    Koechner, Walter; Burnham, Ralph; Kasinski, Jeff; Bournes, Pat; Dibiase, Don; Le, Khoa; Marshall, Larry; Hays, Alan


    The design and performance of a large diode-pumped multi-stage Nd:YAG laser system for space and airborne applications will be described. The laser operates at a repetition rate of 40 Hz and produces an output either at 1.064 micron or 532 nm with an average power in the Q-switched mode of 30 W at the fundamental and 20 W at the second harmonic wavelength. The output beam is diffraction limited (TEM 00 mode) and can optionally also be operated in a single longitudinal mode. The output energy ranges from 1.25 Joule/pulse in the free lasing mode, 0.75 Joule in a 17 nsec Q-switched pulse, to 0.5 Joules/pulse at 532 nm. The overall electrical efficiency for the Q-switched second harmonic output is 4.

  9. A Review of Cavity Design for Kerr Lens Mode-Locked Solid-State Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Yefet


    Full Text Available We provide a critical review of the fundamental concepts of Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM, along with a detailed description of the experimental considerations involved in the realization of a mode-locked oscillator. In addition, we review recent developments that overcome inherent limitations and disadvantages in standard KLM lasers. Our review is aimed mainly at readers who wish to realize/maintain such an oscillator or for those who wish to better understand this major experimental tool.

  10. High Average Power Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers: Power Scaling With High Spectral and Spatial Coherence (United States)


    power. The PPSLT chip was placed in a home-made mount whose temperature was controlled with a thermo- electric cooler (TEC) and monitored with a...main optical damage mechanisms need to be assessed when dealing with cw lasers, namely (1) optical surface damage arising from the high electric ...Yuen, H. P. Bae, M. A. Wistey, A. Moto , and J. S. Harris Jr., "Enhanced Luminescence in GaInNAsSb Quantum Wells Through Variation of the Arsenic and

  11. Solid-State Laser Research Report: Energy Transfer in Non-Uniform Codoped Crystals. (United States)


    be made for the chromium ion; chromium ions are larger than aluminum ions, roughly the same size as gallium ions, and considerably smaller than...other species it replaces in the dodecahedral sites in garnets (typically yttrium or gadolinium ions). On the other hand, no such blanket statement can...controlling these defects can be critical to the development of a laser or 46 phosphor source. 55 Defects in rare-earth-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3 A15

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics of Self-Pulsing All-Solid-State Lasers (United States)


    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Centro de Investigaciones en Laseres,y Aplicaciones (CEILAP), , , 8...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 1. Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones (CEILAP), CITEDEF-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, (1603) Villa Martelli, Argentina. Nahuel M. Granese

  13. Method for fabricating zig-zag slabs for solid state lasers (United States)

    Sridharan, Arun Kumar (Inventor); Saraf, Shailendhar (Inventor); Byer, Robert L. (Inventor)


    A method for batch manufacturing of slabs for zig-zag lasers including steps of bonding two non-active media to either side of an active medium to form a sandwich, dicing the sandwich to provide slices, rendering two surfaces of each slice into total-internal-reflection (TIR) surfaces, and then dicing the slices perpendicular to the TIR surfaces to provide a plurality of zig-zag slabs.

  14. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy (United States)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Ihlefeld, J.; Nagarajan, V.


    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO2/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  15. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Nagarajan, V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Ihlefeld, J. [Electronic, Optical, and Nanomaterials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)


    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  16. Directly modulated green-light diode-pumped solid-state laser for underwater wireless optical communication. (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Aobo; Song, Yuhang; Han, Jun; Xu, Zhiwei; Wu, Bo; Gao, Shiming; Deng, Ning


    It is widely known that a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) has very limited modulation bandwidth. Recently, we directed our attention toward the opportunities for directly modulating a DPSSL to generate high-speed green-light signals, with high power and superior beam quality, which are highly desirable in underwater wireless optical communication. The constraint imposed by the limited modulation bandwidth of a DPSSL is circumvented with the strategy of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and power loading. With a compact DPSSL dismantled from a low-cost laser pointer, we achieve net bit rates of 108.55 Mb/s for the 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal at a bit error rate (BER) of 6.42×10-4 and 89.55 Mb/s for the 32 QAM signal at a BER of 4.81×10-4, respectively, over a 2 m underwater channel. When the underwater transmission distance is increased to 6 m, the BERs are still below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8×10-3.

  17. Ultra-broad range organic solid-state laser from a dye-doped holographic grating quasi-waveguide configuration (United States)

    Liu, Minghuan; Liu, Yonggang; Peng, Zenghui; Mu, Quanquan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Lu, Xinghai; Ma, Ji; Xuan, Li


    This paper reports the ultra-broad 149.1 nm lasing emission from 573.2 to 722.3 nm using a simple [4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran] (DCM)-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating quasi-waveguide configuration by varying the grating period. The lasing emission beams show s-polarization property. The quasi-waveguide structure, which contained the cover glass, the DCM-doped HPDLC grating, the semiconducting polymer film poly[-methoxy-5-(2‧-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV), and the substrate were confirmed to decrease lasing threshold and broaden lasing wavelength. The operational lifetime of the device is 240 000 pulses, which corresponds to an overall laser duration of more than 6 h at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In addition, the dual-wavelength lasing range from the 8th and 9th order is over 40 nm. The electrical tunability of the dual-wavelength lasing emission is over 1 nm. The experimental results facilitated the decreased lasing threshold and broadened lasing wavelength range of organic solid-state lasers.

  18. Probing organometallic reactions by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy in solution and in the solid state using quantum cascade lasers. (United States)

    Calladine, James A; Horvath, Raphael; Davies, Andrew J; Wriglesworth, Alisdair; Sun, Xue-Zhong; George, Michael W


    The photochemistry and photophysics of metal carbonyl compounds (W(CO)6, Cp*Rh(CO)2 (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5), and fac-[Re(CO)3(4,4'-bpy)2Br] [bpy = bipyridine]) have been examined on the nanosecond timescale using a time-resolved infrared spectrometer with an external cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) as the infrared source. We show the photochemistry of W(CO)6 in alkane solution is easily monitored, and very sensitive measurements are possible with this approach, meaning it can monitor small transients with absorbance changes less than 10(-6) ΔOD. The C-H activation of Cp*Rh(CO)(C6H12) to form Cp*Rh(CO)(C6H11)H occurs within the first few tens of nanoseconds following photolysis, and we demonstrate that kinetics obtained following deconvolution are in excellent agreement with those measured using an ultrafast laser-based spectrometer. We also show that the high flux and tunability of QCLs makes them suited for solid-state and time-resolved measurements.

  19. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent


    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  20. Multi-wavelength, all-solid-state, continuous wave mode locked picosecond Raman laser. (United States)

    Granados, Eduardo; Pask, Helen M; Esposito, Elric; McConnell, Gail; Spence, David J


    We demonstrate the operation of a cascaded continuous wave (CW) mode-locked Raman oscillator. The output pulses were compressed from 28 ps at 532 nm down to 6.5 ps at 559 nm (first Stokes) and 5.5 ps at 589 nm (second Stokes). The maximum output was 2.5 W at 559 nm and 1.4 W at 589 nm with slope efficiencies up to 52%. This technique allows simple and efficient generation of short-pulse radiation to the cascaded Stokes wavelengths, extending the mode-locked operation of Raman lasers to a wider range of visible wavelengths between 500 - 650 nm based on standard inexpensive picosecond Nd:YAG oscillators.

  1. A solid state laser system for Doppler-free spectroscopy of muonium

    CERN Document Server

    Bakule, P


    to 1MHz, was found to be of the order of 80-120 MHz for a 30-40 mJ output. This chirp was shown to be the result of a fast change of the refractive index in the alexandrite rods, and was found to be directly proportional to the population inversion change during the Q-switched pulse. A method of chirp compensation was developed leading to a reduction of the chirp by an order of magnitude i.e. to the level of 5-15 MHz. The alexandrite output was frequency tripled using LBO and BBO crystals with a conversion efficiency in excess of 10 %, yielding UV pulse energies of 3 to 6 mJ. The 1S-2S transition frequency has been measured to be 2,455,528,940.99 (9.75)(3.5) MHz which is in agreement with the theoretical value of 2,455,528,934.61 (3.44) MHz. Measurement of 1S-2S interval in deuterium, performed primarily to study systematic errors, represents the best pulsed measurement to date and is in an agreement with values obtained with cw lasers. The thesis describes a new high precision measurement of the 1S-2S transi...

  2. Advances in high-energy solid-state 2-micron laser transmitter development for ground and airborne wind and CO2 measurements (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey


    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2- micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  3. Advances in High Energy Solid-State 2-micron Laser Transmitter Development for Ground and Airborne Wind and CO2 Measurements (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; hide


    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  4. Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories. (United States)

    Jin, Jeongwan; Slater, Joshua A; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Sinclair, Neil; George, Mathew; Ricken, Raimund; Oblak, Daniel; Sohler, Wolfgang; Tittel, Wolfgang


    Quantum memories allowing reversible transfer of quantum states between light and matter are central to quantum repeaters, quantum networks and linear optics quantum computing. Significant progress regarding the faithful transfer of quantum information has been reported in recent years. However, none of these demonstrations confirm that the re-emitted photons remain suitable for two-photon interference measurements, such as C-NOT gates and Bell-state measurements, which constitute another key ingredient for all aforementioned applications. Here, using pairs of laser pulses at the single-photon level, we demonstrate two-photon interference and Bell-state measurements after either none, one or both pulses have been reversibly mapped to separate thulium-doped lithium niobate waveguides. As the interference is always near the theoretical maximum, we conclude that our solid-state quantum memories, in addition to faithfully mapping quantum information, also preserve the entire photonic wavefunction. Hence, our memories are generally suitable for future applications of quantum information processing that require two-photon interference.

  5. Topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy for irregular astigmatism using a 213 nm solid-state laser. (United States)

    Allan, Bruce D; Hassan, Hala


    To explore the use of the Pulsar Z1 solid-state 213 nm photorefractive laser platform in topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for irregular astigmatism. Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Prospective clinical case series. Patients with irregular astigmatism after previous refractive surgery or corneal transplantation were treated with topography-guided transepithelial PRK. Preoperatively and 1-year postoperatively, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and secondary outcome measures (including manifest refraction, contrast sensitivity, haze score, index of surface variation, root-mean-square higher-order aberrations, and subjective visual change) were compared between groups. Adjunctive mitomycin-C was not used. Seven patients had previous refractive surgery, and 7 had previous corneal transplantation. All but 2 patients with a marked haze response had subjective gains in vision and improved CDVA. Gains in CDVA for patients with irregular astigmatism after previous refractive surgery (median 2 lines gain; range 0 to 2 lines gained) were higher than for patients with irregular astigmatism after keratoplasty (median 0 lines; range 5 lines lost to 4 lines gained). Trends in secondary outcome measures were similar, with greater variation in post-keratoplasty patients. Haze scores were higher in post-keratoplasty patients. 213 nm topography-guided transepithelial PRK was easy to perform and well tolerated by patients with irregular astigmatism. Most patients gained CDVA; however, increased haze responses were observed in post-keratoplasty cases. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories (United States)

    Jin, Jeongwan; Slater, Joshua A.; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Sinclair, Neil; George, Mathew; Ricken, Raimund; Oblak, Daniel; Sohler, Wolfgang; Tittel, Wolfgang


    Quantum memories allowing reversible transfer of quantum states between light and matter are central to quantum repeaters, quantum networks and linear optics quantum computing. Significant progress regarding the faithful transfer of quantum information has been reported in recent years. However, none of these demonstrations confirm that the re-emitted photons remain suitable for two-photon interference measurements, such as C-NOT gates and Bell-state measurements, which constitute another key ingredient for all aforementioned applications. Here, using pairs of laser pulses at the single-photon level, we demonstrate two-photon interference and Bell-state measurements after either none, one or both pulses have been reversibly mapped to separate thulium-doped lithium niobate waveguides. As the interference is always near the theoretical maximum, we conclude that our solid-state quantum memories, in addition to faithfully mapping quantum information, also preserve the entire photonic wavefunction. Hence, our memories are generally suitable for future applications of quantum information processing that require two-photon interference.

  7. OSA Proceedings on Advanced Solid-State Lasers. Vol. 10 - Proceedings of the Topical Meeting, Hilton Head, SC, Mar. 18-20, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, G.; Chase, L. (McDonnell Douglas Electonic Systems Co., Saint Louis, MO (United States) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States))


    The present volume on advanced solid-state lasers discusses Cr(3+), Cr(4+), short-pulse, titanium, F-center, mid-IR, and diode-pumped lasers, and nonlinear optics. Attention is given to the stabilization and a spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements, crystal growth and spectroscopy of Cr:LiBaAlF6, a Q-switched tunable forsterite laser, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of chromium-doped forsterite. Topics addressed include efficient frequency doubling of a self-starting additive-pulse mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, recent advances in Ti:Al2O3 unstable-resonator lasers, all-solid-state operation of a CW Ti:Al2O3 laser, and upconversion studies of flashlamp-pumped Cr,T,Ho:YAG. Also discussed are the top output parameters of an Ho-laser, spectroscopy and the 3-micron laser potential of Er crystals, the pulsed operation of microchip lasers, and blue optical parametric generation in LiB3O5.

  8. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Studies on reducing the thermal loads of solar-pumped solid state lasers; Taiyoko reiki laser no netsufuka teigen ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Yugami, H.; Naito, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    It was intended to reduce the thermal loads of solar-pumped solid state lasers (highly densified solar light is irradiated directly onto a laser medium to cause excitation. No electric power is required for the excitation.). For this purpose, experiments were performed by using a selective permeation film. Solar light includes wavelengths not effective for excitation, which causes heat generation and thermal loads such as lens heating effect and thermal stress compounded refraction, degrading the laser beam quality. The Nd:YAG was used as a laser medium, and a multi-layered film (composed of SiO2 and TiO2) which cuts wavelength below 500 nm as a selective permeation film to cut light having wavelengths not required for excitation. A laser transmitting experiment revealed that the slope efficiency is improved by 27% as compared to not using the film. Beam fluctuation was improved to 45%. Using the selective permeation film has realized more efficient conversion of the solar light into a beam with better quality. The results for calculation of heat lens effect by using temperature distribution simulation showed good agreement with experimental values. Using the selective permeation film can suppress the maximum temperature of a laser rod to 68%, as well as the thermal stress. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Contribution of goethite to laser-induced stone yellowing (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cécile; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Lafait, Jacques; Swider, Miko; Andraud, Christine; Tournié, Aurélie; Galoisy, Laurence


    The development of the laser technology for stone cleaning purposes has been undermined in the recent years because the technique occasionally conveys a yellow hue to the cleaned surfaces. Several components of black gypsum crusts have been suggested to be potentially responsible for the phenomenon, more specifically some granular fractions of their components. The contribution of these particles to laser yellowing is studied here on powdery deposits collected at Saint-Denis Basilica (France). The powder is characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy before and after the laser irradiation. Irradiation of the samples results in a significant yellowing, along with particle fragmentation, while no mineralogical change is evidenced by powder diffractometry. Haematite and goethite micro-Raman signatures obtained before laser irradiation are replaced after irradiation by a strong fluorescence in addition to weak goethite signatures in Raman spectra. The powdery deposit is further analyzed by diffuse reflectance spectrometry after a specific preparation, which increases both its cohesion and its content in new phases potentially formed. The powdery material shows a phase with a spectral signature similar to goethite, which subsides after laser irradiation. The yellow appearance caused by laser irradiation seems to be due, in part, to a selective elimination of the black components (soots) from the powdery deposit. This elimination reveals a color, which could be related to a preexisting phase containing iron, possibly goethite or another phase containing iron and having the same spectral signature in the visible range.

  11. All-Solid-State Drivers for High Power Excimer Lasers Used in Projection Gas Immersion Laser Doping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacob, Jonah


    .... P-GILD uses a pulsed, 200-watt-class excimer laser as an illumination source to produce ultra-shallow, low-sheet resistance, box-like and retrograde impurity profiles in silicon without the use...

  12. Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy Using a 213-nm Solid-State Laser System Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Riboflavin and UVA Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Kymionis


    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a case of a keratoconic patient who underwent epithelial removal with transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (t-PTK using a 213-nm solid-state laser system followed by corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA irradiation. Methods. Case report. Results. A twenty-four-year-old male with keratoconus underwent CXL treatment after epithelial removal with t-PTK using a solid-state laser system. No intra- or early postoperative complications were found. One month postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA improved from 20/63 to 20/32 while best spectacle- corrected visual acuity (BSCVA improved from 20/40 to 20/25. Corneal topography revealed a significant improvement which remained stable during the six-month followup period. Conclusions. Epithelial removal with t-PTK before CXL could improve patient's visual outcome.

  13. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  14. Birefringent- and quasi phase-matching with BaMgF4 for vacuum-UV/UV and mid-IR all solid-state lasers. (United States)

    Víllora, Encarnacion G; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Sumiya, Keiji; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki


    BaMgF(4) is a ferroelectric fluoride which shows a very wide transparency range extending from 125 nm to 13 microm. The conjunction of these properties confers to BaMgF(4) a unique chance for optical applications in the UV and mid-IR wavelength regions, where other nonlinear materials cannot be used. In particular its application as frequency converter in all solid-state lasers is considered. The wavelength dispersion of the refractive indices along the three optical principal axes is measured in the transparent region, and the Sellmeier coefficients for the three refractive indices are determined. The conditions for nonlinear optical processes are calculated for birefringent-matching and quasi phase-matching, with special emphasis in the UV and IR wavelength regions. Quasi phase-matching can be achieved in the whole transparent wavelength region, in contrast to birefringent-matching, which can be obtained in a limited range 573-5634 nm. First demonstration of second harmonic generation by quasi phase-matching with a ferroelectric fluoride is shown by frequency-doubling the emissions of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser and a tunable Ti:sapphire laser. The shortest emission is obtained in the UV at 368 nm, indicating the potential of BaMgF(4) as nonlinear medium for the fabrication of all solid-state lasers in the vacuum-UV/UV and mid-IR wavelength regions.

  15. Low noise Raman lasers for yellow-orange spectrum coverage (United States)

    Landru, Nicolas; Rouvillain, Julien; Le Bail, Guy; Georges, Thierry


    Diode lasers have been demonstrated to operate over a great part of the visible spectrum: InGaN diodes cover the violet-blue- green part (red part (>635 nm). Some fluorophorus in biotechnology applications are excited by intermediate wavelengths, from 540 to 630 nm. Optically pumped InGaAs lasers were demonstrated from 460 nm up to 580 nm. Standard frequency doubled diode pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers lack of suitable transition to cover the 565-650nm region. It is possible to modify the semiconductor composition to extend the frequency range or to frequency mix DPSS laser wavelengths, but it comes either with a significant R&D effort or with a complexity in the design. Raman scattering can red-shift the strong transitions of Nd or Yb lasers so that many wavelengths lying in the 1080-1300 nm range can be achieved. Recently several CW diode pumped Raman lasers were demonstrated, some of them including intra-cavity frequency doubling or mixing. The problems with these Raman lasers are the high pump threshold and the high noise. Based on monolithic cavities, we have built several visible Raman lasers with a reduced loss presenting a low pump threshold (<1W) and a high slope efficiency. Output powers in excess of 100 mW were achieved at 588 nm with a 2.5W 808 nm pump. Laser emissions from 556 nm up to more than 610 nm were demonstrated. Noise of these lasers was analyzed and means to reach low noise operation will be discussed at the conference.

  16. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    :YVO4 crystal ... Diode-pumped solid-state lasers; dual wavelength operation; sum frequency generation; yellow laser. .... folded arm of the laser resonator between mirrors M2 and M3 as shown in figure 1b. For efficient ...

  17. Solid-state 2-micron laser transmitter advancement for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, airborne, and space-based lidar systems (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed


    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  18. Solid-State 2-Micron Laser Transmitter Advancement for Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements From Ground, Airborne, and Space-Based Lidar Systems (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed


    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 DIAL measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  19. Excitation of high-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes in a solid-state laser using a lower-loss digitally controlled amplitude mask (United States)

    Bell, T.; Hasnaoui, A.; Ait-Ameur, K.; Ngcobo, S.


    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate selective excitation of high-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian (LG p or LG{}p,0) modes with radial order p = 1-4 and azimuthal order l = 0 using a diode-pump solid-state laser (DPSSL) that is digitally controlled by a spatial light modulator (SLM). We encoded an amplitude mask containing p-absorbing rings, of various incompleteness (segmented) on grey-scale computer-generated digital holograms, and displayed them on an SLM which acted as an end mirror of the diode-pumped solid-state digital laser. The various incomplete (α) p-absorbing rings were digitally encoded to match the zero-intensity nulls of the desired LG p mode. We show that the creation of LG p , for p = 1 to p = 4, only requires an incomplete circular p-absorbing ring that has a completeness of ≈37.5%, giving the DPSSL resonator a lower pump threshold power while maintaining the same laser characteristics (such as beam propagation properties).

  20. In Vitro Mean Red Blood Cell Volume Change Induced by Diode Pump Solid State Low-Level Laser of 405 nm. (United States)

    Musawi, Mustafa S Al; Jafar, Mohamad Suhaimi; Al-Gailani, Bassam T; Ahmed, Naser Mahmoud; Suhaimi, Fatanah Mohamad; Suardi, Nursakinah


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of low-level laser (LLL) doses on human red blood cell volume. The effects of exposure to a diode pump solid state (DPSS) (λ = 405 nm) laser were observed. The response of human blood to LLL irradiation gives important information about the mechanism of interaction of laser light with living organisms. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing tubes, and each sample was divided into two equal aliquots, one to serve as control and the other for irradiation. The aliquot was subjected to laser irradiation for 20, 30, 40, or 50 min at a fixed power density of 0.03 W/cm(2). Mean cell volume (MCV) and red blood cell (RBC) counts were measured immediately after irradiation using a computerized hemtoanalyzer. Significant decrease in RBC volume (p laser doses.The highest response was observed with an exposure time of 40 min. This result was reproduced in RBCs suspended in a buffered NaCl solution. In contrast to this finding, laser-induced RBC volume change was completely abolished by suspending RBCs in a solution containing a higher concentration of EDTA. It was suggested that LLL can reduce RBC volume possibly because of the increased free intracellular Ca(+2) concentrations, which activate Ca(+2)-dependent K(+) channels with consequent K(+) ion efflux and cell shrinkage.

  1. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y


    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  2. Efficient all-solid-state mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on resonantly pumped 1.645 μm Er:YAG laser. (United States)

    Wang, Mingjian; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Weibiao; Fan, Dianyuan


    We first report an all-solid-state tunable mid-infrared singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on a 1532 nm laser diode resonantly pumped, Q-switched 1.645 μm Er:YAG laser. An MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate was used as the nonlinear material. At the pulse repetition frequency of 2 KHz, a maximum overall average output power of 0.95 W with pump power of 2.8 W was achieved, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 34% and a slope efficiency of 38%. The temperature tuning was performed giving signal and idler ranges of 2.67 to 2.71 μm and 4.18 to 4.31 μm, respectively.

  3. Ultra-low phase-noise microwave generation using a diode-pumped solid-state laser based frequency comb and a polarization-maintaining pulse interleaver

    CERN Document Server

    Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Kundermann, Stefan; Balet, Laurent; Lecomte, Steve


    We report ultra-low phase-noise microwave generation at a 9.6 GHz carrier frequency from optical frequency combs based on diode-pumped solid-state lasers emitting at telecom wavelength and referenced to a common cavity-stabilized continuous-wave laser. Using a novel fibered polarization-maintaining pulse interleaver, a single-oscillator phase-noise floor of -171 dBc/Hz has been measured with commercial PIN InGaAs photodiodes, constituting a record for this type of detector. Also, a direct optical measurement of the stabilized frequency combs timing jitter was performed using a balanced optical cross correlator, allowing for an identification of the origin of the current phase-noise limitations in the system.

  4. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald


    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  5. Simple, compact, and low cost CO2 laser driven by fast high voltage solid state switch for industrial application (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyu; Tei, Masaya; Uno, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Hitoshi


    A longitudinally excited CO2 laser driven with a reverse recovery characteristics of high voltage diode has been developed. A diode is used to control the high voltage pulse as an opening switch. Power supply for longitudinally excited CO2 laser is composed of a pulse generator, transformer, capacitor, and a diode, is very simple. Laser oscillation has been successfully achieved, several tens of mJ in laser energy has been obtained.

  6. Broadly tunable high-power operation of an all-solid-state titanium-doped sapphire laser system (United States)

    Steele, T. R.; Gerstenberger, D. C.; Drobshoff, A.; Wallace, R. W.


    Broadly tunable and high-power operation of a Ti-doped sapphire laser is obtained with a diode-laser-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser as the pump source. A maximum broadband (FWHM = 25 nm) output pulse energy of 720 microJ at 795 nm in a TEM00 mode is obtained for 1850 microJ of energy of 532-nm pump light. A minimum pulse duration of 7 nsec is obtained from a 40-mm-long cavity. With the use of an intracavity prism, the Ti:sapphire laser is tunable continuously over the 696-1000-nm spectral range (with three different mirror sets).

  7. Selective excitation of higher-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams using a solid-state digital laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho


    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a digital laser to generate high-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian, LGp,0 modes by loading digital holograms on a phase-only spatial light modulator that act as an end mirror of a diode-end-pumped laser resonator. The digital...

  8. Exploiting concave-convex linear resonators to design end-pumped solid-state lasers with flexible cavity lengths: Application for exploring the self-mode-locked operation. (United States)

    Tuan, P H; Chang, C C; Lee, C Y; Cho, C Y; Liang, H C; Chen, Y F


    The characteristics of a convex-concave linear resonator under the thermal lensing effect are theoretically analyzed to find an analytical model for designing end-pumped solid-state lasers with flexible cavity lengths. By exploiting the design model, the power scaling for continuous-wave operation under strong thermal lensing can be easily achieved in the proposed resonator with different cavity lengths. Furthermore, the proposed resonator is applied to explore the exclusive influence of cavity length on the self-mode-locked (SML) operation. It is discovered that the lasing longitudinal modes will split into multiple groups in optical spectrum to lead to a multi-pulse mode-locked temporal state when the cavity length increases. Finally, a theoretical model is derived to reconstruct the experimental results of SML operation to deduce a simple relationship between the group number of lasing modes and the cavity length.

  9. A Solid State Ultraviolet Lasers Based on Cerium-Doped LiCaAIF(sub 6) Crystal Resonator (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Le, Thanh; Schowalter, Steven J.; Rellergert, Wade; Jeet, Justin; Lin, Guoping; Hudson, Eric


    We report the first demonstration of a UV laser using a high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator of Ce+: LiCaAlF6. We show that WGM resonators from LiCaAlF6 can achieve a Q of 2.6 x 10(sup 7) at UV. We demonstrated a UV laser at 290 nm with a pulsed pump laser at 266 nm. The experiments showed the low pump threshold intensity of 7.5 x 10(sup 9) W/m(sup 2) and slope efficiency of 25%. We have also observed lasing delay dynamics. These results are consistent with our modeling and theoretical estimates, and pave the way for a low threshold cw UV laser using WGM resonator cavity.

  10. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann


    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  11. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert


    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  12. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D


    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  13. Investigation of Yb3+-doped alumino-silicate glasses for high energy class diode pumped solid state lasers (United States)

    Körner, Jörg; Hein, Joachim; Tiegel, Mirko; Kuhn, Stefan; Buldt, Joachim; Yue, Fangxin; Seifert, Reinhard; Herrmann, Andreas; Rüssel, Christian; Kaluza, Malte C.


    We present a detailed investigation of different compositions of Yb3+-doped alumino-silicate glasses as promising materials for diode-pumped high-power laser applications at 1030 nm due to their beneficial thermo-mechanical properties. To generate comprehensive datasets for emission and absorption cross sections, the spectral properties of the materials were recorded at temperatures ranging from liquid nitrogen to room temperature. It was found that the newly developed materials offer higher emission cross sections at the center laser wavelength of 1030 nm than the so far used alternatives Yb:CaF2 and Yb:FP-glass. This results in a lower saturation fluence that offers the potential for higher laser extraction efficiency. Fluorescence lifetime quenching of first test samples was analyzed and attributed to the hydroxide (OH) concentration in the host material. Applying a sophisticated glass manufacturing process, OH concentrations could be lowered by up to two orders of magnitude, rising the lifetime and the quantum efficiency for samples doped with more than 6.1020 Yb3+ -ions per cm³. First laser experiments showed a broad tuning range of about 60 nm, which is superior to Yb:CaF2 and Yb:FP-glass in the same setup. Furthermore, measurements of the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) for different coating techniques on doped substrates revealed the appropriateness of the materials for short pulse high-energy laser amplification.

  14. True Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes as Phosphor for Tunable Color-Rendering Index Laser-Based White Light

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    An urgent challenge for the lighting research community is the lack of efficient optical devices emitting in between 500 and 600 nm, resulting in the “green-yellow gap”. In particular, true green (∼555 nm) and true yellow (∼590 nm), along with blue and red, constitute four technologically important colors. The III-nitride material system, being the most promising choice of platform to bridge this gap, still suffers from high dislocation density and poor crystal quality in realizing high-power, efficient devices. Particularly, the high polarization fields in the active region of such 2D quantum confined structures prevent efficient recombination of carriers. Here we demonstrate a true yellow nanowire (NW) light emitting diode (LED) with peak emission of 588 nm at 29.5 A/cm2 (75 mA in a 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 device) and a low turn-on voltage of ∼2.5 V, while having an internal quantum efficiency of 39%, and without “efficiency droop” up to an injection current density of 29.5 A/cm2. By mixing yellow light from a NW LED in reflective configuration with that of a red, green, and blue laser diode (LD), white light with a correlated color temperature of ∼6000 K and color-rendering index of 87.7 was achieved. The nitride-NW-based device offers a robust, long-term stability for realizing yellow light emitters for tunable color-rendering index solid-state lighting, on a scalable, low-cost, foundry-compatible titanium/silicon substrate, suitable for industry uptake.

  15. On-chip, high-sensitivity temperature sensors based on dye-doped solid-state polymer microring lasers (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Cong; Chen, Qiushu; Mei, Ting; Oki, Yuji; Nishimura, Naoya; Guo, L. Jay; Fan, Xudong


    We developed a chip-scale temperature sensor with a high sensitivity of 228.6 pm/°C based on a rhodamine 6G (R6G)-doped SU-8 whispering gallery mode microring laser. The optical mode was largely distributed in a polymer core layer with a 30 μm height that provided detection sensitivity, and the chemically robust fused-silica microring resonator host platform guaranteed its versatility for investigating different functional polymer materials with different refractive indices. As a proof of concept, a dye-doped hyperbranched polymer (TZ-001) microring laser-based temperature sensor was simultaneously developed on the same host wafer and characterized using a free-space optics measurement setup. Compared to TZ-001, the SU-8 polymer microring laser had a lower lasing threshold and a better photostability. The R6G-doped SU-8 polymer microring laser demonstrated greater adaptability as a high-performance temperature-sensing element. In addition to the sensitivity, the temperature resolutions for the laser-based sensors were also estimated to be 0.13 °C and 0.35 °C, respectively. The rapid and simple implementation of micrometer-sized temperature sensors that operate in the range of 31 - 43 °C enables their potential application in thermometry.

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes oust graphene and semiconductor saturable absorbers in Q-switched solid-state lasers at 2 µm (United States)

    Mateos, Xavier; Loiko, Pavel; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin


    The superior performance of a saturable absorber (SA) based on randomly-oriented single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) operating in the spectral region of their first fundamental transition E 11 over a graphene-SA containing several (n  =  3) carbon layers and a commercial semiconductor SA (SESA) for passive Q-switching of bulk thulium solid-state lasers is demonstrated. Using SWCNT-SA in a compact diode-pumped Tm:KLuW laser, a maximum average output power of 1.36 W is achieved at 1932-1944 nm corresponding to a slope efficiency of 41% and pulse characteristics of 48 ns/5.5 µJ which are superior to that for graphene-SA (123 ns/3.1 µJ) and SESA (61 ns/1.1 µJ). SWCNT-SAs are promising for eye-safe miniature lasers at ~2 µm generating nanosecond pulses in the MHz repetition frequency range.

  17. Monolithic translucent BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ phosphors for laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Cozzan


    Full Text Available With high power light emitting diodes and laser diodes being explored for white light generation and visible light communication, thermally robust encapsulation schemes for color-converting inorganic phosphors are essential. In the current work, the canonical blue-emitting phosphor, high purity Eu-doped BaMgAl10O17, has been prepared using microwave-assisted heating (25 min and densified into translucent ceramic phosphor monoliths using spark plasma sintering (30 min. The resulting translucent ceramic monoliths convert UV laser light to blue light with the same efficiency as the starting powder and provide superior thermal management in comparison with silicone encapsulation.

  18. Determination of velocity of self-mobile phytoplankton using a self-mixing thin-slice solid-state laser. (United States)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Ohtomo, Takayuki; Takahashi, Yohei; Oishi, Tomohiko; Otsuka, Kenju


    We present an analysis of the shoulder-shaped power spectrum observed in the modulated laser output due to feedback light scattered from dynamic changes in self-mobile phytoplankton with flagella in seawater performed using a self-mixing laser Doppler vibrometry system. The power spectrum occasionally has shoulder-shaped broad frequency components superimposed on a Lorentz-type spectrum. This reflects the translational motion of phytoplankton moving across the beam-focus area. The velocity of phytoplankton in the focus area can be obtained by applying a curve fitting procedure to the power spectrum. Moreover, the average velocity and the velocity distribution of phytoplankton can be determined from curve fitting of the long-term power spectrum.

  19. Optical properties of Sm3+ -doped TeO2sbnd WO3sbnd GeO2 glasses for solid state lasers (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, T.; Gopal, K. Rama; Suvarna, R. Padma; Jamalaiah, B. Chinna; Rao, Ch Srinivasa


    Sm3+ -doped oxyfluoride tellurite-tungsten (TWGSm) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The optical properties were investigated through photoluminescence excitation, emission and luminescence decay analysis. The optical band gap energy was determined as ∼3.425 eV for 1.0 mol% of Sm3+ -doped TWGSm glass. Upon 404 nm excitation, the TWGSm glasses emit luminescence through 4G5/2 → 6H5/2 (563 nm), 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 (600 nm), 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 (645 nm) and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 (705 nm) transitions. The Judd-Ofelt analysis was performed using absorption spectrum and obtained radiative parameters were used to estimate the laser characteristics of present glasses. The concentration of Sm3+ has been optimized as 1.0 mol% for efficient luminescence. The luminescence decay of 4G5/2 emission level was studied by monitoring the emission and excitation wavelengths at 600 and 404 nm, respectively. The experimental lifetime of 4G5/2 level was decrease with increase of Sm3+ concentration. The 1.0 mol% of Sm3+ -doped TWGSm glass could be the best choice for solid state visible lasers to emit orange luminescence.

  20. Holmium Doped Solid State Laser Resonantly Pumped and Q-Switched by Novel GaSb-Based Photonic Devices (United States)


    Schmitz, M. Walther, et al., “Strain adjustment in (GaIn)(AsSb)/( AlGa )(AsSb) QWs for 2.3-2.7 µm laser structures ”, J. Crystal Growth, Vol. 209, p.15...ridge waveguide structure by wet etching of the p-cladding layer outside of the 100 μm wide current stripes. For CW characterization the bars were...somewhat with current. The corresponding near field pattern clearly shows filamentation with an average filament spacing of about 12 µm (Figure 4b

  1. Applicability of UV laser-induced solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of solid dosage forms. (United States)

    Woltmann, Eva; Meyer, Hans; Weigel, Diana; Pritzke, Heinz; Posch, Tjorben N; Kler, Pablo A; Schürmann, Klaus; Roscher, Jörg; Huhn, Carolin


    High production output of solid pharmaceutical formulations requires fast methods to ensure their quality. Likewise, fast analytical procedures are required in forensic sciences, for example at customs, to substantiate an initial suspicion. We here present the design and the optimization of an instrumental setup for rapid and non-invasive characterization of tablets by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (with a UV-laser (λ ex = 266 nm) as excitation source) in reflection geometry. The setup was first validated with regard to repeatability, bleaching phenomena, and sensitivity. The effect on the spectra by the physical and chemical properties of the samples, e.g. their hardness, homogeneity, chemical composition, and granule grain size of the uncompressed material, using a series of tablets, manufactured in accordance with design of experiments, was investigated. Investigation of tablets with regard to homogeneity, especially, is extremely important in pharmaceutical production processes. We demonstrate that multiplicative scatter correction is an appropriate tool for data preprocessing of fluorescence spectra. Tablets with different physical and chemical characteristics can be discriminated well from their fluorescence spectra by subjecting the results to principal component analysis.

  2. Effect of 457 nm Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser on the Polymerization Composite Resins: Microhardness, Cross-Link Density, and Polymerization Shrinkage (United States)

    Son, Sung-Ae; Park, Jeong-Kil; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Ko, Ching-Chang; Jeong, Chang-Mo


    Abstract Objective: The purpose of the present study was to test the usefulness of 457 nm diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser as a light source to cure composite resins. Materials and methods: Five different composite resins were light cured using three different light-curing units (LCUs): a DPSS 457 nm laser (LAS), a light-emitting diode (LED), and quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) units. The light intensity of LAS was 560 mW/cm2, whereas LED and QTH LCUs was ∼900 mW/cm2. The degree of polymerization was tested by evaluating microhardness, cross-link density, and polymerization shrinkage. Results: Before water immersion, the microhardness of laser-treated specimens ranged from 40.8 to 84.7 HV and from 31.7 to 79.0 HV on the top and bottom surfaces, respectively, and these values were 3.3–23.2% and 2.9–31.1% lower than the highest microhardness obtained using LED or QTH LCUs. Also, laser-treated specimens had lower top and bottom microhardnesses than the other LCUs treated specimens by 2.4–19.4% and 1.4–27.8%, respectively. After ethanol immersion for 24 h, the microhardness of laser-treated specimens ranged from 20.3 to 63.2 HV on top and bottom surfaces, but from 24.9 to 71.5 HV when specimens were cured using the other LCUs. Polymerization shrinkage was 9.8–14.7 μm for laser-treated specimens, and these were significantly similar or lower (10.2–16.0 μm) than those obtained using the other LCUs. Conclusions: The results may suggest that the 457 nm DPSS laser can be used as a light source for light-curing dental resin composites. PMID:25549163

  3. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J


    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  4. Every Good Virtue You Ever Wanted in a Q-switched Solid-state Laser and More: Monolithic, Diode-pumped, Self-q-switched, Highly Reproducible, Diffraction-limited Nd:yag Laser (United States)

    Chen, Y. C.; Lee, K. K.


    The applications of Q-switched lasers are well known, for example, laser radar, laser remote sensing, satellite orbit determination, Moon orbit and 'moon quake' determination, satellite laser communication, and many nonlinear optics applications. Most of the applications require additional properties of the Q-switched lasers, such as single-axial and/or single-transverse mode, high repetition rate, stable pulse shape and pulse width, or ultra compact and rugged oscillators. Furthermore, space based and airborne lasers for lidar and laser communication applications require efficient, compact, lightweight, long-lived, and stable-pulsed laser sources. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) have recently shown the potential for satisfying all of these requirements. We will report on the operating characteristics of a diode-pumped, monolithic, self-Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser where the chromium ions act as a saturable absorber for the laser emission at 1064 nm. The pulse duration is 3.5 ns and the output is highly polarized with an extinction ratio of 700:1. It is further shown that the output is single-longitudinal-mode with transform-limited spectral line width without pulse-to-pulse mode competition. Consequently, the pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuation is less than the instrument resolution of 0.25 percent. This self-stabilization mechanism is because the lasing mode bleaches the distributed absorber and establishes a gain-loss grating similar to that used in the distributed feedback semiconductor lasers. A repetition rate above 5 KHz has also been demonstrated. For higher power, this laser can be used for injection seeding an amplifier (or amplifier chain) or injection locking of a power oscillator pumped by diode lasers. We will discuss some research directions on the master oscillator for higher output energy per pulse as well as how to scale the output power of the diode-pumped amplifier(s) to multi-kilowatt average power.

  5. Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser. (United States)

    Schilt, Stephane; Bucalovic, Nikola; Dolgovskiy, Vladimir; Schori, Christian; Stumpf, Max C; Di Domenico, Gianni; Pekarek, Selina; Oehler, Andreas E H; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula; Thomann, Pierre


    We report the first full stabilization of an optical frequency comb generated from a femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) operating in the 1.5-μm spectral region. The stability of the comb is characterized in free-running and in phase-locked operation by measuring the noise properties of the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) beat, of the repetition rate, and of a comb line at 1558 nm. The high Q-factor of the semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM)-modelocked 1.5-µm DPSSL results in a low-noise CEO-beat, for which a tight phase lock can be much more easily realized than for a fiber comb. Using a moderate feedback bandwidth of only 5.5 kHz, we achieved a residual integrated phase noise of 0.72 rad rms for the locked CEO, which is one of the smallest values reported for a frequency comb system operating in this spectral region. The fractional frequency stability of the CEO-beat is 20‑fold better than measured in a standard self-referenced commercial fiber comb system and contributes only 10(-15) to the optical carrier frequency instability at 1 s averaging time. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Co-precipitation of rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and MgO nanocomposites for mid-infrared solid-state lasers. (United States)

    Blair, Victoria L; Fleischman, Zackery D; Merkle, Larry D; Ku, Nicholas; Moorehead, Carli A


    Mid-infrared, solid-state laser materials face three main challenges: (1) need to dissipate heat generated in lasing; (2) luminescence quenching by multiphonon relaxation; and (3) trade-off in high thermal conductivity and small maximum phonon energy. We are tackling these challenges by synthesizing a ceramic nanocomposite in which multiple phases will be incorporated into the same structure. The undoped majority species, MgO, will be the main carrier of high thermal conductivity, and the minority species, Er:Y2O3, will have low maximum phonon energy. There is also an inherent challenge in attempting to make a translucent part from a mixture of two different materials with two different indexes of refraction. A simple, co-precipitation technique has been developed in which both components are synthesized in situ to obtain intimate mixing. These powders compare well to commercially available ceramics, including their erbium spectroscopy, even when mixed as a composite, and can be air-fired to ∼96% of theoretical density, yielding translucent parts. As the amount of Er:Y2O3 increases, the translucency decreases as the number of scattering sites start to coalesce into large patches. If the amount of Er:Y2O3 is sufficiently small and dispersed, the yttria grains will be pinned as individuals in a sea of MgO, leading to optimal translucency.

  7. Efficient generation of continuous-wave yellow-orange light using sum-frequency in periodically poled KTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW 1064 and 1342 nm laser lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers using periodically poled KTP. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range.......We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW 1064 and 1342 nm laser lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers using periodically poled KTP. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range....

  8. Mercury and beyond: diode-pumped solid-state lasers for inertial fusion energy; Mercury et au-dela: les lasers a solide pompes par diodes pour l'energie de fusion inertielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bideau, C.; Bayramian, A.; Beach, R.J.; Chanteloup, J.C.; Ebbers, C.A.; Emanuel, M.A.; Orht, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Rothenberg, J.E.; Powell, H.T.; Schaffers, K.I.; Skidmore, J.A.; Sutton, S.B.; Zapata, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    We have begun building the Mercury laser system as the first in a series of new generation diode-pumped solid-state lasers for inertial fusion research. Mercury will integrate three key technologies: diodes, crystals and gas cooling, within a unique laser architecture that is scalable to kilo-joules and mega-joule energy levels for fusion energy applications. The primary near-term performance goals include 10% electrical efficiencies at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length at 1.047 {mu}m wavelength. When completed, Mercury will allow rep-rated target experiments with multiple chambers for high energy density physics research. (authors)

  9. All-solid-state 360 nm ultraviolet laser generated by intracavity frequency-doubling of diode-pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser (United States)

    Zhang, C. M.; Yu, W. X.; Zhang, C. G.; Yao, Y.; Zhu, P. F.; Song, P.; Bai, L.


    We demonstrate an efficient and compact ultraviolet laser at 360 nm generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave (CW) laser diode-pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser at 721 nm. A lithium triborate crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, is used for second-harmonic generation of the fundamental laser. By using an InGaN laser diode emitting at 444.3 nm with a maximum incident power of 5 W, as high as 460 mW of CW output power at 360 nm is achieved. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is as high as 9.2%, and the output power stability in 4 h is better than 3.86%. To the best of our knowledge, this is high efficient UV laser generated by frequency doubling of an InGaN diode-pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser.

  10. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} dichroic mirrors for UV solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilli, Maria Luisa [Optical Coatings Group, Physics Technologies and Materials Division, ENEA, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Menchini, Francesca [Optical Coatings Group, Physics Technologies and Materials Division, ENEA, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Piegari, Angela [Optical Coatings Group, Physics Technologies and Materials Division, ENEA, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Alderighi, Daniele; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo [IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy)


    HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} multilayers to be employed as high reflectance end mirrors in Cerium-doped fluoride solid-state lasers were produced by radio frequency sputtering. The components were designed to have high transmittance at the pumping wavelength and high reflectance in a wavelength band corresponding to the active medium emission. A photoacoustic beam deflection technique and inspection of the irradiated area under a microscope were used to measure the laser induced damage threshold of the mirrors at the pumping wavelength. These coatings were tested in a laser cavity.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of small diode pumped UV solid state (DPSS) Nd:YAG lasers as new radiation sources for atmospheric pressure laser ionization mass spectrometry (APLI-MS). (United States)

    Kersten, Hendrik; Lorenz, Matthias; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten


    The performance of a KrF* bench top excimer laser and a compact diode pumped UV solid state (DPSS) Nd:YAG laser as photo-ionizing source in LC-APLI MS is compared. The commonly applied bench-top excimer laser, operating at 248 nm, provides power densities of the order of low MW/cm(2) on an illuminated area of 0.5 cm(2) (8 mJ/pulse, 5 ns pulse duration, beam waist area 0.5 cm(2), 3 MW/cm(2)). The DPSS laser, operating at 266 nm, provides higher power densities, however, on a two orders of magnitude smaller illuminated area (60 μJ/pulse, 1 ns pulse duration, beam waist area 2 × 10(-3) cm(2), 30 MW/cm(2)). In a common LC-APLI MS setup with direct infusion of a 10 nM pyrene solution, the DPSS laser yields a significantly smaller ion signal (0.9%) and signal to noise ratio (1.4%) compared with the excimer laser. With respect to the determined low detection limits (LODs) for PAHs of 0.1 fmol using an excimer laser, LODs in DPSS laser LC-APLI MS in the low pmol regime are expected. The advantages of the DPSS laser with respect to applicability (size, cost, simplicity) may render this light source the preferred one for APLI applications not focusing on ultimately high sensitivities. Furthermore, the impact of adjustable ion source parameters on the performance of both laser systems is discussed in terms of the spatial sensitivity distribution described by the distribution of ion acceptance (DIA) measurements. Perspectives concerning the impact on future APLI-MS applications are given.

  12. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  13. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe


    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  14. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald


    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  15. Solid state optical microscope (United States)

    Young, Ian T.


    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  16. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R


    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  17. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John


    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  18. A Compact, Solid-State UV (266 nm) Laser System Capable of Burst-Mode Operation for Laser Ablation Desorption Processing (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Coyle, Barry; Paulios, Demetrios; Stysley, Paul; Feng, Steve; Getty, Stephanie; Binkerhoff, William


    Compared to wet chemistry and pyrolysis techniques, in situ laser-based methods of chemical analysis provide an ideal way to characterize precious planetary materials without requiring extensive sample processing. In particular, laser desorption and ablation techniques allow for rapid, reproducible and robust data acquisition over a wide mass range, plus: Quantitative, spatially-resolved measurements of elemental and molecular (organic and inorganic) abundances; Low analytical blanks and limits-of-detection ( ng g-1); and, the destruction of minimal quantities of sample ( g) compared to traditional solution and/or pyrolysis analyses (mg).

  19. Solid State Research. (United States)


    1994) High-Power Diode-Laser-Pumped Midwavelength Infrared HgCdTe/ CdZnTe Quantum-Well Lasers H. Q. Le J. M. Arias* M. Zandian* R. Zucca* Y...faster than novolac in aggressive (e.g., chlorine, hydrogen bromide) plasma environments. Workers at Fujitsu several years ago demonstrated substantial

  20. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C


    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  1. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E


    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  2. 1.2 MW peak power, all-solid-state picosecond laser with a microchip laser seed and a high gain single-passing bounce geometry amplifier (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Shen, Lifeng; Zhao, Zhiliang; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Hongbo; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong


    A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) based passively Q-switched microchip Nd:YVO4 seed laser with pulse duration of 90 ps at repetition rate of 100 kHz is amplified by single-passing a Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier with varying seed input power from 20 μW to 10 mW. The liquid pure metal greasy thermally conductive material is used to replace the traditional thin indium foil as the thermal contact material for better heat load transfer of the Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier. Temperature distribution at the pump surface is measured by an infrared imager to compare with the numerically simulated results. A highest single-passing output power of 11.3 W is obtained for 10 mW averaged seed power, achieving a pulse peak power of ~1.25 MW and pulse energy of ~113 μJ. The beam quality is well preserved with M2 ≤1.25. The simple configuration of this bounce laser amplifier made the system flexible, robust and cost-effective, showing attractive potential for further applications.

  3. Handbook of solid state batteries & capacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munshi, M. Z. A


    ... is witnessing a metamorphosis in the area of solid state power sources. The genesis of solid state battery research commenced with the discovery of highly conductive silver solid state and copper solid state electrolytes in the sixties and seventies, and their subsequent use in solid state batteries. These discoveries were major breakthroughs for those ti...

  4. Laser Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (United States)


    Arsenate a As)C . 0.•-: 22AsO (CDOA).i-, V Lithium lodate d,5 ui.,2 1 .. .. ,,,3 LiIO 3______-_.__,_ con i) . Lithium Niobate d1 sa13 . " LiNbO3 ______ 006...7. AR%. then DR0T.NEW7.-DROT% mod 8: IF DR*CT.NEW%-0 THI~, .* 7. -8 5-102 GOSUE~ 11170:RETL’RN ’qOSUID :lr- ald orot Y, marl new ,0 0 Ec!-olll Drot

  5. Solid state laser technology for inertial confinement fusion: A collection of articles from ''Energy and Technology Review''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper contains reprinted articles that record several milestones in laser research at LLNL. ''Neodymium-Glass Laser Research and Development at LLNL'' recounts the history of the Laser Program and our work on neodymium-glass lasers. ''Nova Laser Technology'' describes the capabilities of the Nova laser and some of its uses. ''Building Nova: Industry Relations and Technology Transfer'' illustrates the Laboratory's commitment to work with US industry in technology development. ''Managing the Nova Laser Project'' details the organization and close monitoring of costs and schedules during the construction of the Nova laser facility. The article ''Optical Coatings by the Sol-Gel Process,'' describes our chemical process for making the damage-resistant, antireflective silica coatings used on the Nova laser glass. The technical challenges in designing and fabricating the KDP crystal arrays used to convert the light wave frequency of the Nova lasers are reported in ''Frequency Conversion of the Nova Laser.'' Two articles, ''Eliminating Platinum Inclusions in Laser Glass'' and ''Detecting Microscopic Inclusions in Optical Glass,'' describe how we dealt with the problem of damaging metal inclusions in the Nova laser glass. The last article reprinted here, ''Auxilliary Target Chamber for Nova,'' discusses the diversion of two of Nova's ten beamlines into a secondary chamber for the purpose of increasing our capacity for experimentation.

  6. Compact all-solid-state continuous-wave single-frequency UV source with frequency stabilization for laser cooling of Be+ ions (United States)

    Vasilyev, S.; Nevsky, A.; Ernsting, I.; Hansen, M.; Shen, J.; Schiller, S.


    A compact setup for generation, frequency stabilization, and precision tuning of UV laser radiation at 313 nm was developed. The source is based on frequency quintupling of a C-band telecom laser at 1565 nm, amplified in a fiber amplifier. The maximum output power of the source at 313 nm is 100 mW. An additional feature of the source is the high-power output at the fundamental and the intermediate second- and third-harmonic wavelengths. The source was tested by demonstration of laser cooling of Be+ ions in an ion-trap apparatus. The output of the source at the third-harmonic wavelength (522 nm) was used for stabilization of the laser frequency to molecular iodine transitions. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy and frequency measurements of hyperfine transitions in molecular iodine were carried out in the range relevant for the Be+ laser cooling application.

  7. Wakefield simulation of solid state plasma (United States)

    Hakimi, Sahel; Nguyen, Tam; Farinella, Deano; Lau, Calvin; Wang, Hsuan-Yu; Taborek, Peter; Tajima, Toshiki


    Although it is known that the accelerating gradient of wakefield increases when laser frequency increases (i.e. critical density), there was no adequate technology to make intense X-ray laser until recently. With the advent of the invention of Thin Film Compression, we now see the intense X-ray laser technology that fits this need. We have modified the EPOCH PIC code to include the lattice effect of nanomaterials in our simulations. The present results indicate the accelerating gradient 0.3TeV/cm at the plasma density of 1023cm-3 which agree well with the wakefield theory. This shows the concept of the solid state plasma wakefield in nanomaterials is validated by computation. This result is also consistent with previous findings, in which the lattice effect was neglected.

  8. The possibility of clinical application of the solid state lasers: Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG, and Er:YAG in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery (United States)

    Tomaszewska, M.; Kukwa, A.; Tulibacki, M.; Wójtowicz, P.; Olędzka, I.; Jeżewska, E.


    The purpose of this study was to summarize our experiences in clinical application of Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG and Er:YAG in otolaryngology- head and neck surgery. Choosing the laser type and parameters for the particular procedures was based on our previous research on tissue effects of those lasers. During the period of 1993-2006 we performed 3988 surgical procedures with the Nd:YAG laser. Over 87% of those were made for the nasal cavity pathologies as polyps, hyperplasia of inferior nasal turbinate, granulation tissue, postoperative adhesions, vascular malformations, under the local anesthesia conditions. In our experience Nd:YAG laser gives the possibility of good clinical control and low risk of side effects for disorders of high recurrence and frequent interventions necessity, as nasal polyps or respiratory papillomatosis. Nd:YAG assisted uvulopalatoplasty gives an interesting alternative for surgical procedures for snoring and slight/mild OSA-recognized patients. Due to its good hemostatic properties, it is a perfect tool for removal of the chemodectoma from meddle ear. During the period of 1995-2006 we performed 229 surgical procedures with the Ho:YAG laser, mostly for larynx pathologies (adhesion and scar tissue removal). In our experience Ho:YAG laser can serve as a precise laser knife for both soft and bony tissue. The ER:YAG laser still remain under clinical trial. Since 2001 year we performed 24 procedures of removing stone deposits from salivary glands. We believe it may become a promising method to cope with sialolithiasis which allows for glandule function preservation. All of the laser types mentioned above, can be easily coupled with endoscopes, what makes them available for all of the head and necklocalized disorders.

  9. Theory of CW lidar aerosol backscatter measurements and development of a 2.1 microns solid-state pulsed laser radar for aerosol backscatter profiling (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Henderson, Sammy W.; Frehlich, R. G.


    The performance and calibration of a focused, continuous wave, coherent detection CO2 lidar operated for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter coefficient, B(m), was examined. This instrument functions by transmitting infrared (10 micron) light into the atmosphere and collecting the light which is scattered in the rearward direction. Two distinct modes of operation were considered. In volume mode, the scattered light energy from many aerosols is detected simultaneously, whereas in the single particle mode (SPM), the scattered light energy from a single aerosol is detected. The analysis considered possible sources of error for each of these two cases, and also considered the conditions where each technique would have superior performance. The analysis showed that, within reasonable assumptions, the value of B(m) could be accurately measured by either the VM or the SPM method. The understanding of the theory developed during the analysis was also applied to a pulsed CO2 lidar. Preliminary results of field testing of a solid state 2 micron lidar using a CW oscillator is included.

  10. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY


    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  11. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip


    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  12. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J


    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  13. Solid-state lithium battery (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross


    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  14. Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    White light based on blue laser - YAG: Ce phosphor has the advantage of implementing solid-state lighting and optical wireless communications combined-functionalities in a single lamp. However, the blue light was found to disrupt melatonin production, and therefore the human circadian rhythm in general; while the yellow phosphor is susceptible to degradation by laser irradiation and also lack tunability in color rendering index (CRI). In this investigation, by using a violet laser, which has 50% less impact on circadian response, as compared to blue light, and an InGaN-quantum-disks nanowires-based light-emitting diode (NWs-LED), we address both issues simultaneously. The white light is therefore generated using violet-green-red lasers, in conjunction with a yellow NWs-LED realized using molecular beam epitaxy technique, on titanium-coated silicon substrates. Unlike the conventional quantum-well-based LED, the NWs-LED showed efficiency-droop free behavior up to 9.8 A/cm with peak output power of 400 μW. A low turn-on voltage of ∼2.1 V was attributed to the formation of conducting titanium nitride layer at NWs nucleation site and improved fabrication process in the presence of relatively uniform height distribution. The 3D quantum confinement and the reduced band bending improve carriers-wavefunctions overlap, resulting in an IQE of ∼39 %. By changing the relative intensities of the individual color components, CRI of >85 was achieved with tunable correlated color temperature (CCT), thus covering the desired room lighting conditions. Our architecture provides important considerations in designing smart solid-state lighting while addressing the harmful effect of blue light.

  15. Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien K.; Zhao, Chao; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Prabaswara, Aditya; Consiglio, Giuseppe Bernardo; Shen, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.


    White light based on blue laser - YAG: Ce3+ phosphor has the advantage of implementing solid-state lighting and optical wireless communications combined-functionalities in a single lamp. However, the blue light was found to disrupt melatonin production, and therefore the human circadian rhythm in general; while the yellow phosphor is susceptible to degradation by laser irradiation and also lack tunability in color rendering index (CRI). In this investigation, by using a violet laser, which has 50% less impact on circadian response, as compared to blue light, and an InGaN-quantum-disks nanowires-based light-emitting diode (NWs-LED), we address both issues simultaneously. The white light is therefore generated using violet-green-red lasers, in conjunction with a yellow NWs-LED realized using molecular beam epitaxy technique, on titanium-coated silicon substrates. Unlike the conventional quantum-well-based LED, the NWs-LED showed efficiency-droop free behavior up to 9.8 A/cm2 with peak output power of 400 μW. A low turn-on voltage of 2.1 V was attributed to the formation of conducting titanium nitride layer at NWs nucleation site and improved fabrication process in the presence of relatively uniform height distribution. The 3D quantum confinement and the reduced band bending improve carriers-wavefunctions overlap, resulting in an IQE of 39 %. By changing the relative intensities of the individual color components, CRI of >85 was achieved with tunable correlated color temperature (CCT), thus covering the desired room lighting conditions. Our architecture provides important considerations in designing smart solid-state lighting while addressing the harmful effect of blue light.

  16. Polyorganodisulfide electrodes for solid-state batteries and electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, S.J. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Liu Meilin (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Doeff, M.M. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Ma Yanping (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Lampert, C. (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States)); Jonghe, L.C. de (Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Materials Science Div. (United States))


    The use of polyorganodisulfides in a variety of solid-state batteries and electrochromic devices is discussed. Cycling data is presented for solid-state batteries using sodium and sodium-lead alloy negative electrodes with polyethylene oxide electrolyte and polydimercaptothiadiazole positive electrodes. Rate capabilities are comparable to that for analogous lithium batteries, but cells show continual deterioration with extended cycling. The use of polyorganodisulfide electrodes as optically passive counter electrodes for electrochromic devices is also described. Solid-state devices consisting of molybdenum doped WO[sub 3], amorphous polyethylene oxide electrolyte (aPEO), and a polyorganodisulfide counter electrode colored rapidly from a pale yellow to a deep blue-green, upon application of 1.2 V dc. The photopic transmittance changed from 61 to 9%, and the solar transmittance from 45 to 5% during the coloration process. (orig.)

  17. Organization of the Topical Meeting on Tunable Solid State Lasers Held in North Falmouth, Massachusetts on 1-3 May 1989 (United States)


    section can be compared to the cross-section obtained for Cr(III) in gallium scandium gadolinium garnet (GSGG) at 756 nm, which is 0.7 Pm 2 [12], and for...p. 34) ME1 Laser Performance of Chromium- Aluminum Doped Forsterite, Horacio R. Verdun, Leonard M. Thomas, Donna M. 11:30 AM (Invited Paper...Chromium- aluminum gaussian Mirrors, G. Cerullo, V. Magni, R. Riva, 0. Svelto, doped forsterite, prepared by laser-heated pedestal growth, Polytechnic U

  18. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.


    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  19. Continuous-wave yellow laser generation at 578 nm by intracavity sum-frequency mixing of thin disk Yb:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Ma, Gangfei; Yang, Jianming; Tan, Huiming; Tian, Yubing; Yao, Wenming; Ju, Qiaojun; Zhang, Long; Chen, Jiansheng; Wu, Xiaodong; Gao, Jing


    We report a continuous-wave yellow laser at 578 nm obtained by doubly resonant intracavity sum-frequency mixing of thin disk Yb:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser with a LBO nonlinear crystal. Single-wavelength laser operation at 578 nm by using a silica etalon as a wavelength selector and dual-wavelength operation at 578 nm and 582 nm are obtained with maximum output powers of 100 mW and 136 mW, respectively. The single wavelength operating power stability value in 30 min was 4.7%, which was improved ∼21.6%, compared with that of dual-wavelength operation.

  20. Solid State and Materials Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    It gives us immense pleasure to present this Special Issue of the Proceedings of the Indian. Academy of Sciences (Chemical Sciences) to mark the Silver Jubilee of the Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit (SSCU), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. This Unit was created by Professor C N R Rao, FRS, at the Institute ...

  1. Ultra-compact (palm-top size) low-cost maintenance-free (>3000 h) diode-pumped femtosecond (160 fs) solid state laser source for multiphoton microscopy (United States)

    Yamazoe, S.; Katou, M.; Kasamatsu, T.


    We propose and demonstrate a novel practical femtosecond laser source, which is to our knowledge, the smallest size and potentially low cost. The innovation is the simple linear cavity design utilizing soliton mode-locking induced by precise group velocity dispersion control. Average output power of 680 mW and pulse width of 162 fs were obtained at around 1045 nm from a diode-pumped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 laser. The pulse repetition rate was 2.8 GHz, leading to a pulse peak power of 1.5 kW, which is sufficient for biomedical imaging. The laser module including the laser diode pump system has a footprint of 8×4 cm2. Under automatic current control condition, stable operation of 3000-hour was observed with an average power fluctuation of less than +/-10 %. Furthermore, under automatic power control condition, stable operation of 2000-hour was observed with an average power fluctuation of less than +/-1 %. Using this laser module, we successfully obtained clear two-photon fluorescence images of muntjac skin fibroblast cells stained with a combination of fluorescent stains (Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin and Alexa Flour 555 goat anti-mouse lgG).

  2. Low temperature pulsed laser deposition of garnet Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 films as all solid-state lithium battery electrolytes (United States)

    Saccoccio, Mattia; Yu, Jing; Lu, Ziheng; Kwok, Stephen C. T.; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Kan Kan; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Ciucci, Francesco


    With its stability against Li and good ionic conductivity, Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) has emerged as a promising electrolyte material for lithium-based solid-state batteries (SSBs). Thin layers of solid electrolyte are needed to enable the practical use of SSBs. We report the first deposition of Li-conductive crystalline Ta-doped LLZO thin films on MgO (100) substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Further, we investigate the impact of laser fluence, deposition temperature (in the 50 °C-700 °C range), and post-deposition annealing on the structural, compositional, and transport properties of the film. We analyze the structure of the deposited films via grazing incident X-ray diffraction, their morphology via scanning electron microscopy, and the composition via depth profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Li ionic conductivity is investigated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Contrary to previous reports for LLZO films, the crystalline Ta-doped films presents a pure cubic LLZO structure for deposition temperatures as low as 50 °C, with resulting conductivities not significantly influenced by the temperature deposition. Instead, the laser fluence has a major effect on the growth rate of the thin films.

  3. Temperature-jump apparatus with Raman detection based on a solid-state tunable (1.80-2.05 microm) kHz optical parametric oscillator laser. (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Gurusamy; Hu, Ying; Spiro, Thomas G


    The operating characteristics of a pulsed (10 ns) tunable near-infrared (NIR) laser source are described for temperature-jump (T-jump) applications. A Q-switched Nd:YLF laser (approximately 10 ns pulses) with a 1 kHz repetition rate is used to pump a potassium titanyl arsenate (KTA) crystal-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing approximately 1 mJ NIR pulses that are tunable (1.80-2.05 microm) across the 1.9 microm vibrational overtone band of water. This T-jump source has been coupled to a deep ultraviolet (UV) probe laser for Raman studies of protein dynamics. T-jumps of up to 30 degrees C, as measured via the O-H stretching Raman band of water, are readily achieved. Application to cytochrome c unfolding is demonstrated.

  4. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong


    are optically pumped at 532 nm, and exhibit low lasing threshold from 530 nJ/mm2 and single mode output at selectable wavelengths from 580 to 630 nm, determined by the grating pitch. The lasers are well suited for integration into polymer based lab-on-chip circuits for interference based sensing....

  5. Characterization and performance of a high-power solid-state laser for a high-current photo-cathode injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukui Zhang; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn


    We report the characterization and performance of a diode-pumped, high-power, picosecond laser system designed for high-current photo-cathode accelerator injector at repetition rates of both 75MHz and 750MHz. The characterization includes measurement of the amplification gain, thermally induced beam mode variation, harmonic conversion efficiency, system's amplitude stability, beam pointing stability, beam profile, and pulse width for both frequencies.

  6. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media. (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys


    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs.

  7. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf


    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  8. Solid-state membrane module (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT


    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  9. Solid state physics at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M; Wichert, T


    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics and in materials science for decades. Besides their classical applications as tracers for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed gamma gamma angular correlation, beta -NMR, and emission channeling make use of nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted alpha or beta particles) to gain microscopic information on structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as clean ion beams at ISOL facilities like ISOLDE/CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive to the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. This overview will browse through ongoing solid state physics experiments with radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. A wide variety of problems is under study, involving bulk properties, surfaces and interfaces in many different systems like semiconductors, superconduc...

  10. Solid-State Nuclear Power (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.


    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  11. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf


    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  12. Efficient near diffraction limited blue light source by sum-frequency mixing of a BAL and a solid-state laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Knud Palmelund; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    and slow axis of the diode, respectively. The BAL output beam is single-passed through a periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal placed in an intra-cavity beam waist of a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 laser, resulting in 100 mW of sum-frequency generated blue output power. This corresponds to a power conversion...... efficiency of 15%. The near diffraction limited blue output beam is measured to have an M-2 of 1.2 and 1.7 in the directions corresponding to the fast and slow axis of the BAL diode, respectively....

  13. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg


    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  14. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan


    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  15. A Novel Solid State Ultracapacitor (United States)

    Cortes-Pena, A. Y.; Rolin, T. D.; Hill, C. W.


    Novel dielectric materials were researched to develop an internal barrier layer capacitor that is fully solid state. These materials included reduced nanoparticles of barium titanate that were coated with various atomic layer deposited oxides. The nanoparticle powders were then densified into pellets and characterized using a dielectric test fixture over a frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz. Densification and sintering were evaluated using scanning electron microscopic techniques. Ultimately, the samples showing the most promising electrical characteristics of permittivity, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance were chosen to manufacture devices for subsequent testing.

  16. Solid-state quantum metamaterials (United States)

    Wilson, Richard; Everitt, Mark; Saveliev, Sergey; Zagoskin, Alexandre


    Quantum metamaterials provide a promising potential test bed for probing the quantum-classical transition. We propose a scalable and feasible architecture for a solid-state quantum metamaterial. This consists of an ensemble of superconducting flux qubits inductively coupled to a superconducting transmission line. We make use of fully quantum mechanical models which account for decoherence, input and readout to study the behaviour of prototypical 1D and 2D quantum metamaterials. In addition to demonstrating some of the novel phenomena that arise in these systems, such as ``quantum birefringence,'' we will also discuss potential applications.

  17. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H


    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  18. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich


    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  19. Contamination and solid state welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bernice E.


    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.


    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf


    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  2. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R


    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  3. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, Steven


    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  4. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)

  5. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam


    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  6. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst


    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation modeling and to recently-developed advanced, computationally-efficient techniques. If you're a research professional, academic, or student, you'll learn: nucleation theory, precipitate growth, calculation of interfacial energies. advanced techniques for technologically relevant multicomponent systems and complex thermo-mechanical treatments. numerical approaches using evolution equations and discrete particle size distribu...

  7. 1.9 W yellow, CW, high-brightness light from a high efficiency semiconductor laser-based system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Christensen, Mathias; Noordegraaf, Danny


    , imaging, flow cytometry, and cancer treatment. However, direct generation of yellow light from semiconductors with sufficient beam quality and power has so far eluded researchers. Meanwhile, tapered semiconductor lasers at near-infrared wavelengths have recently become able to provide neardiffraction...

  8. Yellow laser performance of Dy$^{3+}$ in co-doped Dy,Tb:LiLuF$_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, Giacomo; Calonico, Davide; Costanzo, Giovanni Antonio; Levi, Filippo; Metz, Philip Werner; Kränkel, Christian; Huber, Günter; Tonelli, Mauro


    We present laser results obtained from a Dy$^{3+}$-Tb$^{3+}$ co-doped LiLuF$_{4}$ crystal, pumped by a blue emitting InGaN laser diode, aiming for the generation of a compact 578 nm source. We exploit the yellow Dy$^{3+}$ transition $^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\Longrightarrow$ $^{6}$H$_{13/2}$ to generate yellow laser emission. The lifetime of the lower laser level is quenched via energy transfer to co-doped Tb$^{3+}$ ions in the fluoride crystal. We report the growth technique, spectroscopic study and room temperature continuous wave (cw) laser results in a hemispherical cavity at 574 nm and with a highly reflective output coupler at 578 nm. A yellow laser at 578 nm is very relevant for metrological applications, in particular for pumping of the forbidden $^{1}$S$_{0} \\Longrightarrow ^{3}$P$_{0}$ Ytterbium clock transition, which is recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the international system (SI) of units. This paper was published in Optics Letters and is made available as an electronic reprint ...

  9. Solid state radiative heat pump (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.


    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature ( K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  10. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.


    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  11. Nylon 6 polymerization in the solid state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Amirtharaj, John; Kamp, Henk


    The postcondensation of nylon 6 in the solid state was studied. The reactions were carried out on fine powder in a fluidized bed reactor in a stream of dry nitrogen in the temperature range 110-205°C and during 1-24 h. The solid-state polymerization (SSP) did not follow melt kinetics, but was found

  12. Theoretical and experimental study of two-frequency solid-state lasers in the GHz to THz ranges. Opto-microwave applications waves; Etude theorique et experimentale des lasers solides bi-frequences dans les domaines GHz a THz, en regime continu ou impulsionnel. Applications opto-microondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, N.D.


    We explored some new features of single- and dual-frequency solid-state lasers oscillating in continuous-wave or pulsed regimes. First, we have developed some techniques to optimise the characteristics of pulsed lasers. A weak modulation of the pump power made it possible to obtain a stable repetition rate with a relative stability of 10{sup -6}. The pulse duration was continuously controlled from ten nanoseconds to a few hundreds nanoseconds by three different methods: adjustment of the laser beam diameter in the absorber, adjustment of the pump beam diameter in the active medium, and, in particular, the use of forked eigenstates in a two-axis laser. Moreover, the forked eigenstates allows to increase the pulse energy by coherent addition of the pulses. A compact two-frequency Nd:YAG-Cr:YAG laser with a beat note frequency continuously adjustable up to 2,7 GHz was demonstrated. The two-frequency pulses are ideal sources to meet various needs of applications such as the Doppler lidar-radar. Moreover, we show that two-frequency pulses at 1,55 {mu}m can be obtained by using a new c-cut Co:ASL saturable absorber in an Er-Yb:glass laser. These pulses are perfectly adapted to free-space detection systems requiring eye safety. The coherence time of the beat note in these lasers was also studied: it is limited by the pulse duration. A new technique of modulating the pump power of a solid-state laser at frequencies close to its relaxation oscillation frequency was studied and made it possible to generate a beat note coherence from pulse to pulse. Frequency conversion techniques using the nonlinear optical effects make it possible to obtain tunable two-frequency sources in the visible spectrum. Green and red two-frequency pulses were obtained by using different conversion techniques, intra-cavity or extra-cavity. A two-frequency THz source in the red spectrum was also obtained by doubling the frequencies of a two-frequency THz Er-Yb:glass laser using a mixed fan-out PPLN

  13. Blue on yellow perimetry with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in patients with age related macular disease (United States)

    Remky, A; Elsner, A E


    Background/aim: The loss of short wavelength sensitive (SWS) cone mechanism sensitivity is related to severe vision loss in patients with age related maculopathy (ARM). A case-control study of patients with ARM and age matched controls was performed, using blue on yellow static perimetry. Methods: A bright yellow background at 594 nm isolated the responses of short wavelength cone mechanisms to 458 nm targets. A scanning laser ophthalmoscope produced stimuli and provided real time, simultaneous fundus illumination. The macula was probed with 16 Goldmann IV targets, 1–10 degrees from fixation, using a staircase method. Results: 24 patients with non-exudative ARM were matched to 24 subjects with normal fundus appearance. SWS cone pathway sensitivity for macular targets was significantly reduced in the patients with ARM compared to normals—15.45 (SD 4.56) dB v 17.22 (0.28) dB, respectively (p<0.0005). There was not only a diffuse loss of sensitivity in ARM patients, but also a localised loss of sensitivity over drusen (p<0.025). Neither the mean age, 69 (8) years, nor the mean visual acuity differed between groups, logMAR 0.09 (0.10) v 0.05 (0.06) for ARM patients v normals, respectively. Patients with soft drusen had lower sensitivity than those with hard drusen (p <0.05). Conclusion: A loss of SWS cone pathway sensitivity occurred in most patients with early ARM, despite good visual acuity, demonstrating a loss of visual function that cannot be attributed to ageing changes. The loss of sensitivity, despite good visual acuity, included both a diffuse loss and localised losses. PMID:15774925

  14. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C


    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  15. Up to 30 mW of broadly tunable CW green-to-orange light, based on sum-frequency mixing of Cr4+:forsterite and Nd:YVO4 lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; McWilliam, Alan; Leburn, Christopher G


    +:forsterite laser was single-passed through the non-linear media. With this setup, it was possible to generate up to 3 mW of yellow light smoothly tunable from 573 to 587 nm. This is the highest output demonstrated to date for a tunable diode pumped solid-state CW laser in this wavelength region. The ways...

  16. A crystal chemistry approach for high-power ytterbium doped solid-state lasers: diffusion-bonded crystals and new crystalline hosts; Relations structures-proprietes dans les lasers solides de puissance a l'ytterbium: elaboration et caracterisation de nouveaux materiaux et de cristaux composites soudes par diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaume, R


    This work deals with ytterbium based crystals for high-power laser applications. In particular, we focus our interest in reducing crystal heating and its consequences during laser operation following two different ways. First, we review the specific properties of ytterbium doped solid-state lasers in order to define a figure-of-merit which gives the evaluation of laser performances, thermo-mechanical and thermo-optical properties. Bearing in mind this analysis, we propose a set of theoretical tools, based on the crystallographic structure of the crystal and its chemical composition, to predict thermo-mechanical and optical potentials. This approach, used for the seek of new Yb{sup 3+}-doped materials for high-power laser applications, shows that simple oxides containing rare-earths are favorable. Therefore, the spectroscopic properties of six new materials Yb{sup 3+}:GdVO{sub 4}, Yb{sup 3+}:GdAlO{sub 3}, Yb{sup 3+}:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sup 3+}:Sc{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}, Yb{sup 3+}:CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Yb{sup 3+}:SrSc{sub 2}O{sub 4} are described. The second aspect developed in this work deals with thermal properties enhancement of already well characterized laser materials. Two different ways are explored: a) elaboration by diffusion bonding of end-caps lasers with undoped crystals (composite crystals). Thus, different composites were obtained and a fairly lowering of thermal lensing effect was observed during laser operation. b) strengthening of crystalline structures by ionic substitution of one of its constituents. We demonstrate how crystal growth ability can be improved by a cationic substitution in the case of Yb{sup 3+}:BOYS, a largely-tunable laser material which is of great interest for femtosecond pulses generation. (author)

  17. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.


    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  18. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude


    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  19. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys


    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  20. Photoinduced blinking in a solid-state quantum system (United States)

    Berhane, Amanuel M.; Bradac, Carlo; Aharonovich, Igor


    Solid-state single-photon emitters (SPEs) are one of the prime components of many quantum nanophotonics devices. In this work, we report on an unusual, photoinduced blinking phenomenon of SPEs in gallium nitride. This is shown to be due to the modification in the transition kinetics of the emitter, via the introduction of additional laser-activated states. We investigate and characterize the blinking effect on the brightness of the source and the statistics of the emitted photons. Combining second-order correlation and fluorescence trajectory measurements, we determine the photodynamics of the trap states and characterize power-dependent decay rates and characteristic "off"-time blinking. Our work sheds light into understanding solid-state quantum system dynamics and, specifically, power-induced blinking phenomena in SPEs.

  1. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ


    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  2. Nanorod Array Solid State Neutron Detectors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR project, Synkera proposes to develop and commercialize solid-state neutron detectors of a unique architecture that will enable sensor modules...

  3. Solid-State Fermentation: An Overview


    Bhargav, Samir; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ali, Mohd.; Javed, Saleem


    Solid-state fermentation (ssf) is defined as the growth of microbes without free flowing aqueous phase. The ssf is alternative to submerged fermentation for production of value added products like antibiotics, single cell protein, PUFA’s, enzymes, organic acids, biopesticides, biofuel and aroma production. However, the advantages of ssf in various processes are found to be greater than in submerged fermentation. This paper reviews the advantages of solid-state fermentation over submerged in p...

  4. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D


    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  5. Yellow laser light generation by frequency doubling of the output from a master oscillator fiber power amplifier system (United States)

    Ryser, Manuel; Marques, Carlos; Nogueira, Rogério; Romano, Valerio


    We present a power-scalable approach for yellow laser-light generation based on standard Ytterbium (Yb) doped fibers. To force the cavity to lase at 1154 nm, far above the gain-maximum, measures must be taken to fulfill lasing condition and to suppress competing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the high-gain region. To prove the principle we built a fiber-laser cavity and a fiber-amplifier both at 1154 nm. In between cavity and amplifier we suppressed the ASE by 70 dB using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based filter. Finally we demonstrated efficient single pass frequency doubling to 577 nm with a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (PPLN). With our linearly polarized 1154 nm master oscillator power fiber amplifier (MOFA) system we achieved slope efficiencies of more than 15 % inside the cavity and 24 % with the fiber-amplifier. The frequency doubling followed the predicted optimal efficiency achievable with a PPLN crystal. So far we generated 1.5 W at 1154nm and 90 mW at 577 nm. Our MOFA approach for generation of 1154 nm laser radiation is power-scalable by using multi-stage amplifiers and large mode-area fibers and is therefore very promising for building a high power yellow laser-light source of several tens of Watt.

  6. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J


    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  7. Driver circuit for solid state light sources (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven


    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  8. Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo


    Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices introduces readers to theories and concepts such as semi-classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of electron transport, methods for calculations of band structures in solids with applications in calculation of optical constants, and other advanced concepts.  The information presented here will equip readers with the necessary tools to carry out cutting edge research in modern solid state nanodevices. This book also: Covers sophisticated models of charge transport including the drift-diffusion model, Boltzmann transport model and various quantum transport models Discusses the essential elements of quantum mechanics necessary for an understanding of nanostructured solid state devices Presents band structure calculation methods based on time-independent perturbation theory Discusses theory of optical transitions and optical devices employing quantum-confined structures such as quantum wells,wires and dots Elucidates quantum mechanics of electrons in a magneti...

  9. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R


    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  10. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B


    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  11. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J


    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  12. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Boqin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C60 is analyzed.

  13. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles


    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  14. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  15. Solid-State Threshold Accelerometer Chip. (United States)


    APR edtiil may be used until exhausted SEC :141v CLASSCTCAATION Of TH’S OAGE * All other editions art obsolete. Im SOLID STATE THRESHOLD contact metallization was found to cause difficulty in switch reset due to the low restoring force available with the microminiature

  16. Developments in Solid-State NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Developments in Solid-State NMR. K V Ramanathan. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1040-1052. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  17. Mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This communication reports a novel mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state metathesis reaction for the synthesis of submicron-size alkaline-earth molybdates crystallizing in a tetragonal Scheelite structure. The solids were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM, EDAX and TEM to ascertain ...

  18. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Investigations leading to the understanding and development of solid state magnesium batteries are considered important, as Mg is free from hazards and is also highly stable and abundant. A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of about 100 mm thickness is investigated for electrochemical reversibility of the Mg/Mg2+ couple and ...

  19. Solid-State Neutron Detector Device (United States)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor); Starikov, David (Inventor); Pillai, Rajeev (Inventor)


    The structure and methods of fabricating a high efficiency compact solid state neutron detector based on III-Nitride semiconductor structures deposited on a substrate. The operation of the device is based on absorption of neutrons, which results in generation of free carriers.

  20. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.


    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  1. Solid-state NMR for bacterial biofilms (United States)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Cegelski, Lynette


    Bacteria associate with surfaces and one another by elaborating an extracellular matrix to encapsulate cells, creating communities termed biofilms. Biofilms are beneficial in some ecological niches, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of serious and chronic infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative measurements are needed to define the composition and architecture of bacterial biofilms to help drive the development of strategies to interfere with biofilm assembly. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to the examination of insoluble and complex macromolecular and whole-cell systems. This article highlights three examples that implement solid-state NMR to deliver insights into bacterial biofilm composition and changes in cell-wall composition as cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle. Most recently, solid-state NMR measurements provided a total accounting of the protein and polysaccharide components in the extracellular matrix of an Escherichia coli biofilm and transformed our qualitative descriptions of matrix composition into chemical parameters that permit quantitative comparisons among samples. We present additional data for whole biofilm samples (cells plus the extracellular matrix) that complement matrix-only analyses. The study of bacterial biofilms by solid-state NMR is an exciting avenue ripe with many opportunities and we close the article by articulating some outstanding questions and future directions in this area.

  2. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium batteries. G Girish Kumar N Munichandraiah. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 378-378. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))


    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  4. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.


    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  5. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for the synthesis of orthovanadates, M3V2O8 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba). The structural, vibrational, thermal, optical and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning ...

  6. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.


    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  7. Fungal mats in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.


    Since over 2000 years man has cultivated fungi on grains, beans or other (by)products from agriculture or agro-industries, in order to produce tastier and healthier foods. Nowadays, cultivation on solid substrates (solid-state fermentation, SSF) is also used to produce industrial enzymes, drugs and

  8. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent


    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  9. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 3

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 3 covers reviews that are directly related to the two devices which are the epitome of applied solid state science - the transistor and the laser. The book discusses the physics of multilayer-gate IGFET memories; the application of the transient charge technique in drift velocity; and trapping in semiconductors and in materials used in xerography, nuclear particle detectors, and space-charge-limited devices; as well as thin film transistors. The text describes the manipulation of laser beams in solids and discusses

  10. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura


    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  11. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  12. Spectroscopic studies on technetium and silicon. A solid-state laser system for the resonance-ionization spectroscopy; Spektroskopische Untersuchungen an Technetium und Silizium. Ein Festkoerperlasersystem fuer die Resonanzionisationsspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattolat, Christoph


    This doctoral thesis describes advancement and refinement of the titanium:sapphire laser system of the working group LARISSA, Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg- Universitaet Mainz and its application to resonance ionization spectroscopy. Activities on the laser systems comprised three major tasks: The output power of the conventional titanium:sapphire lasers could be increased by a factor of two in order to match the needs at resonance ionization laser ion source at ISOL facilities. Additionally, the laser system was complemented by a titanium:sapphire laser in Littrow geometry, which ensures a mode-hop free tuning range from 700 nm to 950 nm, and by an injection seeded titanium:sapphire laser with a spectral width of 20 MHz (in respect to a spectral width of 3 GHz for the conventional lasers). The performance of the new laser system was tested in spectroscopic investigations of highly excited atomic levels of gold and technetium. From the measured level positions the ionization potential of gold could be verified by using the Rydberg-Ritz formula, while the ionization potential of technetium could be determined precisely for the first time. Using the seeded titanium: sapphire laser Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy inside a hot ionizer cavity was demonstrated. A width of the recorded resonances of 90 MHz was achieved and the hyperfine structure and isotope shift of stable silicon isotopes was well resolved with this method. (orig.)

  13. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen


    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  14. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon


    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  15. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J


    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  16. Hexahedral modular bioreactor for solid state bioprocesses


    Cunha, Daniele Colembergue da; Souza, Jeferson Avila; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Costa,Jorge Alberto Vieira


    The design of a modular bioreactor for solid state fermentation is a promising development because it keeps the homogeneity of the bed at optimal levels. This study determines the optimum geometry of elementary modules of hexahedral bioreactors subjected to constant volume. The bioreactors have a square section and do not need an external cooling system, because the optimization limits the temperature of the bed to 35 C. The geometric optimization followed the Constructal principle o...

  17. Solid-state power converter repeatability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dal Gobbo, Anthony; Aguglia, Davide


    This paper presents a method for evaluating power converter repeatability. The focus is on solid-state switch mode power converter for which the most problematic non-repeatability sources are the jitter of the drivers and of the switches leading to output voltage pulses bad repeatability. Both driver and switch turn-on and turn-off delay dispersion have been measured. These measurements confirm that the delay is Gaussian distributed and that the repeatability prediction method is valid.

  18. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, D.H.


    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  19. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering


    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  20. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA


    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  1. Compression selective solid-state chemistry (United States)

    Hu, Anguang

    Compression selective solid-state chemistry refers to mechanically induced selective reactions of solids under thermomechanical extreme conditions. Advanced quantum solid-state chemistry simulations, based on density functional theory with localized basis functions, were performed to provide a remarkable insight into bonding pathways of high-pressure chemical reactions in all agreement with experiments. These pathways clearly demonstrate reaction mechanisms in unprecedented structural details, showing not only the chemical identity of reactive intermediates but also how atoms move along the reaction coordinate associated with a specific vibrational mode, directed by induced chemical stress occurred during bond breaking and forming. It indicates that chemical bonds in solids can break and form precisely under compression as we wish. This can be realized through strongly coupling of mechanical work to an initiation vibrational mode when all other modes can be suppressed under compression, resulting in ultrafast reactions to take place isothermally in a few femtoseconds. Thermodynamically, such reactions correspond to an entropy minimum process on an isotherm where the compression can force thermal expansion coefficient equal to zero. Combining a significantly brief reaction process with specific mode selectivity, both statistical laws and quantum uncertainty principle can be bypassed to precisely break chemical bonds, establishing fundamental principles of compression selective solid-state chemistry. Naturally this leads to understand the ''alchemy'' to purify, grow, and perfect certain materials such as emerging novel disruptive energetics.

  2. Solid state NMR of biopolymers and synthetic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinski, Lynn W. [Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States)


    Solid state NMR has been invaluable in evaluating the structure, phase separation, and dynamics of polymers. Because polymers are generally used in the solid state, solid state NMR is especially powerful because it provides information about the materials in their native state. This review gives a general overview of solid state NMR, concentrating on solid state {sup 13} C and {sup 2} H NMR. It then focuses on two examples: the biopolymer spider silka and the engineering material polyurethane. It illustrates how solid state NMR can provide new information about synthetic and bio-polymers. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Laser Spectroscopy Investigations of Materials for Solid State Laser Systems. (United States)


    of Population Gratings in NdP5O14 Crystas RICHARD C. POWELL, JACEK K. TYMINSKI, ALI M. GHAZZAWI, AND CHRISTOPHER M. LAWSON Allmmm-ar-ww -dlm ipel basm...FORsER. Ann. Phys. 2, 55 (1948). 3. C. FOUA.SSIER. B. LATOURnrETM, J. PORTIER . 12. D. L. DEXTER, Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953). AND P. HAGENMULLER, Mat. Res


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura


    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura


    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  6. Subthreshold micropulse yellow 577 nm laser therapy of diabetic macular oedema in rural and urban patients of south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Latalska


    Place of residence had no statistically significant effect on the demographics data, baseline visual acuity, reading visual acuity and central retinal thickness. Subthreshold micropulse yellow laser showed a highly significant efficiency in the treatment of DME. The effects of the treatment were more significant in rural patients than in urban ones.

  7. Combined Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant And Micropulse Yellow Laser For Treatment Of Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema. (United States)

    Elhamid, Ahmed Hosni Abd


    To report the efficacy and safety of combined intravitreal dexamethasone implant and micropulse laser for anti-VEGF resistant diabetic macular edema. Prospective, non-controlled study that was conducted for twenty eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema not responding to anti-VEGF therapy. Ozurdex intravitreal implant was injected to all eyes with subsequent micropulse yellow laser one month after the injection. All eyes were followed up after one, three, four, six, nine and twelve months. The primary outcome measure is the change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after one year and secondary outcome measures are central macular thickness (CMT) change and safety of both dexamethasone implant and micropulse laser. Reinjection was done for those eyes with recurrent edema. The mean age was 58.8 ±7.94 years. The mean BCVA was 0.6± 0.14, 0.57 ±0.12, 0.51±0.15, 0.59±0.12, 0.6± 0.12 and 0.59±0.14 after one, three, four, six, nine and twelve months in comparison to 0.45± 0.14 as initial BCVA [SS,Panti-VEGF resistant diabetic macular edema.

  8. Solid State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. (eds.)


    During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, superconductivity, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. The High Flux Isotope Reactor was returned to full operation.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard


    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  10. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu


    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-x Y x O3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm(-1) at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  11. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N


    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  12. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Clary, Maurice C.; Anderson, James L.; Anger, Clifford D.; Carr, Michael H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Davies, Merton E.; Greeley, Ronald; Anderson, Donald


    The Galileo Orbiter's Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment uses a 1.5-m focal length TV camera with 800 x 800 pixel, virtual-phase CCD detector in order to obtain images of Jupiter and its satellites which possess a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolutions, geometric fidelity, and spectral range that are unmatched by earlier imaging data. After describing the performance of this equipment on the basis of ground calibrations, attention is given to the SSI experiment's Jupiter system observation objectives; these encompass atmospheric science, satellite surfaces, ring structure, and 'darkside' experiments.

  13. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication (United States)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Del Corro, Pablo G.; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A.; Lally, Richard W.; Bishop, David J.


    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A document containing further information about device characterization

  14. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert


    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  15. DNA Translocations through Solid-State Plasmonic Nanopores (United States)


    Nanopores enable label-free detection and analysis of single biomolecules. Here, we investigate DNA translocations through a novel type of plasmonic nanopore based on a gold bowtie nanoantenna with a solid-state nanopore at the plasmonic hot spot. Plasmonic excitation of the nanopore is found to influence both the sensor signal (nanopore ionic conductance blockade during DNA translocation) and the process that captures DNA into the nanopore, without affecting the duration time of the translocations. Most striking is a strong plasmon-induced enhancement of the rate of DNA translocation events in lithium chloride (LiCl, already 10-fold enhancement at a few mW of laser power). This provides a means to utilize the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of DNA interrogations with nanopores in LiCl buffers, which is known to suffer from low event rates. We propose a mechanism based on plasmon-induced local heating and thermophoresis as explanation of our observations. PMID:25347403

  16. Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Kristensen, Martin


    We report the first demonstration of autocatalysis and oscillatory behaviour in the solid-state where no decomposition process is involved. Our material system is solid-state silica glass impregnated with hydrogen. It is at the heart of photosensitivity in glass-based optical waveguides and devices......, which have many applications including telecommunication devices, fibre lasers, and optical sensors. Consequently, the results reported here extend the engineering of chemical complexity to a previously uncharted area in materials science of particular relevance to photonic applications. Diagnosis...... is carried out optically, opening up a new approach to characterisation of such catalytic processes generally....

  17. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G


    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  18. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute


    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  19. Compact, passively Q-switched, all-solid-state master oscillator-power amplifier-optical parametric oscillator (MOPA-OPO) system pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser generating high-brightness, tunable, ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Peuser, Peter; Platz, Willi; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Meister, Alexander; Haag, Matthias; Zolichowski, Paul


    We report on a compact, tunable ultraviolet laser system that consists of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and a longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA). The pump energy for the whole laser system is supplied via a single delivery fiber. Nanosecond pulses are produced by an oscillator that is passively Q-switched by a Cr(4+):YAG crystal. The OPO is pumped by the second harmonic of the Nd:YAG MOPA. Continuously tunable radiation is generated by an intracavity sum-frequency mixing process within the OPO in the range of 245-260 nm with high beam quality. Maximum pulse energies of 1.2 mJ were achieved, which correspond to an optical efficiency of 3.75%, relating to the pulse energy of the MOPA at 1064 nm.

  20. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo


    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  1. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans


    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  2. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati


    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  3. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott


    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  4. Experimental aspects of solid-state voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooster, T.T.; Longmire, M.L.; Zhang, H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [and others


    This paper describes the properties of poly(ether) polymer electrolytes as solvent media for solid-state voltammetry. Experimental requirements for microelectrode voltammetry and results for the dependency of diffusive transport of electroactive solutes on polymer solvent molecular weight, structure, and temperature (and related phase state) are described for eight poly(ether)s: linear poly(ethylene oxides) MW = 400, 1000, 2000, and 600 000 (Me{sub 2}PEG-400, Me{sub 2}PEG-1000, Me{sub 2}PEG-2000, PEO-600 000), linear poly(propylene oxide) MW = 4000 (PPO-4000), the comb polymer poly(bis[(methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]phosphazine) (MEEP), the block copolymer poly(ether)-poly(urethane urea)(PEUU), and the cross-linked poly(ether) network PEO. 28 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Solid State Li-ion Batteries (United States)


    like FeS2 (8, 9), FeS (10), nano-Si (11- 13), Li4Ti5O12 (14-17), graphite (18, 19), Li4.4GexSi1-x (20), α- Fe2O3 (21) and Sn-based glasses like SnO...Br2O3 (22) or SnS-P2S5 (23). FeS2, FeS, L4Ti5O12, α- Fe2O3 , and Sn-based glasses all have average operating voltages that are too high to make them useful...Solid State Ionics, 158, 269 (2003). 19. Y. Seino, K. Takada, B.-C. Kim, L. Zhang, N. Ohta, H. Wada, M. Osada and T. Sasaki, “ Synthesis of

  6. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David


    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  7. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusid, O.; Gofer, Y.; Gizbar, H.; Vestfrid, Y.; Levi, E.; Aurbach, D. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Riech, I. [Ortal Magnesium Diecasting Ltd, Kibbutz Neve Ur 10875 (Israel)


    The development of all solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery systems is reported, with components that are environmentally friendly and relatively simple in their structure and preparation. As anodes, magnesium alloys containing Zn and Al are used, and the cathode is the chevrel phase, Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, which can insert two magnesium atoms per unit (Mg{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, 122 mA h g{sup -1}). The solid electrolyte is a gel comprising polyvinylidene difluoride, Mg(AlCl{sub 2}EtBt){sub 2} complex salt, and tetraglyme as a plasticizer. These batteries are found to function well in a temperature range of 0-80 C with a voltage range of 1.3-0.8V. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications (United States)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L.; Swinehart, P.


    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, we are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. The performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented.

  9. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. (Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, MA (United States)); Swinehart, P. (Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., Westerville, OH (United States))


    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  10. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio


    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  11. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph


    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  12. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark


    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  13. An all-solid-state chirped source for coherent optical radar (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.


    A low-noise, high-power, single-frequency, solid-state laser harmonically converted to the green is required to pump a single-frequency, singly-resonant, chirped, optical parametric oscillator. As work toward this new frequency agile source we have built and injection locked an 18 watt Nd:YAG slave laser with a 40 mW master laser to produce single frequency operation, generated 6.5 watts of 532 nm radiation at 36 percent efficiency by resonant second harmonic generation, and measured spectral and spatial mode characteristics of this laser. Toward an all-solid-state version of this laser we have designed a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser. All subsystems of this laser have been built and tested and the final construction of the laser is currently underway. In addition, we have built both a pulsed singly resonant optical parametric oscillator, and a low threshold cw doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator that operated at 80 percent conversion efficiency in a single axial mode.

  14. CO2Laser Direct Written MOF-Based Metal-Decorated and Heteroatom-Doped Porous Graphene for Flexible All-Solid-State Microsupercapacitor with Extremely High Cycling Stability. (United States)

    Basu, Aniruddha; Roy, Kingshuk; Sharma, Neha; Nandi, Shyamapada; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan; Rane, Sunit; Rode, Chandrashekhar; Ogale, Satishchandra


    Over the past decade, flexible and wearable microelectronic devices and systems have gained significant importance. Because portable power source is an essential need of such wearable devices, currently there is considerable research emphasis on the development of planar interdigitated micro energy -torage devices by employing diverse precursor materials to obtain functional materials (functional carbon, oxides, etc.) with the desirable set of properties. Herein we report for the first time the use of metal organic framework (MOF) and zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) for high-wavelength photothermal laser direct writing of metal-decorated, heteroatom-doped, porous few-layer graphene electrodes for microsupercapacitor application. We argue that the specific attributes of MOF as a precursor and the high-wavelength laser writing approach (which creates extremely high localized and transient temperature (>2500 °C) due to strong absorption by lattice vibrations) are together responsible for the peculiar interesting properties of the carbon material thus synthesized, thereby rendering extremely high cycling stability to the corresponding microsupercapacitor device. Our device exhibits near 100% retention after 200 000 cycles as well as stability under 150° bending.

  15. Beyond laser microdissection technology: follow the yellow brick road for cancer research. (United States)

    Legres, Luc G; Janin, Anne; Masselon, Christophe; Bertheau, Philippe


    Normal biological tissues harbour different populations of cells with intricate spacial distribution patterns resulting in heterogeneity of their overall cellular composition. Laser microdissection involving direct viewing and expertise by a pathologist, enables access to defined cell populations or specific region on any type of tissue sample, thus selecting near-pure populations of targeted cells. It opens the way for molecular methods directed towards well-defined populations, and provides also a powerful tool in studies focused on a limited number of cells. Laser microdissection has wide applications in oncology (diagnosis and research), cellular and molecular biology, biochemistry and forensics for tissue selection, but other areas have been gradually opened up to these new methodological approaches, such as cell cultures and cytogenetics. In clinical oncology trials, molecular profiling of microdissected samples can yield global "omics" information which, together, with the morphological analysis of cells, can provide the basis for diagnosis, prognosis and patient-tailored treatments. This remarkable technology has brought new insights in the understanding of DNA, RNA, and the biological functions and regulation of proteins to identify molecular disease signatures. We review herein the different applications of laser microdissection in a variety of fields, and we particularly focus attention on the pre-analytical steps that are crucial to successfully perform molecular-level investigations.

  16. Solid state lighting devices and methods with rotary cooling structures (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.


    Solid state lighting devices and methods for heat dissipation with rotary cooling structures are described. An example solid state lighting device includes a solid state light source, a rotating heat transfer structure in thermal contact with the solid state light source, and a mounting assembly having a stationary portion. The mounting assembly may be rotatably coupled to the heat transfer structure such that at least a portion of the mounting assembly remains stationary while the heat transfer structure is rotating. Examples of methods for dissipating heat from electrical devices, such as solid state lighting sources are also described. Heat dissipation methods may include providing electrical power to a solid state light source mounted to and in thermal contact with a heat transfer structure, and rotating the heat transfer structure through a surrounding medium.

  17. First demonstration of InGaP/InAlGaP based 608nm orange laser and 583nm yellow superluminescent diode

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed Abdul


    We report on the first demonstration of InGaP/InAlGaP based orange semiconductor laser (OSL) and yellow superluminescent diode (YSLD) emitting at a wavelength of 608nm and 583nm respectively. The total output power of YSLD is ∼4.5mW which is the highest ever reported power on this material system at room-temperature.

  18. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids


    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B. K.


    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  19. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M


    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  20. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E


    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  1. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E A


    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(beta-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 sub 1 2 sub 1 2 sub 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20...

  2. DFT calculations of quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties: Some examples in solid-state inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Cuny, Jerome; Messaoudi, Sabri; Alonzo, Veronique; Furet, Eric; Halet, Jean-François; Le Fur, Eric; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Pickard, Chris J; Gautier, Regis; Le Polles, Laurent


    This article presents results of first-principles calculations of quadrupolar parameters measured by solid-state nuclear magnetic measurement (NMR) spectroscopy. Different computational methods based on density functional theory were used to calculate the quadrupolar parameters. Through a series of illustrations from different areas of solid state inorganic chemistry, it is shown how quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties can be tackled by a theoretical approach and can yield structural information. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lasing transition at 1.06 μm emission in Nd(3)(+) -doped borate-based tellurium calcium zinc niobium oxide glasses for high-power solid-state lasers. (United States)

    Ravi, O; Prasad, K; Jain, Rajiv; Venkataswamy, M; Chaurasia, Shivanand; Deva Prasad Raju, B


    The spectroscopic properties of Tellurium Calcium Zinc Niobium oxide Borate (TCZNB) glasses of composition (in mol%) 10TeO2  + 15CaO + 5ZnO + 10 Nb2 O5  + (60 - x)B2 O3  + Nd2 O3 (x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mol%) have been investigated experimentally. The three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2 , Ω4, Ω6 have been calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory and in turn radiative properties such as radiative transition probabilities, emission cross-sections, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been estimated. The trend found in the JO intensity parameter is Ω2  > Ω6  > Ω4 If Ω6  > Ω4 , the glass system is favourable for the laser emission (4) F3/2  → (4) I11/2 in the infrared (IR) wavelength. The experimental values of branching ratio of (4) F3/2  → (4) I11/2 transition indicate favourable lasing action with low threshold power. The evaluated total radiative transition probabilities (AT ), stimulated emission cross-section (σe ) and gain bandwidth parameters (σe  × Δλp ) were compared with earlier reports. An energy level analysis has been carried out considering the experimental energy positions of the absorption and emission bands. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Solid State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.


    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1995, through March 31, 1997. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program in support of Department of Energy science and technology missions. The report includes brief summaries of research activities in condensed matter theory, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. An addendum includes listings of division publications and professional activities.

  5. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)


    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Brown


    Meadow River Enterprises, Inc. (MRE) and the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University (NYSCC) received a DOE cooperative agreement award in September 1999 to develop an energy-efficient Solid-State Ceramic Lamp (SSCL). The program spanned a nominal two(2) year period ending in February of 2002. The federal contribution to the program totaled $1.6 million supporting approximately 78% of the program costs. The SSCL is a rugged electroluminescent lamp designed for outdoor applications. MRE has filed a provisional patent for this ''second generation'' technology and currently produces and markets blue-green phosphor SSCL devices. White phosphor SSCL devices are also available in prototype quantities. In addition to reducing energy consumption, the ceramic EL lamp offers several economic and societal advantages including lower lifecycle costs and reduced ''light pollution''. Significant further performance improvements are possible but will require a dramatic change in device physical construction related to the use of micro-powder materials and processes. The subject ''second-generation'' program spans a 27 month period and combines the materials and processing expertise of NYSCC, the manufacturing expertise of Meadow River Enterprises, and the phosphor development expertise of OSRAM Sylvania to develop an improved SSCL system. The development plan also includes important contributions by Marshall University (a part of the West Virginia University system). All primary development objectives have been achieved with the exception of improved phosphor powders. The performance characteristics of the first generation SSCL devices were carefully analyzed in year 1 and a second generation lamp was defined and optimized in year 2. The provisional patent was ''perfected'' through a comprehensive patent application filed in November 2002. Lamp efficiency was improved more than 2:1.

  7. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freericks, J.K.


    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t{prime}-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t{prime}-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies.

  8. Solid-state three-step model for high-harmonic generation from periodic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ikemachi, Takuya; Sato, Takeshi; Yumoto, Junji; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Ishikawa, Kenichi L


    We study high-harmonic generation (HHG) from solids driven by intense laser pulses using the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for a one-dimensional model periodic crystal. Based on the simulation results, we propose a simple model that can quantitatively explain many aspects of solid- state HHG, some of which have been experimentally observed. Incorporating interband tunneling, intraband acceleration, and recombination with the valence-band hole, our model can be viewed as a solid-state counterpart of the familiar three-step model highly successful for gas-phase HHG and provides a unified basis to understand HHG from gaseous media and solid-state materials. The solid-state three-step model describes how, by repeating intraband acceleration and interband tunneling, electrons climb up across multiple conduction bands. The key parameter in predicting the HHG spectrum structure from the band-climbing process is the peak-to-valley (or valley-to-peak) full amplitude of the pulse vector potential $A(t)$. When the...

  9. First demonstration of orange-yellow light emitter devices in InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure using strain-induced quantum well intermixing technique

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed A.


    In this paper, a novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique is employed on InGaP/InAlGaP material system to promote interdiffusion via application of a thick-dielectric encapsulant layer, in conjunction with cycle annealing at elevated temperature. Broad area devices fabricated from this novel cost-effective QWI technique lased at room-temperature at a wavelength as short as 608nm with a total output power of ~46mW. This is the shortest- wavelength electrically pumped visible semiconductor laser, and the first report of lasing action yet reported from post- growth interdiffused process. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the first yellow superluminescent diode (SLD) at a wavelength of 583nm with a total two-facet output power of ~4.5mW - the highest optical power ever reported at this wavelength in this material system. The demonstration of the yellow SLD without complicated multiquantum barriers to suppress the carrier overflow will have a great impact in realizing the yellow laser diode. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  10. Characterization of multiport solid state imagers at megahertz data rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, G.J.; Pena, C.R.; Turko, B.T.


    Test results obtained from two recently developed multiport Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) operated at pixel rates in the 10-to-100 MHz range will be presented . The CCDs were evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) which features PC-based programmable clock waveform generation (Tektronix DAS 9200) and synchronously clocked Digital Sampling Oscilloscopes (DSOs) (LeCroy 9424/9314 series) for CCD pixel data acquisition, analysis and storage. The HSTS also provided special designed optical pinhole array test patterns in the 5-to-50 micron diameter range for use with Xenon Strobe and pulsed laser light sources to simultaneously provide multiple single-pixel illumination patterns to study CCD point-spread-function (PSF) and pixel smear characteristics. The two CCDs tested, EEV model CCD-13 and EG&G Reticon model HSO512J, are both 512 {times} 512 pixel arrays with eight (8) and sixteen (16) video output ports respectively. Both devices are generically Frame Transfer CCDs (FT CCDs) designed for parallel bi-directional vertical readout to augment their multiport design for increased pixel rates over common single port serial readout architecture. Although both CCDs were tested similarly, differences in their designs precluded normalization or any direct comparisons of test results. Rate dependent parameters investigated include S/N, PSF, and MTF. The performance observed for the two imagers at various pixel rates from selected typical output ports is discussed.

  11. Bending crystals. Solid state photomechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Prior to the early 1970's there were many reports on transition metal complexes formed with catecholate ligands ... incident light source is switched on, the crystal bends and the laser beam is deflected on the screen. .... The reaction carried out by first treating Co2(CO)8 with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzo- quinone, followed by ...

  12. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys (United States)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  13. Modulation of a solid-state reversible fluorescent photoswitching based on a controllable photochromic pyrazolones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hu; Guo, Jixi [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Jia, Dianzeng, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Guo, Mingxi; Le, Fuhe; Liu, Lang; Wu, Dongling [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Li, Feng [State Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science and Technology, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan (China); University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)


    A novel solid-state reversible fluorescence photoswitching system (FPS) based on photochromism of photochromic pyrazolones has been developed by employing phosphor Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} co-doped with europium ion and chlorine ion (Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC) and 1,3-diphenyl-4-(3-chlorobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole-4-phenylsemicarbazone (1a) as the fluorescence dye and the photochromic compound, respectively. With carefully selected components, the absorption band of the keto-form photochromic pyrazolones well overlaps with the emission peak of Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC. The fluorescence emission intensity of Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC is efficiently modulated by the photoisomerization of 1a with controlling the exposure time in the solid state. The fluorescence photoswitching system displayed high fluorescence quenching efficiency and remarkable fatigue resistance. It can be repeated 7 cycles without observable the changes of emission intensity. A fluorescence quenching efficiency can be achieved with a reversible colour change from white to yellow. - Graphical abstract: A novel fluorescence photoswitching system based on doping inorganic fluorescence dye into photochromic pyrazolones was constructed successfully. Its fluorescence emission could be efficiently modulated by the photoisomerization of pyrazolones. - Highlights: • A solid-state fluorescence photoswitching material was prepared. • Photoswitching is due to energy transfer between pyrazolone and fluorescence dye. • It exhibits excellent fluorescence contrast and fatigue resistance in the solid state.

  14. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)

  15. Pulsed writing of solid state holograms. (United States)

    Gaylord, T. K.; Rabson, T. A.; Tittel, F. K.; Quick, C. R.


    The pulsed writing of volume holograms in lithium niobate is reported, both with 200-nsec and 20-nsec duration pulses. This information is of particular interest in high capacity information storage applications since it indicates that writing times at least as short as 20-nsec are readily possible. A series of pulses was used in each case, and the diffraction efficiency was monitored using a He-Ne laser operating at 6328 A and aligned to its corresponding Bragg angle.

  16. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D


    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  17. Exciton dynamics in solid-state green fluorescent protein (United States)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Siegert, Marie; Betzold, Simon; Ohmer, Jürgen; Fischer, Utz; Höfling, Sven


    We study the decay characteristics of Frenkel excitons in solid-state enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) dried from solution. We further monitor the changes of the radiative exciton decay over time by crossing the phase transition from the solved to the solid state. Complex interactions between protonated and deprotonated states in solid-state eGFP can be identified from temperature-dependent and time-resolved fluorescence experiments that further allow the determination of activation energies for each identified process.

  18. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.


    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  19. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)


    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  20. Tunable Solid State Lasers and Synthetic Nonlinear Materials (United States)


    optics ( Schwarzschild objective) to a small spot. John Trail has assembled most of the system already, and he recently reported his progress in a poster...The SUNPRO operates in a TEMoo spatial mode (b) Experimental setup for heterodyne measurements and with dimensions fixed by the 50-mm radius of

  1. Semipolar InGaN-based superluminescent diodes for solid-state lighting and visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao


    III-nitride light emitters, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), have been demonstrated and studied for solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. However, for III-nitride LEDbased SSL-VLC system, its efficiency is limited by the

  2. Fast holonomic quantum computation based on solid-state spins with all-optical control (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Liu, BaoJie; Hong, ZhuoPing; Xue, ZhengYuan


    Holonomic quantum computation is a quantum computation strategy that promises some built-in noise-resilience features. Here, we propose a scheme for nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation with nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins, which are characterized by fast quantum gates and long qubit coherence times. By varying the detuning, amplitudes, and phase difference of lasers applied to a nitrogen-vacancy center, one can directly realize an arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gate on the spin. Meanwhile, with the help of cavity-assisted interactions, a nontrivial two-qubit holonomic quantum gate can also be induced. The distinct merit of this scheme is that all the quantum gates are obtained via an all-optical geometric manipulation of the solid-state spins. Therefore, our scheme opens the possibility for robust quantum computation using solid-state spins in an all-optical way.

  3. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja


    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  4. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins. (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja


    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  5. Synthesis and crystallochromy of 1,4,7,10-tetraalkyltetracenes: tuning of solid-state optical properties of tetracenes by alkyl side-chain length. (United States)

    Kitamura, Chitoshi; Abe, Yasushi; Ohara, Takuya; Yoneda, Akio; Kawase, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Komatsu, Toshiki


    We synthesized a series of 1,4,7,10-tetraalkyltetracenes using a new 2,6-naphthodiyne precursor and 2,5-dialkylfurans as starting materials (alkyl=methyl to hexyl). Surprisingly, the solid-state color of the tetracenes ranges through yellow, orange, and red. Both yellow and red solids are obtained for the butyl derivative. Optical properties in solution show no marked differences; however, those in the solid state show characteristics that vary with alkyl side-chain length: methyl, propyl, and pentyl derivatives are orange; ethyl and butyl derivatives are yellow; and another butyl and hexyl derivative are red. X-ray analyses reveal that the molecular structures are planar, semi-chair, or chair forms; the chair form takes a herringbone-like arrangement and the other forms take slipped parallel arrangements. The mechanism of crystallochromy is discussed in terms of molecular structure, crystal packing, and calculations that take account of exciton coupling.

  6. Compact, solid-state femtosecond source (United States)

    Bado, Philippe


    The goal of this program was to demonstrate that femtosecond laser sources (1 femtosecond = 10(exp -15) sec) can be made to be extremely compact and robust. We demonstrated the generation of ultrashort pulses using compact diode-pumped lasers. Our latest pump source is 300 times smaller and weighs only a fraction of today's commercial equivalent. It runs on 110 VAC and requires no water cooling. The commercial availability of robust sources will have a broad commercial impact. A brief listing includes: industry (3D imaging, ranging, thin-film monitoring, optical memory), medical (confocal microscopy, real-time assessment of surgical procedure), and military (sensor fusion, high-power THz beam generation, phase-array radars). We are pursuing the development of a general laboratory instrument, as well as several specific applications. This large market has not gone unnoticed: Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITT) has very recently recommended Femtosecond Technology as one of Japan's only six priority research areas.

  7. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prabhakar, A; Krishnaiah, K; Janaun, J; Bono, A


    Solid substrate cultivation (SSC) or solid state fermentation (SSF) is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products...

  8. Bioprospecting of yeasts for amylase production in solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioprospecting of yeasts for amylase production in solid state fermentation and evaluation of the catalytic properties of enzymatic extracts. APA de Oliveira, MA Silvestre, HF Alves-Prado, A Rodrigues, MF da Paz, GG Fonseca, RSR Leite ...

  9. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  10. Solid-state fermentation for the production of poly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sindhu, R; Pandey, A; Binod, P


    .... In the past few years, solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been reassessed as an alternative to submerged fermentation, and could be a possible strategy for the cost- effective production of PHAs...

  11. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul


    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  12. ASAS = NASA's Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer: 1988 -2000 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) data collection contains data collected by the ASAS sensor flown aboard NASA aircraft. A fundamental use of...

  13. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  14. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  15. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.


    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  16. Hans Bethe's Contributions to Solid-State Physics (United States)

    Mermin, N. David; Ashcroft, Neil W.

    Hans Bethe's doctoral research was primarily in solid-state physics. During the late 1920's and early 1930's he played a major role in developing the new quantum theory of solids. Though nuclear physics became his main interest in the mid 1930's, he continued to write papers in solid-state physics into the late 1940's, and remained interested in the subject all his life.

  17. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James


    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  18. Efficient yellow-green light generation at 561 nm by frequency-doubling of a QD-FBG laser diode in a PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Fedorova, Ksenia A; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S; Khomylev, Maksim; Livshits, Daniil A; Rafailov, Edik U


    A compact high-power yellow-green continuous wave (CW) laser source based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a 5% MgO doped periodically poled congruent lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide crystal pumped by a quantum-dot fiber Bragg grating (QD-FBG) laser diode is demonstrated. A frequency-doubled power of 90.11 mW at the wavelength of 560.68 nm with a conversion efficiency of 52.4% is reported. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest output power and conversion efficiency achieved to date in this spectral region from a diode-pumped PPLN waveguide crystal, which could prove extremely valuable for the deployment of such a source in a wide range of biomedical applications.

  19. Low threshold continuous-wave lasing of yellow-green InGaN-QD vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. (United States)

    Weng, Guoen; Mei, Yang; Liu, Jianping; Hofmann, Werner; Ying, Leiying; Zhang, Jiangyong; Bu, Yikun; Li, Zengcheng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Baoping


    Low threshold continuous-wave (CW) lasing of current injected InGaN quantum dot (QD) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was achieved at room temperature. The VCSEL was fabricated by metal bonding technique on a copper substrate to improve the heat dissipation ability of the device. For the first time, lasing was obtained at yellow-green wavelength of 560.4 nm with a low threshold of 0.61 mA, corresponding to a current density of 0.78 kA/cm2. A high degree of polarization of 94% were measured. Despite the operation in the range of "green gap" of GaN-based devices, single longitudinal mode laser emission was clearly achieved due to the high quality of active region based on InGaN QDs and the excellent thermal design of the VCSELs.

  20. Structural and luminescence properties of yellow Y3Al5012:Ce3+ thin film phosphors prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dejene, FB


    Full Text Available Recently, by combining a blue indium gallium nitride (InGaN) light emitting diodes (LED) with yellow Ce-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phosphore, different groups have successfully demonstrated white LEDs. The production of white light was made possible...

  1. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter. (United States)

    Mao, Jingdong; Cao, Xiaoyan; Olk, Dan C; Chu, Wenying; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially a systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their applications to the study of NOM. We discuss some basics of how to acquire high-quality and quantitative solid-state 13 C NMR spectra, and address some common technical mistakes that lead to unreliable spectra of NOM. The identification of specific functional groups in NOM, primarily based on 13 C spectral-editing techniques, is described and the theoretical background of some recently-developed spectral-editing techniques is provided. Applications of solid-state NMR to investigating nitrogen (N) in NOM are described, focusing on limitations of the widely used 15 N CP/MAS experiment and the potential of improved advanced NMR techniques for characterizing N forms in NOM. Then techniques used for identifying proximities, heterogeneities and domains are reviewed, and some examples provided. In addition, NMR techniques for studying segmental dynamics in NOM are reviewed. We also briefly discuss applications of solid-state NMR to NOM from various sources, including soil organic matter, aquatic organic matter, organic matter in atmospheric particulate matter, carbonaceous meteoritic organic matter, and fossil fuels. Finally, examples of NMR-based structural models and an outlook are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Yellow Fever (United States)

    ... febrile illness to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to ... specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms. Steps to ...

  3. Phase-locked indistinguishable photons with synthesized waveforms from a solid-state source. (United States)

    Matthiesen, Clemens; Geller, Martin; Schulte, Carsten H H; Le Gall, Claire; Hansom, Jack; Li, Zhengyong; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete


    Resonance fluorescence in the Heitler regime provides access to single photons with coherence well beyond the Fourier transform limit of the transition, and holds the promise to circumvent environment-induced dephasing common to all solid-state systems. Here we demonstrate that the coherently generated single photons from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot display mutual coherence with the excitation laser on a timescale exceeding 3 s. Exploiting this degree of mutual coherence, we synthesize near-arbitrary coherent photon waveforms by shaping the excitation laser field. In contrast to post-emission filtering, our technique avoids both photon loss and degradation of the single-photon nature for all synthesized waveforms. By engineering pulsed waveforms of single photons, we further demonstrate that separate photons generated coherently by the same laser field are fundamentally indistinguishable, lending themselves to the creation of distant entanglement through quantum interference.

  4. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 2

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond


    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 2 covers topics about complex oxide materials such as the garnets, which dominate the field of magnetoelasticity and are among the most important laser hosts, and sodalite, which is one of the classic photochromic materials. The book discusses the physics of the interactions of electromagnetic, elastic, and spin waves in single crystal magnetic insulators. The text then describes the mechanism on which inorganic photochromic materials are based, as observed in a variety of materials in single crystal, powder, and gl

  5. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys (United States)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy


    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  6. Solid-state lighting—a benevolent technology (United States)

    Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo, Hong; Xi, J.-Q.


    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting.

  7. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant


    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  8. What would Edison do with solid state lighting? (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will


    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  9. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris


    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  10. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus


    Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and the esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parahydroxybenzoates or parabens) used for anti-microbial preservation are investigated. The formation of a crystalline 1/1 molecular compound between trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate is demonstrated...... by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  11. High power RF solid state power amplifier system (United States)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)


    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  12. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.


    . Invited papers. Cathodic properties of Al-doped LiCoO[symbol] prepared by molten salt method Li-Ion batteries / M. V. Reddy, G. V. Subba Rao, B. V. R. Chowdari. Layered ion-electron conducting materials / M. A. Santa Ana, E. Benavente, G. González. LiNi[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] cathode thin-film prepared by RF sputtering for all-solid-state rechargeable microbatteries / X. J. Zhu ... [et al.] -- Contributed papers. Contributed papers. Nanocomposite cathode for SOFCs prepared by electrostatic spray deposition / A. Princivalle, E. Djurado. Effect of the addition of nanoporous carbon black on the cycling characteristics of Li[symbol]Co[symbol](MoO[symbol])[symbol] for lithium batteries / K. M. Begam, S. R. S. Prabaharan. Protonic conduction in TiP[symbol]O[symbol] / V. Nalini, T. Norby, A. M. Anuradha. Preparation and electrochemical LiMn[symbol]O[symbol] thin film by a solution deposition method / X. Y. Gan ... [et al.]. Synthesis and characterization LiMPO[symbol] (M = Ni, Co) / T. Savitha, S. Selvasekarapandian, C. S. Ramya. Synthesis and electrical characterization of LiCoO[symbol] LiFeO[symbol] and NiO compositions / A. Wijayasinghe, B. Bergman. Natural Sri Lanka graphite as conducting enhancer in manganese dioxide (Emd type) cathode of alkaline batteries / N. W. B. Balasooriya ... [et al.]. Electrochemical properties of LiNi[symbol]Al[symbol]Zn[symbol]O[symbol] cathode material synthesized by emulsion method / B.-H. Kim ... [et al.]. LiNi[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] cathode materials synthesized by particulate sol-gel method for lithium ion batteries / X. J. Zhu ... [et al.]. Pulsed laser deposition of highly oriented LiCoO[symbol] and LiMn[symbol]O[symbol] thin films for microbattery applications / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of LiNi[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] thin films by a sol-gel method / X. J. Zhu ... [et al.]. Electrochemical lithium insertion into a manganese dioxide electrode in aqueous solutions / M. Minakshi ... [et al.]. AC impedance

  13. Laser Program annual report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, E.M.; Murphy, P.W.; Canada, J.A.; Kirvel, R.D.; Peck, T.; Price, M.E.; Prono, J.K.; Reid, S.G.; Wallerstein, L.; Wright, T.W. (eds.)


    This report discusses the following topics: target design and experiments; target materials development; laboratory x-ray lasers; laser science and technology; high-average-power solid state lasers; and ICF applications studies.

  14. Yellow fever (United States)

    ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  15. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  16. Solid-State Video Camera for the Accelerator Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R


    Solid-State video cameras employing CMOS technology have been developed and tested for several years in the SLAC accelerator; notably the PEPII (BaBar) injection lines. They have proven much more robust than their CCD counterparts in radiation areas. Repair is simple, inexpensive, and generates very little radioactive waste.

  17. Study of Optical, Solid State and Structural Properties of Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of Nickel sulphide (NiS) were successfully grown by using the solution growth technique which is cost effective and efficient. Nickel chloride (NiCl2), Sodium sulphate (Na2S2O3) and Ammonia NH3 were used. The optical and solid state properties were obtained from the characterisation done at University of ...

  18. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry


    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  19. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.


    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  20. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.


    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  1. 59 Solid State Synthesis, Characterisation and Biological Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 21, 2014 ... synthesized complexes are non-electrolytes. Keywords: Hydrogen bond network, Mechanochemistry, Coordination ploymers. INTRODUCTION. Solid-state reactivity of molecular crystals has an old history but it was initially restricted to photochemical reactions and acid–base reactions. (Kaupp, 1996).

  2. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting (United States)

    Schubert, Fred


    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  3. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.


    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  4. TL and TSC Solid State Detectors in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Sabini, M.G.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Cuttone, G.; Guasti, A.; Lo Nigro, S.; Mazzocchi, S.; Pirollo, S.; Raffaele, L.; Sciortino, S.


    The necessity to develop methods and techniques for a better determination of absorbed dose in the radiotherapy field stimulates new clinical applications of solid state detectors. In this work we have studied the possibility to use of TLD-100 and synthetic CVD diamond detectors as dosimeters for high-energy proton beams.

  5. Pulse Design in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palani, Ravi Shankar

    The work presented in this dissertation is centred on the theory of experimental methods in solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which deals with interaction of electromagnetic radiation with nuclei in a magnetic field and possessing a fundamental quantum mechanical property...

  6. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.


    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  7. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Van Driel, W.; Zhnag, G.


    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  8. Silicon Carbide and Magnetorresistive Technologies for Solid State Power Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigós A.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make an introduction, review and preliminary investigation tasks of the application of Silicon Carbide (SiC power semiconductors and magnetoresistive (MR current sensors for Solid State Power Controllers (SSPCs and controlled switches, especially for high temperature environment and/or high voltage applications.

  9. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  10. Solid-state Nanopore for Detecting Individual Biopolymers (United States)

    Li, Jiali; Golovchenko, Jene A.


    Solid-state nanopores have been fabricated and used to characterize single DNA and protein molecules. Here we describe the details on how these nanopores were fabricated and characterized, the nanopore sensing system setup, and the protocols of using these nanopores to characterize DNA and protein molecules. PMID:19488695

  11. Solid state fermentation of maize ( Zea mays ) cob by Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The low digestibility and low protein content of maize cob are major limitations to its use as animal feed in Ghana. The possibility of enhancing the feed potential of maize cob through solid state fermentation by. Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was investigated. At the end of spawn run, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose ...

  12. Lipolytic activity from Rhizopus arrhizus using solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipases were produced from a Rhizopus arrhizus strain, using rice bran as solid substrate, by solid state fermentation. The activity of lipases was found to be optimum at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The effect of different solvents on hydrolytic activity was carried out and isooctane was selected as the solvent of choice.

  13. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  14. Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the possibility of the re-use of agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production [α & β amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)] the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein.

  15. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.


    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  16. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 1. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and modelling of some basic issues. S Raju E ... are enumerated. A simple and general modelling methodology for understanding the kinetics of non-isothermal transformations is outlined.

  17. Microchip Lasers (United States)


    USA E-mail: Abstract Microchip lasers are a rich family of solid-state lasers defined by their small size, robust integration...reliability, and potential for low-cost mass production. Continuous-wave microchip lasers cover a wide range of wavelengths, often operate single

  18. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.


    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy.

  19. Polychromatic solid-state lamps versus tungsten radiator: hue changes of Munsell samples (United States)

    Stanikunas, R.; Vaitkevicius, H.; Svegzda, A.; Viliunas, V.; Bliznikas, Z.; Breive, K.; Vaicekauskas, R.; Novickovas, A.; Kurilcik, G.; Zukauskas, A.; Gaska, R.; Shur, M. S.


    Colour-perception differences under illumination by two quadrichromatic solid-state sources of light have been studied with respect to a tungsten radiator with the same correlated colour temperature (2600 K). A virtual RYgCB source (illuminant), which contains red, yellow-green, cyan and blue components with the line width typical of AlGaInP and AlInGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), was fully optimized for the highest value of the general colour-rendering index (CRI) (Ra = 98.3). An implemented RAGB source (lamp) contained commercially available red, amber, green and blue LEDs (Ra = 79.4). Colorimetric calculations in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1976 (u',v') colour plane for 40 Munsell colour samples (value 6, chroma/6, hue increment 2.5) revealed the differences in hue discrimination and distortion for both sources in the yellow-green and blue-cyan ranges. These differences were not revealed by the standard analysis of the special CRIs and were lower for the RYgCB illuminant, which contained primary LEDs in the sensitive ranges. A psychophysical experiment on seven subjects was performed using the RAGB lamp stabilized against thermal and ageing drifts. Despite different colour-perception abilities of the subjects under investigation, the experiment confirmed the calculation results. Methods of obtaining composite white light with high subjective ratings are discussed, based on the obtained data.

  20. Recent developments in retinal lasers and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Yadav


    Full Text Available Photocoagulation is the standard of care for several ocular disorders and in particular retinal conditions. Technology has offered us newer lasing mediums, wavelengths and delivery systems. Pattern scan laser in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema allows laser treatment that is less time consuming and less painful. Now, it is possible to deliver a subthreshold micropulse laser that is above the threshold of biochemical effect but below the threshold of a visible, destructive lesion thereby preventing collateral damage. The advent of solid-state diode yellow laser allows us to treat closer to the fovea, is more effective for vascular structures and offers a more uniform effect in patients with light or irregular fundus pigmentation. Newer retinal photocoagulation options along with their advantages is discussed in this review.

  1. Detection and imaging of chrome yellow (lead chromate) in latent prints, solid residues, and minerals by laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). (United States)

    Zheng, Z; Pavlov, J; Attygalle, A B


    In the past, chrome yellow (lead chromate, PbCrO4 ), a bright orange-red substance, has been widely used as an inorganic pigment in the production of paints, coatings, and plastics. Herein, we demonstrate that laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is a powerful tool for the detection of lead chromate in solid residues. In fact, lead chromate in trace amounts is easily detectable by LDI-MS even from residues left as latent prints. For example, a latent print obtained by stamping the exposed laterally cut surface of a pencil over 50 years old on an acetonitrile-moistened paper, was successfully imaged for both lead and chromate using a Synapt G2 HDMS mass spectrometer. After rastering the print with a 355 nm laser beam and recording positive- and negative-ion mass spectra over the range m/z 50-1200, we generated false-color 'heat maps' (single-ion images) for 208 Pb+• (m/z 207.98) and Cr2 O6-• (m/z 199.85). The heat maps matched closely with the faint visual image of the pencil imprint. Moreover, our results confirmed that lead chromate was used in the pigment coatings of old pencils. Evidently, LDI-MS imaging is an efficient procedure to survey for the presence of lead and chromate in minerals and other materials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering


    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  3. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa


    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  4. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials. (United States)

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong


    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. SDS-assisted protein transport through solid-state nanopores. (United States)

    Restrepo-Pérez, Laura; John, Shalini; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Joo, Chirlmin; Dekker, Cees


    Using nanopores for single-molecule sequencing of proteins - similar to nanopore-based sequencing of DNA - faces multiple challenges, including unfolding of the complex tertiary structure of the proteins and enforcing their unidirectional translocation through nanopores. Here, we combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-molecule experiments to investigate the utility of SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) to unfold proteins for solid-state nanopore translocation, while simultaneously endowing them with a stronger electrical charge. Our simulations and experiments prove that SDS-treated proteins show a considerable loss of the protein structure during the nanopore translocation. Moreover, SDS-treated proteins translocate through the nanopore in the direction prescribed by the electrophoretic force due to the negative charge impaired by SDS. In summary, our results suggest that SDS causes protein unfolding while facilitating protein translocation in the direction of the electrophoretic force; both characteristics being advantageous for future protein sequencing applications using solid-state nanopores.

  6. Repetitively Pulsed High Power RF Solid-State System (United States)

    Bowman, Chris; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth E.; Prager, James; Quinley, Morgan


    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies and power levels necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems at validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. In Year 1 of this program, EHT has developed a solid-state RF system that combines an inductive adder, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL), and antenna into a single system that can be deployed at fusion science experiments. EHT has designed and optimized a lumped-element NLTL that will be suitable RF generation near the lower-hybrid frequency at the High Beta Tokamak (HBT) located at Columbia University. In Year 2, EHT will test this system at the Helicity Injected Torus at the University of Washington and HBT at Columbia. EHT will present results from Year 1 testing and optimization of the NLTL-based RF system. With support of DOE SBIR.

  7. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P


    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  8. Solid State Modulators for the International Linear Collider (ILC)

    CERN Document Server

    Kempkes, Michael; Casey, Jeffrey; Gaudreau, Marcel; Roth, Ian


    Diversified Technologies, Inc. is developing two solid state modulator designs for the ILC under SBIR funding from the DOE. The first design consists of a 150 kV hard switch. The key development in this design is the energy storage system, which must provide 25 kJ per pulse, at very tight voltage regulation over the 1.5 millisecond pulse. DTI's design uses a quasi-resonant bouncer (with a small auxiliary power supply and switch) to maintain the voltage flattop, eliminating the need for massive capacitor banks. The second design uses a solid state Marx bank, with ~10 kV stages, to drive the ILC klystron. In this design, staggered turn-on of the Marx stages provides voltage regulation without the need for large capacitor banks. This paper will discuss design tradeoffs, power supply and control considerations, and energy storage requirements and alternatives for both designs.

  9. Optical metrology for LEDs and solid state lighting (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshi


    The performance of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), including efficiency, flux level, lifetime, and the variation of color, is advancing at a remarkable pace. LEDs are increasingly used for many applications including automotive, aviation, display, transportation and special lighting applications. White LEDs are expected for general lighting applications (solid state lighting) in the near future. Thus, accurate measurements of LEDs and appropriate standards are increasingly important. This paper reviews photometric, radiometric, and colorimetric quantities used for LEDs, and discusses the current state of optical measurements of LEDs and standardization efforts in International Commission on Illumination (CIE). The paper also touches on the issue of color quality (e.g., Color Rendering Index) of light expected from solid state lighting, and the need for a new metric. The calibration facilities and services for LEDs established at NIST are also discussed.

  10. Implementation Of Solid State Relays For Power System Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Verma


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper provides the implementation of solid state relays for enhancement of power system protection. Relays are an essential part of the power systems and are responsible for the control of any overload voltage or current and protection of the devices from these parameters. The main function of the relay is to constantly monitor the parameter to be controlled and if it exceeds the percentage range set by the controller then it sends a signal to the circuit breaker to break the connection and isolate the faulty part. Solid state relays are preferred over mechanical relays and in this paper relay functioning is done with the help of opto-coupler. Controlling of opto- coupler is done with the help of microcontroller. Circuit operates through Zero Voltage Switching leading to reduction in harmonics. The implementation of relay circuit offers minimal delay time which enables better time response for protection.

  11. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  12. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail:; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)


    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  13. High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling


    Jakovenko, J.; Formanek, J.; Janicek, V.; Husak, M.; R. Werkhoven


    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution ...

  14. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik


    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  15. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server


    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  16. Oxide based functional materials through solid state and electrochemical synthesis


    Todorova, Vanya


    The presented dissertation combines synthesis and characterization techniques of solid state chemistry and electrochemistry. The work is organized into two main parts. The first part deals with the synthesis, structural characterization and investigation of the physical properties of new ternary and quaternary transition metal oxides with layered structures. Several compounds of delafossite structure ABO2 with silver on A position and different trivalent cation capable of adopting an octa...

  17. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.


    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations ...... are found to be boat–chair, chair and boat–boat; in all the boat–chair cases, the phosphorus atoms appear connected by a bridging carbon atom....

  18. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan


    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  19. The solid-state synthesis of tritium labelled heterocyclic bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F. (AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Molekulyarnoj Genetiki)


    The results of a study of the solid-state catalytic hydrogenation and the synthesis of tritium labelled native heterocyclic bases are presented. The effect of different palladium catalysts and reaction conditions on yield and molar radioactivity of final compounds was investigated. For some compounds, data on the intramolecular distribution of tritium were obtained by using the isotope exchange reaction and tritium NMR. Tritium labelled purine and pyrimidine bases (25-180 Ci/mmol.) were synthesized. (Author).

  20. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alumina (Al2O3) content were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique. It was found that AZO grains became finer in size and more irregular in shape than undoped ZnO as the Al2O3 content increased. Addition of Al2O3 dopant caused the formation of phase transformation stacking faults in ZnO grains. The second ...

  1. Imitating Broadband Diurnal Light Variations Using Solid State Light Sources (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian; Melton, Andrew; Li, Nola; Nicol, David; Park, Eun Hyun; Tosini, Gianluca

    Many studies have documented the success of light therapy in treating disorders of the human internal clock (circadian rhythm). Recent biological research has shown the importance of developing light sources that are tunable in the blue region of the spectrum for treatment to be safe and effective. A novel tunable broadband solid-state light source is presented here that mimics the diurnal variation in sunlight by modulating the intensity of blue light emission.

  2. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.


    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  3. Solid-State Form Characterization of Riparin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana Afonso de Moura


    Full Text Available Riparin I is an alkamide with potential anxiolytic activity in preclinical studies. The characterization and understanding of solid-state properties play an importance role in drug development. For this work, the solid state of five riparin I batches (RIP-1, RIP-2, RIP-3, RIP-4, and RIP-5, obtained by the same synthesis process, were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, DSC-photovisual, Thermogravimetry (TG, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Pyrolysis (Pyr-GC/MS, X-ray Powder Diffraction (PXRD, and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR techniques. Batches of riparin I with different crystal habits resulting in crystallization impurities were observed, which can be attributed to the presence of triethylamine. The main differences were observed by DSC, PXRD, and ssNMR analysis. DSC curves of RIP-2 and RIP-3 presented endothermic peaks at different temperatures of fusion, which can be attributed to the mixture of different crystalline forms. PXRD and ssNMR results confirmed crystallinity differences. The results offer evidence of the importance of controlling the reproducibility of the synthesis in order to obtain the adequate morphology for therapeutic efficacy and avoiding future problems in quality control of riparin I products.

  4. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P


    In the second half of the last century solid state physics and materials science experienced a great advance and established itself as an important and independent new field. This book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The book is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. For his scientific accomplishments, in 1992 the author received the Max-Planck Research Price and in 2001 the Cryogenics Price. He studied physics and mathematics at the University of Marburg, as well at the Technic...

  5. Solid-state flat panel imager with avalanche amorphous selenium (United States)

    Scheuermann, James R.; Howansky, Adrian; Goldan, Amir H.; Tousignant, Olivier; Levéille, Sébastien; Tanioka, K.; Zhao, Wei


    Active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI) have become the dominant detector technology for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. For low dose imaging, electronic noise from the amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT) array degrades imaging performance. We have fabricated the first prototype solid-state AMFPI using a uniform layer of avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor to amplify the signal to eliminate the effect of electronic noise. We have previously developed a large area solid-state avalanche a-Se sensor structure referred to as High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP) capable of achieving gains of 75. In this work we successfully deposited this HARP structure onto a 24 x 30 cm2 TFT array with a pixel pitch of 85 μm. An electric field (ESe) up to 105 Vμm-1 was applied across the a-Se layer without breakdown. Using the HARP layer as a direct detector, an X-ray avalanche gain of 15 +/- 3 was achieved at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. In indirect mode with a 150 μm thick structured CsI scintillator, an optical gain of 76 +/- 5 was measured at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. Image quality at low dose increases with the avalanche gain until the electronic noise is overcome at a constant exposure level of 0.76 mR. We demonstrate the success of a solid-state HARP X-ray imager as well as the largest active area HARP sensor to date.

  6. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra


    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  7. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A


    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  8. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.


    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  9. Yellow Fever Vaccine (United States)

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  10. Tuning solid-state blue and red luminescence by the formation of solvate crystals. (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng; Fan, Guoling; Guan, Yan; Meng, Qingyun; Li, Congju; Wang, Jiaona


    Tuning and controlling the solid-state luminescence of molecular solids play a key role in developing multi-color displays and tunable dye laser. In this work, we report the tunable blue and red luminescence by the formation of solvate crystals of 1,4-bis(5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene (POPOP) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). Upon introduction of guest solvents (chloroform and dichloromethane) into the POPOP and DCM host matrices, the obtained solvate crystals exhibit an alternated stacking arrangement, interaction fashion, and crystal symmetry compared with the pristine chromophore solids. Furthermore, the solvates of POPOP (CCl3H) and DCM (CCl2H2) present changeable luminescent properties (such as one-/two-photon emissive wavelength, fluorescence lifetime and photoluminescent quantum yield) in the blue/red regions relative to the pristine POPOP and DCM. In addition, the second harmonic generation can also be obtained for the DCM (CCl2H2) due to the transformation of the centrosymmetric to a non-centrosymmetric structure from pristine DCM. Periodic density functional theoretical calculations suggest that the guest solvents do not participate in the frontier orbital distribution within the solvate crystals. Therefore, by the combination of experimental and theoretical studies on the solvate crystals, this work not only reports the supramolecular assembly of new types of host-guest photoactive systems, but also provides a detailed understanding of the electronic structures of the solid-state luminescent materials.

  11. An Investigation of Solid-State Amidization and Imidization Reactions in Vapor Deposited Poly (amic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthamatten, M; Letts, S A; Day, K; Cook, R C; Gies, A P; Hamilton, T P; Nonidez, W K


    The condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) to form poly(amic acid) and the subsequent imidization reaction to form polyimide were investigated for films prepared using vapor deposition polymerization techniques. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of films at different temperatures indicate that additional solid-state polymerization occurs prior to imidization reactions. Experiments reveal that, upon vapor deposition, poly(amic acid) oligomers form that have a number-average molecular weight of about 1500 Daltons. Between 100 - 130 C these chains undergo additional condensation reaction to form slightly higher molecular weight oligomers. Calorimetry measurements show that this reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H {approx} -30 J/g) with an activation energy of about 120 kJ/mol. Experimental reaction enthalpies are compared to results from ab initio molecular modeling calculations to estimate the number of amide groups formed. At higher temperatures (150 - 300 C) imidization of amide linkages occurs as an endothermic reaction ({Delta}H {approx} +120 J/g) with an activation energy of about 130 kJ/mol. Solid-state kinetics were found to depend on reaction conversion as well as the processing conditions used to deposit films.

  12. Application of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by laser ablation in micron batteries of solid state; Aplicacion de peliculas delgadas de V{sub 2}O{sub 5} depositadas por ablacion laser en micro-baterias de estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Haro P, E.; Camacho L, M.A.; Julien, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The obtained results from synthesizing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films by laser ablation are presented. Depending on the deposit conditions V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films have been grown as amorphous as a crystalline ones with preferential orientation. The results of the electrochemical characterization of one of the synthesized layers are presented when being manufactured joint with it a micron battery. (Author)

  13. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  14. Detecting DNA depurination with solid-state nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Marshall

    Full Text Available Among the different types of DNA damage that occur endogenously in the cell, depurination is especially prevalent. These lesions can initiate mutagenesis and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for the detection of depurination at the single-molecule scale using solid-state nanopores. We induce depurination in short duplex DNA using acidic conditions and observe that the presence of apurinic sites results in significantly slower dynamics during electrokinetic translocation. This procedure may be valuable as a diagnostic for in situ quantification of DNA depurination.

  15. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  16. Solid-State Recorders Enhance Scientific Data Collection (United States)


    Under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEAKR Engineering Inc., of Centennial, Colorado, crafted a solid-state recorder (SSR) to replace the tape recorder onboard a Spartan satellite carrying NASA's Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Work for that mission and others has helped SEAKR become the world leader in SSR technology for spacecraft. The company has delivered more than 100 systems, more than 85 of which have launched onboard NASA, military, and commercial spacecraft including imaging satellites that provide much of the high-resolution imagery for online mapping services like Google Earth.

  17. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I


    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  18. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas


    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule......, and how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong....

  19. Explosively produced megagauss fields and recent solid state applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Mueller, F.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Smith, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brooks, J.S.; Goettee, J.D. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Large magnetic fields may be generated by compression of an initial magnetic flux generated over a large area at relatively low magnetic field into a region of smaller area. Following a discussion of flux compression principles, the authors discuss megagauss field systems in use at Los Alamos where chemical explosives are used to compress the flux. Their use in some solid state experiments will be discussed briefly, including a planned set of experiments on YBCO to be done jointly with a Russian team, whose aim is to determine the low temperature, critical magnetic field of YBCO.

  20. Exploring Magnetic Elastocaloric Materials for Solid-State Cooling (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Dewei; Li, Yang


    In the past decade, there has been an increased surge in the research on elastocaloric materials for solid-state refrigerators. The strong coupling between structure and magnetism inspires the discovery of new multi-field driven elastocaloric alloys. This work is devoted to magnetic shape memory alloys suitable for mechanical cooling applications. Some novel characteristics in magnetostructural transition materials other than conventional shape memory alloys are overviewed. From the physical and engineering points of view, we have put forward general strategies to maximize elastocaloric temperature change to increase performance reversibility and to improve mechanical properties. The barocaloric effect as a sister-cooling alternative is also discussed.

  1. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices. (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas


    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  2. Exploring Magnetic Elastocaloric Materials for Solid-State Cooling (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Dewei; Li, Yang


    In the past decade, there has been an increased surge in the research on elastocaloric materials for solid-state refrigerators. The strong coupling between structure and magnetism inspires the discovery of new multi-field driven elastocaloric alloys. This work is devoted to magnetic shape memory alloys suitable for mechanical cooling applications. Some novel characteristics in magnetostructural transition materials other than conventional shape memory alloys are overviewed. From the physical and engineering points of view, we have put forward general strategies to maximize elastocaloric temperature change to increase performance reversibility and to improve mechanical properties. The barocaloric effect as a sister-cooling alternative is also discussed.

  3. Fungal Invertase Expression in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitlahuac Aranda


    Full Text Available In this study invertase activity expression in Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated under different concentrations of two substrates using solid-state fermentation (SSF on polyurethane foam. Glucose was used as repressor and sucrose was the inducer. Invertase production increased when glucose was present in the medium (up to 100 g/L; however, higher concentration than this reduced the enzyme production. Induction-repression ratio obtained using any glucose concentration was at least 2.5 times higher than that under basal conditions (without inducer.

  4. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter


    . This relates to interrelation between NOx/ O2 on cathodes but also to sulfur and carbon exposure at the anode. Past and recent activities on SOFC anodes and cathodes will be presented as well as perspectives and gaps discussed for these systems. Especially interaction between sulfur interactions with solids...... and surface are complex and recent and past research activities in these areas will be presented.......Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature...

  5. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik


    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  6. Solid state tautomerism in 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedeltcheva, Daniela; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Mirolo, Laurent


    The solid state tautomerism of 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol was studied using X-ray measurements and absorption spectroscopy. In the solid state, the keto tautomer predominates. The observed shift in the equilibrium from the enol (dilute solution) to the keto (solid state) forms is exp...

  7. Development of all-solid-state flash x-ray generator with photoconductive semiconductor switches. (United States)

    Xun, Ma; Jianjun, Deng; Hongwei, Liu; Jianqiang, Yuan; Jinfeng, Liu; Bing, Wei; Yanling, Qing; Wenhui, Han; Lingyun, Wang; Pin, Jiang; Hongtao, Li


    A compact, low-jitter, and high repetitive rate all-solid-state flash x-ray generator making use of photo conductive semiconductor switches was developed recently for the diagnostic purpose of some hydrokinetical experiments. The generator consisted of twelve stages of Blumlein pulse forming networks, and an industrial cold cathode diode was used to generate intense x-ray radiations with photon energy up to 220 keV. Test experiments showed that the generator could produce >1 kA electron beam currents and x-ray pulses with ~40 ns duration under 100 Hz repetitive rates at least (limited by the triggering laser on hand), also found was that the delay time of the cathode explosive emission is crucial to the energy transfer efficiency of the whole system. In addition, factors affecting the diode impedance, how the switching synchronization and diode impedance determining the allowable operation voltage were discussed.

  8. Solid-State Nanopore Confinement for Band Gap Engineering of Metal-Halide Perovskites

    CERN Document Server

    Demchyshyn, Stepan; Groiss, Heiko; Heilbrunner, Herwig; Ulbricht, Christoph; Apaydin, Dogukan; Rütt, Uta; Bertram, Florian; Hesser, Günter; Scharber, Markus; Nickel, Bert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Bauer, Siegfried; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Kaltenbrunner, Martin


    Tuning the band gap of semiconductors via quantum size effects launched a technological revolution in optoelectronics, advancing solar cells, quantum dot light-emitting displays, and solid state lasers. Next generation devices seek to employ low-cost, easily processable semiconductors. A promising class of such materials are metal-halide perovskites, currently propelling research on emerging photovoltaics. Their narrow band emission permits very high colour purity in light-emitting devices and vivid life-like displays paired with low-temperature processing through printing-compatible methods. Success of perovskites in light-emitting devices is conditional upon finding reliable strategies to obtain tunability of the band gap. So far, colour can be tuned chemically by mixed halide stoichiometry, or by synthesis of colloidal particles. Here we introduce a general strategy of controlling shape and size of perovskite nanocrystallites (less than 10 nm) in domains that exhibit strong quantum size effects. Without ma...

  9. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  10. Shape memory epoxy foams by solid-state foaming (United States)

    Squeo, E. A.; Quadrini, F.


    Epoxy foams were produced by means of solid-state foaming and their shape memory properties were evaluated together with other physical properties. Solid-state foaming consists of pressing thermosetting resin powders to produce solid tablets, heating the tablets at high temperature to generate both the formation of pores inside the resin and the resin polymerization. A nanoclay was added to the resin powder before pressing it up to a maximum content of 5 wt%. Unfilled and composite foams were characterized by density measurements and thermal analyses. Subsequently, foam samples underwent up to two thermo-mechanical cycles: each cycle consisted of the storage of a compressed shape and the subsequent thermal recovery. Compression tests were used to measure the effect of the thermo-mechanical cycles on the foam's mechanical performances and compressive toughness was extracted from the tests. It was observed that all the foams exhibited good shape memory properties also after cycling: nanoclay filler allows the foams to completely recover the initial shape and to increase the compressive and the specific compressive toughness.

  11. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison H Squires

    Full Text Available In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based "fingerprints" of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...... and a C1 component which is a flash-based memory device. Methods comprise: writing the data page d at a physical storage page having physical storage page address P in the storage device in response to receiving a write request to store the data page d at a logical storage page having a logical storage...... page address L; caching a new mapping entry e(L,P) associating the logical storage page address L with the physical storage page address P; providing an update indication for the cached new mapping entry to indicate that the cached new mapping entry shall be inserted in the C1 component; and evicting...

  13. Solid State NMR Investigations of Zeolite - Intercalate Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyfe, Colin A.; Diaz, Anix; Brouwer, Darren H.; Lee, Joseph; Schneider, Celine M.; Scheffler, Franziska A.; Darton, Richard J.


    We will describe two topics in which structural information on complexes of zeolites is obtained from solid state NMR. In the first, recent work on the determination of the complete three-dimensional structures of the complexes of zeolites with organic sorbates will be briefly reported. The method has been optimized and the presentation of the results systematized. In the second topic, we will describe how solid state NMR can be used in the reverse sense to probe for the existence and structures of “nanocrystals” whose dimensions are too small to give proper Bragg scattering and which have been proposed to be the synthesis route for the formation of zeolite ZSM-5. In this study, the spectral parameters of “probe” template molecules are used as being diagnostic of whether the local environment of the framework has been formed. These are independent of the “crystal” dimensions and this general approach may be applicable to other similar “nano” systems.

  14. Solid state synthesis and structural characterization of zinc titanates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayed, Sarra, E-mail: [Laboratory of Composite Ceramic and Polymer Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelkefi, Helmi; Khemakhem, Hamadi [Laboratory of Ferroelectric Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia); Matoussi, Adel [Laboratory of Composite Ceramic and Polymer Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia)


    Zinc titanate composite materials were synthesized via solid state sintering process using high-purity metal oxide powders (purity ∼99.99%). The titanium incorporation into ZnO matrix was investigated by X-ray diffraction which revealed the coexistence of spinel Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} and hexagonal ZnTiO{sub 3} with the ZnO wurtzite structures. No reflection peaks of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase were detected. The IR spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural and chemical properties of the ZnO/TiO{sub 2} composites. The IR bands and vibrational modes of all crystalline phases were detected. The effect of TiO{sub 2} doping rates (x = 3, 5 and 7 wt%) on bands shifting, Raman intensity and structural quality was discussed. - Highlights: • Zinc titanates materials were synthesized via solid state sintering process. • XRD measurements reveal the formation of Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}, hexagonal ZnTiO{sub 3} and ZnO phases. • IR analysis provokes the presence of Ti−O stretching vibration bands. • Raman study provokes the appearance of new zinc titanates vibrational peaks. • The TiO{sub 2} effect into ZnO is sensed by the shift and intensity changes of peaks.

  15. Design and development of 1 KW solid state RF amplifier (United States)

    Ashok, Gayatri; Kadia, Bhavesh; Jain, Pragya; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group


    Since low power tube based RF amplifiers are complicated, occupy a large space and are bulky, the efforts are on to develop indigenously 1 KW solid state technology based RF Power amplifier. A power level of 1KW is chosen for the initial design because RF power Mosfets upto 250 watt are easily available and by clubbing 3-4 stages the power level of 1 KW can be made. Presently design and testing of 100-watt stage is in progress. The first 2 stages are designed to give 5 Watt RF power using bipolar transistors and are operated in CE, Class A to provide low noise level at the output of the system. The 3rd stage will be MOSFET based MRF 174, which is ideally suited for class A operation and is designed for 100 Watt RF power. The last stage will be MOSFET based ARF446 power MOSFET in TO-247 plastic package. This amplifier will be used in the classical push- pull configuration. This paper describes the design aspects as well as the test results of 100 watt amplifier on 50 Ohm dummy load along with the specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters of 1 KW Solid State RF power amplifier to be used as driver for 91.2 MHz, 1.5 MW stage for ICRH experiments on SST-1 tokamak .

  16. Color perception under illumination by quadrichromatic solid-state lamp (United States)

    Stanikunas, Rytis; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas; Svegzda, Algimantas; Viliunas, Vilius; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Novickovas, Algirdas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Zukauskas, Arturas; Gaska, Remis; Shur, Michael S.


    Lighting based on sources of light composed of colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offers versatile control of color and a possibility of trade-off between efficiency and color rendering. However, psychophysical issues related to such polychromatic solid-state sources have to be addressed. In this work, studies of the perception of standard colors under illumination with a quadrichromatic red-amber-green-blue (RAGB) solid-state source were carried out. An RAGB lamp containing primary LEDs with the emission peaks at 638 nm, 594 nm, 523 nm, and 441 nm and optimized for the highest value of the general color rendering index (86 points) was investigated and compared to a tungsten lamp. 40 standard Munsell samples of value 6, chroma /6, and hue incremented by 2.5 were used in the investigation. Changes in the saturation and hue of the Munsell samples illuminated by the RAGB lamp versus tungsten lamp (both with the correlated temperature of 2600 K) were obtained by colorimetric calculation comparisons and by psychophysical experiments on subjective matching of the samples. Subjective differences in hue and subjective color discrimination differences under the tungsten and RAGB lamps were found in the wavelength range of 440-500 nm and 560-580 nm. We attribute these differences to non-optimal peak wavelengths of the primary LEDs and to the narrow-band components of the RAGB spectrum.

  17. ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection (United States)

    Allen, Steven C.; Steckl, Andrew J.


    A phosphor-converted light-emitting diode (pcLED) luminaire featuring enhanced light extraction by internal reflection (ELiXIR) with efficacy of 60 lm/W producing 18 lumens of yellowish green light at 100 mA is presented. The luminaire consists of a commercial blue high power LED, a polymer hemispherical shell lens with interior phosphor coating, and planar aluminized reflector. High extraction efficiency of the phosphor-converted light is achieved by separating the phosphor from the LED and using internal reflection to steer the light away from lossy reflectors and the LED package and out of the device. At 10 and 500 mA, the luminaire produces 2.1 and 66 lumens with efficacies of 80 and 37 lm/W, respectively. Technological improvements over existing commercial LEDs, such as more efficient pcLED packages or, alternatively, higher efficiency green or yellow for color mixing, will be essential to achieving 150 200 lm/W solid-state lighting. Advances in both areas are demonstrated.

  18. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.


    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  19. Phosphors for solid-state lighting: New systems, deeper understanding (United States)

    Denault, Kristin Ashley

    We explore the structure-composition-property relationships in phosphor materials using a multitude of structural and optical characterization methods including high resolution synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and total scattering, low-temperature heat capacity, temperature- and time-resolved photoluminescence, and density functional theory calculations. We describe the development of several new phosphor compositions and provide an in-depth description of the structural and optical properties. We show structural origins of improved thermal performance of photoluminescence and methods for determining structural rigidity in phosphor hosts that may lead to improved luminescent properties. New white light generation strategies are also explored. We begin by presenting the development of a green-yellow emitting oxyfluoride solid-solution phosphor Sr2Ba(AlO4F)1- x(SiO5)x:Ce3+. An examination of the host lattice, and the local structure around the Ce3+ activator ions points to how chemical substitutions play a crucial role in tuning the optical properties of the phosphor. The emission wavelength can be tuned from green to yellow by tuning the composition, x. Photoluminescent quantum yield is determined to be 70+/-5% for some of the examples in the series with excellent thermal properties. Phosphor-converted LED devices are fabricated using an InGaN LED and are shown to exhibit high color rendering white light. Next, we identify two new phosphor solid-solution systems, (Ba1- xSrx)9 Sc2Si6O24:Ce3+,Li+ and Ba9(Y1-ySc y)2Si6O24:Ce3+. The substitution of Sr for Ba in (Ba1-xSrx ) 9Sc2Si6O24:Ce 3+,Li + results in a decrease of the alkaline earth-oxygen bond distances at all three crystallographic sites, leading to changes in optical properties. The room temperature photoluminescent measurements show the structure has three excitation peaks corresponding to Ce3+ occupying the three independent alkaline earth sites. The emission of (Ba 1- xSrx) 9Sc2Si 6O24:Ce3

  20. Solid state fermentation of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A by using a novel solid state fermentation reactor system. (United States)

    Ano, Takashi; Jin, Guang Yuan; Mizumoto, Shinji; Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur; Okuno, Kasumasa; Shoda, Makoto


    A new solid state fermentation reactor (SSFR) for solid substrate was used for the production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is the technique of cultivation of microorganisms on solid and moist substrates in the absence of free water. SSF has shown much promise in the development of several bioprocesses and products because of their several advantages like absence of free water that allows simplified downstream processing and low cost. SSFR allows agitation of the SSF culture with improved temperature control and air supply. Interestingly, when okara, the widely available waste product from the tofu industries, was used as the solid substrate for the SSFR, no iturin A production was observed. However, without agitation, production of iturin A was observed in the SSFR but the production level remained low. The low production of iturin A was found to be due to the heat generation and excess temperature rise inside the reactor system during the fermentation process. Maintaining the temperature within a range of 25-30°C, production of iturin A was significantly improved in the SSFR. This was comparable to the laboratory scale production, and signifies the potential application of the SSFR for SSF.