WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid-state solar tracker

  1. Four-cell solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  2. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  3. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  4. A CONCEPT OF SOLAR TRACKER SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Meita Rumbayan *, Muhamad Dwisnanto Putro

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of solar panel efficiency is an ongoing research work recently. Maximizing the output power by integrating with the solar tracker system becomes a interest point of the research. This paper presents the concept in designing a solar tracker system applied to solar panel. The development of solar panel tracker system design that consist of system display prototype design, hardware design, and algorithm design. This concept is useful as the control system for solar tracker to improve...

  5. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  6. Aerodynamical study of a photovoltaic solar tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Castillo, José Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Investigate the aerodynamic features of ground-mounted solar trackers under atmospheric boundary layer flows. Study and identify the aerodynamical interactions of solar trackers when they are displayed as an array. State of the art. Literature review about CFD applied to solar panels. Analytic approach of the problem. Application of CFD analysis. Validation of the results. Discussion of the results. Improvements proposal.

  7. Performances of solar water pumping station with solar tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V.V.; Vardanyan, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    For the solar water pumping stations ? solar tracking system with phototransistor is developed. On the basis of the experimental investigations the utility and efficiency of the PV water pumping station with solar tracker under different conditions of varying solar radiation in Armenia is shown

  8. The research and development of the automatic solar power tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a kind of automatic tracker using solar power. It depends on two important parts which are servo system and adjusting mechanism system to keep the tracker operating normally. The article focuses on describing the characteristics and functions of two systems and the operating details of the automatic solar power tracker.

  9. The research and development of the automatic solar power tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yan Ping; Yuan Zhong Ying

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a kind of automatic tracker using solar power. It depends on two important parts which are servo system and adjusting mechanism system to keep the tracker operating normally. The article focuses on describing the characteristics and functions of two systems and the operating details of the automatic solar power tracker.

  10. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  11. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I was successful in delivering a complete prototype of the proposed innovation, an LED-based, solid state, large area, pulsed, solar simulator (ssLAPSS)....

  12. Lessons learned: from dye-sensitized solar cells to all-solid-state hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-06-25

    The field of solution-processed photovoltaic cells is currently in its second spring. The dye-sensitized solar cell is a widely studied and longstanding candidate for future energy generation. Recently, inorganic absorber-based devices have reached new record efficiencies, with the benefits of all-solid-state devices. In this rapidly changing environment, this review sheds light on recent developments in all-solid-state solar cells in terms of electrode architecture, alternative sensitizers, and hole-transporting materials. These concepts are of general applicability to many next-generation device platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6 percent; however, it does not seem to be practical for a solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AM0) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  14. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.

    2003-01-01

    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  15. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  16. Organic dye for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Mende, L.; Bach, U.; Humphry-Baker, R.; Ito, S.; Graetzel, M. [Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (ISIC), Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces (LPI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horiuchi, T.; Miura, H. [Technology Research Laboratory, Corporate Research Center, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, 46, Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Uchida, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2005-04-04

    The feasibility of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells as a low-cost alternative to amorphous silicon cells is demonstrated. Such a cell with a record efficiency of over 4 % under simulated sunlight is reported, made possible by using a new organic metal-free indoline dye as the sensitizer with high absorption coefficient. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  18. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  19. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  20. ALAT SOLAR TRACKER BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang telah dilakukan ini adalah membuat prototipe alat solar tracker. Alat ini berfungsi untuk menggerakkan modul sel surya sehingga permukaan sel surya bisa terkena sinar matahari secara maksimal. Saat ini sel surya di Indonesia banyak terpasang secara statis atau tidak dilengkapi alat solar tracker sehingga energi matahari tidak diterima secara maksimal. Hal ini menyebabkan sel surya yang terpasang di beberapa daerah di Indonesia tidak memberikan manfaat yang optimal. Alat solar tracker yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini diharapkan sebagai solusi dari permasalahan yang ada saat ini. Mikrokontroler 8 bit ATMega8535 yang digunakan sebagai otak utama dari alat solar tracker menjadikan alat ini menjadi berbiaya murah. Serta teknik memprogram dengan bahasa assembly menjadikan alat ini tahan terhadap kegagalan sistem. Solar tracker ini sudah bisa beroperasi dengan baik dan cocok digunakan pada modul sel surya berukuran kecil.

  1. A novel thermosetting gel electrolyte for stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Z.; Lin, J.M.; Huang, M.L.; Hao, S.C. [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, 362021 (China); Sato, T.; Yin, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-Chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Wu, J.H.

    2007-11-19

    Using poly(acrylic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid-absorbing liquid electrolyte, we prepare a novel thermosetting gel electrolyte (TSGE) with ionic conductivity of 6.12 mS cm{sup -1}. Based on the TSGE, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with a good long-term stability and light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.10 % is attained under AM 1.5 irradiation. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; West, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate...... encouraging results. A short circuit current (I-sc) of 4.45 mA cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage (V-oc) of 0.5 V were recorded in standard solar cells sensitized by cis-bis(thiocyano) ruthenium(II)-bis-2, 2'-bipyridine-4, 4'-dicarboxylate. Up-scaling tests demonstrate the easy realization of a 625 cm(2...

  3. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cells. Current state of the art. Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzmann, F.O.; Olson, C.L.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The first generation of dye-sensitized solar cell technology is based on a liquid electrolyte component. Today, this technology is on the verge of commercialization. The step towards the market and real applications is supported by the prospect of low manufacturing costs, good efficiency as well as the expectation that the current stability level of this technology is at least sufficient for applications in mobile electronics. These favorable developments may be reinforced and accelerated even further, if the corrosive liquid electrolyte could be replaced by a non-corrosive solid, since this would ease a number of stringent requirements in the production process. A successful exchange of the liquid electrolyte by a solid-state holeconductor requires to at least maintain, preferably improve, the most relevant technical parameters of the solar cell (efficiency, stability, cost). First pioneering work with solid-state hole conductors was carried out 10 years ago with an initial efficiency level below 1%. Until 2007, the record efficiency could be improved to 5%. This paper gives an overview of the solid-state concept as an early stage approach with good perspectives for the mid-term future (5-10 years)

  4. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Grä tzel, Carole; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Rossier-Iten, Nathalie; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grä tzel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents

  5. A complete carbon counter electrode for high performance quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    The proposed research describes the design and fabrication of a quasi-solid state dye sensitized solar cells (Q-DSSCs) with a complete carbon based counter electrode (CC-CE) and gel infused membrane electrolyte. For CE, the platinized fluorinated tin oxide glass (Pt/FTO) was replaced by the soft cationic functioned multiwall carbon nanotubes (SCF-MWCNT) catalytic layer coated on woven carbon fiber fabric (CFF) prepared on handloom by interlacing of carbon filament tapes. SCF-MWCNT were synthesized by functionalization of cationised lipase from Candida Ragusa. Cationised enzyme solution was prepared at pH ∼3 by using acetic acid. The cationic enzyme functionalization of MWCNT causes the minimum damage to the tubular morphology and assist in fast anchoring of negative iodide ions present in membrane electrolyte. The high electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance (RCT = 2.12 Ω) of our proposed system of CC-CE shows that the woven CFF coated with cationised lipase treated carbon nanotubes enriched with positive surface ions. The Q-DSSCs fabricated with CC-CE and 5 wt% PEO gel infused PVDF-HFP membrane electrolyte exhibit power conversion efficiency of 8.90% under masking. Our suggested low cost and highly efficient system of CC-CE helps the proposed quasi-solid state DSSCs structure to stand out as sustainable next generation solar cells.

  6. Electrospun polymethylacrylate nanofibers membranes for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymethylacrylate (PMA nanofibers membranes are fabricated by electrospinning technique and applied to the polymer matrix in quasi-solid-state electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. There is no previous studies reporting the production of PMA nanofibers. The electrospinning parameters such as polymer concentration, applied voltage, feed rate, tip to collector distance and solvent were optimized. Electrospun PMA fibrous membrane with average fiber diameter of 350 nm was prepared from a 10 wt% solution of PMA in a mixture of acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide (6:4 v/v at an applied voltage of 20 kV. It was then activated by immersing it in 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 3-methoxyproponitrile to obtain the corresponding membrane electrolyte with an ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 25 °C. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs employing the quasi solid-state electrolyte have an open-circuit voltage (Voc of 0.65 V and a short circuit current (Jsc of 6.5 mA cm−2 and photoelectric energy conversion efficiency (η of 1.4% at an incident light intensity of 100 mW cm−2.

  7. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiong; Tan Weiwei; Xiang Wangchun; Lin Yuan; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Li Xueping; Zhou Xiaowen; Fang Shibi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and α,ω-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] y I) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, α-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH 3 O[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] x I) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at 90 o C for 30 min. The characteristics for this kind of electrolyte were investigated by means of ionic conductivity, thermogravimetric and photocurrent-voltage. The ambient ionic conductivity was significantly enhanced to 2.3 x 10 -4 S cm -1 after introducing plasticizer, modified-ionic liquid. The weight loss of the solid state electrolyte at 200 o C was 1.8%, and its decomposition temperature was 287 o C. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on chemically cross-linked electrolyte presented an overall conversion efficiency of 2.35% under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm -2 ). The as-fabricated device maintained 88% of its initial performance at room temperature even without sealing for 30 days, showing a good stability.

  8. Study of upscaling possibilities for antimony sulfide solid state sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Archontoula; Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vasilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Solid state solar cells of inverted structure were constructed by successive deposition of nanoparticulate titania, antimony sulfide sensitizer and P3HT on FTO electrodes with PEDOT:PSS:Ag as counter electrode. Sensitized photoanode electrodes were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, FESEM and UV-vis. Small laboratory scale cells were first constructed and optimized. Functional cells were obtained by annealing the antimony sulfide film either in air or in inert atmosphere. High short-circuit currents were recorded in both cases with air-annealed sample producing more current but lower voltage. Small unit cells were combined to form cell modules. Connection of unit cells in parallel increased current but not proportionally to that of the unit cell. Connection in series preserved current and generated voltage multiplication. Cells were constructed and studied under ambient conditions, without encapsulation. The results encourage upscaling of antimony sulfide solar cells.

  9. Recombination barrier layers in solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2012-06-01

    By replacing the dye in the dye-sensitized solar cell design with semiconductor quantum dots as the light-absorbing material, solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (ss-QDSSCs) were fabricated. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Aluminum oxide recombination barrier layers were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at the TiO2/hole-conductor interface. For low numbers of ALD cycles, the Al2O3 barrier layer increased open circuit voltage, causing an increase in device efficiency. For thicker Al2O3 barrier layers, photocurrent decreased substantially, leading to a decrease in device efficiency. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Miao; Lin Yuan; Zhou Xiaowen; Xiao Xurui; Yang Lei; Feng Shujing; Li Xueping

    2008-01-01

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm -2 ) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO 2 /electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  11. An Organic D-π-A Dye for Record Efficiency Solid-State Sensitized Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Ning; Moon, Soo-Jin; Cevey-Ha, Lê; Moehl, Thomas; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grätzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The high molar absorption coefficient organic D-π-A dye C220 exhibits more than 6% certified electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5G solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis

  12. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Graetzel, Michael; Cesar, Ilkay

    2008-01-01

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO 2 with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 μm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 μm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the process

  13. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Cesar, Ilkay; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-22

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO(2) with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 µm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 µm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the

  14. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  15. Hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Ghods, Farbod; Docampo, Pablo; Abrusci, Agnese; Martí-Rujas, Javier; Ghidelli, Matteo; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Binda, Maddalena; Guarnera, Simone; Li Bassi, Andrea; Casari, Carlo Spartaco; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2013-11-26

    In this work we demonstrate hyperbranched nanostructures, grown by pulsed laser deposition, composed of one-dimensional anatase single crystals assembled in arrays of high aspect ratio hierarchical mesostructures. The proposed growth mechanism relies on a two-step process: self-assembly from the gas phase of amorphous TiO2 clusters in a forest of tree-shaped hierarchical mesostructures with high aspect ratio; oriented crystallization of the branches upon thermal treatment. Structural and morphological characteristics can be optimized to achieve both high specific surface area for optimal dye uptake and broadband light scattering thanks to the microscopic feature size. Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells fabricated with arrays of hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures on FTO-glass sensitized with D102 dye showed a significant 66% increase in efficiency with respect to a reference mesoporous photoanode and reached a maximum efficiency of 3.96% (among the highest reported for this system). This result was achieved mainly thanks to an increase in photogenerated current directly resulting from improved light harvesting efficiency of the hierarchical photoanode. The proposed photoanode overcomes typical limitations of 1D TiO2 nanostructures applied to ss-DSC and emerges as a promising foundation for next-generation high-efficiency solid-state devices comprosed of dyes, polymers, or quantum dots as sensitizers.

  16. A Simple Approach for Enhancing the Output Performance of Solar-Pumped Solid-State Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple truncated fused silica elliptical cavity is proposed to enhance the output performance of solar-pumped solid-state lasers. The imaging property of the truncated elliptical cavity ensures an enhanced absorption distribution within an Nd:YAG rod. Optimum pumping parameters are found through ZEMAX nonsequential ray-tracing and LASCAD laser cavity analyses. Compared with the output laser performance of a 3D-compound parabolic concentrator-2D-compound parabolic concentrator (3D-CPC-2D-CPC cavity, the truncated cavity provides 11% more multimode and 72.7% more TEM00 laser powers. A laser beam of high beam quality can be produced efficiently. The standard tracking error for multimode laser power is also reduced to only 4.0% by the truncated cavity.

  17. Development of an Embedded Solar Tracker using Compact RIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Jin; Lee, Yoon Joon; Chun, Won Gee [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    An embedded two-axis solar tracking system using LabVIEW to write the operation and control algorithms was developed for enhancing solar energy utilization. The system consists of a real-time processor, two motion- control modules, two step drives, two step motors, feedback devices, and other accessories needed for functional stability. The real-time processor allows the solar tracker to be used as a stand-alone, real-time system that can operate automatically without any external control. The system combines two different solar tracking methods: the optical method and the astronomical method. CdS sensors are employed to continuously generate feedback signals to the controller, ensuring high-precision solar tracking even under adverse conditions. CdS sensor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. A database of solar altitude, azimuth, and sunrise and sunset times is provided by this solar tracking system. Other solar trackers operating in an astronomical method may access and use this database over the Internet. Solar position and sunrise and sunset times in the database were compared with those of the Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory. The differences were found to be negligible.

  18. Development of an Embedded Solar Tracker using Compact RIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Jin; Lee, Yoon Joon; Chun, Won Gee

    2011-01-01

    An embedded two-axis solar tracking system using LabVIEW to write the operation and control algorithms was developed for enhancing solar energy utilization. The system consists of a real-time processor, two motion- control modules, two step drives, two step motors, feedback devices, and other accessories needed for functional stability. The real-time processor allows the solar tracker to be used as a stand-alone, real-time system that can operate automatically without any external control. The system combines two different solar tracking methods: the optical method and the astronomical method. CdS sensors are employed to continuously generate feedback signals to the controller, ensuring high-precision solar tracking even under adverse conditions. CdS sensor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. A database of solar altitude, azimuth, and sunrise and sunset times is provided by this solar tracking system. Other solar trackers operating in an astronomical method may access and use this database over the Internet. Solar position and sunrise and sunset times in the database were compared with those of the Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory. The differences were found to be negligible

  19. Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.; Gaynor, Whitney; Ding, I-Kang; Rim, Seung-Bum; Peumans, Peter; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Solution processed silver nanowire meshes (Ag NWs) were laminated on top of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) as a reflective counter electrode. Ag NWs were deposited in <1 min and were less reflective compared to evaporated Ag

  20. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang; Melas-Kyriazi, John; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Chittibabu, Kethinni G.; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  1. Parameters influencing charge separation in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using novel hole conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, J.E.; Hirata, N.; Schmidt-Mende, L.; Orizu, C.; Ogier, S.D.; Carr, K.; Grätzel, M.; Durrant, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid organic hole-transport material (HTM) are currently under intensive investigation, since they offer a number of practical advantages over liquid-electrolyte junction devices. Of particular importance to the design of such devices is the

  2. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Nagarale, R K; Pandey, S P; Rhee, H W

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  3. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Nagarale, R. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Rhee, H. W.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2011-06-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described.

  4. Hydrazone based molecular glasses for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aich, R.; Tran-Van, F.; Goubard, F.; Beouch, L.; Michaleviciute, A.; Grazulevicius, J.V.; Ratier, B.; Chevrot, C.

    2008-01-01

    Biscarbazole and terthiophene based molecular glasses with hydrazone functional goups (named respectively 2CzMPH and 3TDPH) have been synthesized and the thermal, optical and electrochemical properties have been studied. Differential scanning calorimetry characterizations confirm the metastable amorphous properties of these molecules with glass transition temperatures at 80 deg. C for the 3TDPH and 93 deg. C for the 2CzMPH. Their electrochemical properties have been studied and showed the effect of the conjugated hydrazone groups on the electronic delocalization of the structures. The concept of solid state dye-sensitized solar cells using hydrazone based molecular glasses has been verified with the elaboration of a SnO 2 : F/nc-TiO 2 /Ru-dye/2CzMPH /Au devices. Under full sunlight (98 mW/cm 2 , air mass 1.5) the I-V characterization of the device give a short circuit photocurrents I sc = 0.42 mA/cm 2 , open circuit voltage V oc = 500 mV with a fill factor of 0.35

  5. Characterization of the Pore Filling of Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Photoinduced Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Olson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Near steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the pore filling of spiro-MeOTAD (2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine9,9′-spirobifluorene into the nanoparticulate TiO2 electrode of a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSC. The volumetric ratio of filled to unfilled pore volumes, as well as the optical signature of interacting chemical species, that is, the hole-transfer yield (HTY, are investigated. PIA spectroscopy is used to measure the HTY, relative to the amount of spiro-MeOTAD present, without needing to determine the extinction coefficients of the dye and spiro-MeOTAD cation species. The Beer-Lambert law is used to relate the relative PIA signal to the penetration length of the hole-conductor in the TiO2 film. For the sample thickness range of 1.4–5 μm investigated here, the optimum characteristic penetration length is determined to be 3.1+0.46 μm, which is compared to 1.4 μm for the 200 mg mL−1 concentration of spiro-MeOTAD conventionally used. Therefore, doubling the effective penetration of spiro-MeOTAD is necessary to functionalize all the dye molecules in a ssDSC.

  6. Hydrazone based molecular glasses for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aich, R. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France); Ecole Electricite de Production et Methodes Industrielles, Cergy Pontoise (France); Tran-Van, F. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)], E-mail: francois.tran-van@u-cergy.fr; Goubard, F.; Beouch, L. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France); Michaleviciute, A.; Grazulevicius, J.V. [Department of Organic Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu Plentas 19, Kaunas LT-50254 (Lithuania); Ratier, B. [X-LIM., departement MINACOM, UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences, 123 av. Albert Thomas 87060 Limoges cedex France (France); Chevrot, C. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (EA 2528), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2008-08-30

    Biscarbazole and terthiophene based molecular glasses with hydrazone functional goups (named respectively 2CzMPH and 3TDPH) have been synthesized and the thermal, optical and electrochemical properties have been studied. Differential scanning calorimetry characterizations confirm the metastable amorphous properties of these molecules with glass transition temperatures at 80 deg. C for the 3TDPH and 93 deg. C for the 2CzMPH. Their electrochemical properties have been studied and showed the effect of the conjugated hydrazone groups on the electronic delocalization of the structures. The concept of solid state dye-sensitized solar cells using hydrazone based molecular glasses has been verified with the elaboration of a SnO{sub 2}: F/nc-TiO{sub 2}/Ru-dye/2CzMPH /Au devices. Under full sunlight (98 mW/cm{sup 2}, air mass 1.5) the I-V characterization of the device give a short circuit photocurrents I{sub sc} = 0.42 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 500 mV with a fill factor of 0.35.

  7. Nanostructured TiO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid state polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Kang, Yong Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous, anatase TiO 2 microspheres with particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2 μm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. The photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 microspheres in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a solid state electrolyte was investigated. The solid state electrolyte DSSC device based on the TiO 2 microspheres exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is greater than that of commercial P25 TiO 2 (3.6%). The higher photocurrent density was primarily achieved as a result of the greater specific surface area and pore size, which resulted in an increase in the dye uptake of the TiO 2 microspheres and easy transport of solid electrolyte through mesopores. In addition, the greater electron lifetime and superior light scattering ability also enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the TiO 2 microsphere-based, solid state DSSCs

  8. A Novel Solar Tracker Based on Omnidirectional Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Kadmiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel solar tracker system based on omnidirectional vision technology. The analysis of acquired images with a catadioptric camera allows extracting accurate information about the sun position toward both elevation and azimuth. The main advantages of this system are its wide field of tracking of 360° horizontally and 200° vertically. The system has the ability to track the sun in real time independently of the spatiotemporal coordinates of the site. The extracted information is used to control the two DC motors of the dual-axis mechanism to achieve the optimal orientation of the photovoltaic panels with the aim of increasing the power generation. Several experimental studies have been conducted and the obtained results confirm the power generation efficiency of the proposed solar tracker.

  9. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Barth

    2012-01-01

      Strip Tracker In the end of 2011, the Silicon Strip Tracker participated in the very successful heavy-ion collision data-taking. With zero downtime attributed to the Strip Tracker, CMS could achieve the excellent efficiency of 96%. Thus we were able to improve on the already good uptime during pp collisions, and completed an excellent year for the Strip Tracker. The shift of responsibility to raise the high voltages at the declaration of Stable Beams from the Tracker DOC to the central crew went smoothly. The new scheme is working reliably and we improved our automatic DQM and DCS SMS services. With this further improvement we plan to discontinue calling the TK DOC at each Stable Beam; so far the TK DOC personally checked all systems. The biggest effort of this Year-End Technical Stop was a comprehensive evaluation of the C6F14 cooling system performance with respect to future cold operation. The analysis allows a dedicated planning of system refurbishments to be executed during 2012 and LS1....

  10. Development and performance test of a solar tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, T.H.; Hasib, Z.M. [Bangladesh Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the development of a low-cost solar tracker device designed for use in developing countries. Expert control sensors and input-output interfaces were integrated with a tracking mechanism to increase the energy generation efficiency of the solar panel. Light sensing devices were used to automatically track the sun's rays. The controller sensors were integrated with the tracking mechanism. The control system was implemented on a microcontroller-based embedded system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was incorporated with a commercial software program in order to make the system more user-friendly. Performance tests demonstrated that the tracking system increases the amount of power that the solar panels could obtain. The efficiency of the panels increased by between 18 and 23 percent. Operators were able to control the movement of individual solar panels from a control room. The system also alerted operators of environmental damage to the panels. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  11. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-07-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll-to-roll compatible, large-area coating technique, is capable of achieving the same spiro-OMeTAD pore filling fraction as spin coating, and uses much less material. The average power conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells made from doctorblading is 3.0% for 2-lm thick films and 2.0% for 5-lm thick films, on par with devices made with spin coating. Directions to further improve the filling fraction are also suggested. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Obviating the requirement for oxygen in SnO2-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Snaith, Henry J.

    2011-06-01

    Organic semiconductors employed in solar cells are perfectly stable to solar irradiation provided oxygen content can be kept below 1 ppm. Paradoxically, the state-of-the-art molecular hole-transporter-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only operate efficiently if measured in an atmosphere containing oxygen. Without oxygen, these devices rapidly lose photovoltage and photocurrent and are rendered useless. Clearly this peculiar requirement has detrimental implications to the long term stability of these devices. Through characterizing the solar cells in air and in oxygen-free atmospheres, and considering the device architecture, we identify that direct contact between the metallic cathode and the mesoporous metal oxide photo-anode is responsible for a shunting path through the device. This metal-metal oxide contact forms a Schottky barrier under ambient conditions and the barrier is suitably high so as to prevent significant shunting of the solar cells. However, under light absorption in an anaerobic atmosphere the barrier reduces significantly, opening a low resistance shunting path which dominates the current-voltage characteristics in the solar cell. By incorporating an extra interlayer of insulating mesoporous aluminum oxide, on top of the mesoporous semiconducting metal oxide electrode, we successfully block this shunting path and subsequently the devices operate efficiently in an oxygen-free atmosphere, enabling the possibility of long term stability of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. Obviating the requirement for oxygen in SnO2-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docampo, Pablo; Snaith, Henry J

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors employed in solar cells are perfectly stable to solar irradiation provided oxygen content can be kept below 1 ppm. Paradoxically, the state-of-the-art molecular hole-transporter-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only operate efficiently if measured in an atmosphere containing oxygen. Without oxygen, these devices rapidly lose photovoltage and photocurrent and are rendered useless. Clearly this peculiar requirement has detrimental implications to the long term stability of these devices. Through characterizing the solar cells in air and in oxygen-free atmospheres, and considering the device architecture, we identify that direct contact between the metallic cathode and the mesoporous metal oxide photo-anode is responsible for a shunting path through the device. This metal-metal oxide contact forms a Schottky barrier under ambient conditions and the barrier is suitably high so as to prevent significant shunting of the solar cells. However, under light absorption in an anaerobic atmosphere the barrier reduces significantly, opening a low resistance shunting path which dominates the current-voltage characteristics in the solar cell. By incorporating an extra interlayer of insulating mesoporous aluminum oxide, on top of the mesoporous semiconducting metal oxide electrode, we successfully block this shunting path and subsequently the devices operate efficiently in an oxygen-free atmosphere, enabling the possibility of long term stability of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

  14. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Strom

    2011-01-01

    Strip Tracker Since the June CMS Week, the Silicon Strip Tracker has had another period of excellent detector operation with more than 97% system uptime. The focus on stable proton physics collection was fruitful, as CMS recorded greater than 5 fb–1 by the completion of the 2011 pp run. Following the November machine development and technical stop, the Strip Tracker now aims to provide the highest quality data during the heavy-ion run. The detector health, measured by the fraction of alive channels, is largely stable at around 97.8%. Recent failures include a TOB control ring, which now requires redundancy, and a TEC control ring with intermittent failures. These will be investigated during the Year-End Technical Stop. Critical services are very stable. The cooling system has a low total leak rate of less than 1 kg per day, and the power supply exchange rate is less than 1 unit per month. Two operational changes recently went into effect to optimise data-taking efficiency: (1) a tripped power su...

  15. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Dirkes

    2010-01-01

    The strip system has generally exhibited stable and high performance operation during the last six months of pp and heavy ion collisions. The up-time during pp collision from June onwards was 99.0% and during the first weeks of heavy-ion running we reached 99.7%. Most of the down-time during the proton runs came from Tracker DAQ problems. Spurious extra events from individual front-end channels caused ‘sync loss draining’ errors at the central DAQ system downstream of the Tracker FEDs. Once the problem was understood, new firmware that detects this error condition was installed on the FEDs. This has reduced the recovery procedure from this particular condition from a full reconfiguration requiring 170 s, to a simple re-synchronisation taking only ~1 s. We have also streamlined the instructions for the central DAQ shifters in order to minimise the time needed to decide the proper reaction to a given problem. The average down-time for problems triggered by the strip tracker DAQ is 395 s. Th...

  16. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demaria

    2011-01-01

    Strip Tracker The Silicon Strip Tracker has maintained excellent operational performance during the 2011 data-taking period. The increase of instantaneous luminosity up to 1033 cm-2s-1 did not introduce any new issues in the detector. The detector has collected high-quality physics data with an uptime greater than 98%. Sources of downtime have been identified and problems were properly addressed. Improved firmware in the Front-End Driver (FED) firmware was deployed to increase the robustness of the readout against spurious extra frames coming from the detector. When a FED detects bad data, it goes into Out-Of-Sync (OOS) status, waits for a L1 resynchronisation command (resync) to clean up the culprit data and restarts. Resync commands are now sent automatically to the Strip Tracker when it signals OOS and, as a result, this source of downtime has been reduced significantly. The dead-time, caused by recoveries from OOS, accounts for less than 0.1%. Downtime was also found to be caused by a FED occasionally ge...

  17. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Frank Hartmann

    2012-01-01

      Strip Tracker In general, the Strip Tracker is operating smoothly with the current peak instantaneous luminosity beyond 6.5E33, high L1 rate and large pile-up. With several improvements in automatic DQM checks and an enhanced SMS and e-mail service system plus additional audio alarms, we have reduced the work-load of our TK DOC and stopped the calls made at the beginning of each fill. We successfully collected more than two million cosmic tracks in peak mode during inter-fill periods before June, fulfilling the request from the Tracker alignment group. Around 500k cosmic tracks were also collected at zero Tesla. All planned special measurements, namely DCU calibration and I-V scans, have been taken during the YETS and other technical stops. A peak-mode run, a delay run and two HV scans have also been taken during early collisions at the initial low-lumi runs as well as during the fill where CMS had a problem with the magnet. The largest source of downtime comes from TIB-2.8.1 a.k.a. FED 101, ...

  18. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanoparticle and nanorod array hybrid photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hung-Jue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of ZnO photoanode morphology on the performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is reported. Four different structures of dye-loaded ZnO layers have been fabricated in conjunction with poly(3-hexylthiophene. A significant improvement in device efficiency with ZnO nanorod arrays as photoanodes has been achieved by filling the interstitial voids of the nanorod arrays with ZnO nanoparticles. The overall power conversion efficiency increases from 0.13% for a nanorod-only device to 0.34% for a device with combined nanoparticles and nanorod arrays. The higher device efficiency in solid-state DSSCs with hybrid nanorod/nanoparticle photoanodes is originated from both large surface area provided by nanoparticles for dye adsorption and efficient charge transport provided by the nanorod arrays to reduce the recombinations of photogenerated carriers.

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.; Ardalan, Pendar; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Ding, I-Kang; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2011-01-01

    Functioning quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using the vacuum deposition technique atomic layer deposition (ALD). Utilizing the incubation period of CdS growth by ALD on TiO 2, we are able to grow QDs of adjustable size which act as sensitizers for solid-state QDsensitized solar cells (ssQDSSC). The size of QDs, studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), varied with the number of ALD cycles from 1-10 nm. Photovoltaic devices with the QDs were fabricated and characterized using a ssQDSSC device architecture with 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p methoxyphenylamine) 9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as the solid-state hole conductor. The ALD approach described here can be applied to fabrication of quantum-confined structures for a variety of applications, including solar electricity and solar fuels. Because ALD provides the ability to deposit many materials in very high aspect ratio substrates, this work introduces a strategy by which material and optical properties of QD sensitizers may be adjusted not only by the size of the particles but also in the future by the composition. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2011-10-04

    Functioning quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using the vacuum deposition technique atomic layer deposition (ALD). Utilizing the incubation period of CdS growth by ALD on TiO 2, we are able to grow QDs of adjustable size which act as sensitizers for solid-state QDsensitized solar cells (ssQDSSC). The size of QDs, studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), varied with the number of ALD cycles from 1-10 nm. Photovoltaic devices with the QDs were fabricated and characterized using a ssQDSSC device architecture with 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p methoxyphenylamine) 9,9\\'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as the solid-state hole conductor. The ALD approach described here can be applied to fabrication of quantum-confined structures for a variety of applications, including solar electricity and solar fuels. Because ALD provides the ability to deposit many materials in very high aspect ratio substrates, this work introduces a strategy by which material and optical properties of QD sensitizers may be adjusted not only by the size of the particles but also in the future by the composition. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Sutaya; Ketut Udy Ariawan

    2016-01-01

    prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 ...

  2. TRACKER

    CERN Document Server

    Bora Akgun

    2013-01-01

    Pixel Tracker Maintenance of the Pixel Tracker has been ongoing since it was extracted from inside CMS and safely stored at low temperatures in Pixel laboratory at Point 5 (see previous Bulletin).    All four half cylinders of the forward Pixel detector (FPIX) have been repaired and the failures have been understood. In October, a team of technicians from Fermilab replaced a total of three panels that were not repairable in place. The replacement of panels is a delicate operation that involves removing the half disks that hold the panels from the half cylinders, removing the damaged panels from the half disks, installing the new panels on the half disks, and finally putting the half disks back into the half cylinders and hooking up the cooling connections. The work was completed successfully. The same team also prepared the installation of the Phase 1 Pixel pilot blade system, installing a third half disk mechanics in the half cylinders; these half disks will host new Phase 1 P...

  3. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill and G. Bolla

    2010-01-01

    Silicon strips During the first collisions the strip-Tracker operated with excellent performance and stability. The results obtained were very impressive and this exciting experience marked a fine end to another intense year. Several issues were identified during 2009 operations that could benefit from improvement: to suppress the increased output data volume when in STANDBY state (LV ON, HV OFF), which is due to the larger noise amplitudes when the sensors are unbiased; to reduce the strips configuration time; to increase the stability of the power system, particularly during state transitions, and to decrease the powering up time. The strip-Tracker FEDs now react to changes in the HV conditions of the strips. Upon a transition to STAND-BY, central DAQ starts a PAUSE-RESUME cycle and a flag is issued to the FEDSupervisor. This results in forcing the common mode noise artificially to the maximum value, which effectively suppresses the analogue data output. This forced offset is removed as soon as the strips ...

  4. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill

    2010-01-01

    The Tracker has continued to operate with excellent performance during this first period with 7 TeV collisions. Strips operations have been very smooth. The up-time during collisions was 98.5%, up to end of May, with a large fraction of the down-time coming during the planned fine-timing scan with early 7 TeV collisions. Pixels operations are also going very well, besides problems related to background beam-gas collisions where the particles produced generate very large clusters in the barrel modules. When CMS triggers on these events, the FEDs affected overflow and then timeout. Effort was mobilised very quickly to understand and mitigate this problem, with modifications made to the pixel FED firmware in order to provide automatic recovery. With operations becoming more and more routine at P5, Pixels have begun the transition to centrally attended operation, which means that the P5 shifters will no longer be required to be on duty. The strip-Tracker is also planning to make this transition at the end of Ju...

  5. Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2011-06-01

    Solution processed silver nanowire meshes (Ag NWs) were laminated on top of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) as a reflective counter electrode. Ag NWs were deposited in <1 min and were less reflective compared to evaporated Ag controls; however, AgNW ss-DSC devices consistently had higher fill factors (0.6 versus 0.69), resulting in comparable power conversion efficiencies (2.7%) compared to thermally evaporated Ag control (2.8%). Laminated Ag NW electrodes enable higher throughput manufacturing and near unity material usage, resulting in a cheaper alternative to thermally evaporated electrodes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a closed and open loop solar tracker technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Gouvêa Melo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is among the renewable energy sources that received greater addition in installed capacity. However, it accounts for a small fraction of the energy matrix of most countries. Electric energy generation by solar systems can be improved through tracking. This work aimed to develop and compare a closed and an open loop solar tracking system. The closed loop system was developed using Light Dependent Resistors. An algorithm was developed for the open loop tracker as a function of the geometric relation between the sun and the photovoltaic module. A simulation was run to compare this algorithm with a system using tracking at fixed time intervals, for clear sky conditions, with different tracking parameters and for five different latitudes. No significant difference was observed between the proposed open loop tracking algorithm and the fixed time interval algorithm for the tracking parameters evaluated. The open and closed loop solar tracking systems were compared experimentally in Rio das Ostras, Brazil (22.49 °S 41.92° W. An average gain of 28.5% was observed for the open loop tracking system over a latitude tilted system and 33.0% for the closed loop tracking system.

  7. SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 bit sebagai otak utama pada penelitian ini menjadikan produk ini berbiaya rendah. Pengujian yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa solar tracker cerdas dibandingkan dengan solar tracker biasa mempunyai perbedaan konsumsi daya baterai yang sangat signifikan yaitu terjadi penghematan sebesar 85 %. Besar penghematan konsumsi daya ini tentunya bukan sebuah angka konstan melainkan tergantung seberapa besar noise yang dikenakan pada alat solar tracker. Untuk sebuah perlakuan yang sama, maka semakin besar noise semakin besar pula perbedaan penghematan konsumsi daya pada solar tracker yang cerdas. Kata-kata kunci: solar tracker, filter digital, mikrokontroler 8 bit, konsumsi daya Abstract This research had made a prototype of smart solar tracker product based on microcontroller AVR 8 bit. The solar tracker used digital filter IIR (Infinite Impulse Response on its software. Filter programming needs 32 bit multiplication but the processor inside of the microcontroller that used in this research is 8 bit. This multiplication is only can be solved on microcontroller 8 bit by using assembly language in programming. The language is a hardware level language. The smart solar tracker using the microcontroller 8 bit as a main brain in this research made the product had a low cost. The test results show that the comparison in saving of baterai power consumption between the smart solar tracker and the normal one is 85 %. The percentage of the saving indubitably is not a constant

  8. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Duggan and L. Demaria

    2012-01-01

    Pixels Tracker With the 2012 proton-proton run almost complete, the pixel detector continues to operate well in an environment with large pile-up and high L1 rate. During this period, the pixel detector has shown excellent stability, with the number of current active channels from each the BPIX and FPIX the same as from the first month of 2012 running, resulting in 96.3% of the detector active. This total includes the recovery of six FPIX channels, temporarily disabled due to an unexpected dependence on the magnetic field. From a dedicated study that identified a small crack in an optical cable connector, a repair was made which restored 120 ROCs in the FPIX. During 2012 there has been a close collaboration of the online operations with the offline studies, resulting in the first dedicated HV bias scans used for the pixel Lorentz Angle measurement. These scans help to better understand this important parameter that changes with temperature, irradiation, and bias voltage. This is in addition to all other s...

  9. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dinardo and G. Benelli

    2013-01-01

    Pixel Tracker At the beginning of May, the Pixel detector was successfully extracted from inside CMS. The operation lasted one and a half days each for the forward and barrel Pixel detectors. Everything went smoothly: new people were trained during the exercise and care was taken to minimise radiation exposure – see Image 3.  Lessons learned were noted in an updated written extraction procedure.  Care was also taken to prepare for reinsertion around the new beam pipe next year, with new alignment targets placed on the barrel Pixel detector. All pieces were lifted to the surface and are now safely stored at low temperatures in the dedicated Pixel laboratory at Point 5 (see Image 4 and previous Bulletin). Image 3 (a) and (b): Extracted FPIX and BPIX detector The subsequent maintenance of the forward Pixel detector started on 27 May.  Since then one of four half cylinders has been repaired and, even more importantly, most of the failures have been fully understood. ...

  10. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Yohay and E. Butz

    2013-01-01

      Pixel Tracker Preparation of the newly built Pixel clean room in the radioprotection (RP) zone of SX5 has been proceeding at a steady clip since the beginning of 2013. The clean room is designed to provide a cold, dry, dust-free laboratory environment for storage and repairs of the CMS Pixel detector during LS1 and future LHC shutdown periods. To that end, it is required to have robust temperature and humidity control, standalone DAQ and DCS systems, and space for specialised silicon testing and repair equipment. Good progress has been made in delivering each of these items. The ongoing project of commissioning the clean room HVAC system has been a success so far. The clean room will be kept at 10–20 Pa above atmospheric pressure to ensure that contaminants flow out of the room. There are two operating temperatures for the room: 21°C will be used when the Pixel detector components are under cold storage at subzero temperatures in well-sealed “cold boxes,” ...

  11. TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    E. Butz

    2011-01-01

    The strip tracker took data very efficiently during 2010 with system availabilities of above 97% in the pp running and close to 100% during the heavy-ion running. The number of active channels in the readout is largely stable around 98%. The maintenance and development during the extended technical stop have been focussed on improving the operating conditions of the main silicon strip cooling plants SS1 and SS2, which have been items of concern (see last Bulletin). In order to stabilise and smooth the operation of SS1 and SS2, larger bypass valves and variable frequency drivers (VFDs) have been introduced. Possible noise induced by operation of the VFDs on other parts of CMS has been evaluated and no increased noise has been reported so far. The leak rate of every single line on SS2 was measured with the precise test-rig. Besides the known leaky lines, ten other SS2 lines were measured to leak between 120 g/day and 1200 g/day under the given test conditions, establishin...

  12. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar; Brennan, Thomas P.; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Ding, I-Kang; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2011-02-22

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. New Prototype of Photovoltaic Solar Tracker Based on Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The global increase in energy demand and exponential exhaustion of fossil recourses has favored the development of new systems of electricity production. Photovoltaic solar energy is undoubtedly one that has the highest application in housings, due to its simplicity and easy implementation. In this work, a new prototype of photovoltaic solar tracker with Arduino platform was developed. Feedback control system that allows carrying out solar tracking with two axes using a stepper motor and linear actuator was established through an electronic circuit based on photodiodes. Moreover, real construction of the prototype was carried out, where the effectiveness of the design and its capacity to draw a maximum benefit of an incident radiation can be observed, placing the panel perpendicularly to the received energy and improving its performance for its application in future installations in housings. Results obtained from the comparison between the developed prototype and a static panel oriented according to the latitude of the area, show about 18% energy gain.

  15. An Organic D-π-A Dye for Record Efficiency Solid-State Sensitized Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Ning

    2011-04-13

    The high molar absorption coefficient organic D-π-A dye C220 exhibits more than 6% certified electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5G solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-dimethoxyphenylamine)-9,9′- spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This contributes to a new record (6.08% by NREL) for this type of sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device. Efficient charge generation is proved by incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra. Transient photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements showed that the enhanced performance achieved with C220 partially stems from the high charge collection efficiency over a wide potential range. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-09

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  17. The effect of latitude on the performance of different solar trackers in Europe and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, Arian; Okoye, Chiemeka Onyeka; Atikol, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of latitude on the performance of seven solar trackers is analyzed in Europe and Africa. • The performance of the trackers is ranked according to the area location latitude. • The results showed five ranking patterns. • Based on the five patterns and the site latitude, designers can select the best available tracker. - Abstract: In this paper, the effect of latitude on the performance of different solar trackers is examined. The hourly solar radiation data of different locations around Europe and Africa measured on a horizontal surface is collected and utilized. Widely validated Perez anisotropic model is used to predict the diffuse component of the solar radiation on an inclined surface. Different solar trackers namely, Full/dual-axis, East–West (EW), North–South (NS), Inclined East–West (IEW), and Vertical-axis (V) trackers are considered in calculating the available solar potential of the locations. The performance of the solar trackers in terms of the energy gain is ranked according to the area location latitudes. The results show that the tracking performance is highly dependent on the locations, thus changes with the latitude. The percentage variation among the implemented one-axis tracking options relative to dual-axis trackers ranges from 0.42% to 23.4%. Overall, the increase in the energy gain of dual-axis trackers compared to the optimal fixed panel for the locations varies from 17.72% to 31.23%, thus emphasizes the importance of solar trackers. Finally, the study is expected to aid designers in the selection and installation of appropriate solar trackers in the regions.

  18. A novel adaptive sun tracker for spacecraft solar panel based on hybrid unsymmetric composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhangming; Li, Hao

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive sun tracker which is constructed by hybrid unsymmetric composite laminates. The adaptive sun tracker could be applied on spacecraft solar panels to increase their energy efficiency through decreasing the inclined angle between the sunlight and the solar panel normal. The sun tracker possesses a large rotation freedom and its rotation angle depends on the laminate temperature, which is affected by the light condition in the orbit. Both analytical model and finite element model (FEM) are developed for the sun tracker to predict its rotation angle in different light conditions. In this work, the light condition of the geosynchronous orbit on winter solstice is considered in the numerical prediction of the temperatures of the hybrid laminates. The final inclined angle between the sunlight and the solar panel normal during a solar day is computed using the finite element model. Parametric study of the adaptive sun tracker is conducted to improve its capacity and effectiveness of sun tracking. The improved adaptive sun tracker is lightweight and has a state-of-the-art design. In addition, the adaptive sun tracker does not consume any power of the solar panel, since it has no electrical driving devices. The proposed adaptive sun tracker provides a potential alternative to replace the traditional sophisticated electrical driving mechanisms for spacecraft solar panels.

  19. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brianâ E.; Moon, Soo-Jin; Baranoff, Etienne; Nà ¼ esch, Frank; McGehee, Michaelâ D.; Grà ¤ tzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammadâ K.

    2009-01-01

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture

  20. Solid-state ZnS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell fabricated by the Dip-SILAR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabian, M; Mirabbaszadeh, K; Afarideh, H

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were fabricated with zinc sulfide quantum dots (ZnS QDs), which served as the light absorber and the recombination blocking layer simultaneously. ZnS QDs were prepared successfully by a novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique based on dip-coating (Dip-SILAR). The dependences of the photovoltaic parameters on the number of SILAR cycles (n) were investigated. The cell with n = 6 (particle average size ∼9 nm) showed an energy conversion efficiency of 2.72% under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm −2 ). Here we investigate also the cohesion between ZnS QDs and ZnO film to obtain a well-covering QD layer. (paper)

  1. Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Coated with Conducting Polyaniline Nanocomposites for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT coated with conducting polyaniline (PAni nanocomposites has been enforced as for quasi-solid-state electrolyte layer in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, and the incorporation of MWNT-PAni nanoparticles on the cell performance has been examined. The MWNT-PAni nanoparticles exploited as the extended electron transfer materials, which can reduce charge diffusion length and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I3-. An ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl-imidazolium iodide (PMII together with the hybrid MWNT-PAni nanocomposites was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and achieved a moderately higher cell efficiency (3.15%, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.26%.

  2. Colloidal Sb2S3 Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Characterization and Fabrication of Solid-State Semiconductor Sensitized Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2015-12-26

    Inorganic nanocrystals composed of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements are crucial to fabricated sustainable photovoltaic devices in large scale. In this study, various-shaped and different phases of antimony sulfide nanocrystals, which is composed of non-scarce and non-toxic elements, are synthesized using hot-injection colloidal method. The effect of various synthetic parameters on the final morphology is explored. Also, foreign ion (Chlorine) effects on the morphology of Sb2S3 nanocrystals have been observed. Structural, optical and morphological properties of the nanocrystals were investigated, and Sb2S3 nanocrystal-based solid-state semiconductor-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using as-prepared nanocrystals. We achieved promising power conversion efficiencies of 1.48%.

  3. Colloidal Sb2S3 Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Characterization and Fabrication of Solid-State Semiconductor Sensitized Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Malik, Mohammad A; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals composed of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements are crucial to fabricated sustainable photovoltaic devices in large scale. In this study, various-shaped and different phases of antimony sulfide nanocrystals, which is composed of non-scarce and non-toxic elements, are synthesized using hot-injection colloidal method. The effect of various synthetic parameters on the final morphology is explored. Also, foreign ion (Chlorine) effects on the morphology of Sb2S3 nanocrystals have been observed. Structural, optical and morphological properties of the nanocrystals were investigated, and Sb2S3 nanocrystal-based solid-state semiconductor-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using as-prepared nanocrystals. We achieved promising power conversion efficiencies of 1.48%.

  4. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dextran based hydrogel is first used to prepare quasi-solid-state polysulfide electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. ► The ion conductivity of hydrogel electrolyte shows almost the same value as the liquid electrolyte. ► The liquid state at elevated temperature of hydrogel electrolyte allows for a good contact between electrolyte and CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. ► The hydrogel electrolyte based cell exhibits slightly lower power conversion efficiency than that of liquid electrolyte based cell. ► The dynamic electron transfer mechanism in hydrogel electrolyte based cell is examined in detail by EIS and CIMPS/IMVS. -- Abstract: Highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte is first fabricated using dextran as gelator and used as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The hydrogel electrolyte with gelator concentration of 15 wt% shows almost the same conductivity as the liquid one. Moreover, its liquid state at elevated temperature allow for the well penetration into the pores in electrodeposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. This gel electrolyte based QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.23% under AG 1.5 G one sun (100 mW cm −2 ) illumination, slightly lower than that of liquid electrolyte based cell (3.69%). The dynamic electron transfer mechanism of the gel and liquid electrolyte based QDSSC are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (CIMPS/IMVS). It is found that the electron transport in gel electrolyte based cell is much faster than the liquid electrolyte based cell but it tends to recombine more easily than the latter. However, these differences fade away with increasing the light intensity, showing declining electron collection efficiency at higher light intensity illumination. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 4.58% is obtained for the gel

  5. Synthesis of POSS-based ionic conductors with low glass transition temperatures for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2014-07-09

    Replacing liquid-state electrolytes with solid-state electrolytes has been proven to be an effective way to improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We report herein the synthesis of amorphous ionic conductors based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with low glass transition temperatures for solid-state DSSCs. As the ionic conductor is amorphous and in the elastomeric state at the operating temperature of DSSCs, good pore filling in the TiO2 film and good interfacial contact between the solid-state electrolyte and the TiO2 film can be guaranteed. When the POSS-based ionic conductor containing an allyl group is doped with only iodine as the solid-state electrolyte without any other additives, power conversion efficiency of 6.29% has been achieved with good long-term stability under one-sun soaking for 1000 h.

  6. Direct tracking error characterization on a single-axis solar tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Pujol-Nadal, Ramon; Larcher, Marco; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solar tracker of a small-size parabolic trough collector was tested. • A testing procedure for the tracking error characterization of a single-axis tracker was proposed. • A statistical analysis on the tracking error distribution was done regarding different variables. • The optical losses due to the tracking error were calculated based on a ray-tracing simulation. - Abstract: The solar trackers are devices used to orientate solar concentrating systems in order to increase the focusing of the solar radiation on a receiver. A solar concentrator with a medium or high concentration ratio needs to be orientated correctly by an accurate solar tracking mechanism to avoid losing the sunrays out from the receiver. Hence, to obtain an appropriate operation, it is important to know the accuracy of a solar tracker in regard to the required precision of the concentrator in order to maximize the collector optical efficiency. A procedure for the characterization of the accuracy of a solar tracker is presented for a single-axis solar tracker. More precisely, this study focuses on the estimation of the positioning angle error of a parabolic trough collector using a direct procedure. A testing procedure, adapted from the International standard IEC 62817 for photovoltaic trackers, was defined. The results show that the angular tracking error was within ±0.4° for this tracker. The optical losses due to the tracking were calculated using the longitudinal incidence angle modifier obtained by ray-tracing simulation. The acceptance angles for various transversal angles were analyzed, and the average optical loss, due to the tracking, was 0.317% during the whole testing campaign. The procedure presented in this work showed that the tracker precision was adequate for the requirements of the analyzed optical system.

  7. Seguidor Solar, optimizando el aprovechamiento de la energía solar ; Solar tracker, optimizing ofimprovementof the solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Machado Toranzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó el diseño e implementación de un dispositivo encargado de obtener las coordenadas del Sol en cualquier momento del día, es decir, un seguidor solar a dos ejes por punto luminoso. Este seguidor consta de dos bloques principales: la tarjeta controladora y la parte mecánica. Su diseño se basó en el uso de fotorresistencias, microcontroladores y motores de pasos, el mismo posee altas prestaciones y bajo costo. El prototipo construido es utilizado en las investigaciones de aprovechamiento de la energía solar que se realizan en el Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicadas (GERA de la Universidad de Oriente, particularmente en los paneles fotovoltaicos y los calentadores de agua. Se realizó una prueba experimental en los laboratorios y en el polígono de dicho grupo y se comprobó que el seguidor solar funciona adecuadamente, cumpliendo con las expectativas deseadas.The design and implementation of a device for obtaining the coordinates of the sun at any time during the day, it means, a solar tracker of type two axis by luminous point is developed in this paper. This tracker consists of two main blocks: the controller board and the mechanical part. The design is based on the use of photoresistences, microcontrollers and stepper motors. The prototype is used on investigations about solar energy developed at the GERA (Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicada of Universidad de Oriente, particularly in photovoltaic panels and water heaters. An experimental test was conducted in the laboratories and at the site of the group and it was found that the solar tracker is functioning properly, meeting the desired expectations.

  8. Design and test of a parallel kinematic solar tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mauro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a parallel kinematic solar tracker designed for driving high-concentration photovoltaic modules. This kind of module produces energy only if they are oriented with misalignment errors lower than 0.4°. Generally, a parallel kinematic structure provides high stiffness and precision in positioning, so these features make this mechanism fit for the purpose. This article describes the work carried out to design a suitable parallel machine: an already existing architecture was chosen, and the geometrical parameters of the system were defined in order to obtain a workspace consistent with the requirements for sun tracking. Besides, an analysis of the singularities of the system was carried out. The method used for the singularity analysis revealed the existence of singularities which had not been previously identified for this kind of mechanism. From the analysis of the mechanism developed, very low nominal energy consumption and elevated stiffness were found. A small-scale prototype of the system was constructed for the first time. A control algorithm was also developed, implemented, and tested. Finally, experimental tests were carried out in order to verify the capability of the system of ensuring precise pointing. The tests have been considered passed as the system showed an orientation error lower than 0.4° during sun tracking.

  9. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  10. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  11. Determination of the solar transmittance for the translucent shutter with PCM in liquid and solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerska, Anna; Ksionek, Dariusz; Rosiński, Marian

    2017-11-01

    This article presents results of the energy performance of an external translucent shading component integrated with a phase change material. A proposed technology is able to accumulate considerable amounts of energy in the latent heat by absorbing solar energy. Due to selective optical properties, much of the visible light is still transmitted through the facade. Experimental measurements were carried out in a laboratory set-up - testing thermal chamber, located in the Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. The main result of the experimental study was the evaluation of the average solar transmittance in the whole measured spectrum, as well as in the infrared and visible light. Since the shift in optical properties was observed when the material was undergoing a phase transition, the average spectral transmittances were measured for different states of matter of the PCM material. The tested shutter showed abilities to reduce and modulate daylight and solar heat gains in the indoor environment, which could contribute to considerable energy savings.

  12. Performance analysis of a solar-powered solid state heat engine for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Rui; Li, Baode; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid system consisting of a CPC (compound parabolic collector) system, a SOE (solid oxide electrolyzer) system and a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system was proposed to harvest solar energy. And a sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the system performance. The impacts of operating temperatures of the SOE and PEMFC system, and the direct irradiation intensity of the sun on the performance characteristics were systematically analyzed. Results revealed that there exists an optimal SOE operating temperature leading to the maximum power output and maximum electrical efficiency simultaneously. Larger operating temperature of the PEMFC resulted in larger power output and higher efficiency. There also existed optimal direct irradiation intensities leading to the maximum power output and maximum electrical efficiency. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed solar energy harvesting system for practical use in real-life was also simulated. This may serve a clean technology for electricity generation. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of CPC, SOE and PEMFC is proposed to harvest solar energy. • A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the system performance. • Power output and electrical efficiency have maximum values. • Performance of the proposed hybrid system for practical use was simulated.

  13. Determination of the solar transmittance for the translucent shutter with PCM in liquid and solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komerska Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the energy performance of an external translucent shading component integrated with a phase change material. A proposed technology is able to accumulate considerable amounts of energy in the latent heat by absorbing solar energy. Due to selective optical properties, much of the visible light is still transmitted through the facade. Experimental measurements were carried out in a laboratory set–up – testing thermal chamber, located in the Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. The main result of the experimental study was the evaluation of the average solar transmittance in the whole measured spectrum, as well as in the infrared and visible light. Since the shift in optical properties was observed when the material was undergoing a phase transition, the average spectral transmittances were measured for different states of matter of the PCM material. The tested shutter showed abilities to reduce and modulate daylight and solar heat gains in the indoor environment, which could contribute to considerable energy savings.

  14. Q-switched all-solid-state lasers and application in processing of thin-film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangqing; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Societal pressure to renewable clean energy is increasing which is expected to be used as part of an overall strategy to address global warming and oil crisis. Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by government, of which the costs and prices lower continuously. The next generation thin-film devices are considered to be more efficiency and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. All-solid-state Q-switched lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, due to their advantages of compact configuration, high peak-value power, high repeat rate, excellent beam quality and stability, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. The end pumped all-solid-state lasers could achieve 1064nm IR resources with pulse width of nanoseconds adopting acoustic-optics Q-switch, shorter than 20ns. The repeat rate is up to 100kHz and the beam quality is close to diffraction limit. Based on this, 532nm green lasers, 355nm UV lasers and 266nm DUV lasers could be carried out through nonlinear frequency conversion. Different wave length lasers are chose to process selective materials. For example, 8-15 W IR lasers are used to scribe the TCO film (P1); 1-5 W green lasers are suitable for scribing the active semiconductor layers (P2) and the back contact layers (P3). Our company, Wuhan Lingyun Photo-electronic System Co. Ltd, has developed 20W IR and 5W green end-pumped Q-switched all-solid-state lasers for thin-film solar industry. Operating in high repeat rates, the speed of processing is up to 2.0 m/s.

  15. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Design and fabrication of an automatic dual axis solar tracker by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 9, No. 2, 2017, pp. ... All rights reserved. Design and fabrication of an automatic dual axis solar tracker by using LDR ..... It may be like a wiper of the car. Nomenclature. LDR.

  17. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-07-10

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of sensitized hetero-junction solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two zwitterionic butyric acid derivatives differing only in the polar moiety attached to their common 4 carbon-chain acid, i.e., 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) and 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). These two molecules were implemented as coadsorbents in conjunction with Z907Na dye on the SSDSC. It was found that a Z907Na/GBA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density ( Jsc) as compared to using Z907Na dye alone. The Z907Na/ABA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases the Jsc. Impedance and transient photovoltage investigations elucidate the cause of these remarkable observations. ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Design of the Mechanical Components of a Dual Axis Solar Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Llanas, Amador

    2013-01-01

    This work is about the design of a solar tracker with the objective of following the sun throughout the day. In order to achieve that objective, the solar tracker has two degrees of freedom. The different mechanical components necessary to build the structure has been designed, calculated and verified. Apart from that, the whole structure has been drawn using the 3D mechanical CAD program SolidWorks. The plans have been drawn too.

  19. Solar pumping of solid state lasers for space mission: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetti, N. G.; Lousteau, J.; Negro, D.; Mura, E.; Scarpignato, G. C.; Perrone, G.; Milanese, D.; Abrate, S.

    2017-11-01

    Solar pumped laser (SPL) can find wide applications in space missions, especially for long lasting ones. In this paper a new technological approach for the realization of a SPL based on fiber laser technology is proposed. We present a preliminary study, focused on the active material performance evaluation, towards the realization of a Nd3+ -doped fiber laser made of phosphate glass materials, emitting at 1.06 μm. For this research several Nd3+ -doped phosphate glass samples were fabricated, with concentration of Nd3+ up to 10 mol%. Physical and thermal properties of the glasses were measured and their spectroscopic properties are described. The effect of Nd3+ doping concentration on emission spectra and lifetimes was investigated in order to study the concentration quenching effect on luminescence performance.

  20. Photoelectrochemical Polymerization of EDOT for Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Role of Dye and Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Jarboui, Adel; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Jouini, Mohamed; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The aromatic-unit, commercially available, and cost-effective precursor 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), was employed instead of bis-EDOT to generate by in-situ photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) a conducting polymer-type hole conductor poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) for dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices. In order to conduct efficiently the PEP of EDOT, two electrolytic media, aqueous micellar and organic, and two Donor-π-Acceptor sensitizers, were investigated. By using the electrolytic aqueous micellar medium, the PEP was efficient due to the low oxidation potential of the precursor in water. A DSC device based on PEDOT generated from aqueous PEP showed an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 3.0% under 100 mWcm"−"2, higher by two orders of magnitude than that of a DSC device based on PEDOT from organic PEP (η = 0.04%). The comparison of the properties of the as-obtained PEDOT polymers from aqueous and organic PEP by UV–VIS–NIR measurements shows the formation of PEDOT at a highly doped state from aqueous PEP. The thermodynamic and kinetic requirements for efficiency of PEP process in each medium are investigated and discussed on the basis of the light absorption abilities and electrochemical redox potentials measured for the two organic sensitizers.

  1. Effects of QD surface coverage in solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.; Brennan, Thomas P.; Trejo, Orlando; Xu, John; Prinz, Fritz B.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2013-01-01

    Lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ on nanoporous TiO 2 by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and by atomic layer deposition (ALD), to fabricate solid-state quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). With the ultimate goal of increasing QD surface coverage, this work compares the impact of these two synthetic routes on the light absorption and electrical properties of devices. A higher current density was observed in the SILAR-grown QD devices under reverse bias, as compared to ALD-grown QD devices, attributed to injection problems of the lower-band-gap QDs present in the SILAR-grown QD device. To understand the effects of QD surface coverage on device performance, particularly interfacial recombination, electron lifetimes were measured for varying QD deposition cycles. Electron lifetimes were found to decrease with increasing SILAR cycles, indicating that the expected decrease in recombination between electrons in the TiO2 and holes in the hole-transport material, due to increased QD surface coverage, is not the dominant effect of increased deposition cycles. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Ki-Beom; Moehl, Thomas; Marchioro, Arianna; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Yum, Jun-Ho; Moser, Jacques E; Grä tzel, Michael; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI(2) and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO(2) film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (J(SC)) exceeding 17 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V(OC)) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO(2) film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) -sensitized liquid junction cells.

  3. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hui-Seon

    2012-08-21

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI(2) and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO(2) film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (J(SC)) exceeding 17 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V(OC)) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO(2) film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) -sensitized liquid junction cells.

  4. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melas-Kyriazi, John

    2011-04-05

    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9\\'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effects of QD surface coverage in solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2013-06-01

    Lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ on nanoporous TiO 2 by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and by atomic layer deposition (ALD), to fabricate solid-state quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). With the ultimate goal of increasing QD surface coverage, this work compares the impact of these two synthetic routes on the light absorption and electrical properties of devices. A higher current density was observed in the SILAR-grown QD devices under reverse bias, as compared to ALD-grown QD devices, attributed to injection problems of the lower-band-gap QDs present in the SILAR-grown QD device. To understand the effects of QD surface coverage on device performance, particularly interfacial recombination, electron lifetimes were measured for varying QD deposition cycles. Electron lifetimes were found to decrease with increasing SILAR cycles, indicating that the expected decrease in recombination between electrons in the TiO2 and holes in the hole-transport material, due to increased QD surface coverage, is not the dominant effect of increased deposition cycles. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Phosphonate self-assembled monolayers as organic linkers in solid-state quantum dot sensetized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2010-06-01

    We have employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements to study the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). ∼2 to ∼6 nm size CdS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on the SAM-passivated TiO2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Our results show differences in the bonding of the CdS QDs at the TiO2 surfaces with a SAM linker. Moreover, our data indicate that presence of a SAM increases the CdS uptake on TiO2 as well as the performance of the resulting devices. Importantly, we observe ∼2 times higher power conversion efficiencies in the devices with a SAM compared to those that lack a SAM. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melas-Kyriazi, John; Ding, I-Kang; Marchioro, Arianna; Punzi, Angela; Hardin, Brian E.; Burkhard, George F.; Té treault, Nicolas; Grä tzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Efficiency Exceeding 9%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Ki-Beom; Moehl, Thomas; Marchioro, Arianna; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Yum, Jun-Ho; Moser, Jacques E.; Grätzel, Michael; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO2 film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (JSC) exceeding 17 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (VOC) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH3NH3)PbI3 NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO2 film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells. PMID:22912919

  9. Design approach for solar cell and battery of a persistent solar powered GPS tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Watson, Sterling M.; Pennes, Anthony; Marius Peters, Ian; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2017-08-01

    Sensors with wireless communication can be powered by photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, using solar power requires thoughtful design of the power system, as well as a careful management of the power consumption, especially for devices with cellular communication (because of their higher power consumption). A design approach can minimize system size, weight, and/or cost, while maximizing device performance (data transmission rate and persistence). In this contribution, we describe our design approach for a small form-factor, solar-powered GPS tracker with cellular communication. We evaluate the power consumption of the device in different stages of operation. Combining measured power consumption and the calculated energy-yield of a solar cell, we estimate the battery capacity and solar cell area required for 5 years of continuous operation. We evaluate trade-offs between PV and battery size by simulating the battery state of charge. The data show a trade-off between battery capacity and solar-cell area for given target data transmission rate and persistence. We use this analysis to determine the combination of solar panel area and battery capacity for a given application and the data transmission rate that results in minimum cost or total weight of the system.

  10. Rancang Bangun Solar Tracker Berbasis Mikrokontroler Atmega8535 Dengan Sensor Ldr Dan Penampil Lcd

    OpenAIRE

    Syafrialdi, Roni; -, Wildian

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to design a solar tracker using a four-quadrant LDR that used for sensing the position of the sun. Solar tracker is the tools used to follow the direction of motion of the sun. The electronic circuits consisting of a power supply circuit, microcontroller ATmega8535 and LCD circuit, stepper motor driver circuit and LDR sensor circuit. The mechanical design using dual axis with stepper motor as an actuator to position the solar cell tilted appropriately to face the sun direct...

  11. Adaptive sensor-based ultra-high accuracy solar concentrator tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jordyn; Hassanzadeh, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Conventional solar trackers use information of the sun's position, either by direct sensing or by GPS. Our method uses the shading of the receiver. This, coupled with nonimaging optics design allows us to achieve ultra-high concentration. Incorporating a sensor based shadow tracking method with a two stage concentration solar hybrid parabolic trough allows the system to maintain high concentration with acute accuracy.

  12. Camtracker: a new camera controlled high precision solar tracker system for FTIR-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new system to very precisely couple radiation of a moving source into a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectrometer is presented. The Camtracker consists of a homemade altazimuthal solar tracker, a digital camera and a homemade program to process the camera data and to control the motion of the tracker. The key idea is to evaluate the image of the radiation source on the entrance field stop of the spectrometer. We prove that the system reaches tracking accuracies of about 10 arc s for a ground-based solar absorption FTIR spectrometer, which is significantly better than current solar trackers. Moreover, due to the incorporation of a camera, the new system allows to document residual pointing errors and to point onto the solar disk center even in case of variable intensity distributions across the source due to cirrus or haze.

  13. Development of a solar tracker for photovoltaic applications; Desenvolvimento de um rastreador solar para aplicacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Daniel Rizzo; Lacerda Filho, Adilio Flauzino de; Resende, Ricardo C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: daniel.carvalho@ufv.br; Possi, Maurilio A [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao; Ferreira, Ana Paula S [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2012-11-01

    In this work are presented the design, construction and relevant results related to the production of electricity using a photovoltaic panel attached to the solar tracking mechanism. The objective was to develop a tracking device with high accuracy, reliable, low cost, high efficiency and easy operation, aiming at the possibility of residential, agricultural and industrial use of solar photovoltaic technologies with high efficiency of conversion. Was evaluated the performance of the tracker, comparing it to a fixed system and based on results analyzed, was observed a significant increase in energy production of photovoltaic panel attached to the tracking system, in relation to the fixed system the slope of the local latitude. Its performance was satisfactory, electromechanical structure requires no maintenance during the trial even when exposed to various weather conditions. The system showed great potential for application, usability and effectivity. (author)

  14. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Li; Huo, Zhipeng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang; Yang, Shangfeng; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T gel ) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J sc ) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J sc of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T gel is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated

  15. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Li [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huo, Zhipeng, E-mail: zhipenghuo@163.com [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Dai, Songyuan, E-mail: sydai@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yang, Shangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi [Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T{sub gel}) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J{sub sc} of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T{sub gel} is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated.

  16. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  17. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Efficiency enhancement of solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with Al2O3 barrier layer

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.; Trejo, Orlando; Roelofs, Katherine E.; Xu, John; Prinz, Fritz B.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow both PbS quantum dots and Al2O3 barrier layers in a solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). Barrier layers grown prior to quantum dots resulted in a near-doubling of device efficiency (0.30% to 0.57%) whereas barrier layers grown after quantum dots did not improve efficiency, indicating the importance of quantum dots in recombination processes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Single-axle, double-axis solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. W.; Lawson, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Solar concentrator tracking mechanism consisting of angular axle and two synchronized drive motors, follows seasonal as well as diurnal changes in earth's orientation with respect to incoming sunlight.

  20. Infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material into nanotubular TiO{sub 2} electrode for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmych, Oleksandr, E-mail: alexkuzmych@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Johansson, Erik M.J.; Nonomura, Kazuteru [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 259, 751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Nyberg, Tomas [The Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Skompska, Magdalena [Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Hagfeldt, Anders [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 259, 751 05 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We report infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD into pores of TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) arrays. • Surface amount of D35 is diffusion limited for TiO{sub 2} mesoporous film but not for TNTs. • Performance of liquid and solid-state solar cells based on TNTs is compared. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grown by anodic oxidation of Ti thin film deposited on conducting transparent fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate were used as a unique geometrically organized template to study the infiltration of Spiro-MeOTAD hole transporting material (HTM) inside straight pores. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) array electrode was compared with a mesoporous one in terms of loading with an organic dye of high extinction coefficient. It was shown that it is possible to build a working solid state dye sensitized solar cell device with such a combination of materials and its performance was compared with a device in which the solid state HTM was replaced by a liquid state electrolyte.

  1. Two-axis tracker for solar panels and the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Henry H.

    2013-04-16

    A tracker including an outer post having elongated bore and a lower end mounted on a sub-structure, an inner pole rotatably received in the elongated bore, a lower bearing in the bore adjacent a lower end of the outer post and attached thereto to be constrained from lateral movement and mounted on the sub-structure such that a lower end of the inner pole rests on and is supported by the lower bearing, an upper bearing near an upper end of the outer post, a circumferential drive supported on the outer post for rotating the inner pole relative to the outer post, such that substantially a full weight of a load on the inner pole is directly transmitted to the sub-structure and lateral force and torque leverage are placed on a full length of the outer post by way of the upper and lower bearing.

  2. The polymer gel electrolyte based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and its application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxun; Huang Miaoliang; Wu Jihuai; Lan Zhang; Hao Sancun; Lin Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Using poly(methyl methacrylate) as polymer host, ethylene carbonate, 1,2-propanediol carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as organic mixture solvents, sodium iodide and iodine as source of I - /I 3 - , a polymer gel electrolyte PMMA-EC/PC/DMC-NaI/I 2 with ionic conductivity of 6.89 mS cm -1 was prepared. Based on the polymer gel electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated. The quasi-solid-state DSSC possessed a good long-term stability and a light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 4.78% under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 simulated sunlight, which is almost equal to that of DSSC with a liquid electrolyte

  3. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Ahn, Kwang-Duk [Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea)

    2008-01-03

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4-tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm{sup -2}). (author)

  4. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu; Ahn, Kwang-Duk

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4- tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm -2).

  5. Digital solar edge tracker for the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. W.; Mayo, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (Haloe) elevation sun sensor is described. The Haloe instrument is a gas-correlation radiometer now being developed at NASA Langley for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned monolithic CCD. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the Haloe science instantaneous field of view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration and then to maintain the science IFOV 4 arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 700-nm operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability.

  6. Analytical synthesis for four–bar mechanisms used in a pseudo–equatorial solar tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel González Mendoza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic energy production systems generate electricity without emitting pollutants into the atmosphere and do so from a free, unlimited resource. The highest level of energy conversion from the photovoltaic panels can be obtained by placing them perpendicular to the sun’s rays falling on their surface; this is done by installing solar tracking systems. This work proposes the use of two four-bar mechanisms as the driving force for a solar tracker; we propose the use of analytical synthesis for such mechanisms. This procedure is aimed at optimising the transmission angle, increasing mechanical advantage and decreasing driving torque. A mathematical model was used to prove synthesis results and a prototype of the solar tracker was built.

  7. A solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell based on a novel ionic liquid gel and ZnO nanoparticles on a flexible polymer substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Di; Ryhanen, Tapani [Nokia Research Centre c/o Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FF, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Amaratunga, Gehan [Centre of Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Han Dongxue; Zhang Qixian; Niu Li [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, 130000 Changchun (China)], E-mail: di.wei@nokia.com

    2008-10-22

    This paper describes a new strategy to make a full solid-state, flexible, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on novel ionic liquid gel, organic dye, ZnO nanoparticles and carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film stamped onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The CNTs serve both as the charge collector and as scaffolds for the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, where the black dye molecules are anchored. It opens up the possibility of developing a continuous roll to roll processing for THE mass production of DSSCs.

  8. Room temperature solid-state synthesis of a conductive polymer for applications in stable I₂-free dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeonggwan; Koh, Jong Kwan; Kim, Jeonghun; Chi, Won Seok; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2012-11-01

    A solid-state polymerizable monomer, 2,5-dibromo-3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (DBProDOT), was synthesized at 25 °C to produce a conducting polymer, poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT). Crystallographic studies revealed a short interplane distance between DBProDOT molecules, which was responsible for polymerization at low temperature with a lower activation energy and higher exothermic reaction than 2,5-dibromo-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (DBEDOT) or its derivatives. Upon solid-state polymerization (SSP) of DBProDOT at 25 °C, PProDOT was obtained in a self-doped state with tribromide ions and an electrical conductivity of 0.05 S cm⁻¹, which is considerably higher than that of chemically-polymerized PProDOT (2×10⁻⁶ S cm⁻¹). Solid-state ¹³C NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations revealed polarons in PProDOT and a strong perturbation of carbon nuclei in thiophenes as a result of paramagnetic broadening. DBProDOT molecules deeply penetrated and polymerized to fill nanocrystalline TiO₂ pores with PProDOT, which functioned as a hole-transporting material (HTM) for I₂-free solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). With the introduction of an organized mesoporous TiO₂ (OM-TiO₂) layer, the energy conversion efficiency reached 3.5 % at 100 mW cm⁻², which was quite stable up to at least 1500 h. The cell performance and stability was attributed to the high stability of PProDOT, with the high conductivity and improved interfacial contact of the electrode/HTM resulting in reduced interfacial resistance and enhanced electron lifetime. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells from hydrophobic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerin)/polyaniline gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghua [National Defence Key Discipline Laboratory of Light Alloy Processing Science and Technology, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Tang, Qunwei, E-mail: tangqunwei@hotmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen, Haiyan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Xu, Haitao; Qin, Yuancheng [National Defence Key Discipline Laboratory of Light Alloy Processing Science and Technology, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); He, Benlin, E-mail: blhe@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Zhichao; Jin, Suyue; Chu, Lei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Shandong Province, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Hydrophobic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerin) [poly(HEMA/GR)] gel with a three-dimensional (3D) framework was successfully fabricated and employed to integrate with polyaniline (PANi). The resultant poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte exhibited interconnective porous structure for holding I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −}, giving a similar conduction mechanism and ionic conductivity to that of liquid system but a much enhanced retention of I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox couple. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, cyclic voltammograms as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to evaluate the molecular structure, crystallinity, and the electrochemical behaviors, showing that the combination of PANi with poly(HEMA/GR) caused a lower charge-transfer resistance and higher electrocatalytic activity for the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox reaction in the gel electrolyte. An efficiency of 6.63% was recorded from the quasi-solid-state DSSC assembled with the poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte at 100 mW cm{sup −2}. - Graphical abstract: A poly(HEMA/GR)/PANi gel electrolyte is synthesized through in situ polymerization of PANi in 3D framework of poly(HEMA/GR) hydrophobic hydrogel. The recorded ionic conductivity and electrochemical performances are significantly enhanced by integrating with PANi The resultant overall photo-to-electric conversion efficiency is 6.63%. The high ionic conductivity, along with good electrolyte retention ability, reasonable DSSC performance, low cost, simple and scalable synthesis procedure, and competitive cost, promises the electrolyte to find applications in quasi-solid-state DSSCs. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA/GR) was employed to combine with PANi in the 3D framework. • The conductivity and electrochemical performances were enhanced. • The conversion efficiency of the quasi-solid-state DSSC was 6.63%.

  10. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  11. Influence of ion induced local Coulomb field and polarity on charge generation and efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrusci, Agnese; Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Santosh Kumar, R. Sai; Petrozza, Annamaria [Center for Nano Science and Technology of IIT, Milano (Italy); Al-Hashimi, Mohammed; Heeney, Martin [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-08

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are a realistic option for converting light to electrical energy. Hybrid architectures offer a vast materials library for device optimization, including a variety of metal oxides, organic and inorganic sensitizers, molecular, polymeric and electrolytic hole-transporter materials. In order to further improve the efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, recent attention has focused on using light absorbing polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), to replace the more commonly used ''transparent'' 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9'spiro-bifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), in order to enhance the light absorption within thin films. As is the case with spiro-OMeTAD based solid-state DSSC, the P3HT-based devices improve significantly with the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts (Li-TFSI), although the precise role of these additives has not yet been clarified in solid-state DSCs. Here, we present a thorough study on the effect of Li-TFSI in P3HT based solid-state DSSC incorporating an indolene-based organic sensitizer termed D102. Employing ultrafast transient absorption and cw-emission spectroscopy together with electronic measurements, we demonstrate a fine tuning of the energetic landscape of the active cell components by the local Coulomb field induced by the ions. This increases the charge transfer nature of the excited state on the dye, significantly accelerating electron injection into the TiO{sub 2}. We demonstrate that this ionic influence on the excited state energy is the primary reason for enhanced charge generation with the addition of ionic additives. The deepening of the relative position of the TiO{sub 2} conduction band, which has previously been thought to be the cause for enhanced charge generation in dye sensitized solar cells with the addition of lithium salts, appears to be of minor importance in this system. (Copyright copyright

  12. TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by laser pyrolysis for the up-scaling of efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melhem, Hussein; Boucharef, Mourad; Di Bin, Catherine; Ratier, Bernard; Boucle, Johann [XLIM UMR 6172 Universite de Limoges/CNRS, Limoges Cedex (France); Simon, Pardis; Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie [IRAMIS/SPAM/LFP, CEA-CNRS URA 2453, CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Beouch, Layla; Goubard, Fabrice [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), Federation Institut des Materiaux (FD 4122), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise (France)

    2011-10-15

    A crucial issue regarding emerging nanotechnologies remains the up-scaling of new functional nanostructured materials towards their implementation in high performance applications on a large scale. In this context, we demonstrate high efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells prepared from new porous TiO{sub 2} photoanodes based on laser pyrolysis nanocrystals. This strategy exploits a reduced number of processing steps as well as non-toxic chemical compounds to demonstrate highly porous TiO{sub 2} films. The possibility to easily tune the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal physical properties allows us to demonstrate all solid-state dye-sensitized devices based on a commercial benchmark materials (organic indoline dye and molecular hole transporter) presenting state-of-the-art performance comparable with reference devices based on a commercial TiO{sub 2} paste. In particular, a drastic improvement in pore infiltration, which is found to balance a relatively lower surface area compared to the reference electrode, is evidenced using laser-synthesized nanocrystals resulting in an improved short-circuit current density under full sunlight. Transient photovoltage decay measurements suggest that charge recombination kinetics still limit device performance. However, the proposed strategy emphasizes the potentialities of the laser pyrolysis technique for up-scaling nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrodes for various applications, especially for solar energy conversion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. MgO-hybridized TiO{sub 2} interfacial layers assisting efficiency enhancement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Nobuya; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu, E-mail: miyasaka@toin.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, 1614 Kurogane-cho, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 225-8502 (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    Interfacial modification of a thin TiO{sub 2} compact layer (T-CL) by hybridization with MgO enhanced the quantum conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) comprising a multilayer structure of transparent electrode/T-CL/dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/hole conductor/metal counter electrode. The Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} treatment was employed to introduce a MgO-TiO{sub 2} CL (T/M-CL), which enhanced the physical connection and conduction between the CL and mesoporous semiconductor layer as a consecutive interface, owing to the dehydration reaction of Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}. The photocurrent density of ssDSSC was increased 33% by the T/M-CL compared with the T-CL, using an equivalent amount of adsorbed dye. The ssDSSC with the T/M-CL yielded the highest efficiency of 4.02% under irradiation at 100 mW cm{sup −2}. The electrical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge-transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) of the photoelectrode with T/M-CL was reduced by 300 Ω from the reference non-treated T-CL electrode. Characterized by the intrinsically low R{sub ct} of the compact layer, the T/M-CL is capable of improving the photovoltaic performance of solid-state sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

  14. Layer-by-Layer Formation of Block-Copolymer-Derived TiO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2011-12-15

    Morphology control on the 10 nm length scale in mesoporous TiO 2 films is crucial for the manufacture of high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells. While the combination of block-copolymer self-assembly with sol-gel chemistry yields good results for very thin films, the shrinkage during the film manufacture typically prevents the build-up of sufficiently thick layers to enable optimum solar cell operation. Here, a study on the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination is presented. The in-situ investigation of the shrinkage process enables the establishment of a simple and fast protocol for the fabrication of thicker films. When used as photoanodes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, the mesoporous networks exhibit significantly enhanced transport and collection rates compared to the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based devices. As a consequence of the increased film thickness, power conversion efficiencies above 4% are reached. Fabrication of sufficiently thick mesoporous TiO 2 photoelectrodes with morphology control on the 10 nm length scale is essential for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSC). This study of the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination enables the build-up of sufficiently thick films for high-performance ssDSC devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, E.; Ehsani, M.; Khonakdar, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I 2 as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm −1 , with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm −2 , open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm −2 ) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type electrolyte

  16. Improvement of ionic conductivity and performance of quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aram, E. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M., E-mail: m.ehsani@ippi.ac.ir [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, H.A. [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, 14965/115 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research, D-01067 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Reduced interfacial resistance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell with PEO/PMMA blend gel electrolytes. - Highlights: • A new polymer gel electrolyte containing PEO/PMMA was developed for DSSCs. • Optimization of polymer gel electrolyte was done for dye sensitized solar cell. • The best ionic conductivity was found in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. • The DSSC with the PEO/PMMA based electrolyte showed good photovoltaic performance. • Significant stability improvement for quasi-solid state DSSC was obtained. - Abstract: Polymer blend gel electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as host polymers with various weight ratios, LiI/I{sub 2} as redox couple in electrolyte and 4-tert-butyl pyridine as additive were prepared by solution method. The introduction of PMMA in the PEO gel electrolyte reduced the degree of crystallinity of PEO, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Complexation and ionic conductivity as a function of temperature were investigated with Fourier transform infrared and ionic conductometry, respectively. A good correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and ionic conductivity. The reduction in crystallinity, governed by blending ratio, led to improvement of ionic conductivity. The best ionic conductivity was attained in PEO/PMMA blend with 10/90 w/w composition. The performance of a quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cell using the optimized polymer gel electrolyte was investigated. The optimized system of high ionic conductivity of 7 mS cm{sup −1}, with fill factor of 0.59, short-circuit density of 11.11 mA cm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V and the conversion efficiency of 4.9% under air mass 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup −2}) was obtained. The long-term stability of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) during 600 h was improved by using PEO/PMMA gel electrolyte relative to a liquid type

  17. Improving the photovoltaic performance of the all-solid-state TiO2 NR/CuInS2 solar cell by hydrogen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingfeng; Niu, Wenzhe; Lou, Zirui; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhu, Liping

    2018-07-01

    The interfacial properties of the heterojunction between p-type and n-type materials play an important role in the performance of the solar cell. In this paper, a p-type CuInS2 film was deposited on TiO2 nanorod arrays by spin coating to fabricate an all-solid-state solar cell and the TiO2 nanorod arrays were treated with hydrogen plasma(H:TiO2) to ameliorate the interfacial properties. The influence of the hydrogen plasma treatment on the performance of the solar cell was investigated. The short-circuit current density was obviously raised and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell improved to 0.30%, which is three times that of solar cells without hydrogen plasma treatment. The enhancement of the performance is attributed to not only the enhancement of carrier separation and transport, but the reduction of the recombination of electrons and holes, which is caused by hydrogen plasma treatment.

  18. Improving the photovoltaic performance of the all-solid-state TiO2 NR/CuInS2 solar cell by hydrogen plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingfeng; Niu, Wenzhe; Lou, Zirui; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhu, Liping

    2018-07-06

    The interfacial properties of the heterojunction between p-type and n-type materials play an important role in the performance of the solar cell. In this paper, a p-type CuInS 2 film was deposited on TiO 2 nanorod arrays by spin coating to fabricate an all-solid-state solar cell and the TiO 2 nanorod arrays were treated with hydrogen plasma(H:TiO 2 ) to ameliorate the interfacial properties. The influence of the hydrogen plasma treatment on the performance of the solar cell was investigated. The short-circuit current density was obviously raised and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell improved to 0.30%, which is three times that of solar cells without hydrogen plasma treatment. The enhancement of the performance is attributed to not only the enhancement of carrier separation and transport, but the reduction of the recombination of electrons and holes, which is caused by hydrogen plasma treatment.

  19. Cobalt selenide hollow nanorods array with exceptionally high electrocatalytic activity for high-efficiency quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhitong; Zhang, Meirong; Wang, Min; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QSDSSCs), electron transport through a random network of catalyst in the counter electrode (CE) and electrolyte diffusion therein are limited by the grain boundaries of catalyst particles, thus diminishing the electrocatalytic performance of CE and the corresponding photovoltaic performance of QSDSSCs. We demonstrate herein an ordered Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array film as the Pt-free CE of QSDSSCs. The Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array displays excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of I3- in the quasi-solid-state electrolyte with extremely low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface, and the diffusion of redox species within the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE is pretty fast. The QSDSSC device with the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE produces much higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency (8.35%) than that (4.94%) with the Co0.85Se randomly packed nanorods CE, against the control device with the Pt CE (7.75%). Moreover, the QSDSSC device based on the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE presents good long-term stability with only 4% drop of power conversion efficiency after 1086 h one-sun soaking.

  20. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  1. Studies on reducing the thermal loads of solar-pumped solid state lasers; Taiyoko reiki laser no netsufuka teigen ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K; Yugami, H; Naito, H; Arashi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    It was intended to reduce the thermal loads of solar-pumped solid state lasers (highly densified solar light is irradiated directly onto a laser medium to cause excitation. No electric power is required for the excitation.). For this purpose, experiments were performed by using a selective permeation film. Solar light includes wavelengths not effective for excitation, which causes heat generation and thermal loads such as lens heating effect and thermal stress compounded refraction, degrading the laser beam quality. The Nd:YAG was used as a laser medium, and a multi-layered film (composed of SiO2 and TiO2) which cuts wavelength below 500 nm as a selective permeation film to cut light having wavelengths not required for excitation. A laser transmitting experiment revealed that the slope efficiency is improved by 27% as compared to not using the film. Beam fluctuation was improved to 45%. Using the selective permeation film has realized more efficient conversion of the solar light into a beam with better quality. The results for calculation of heat lens effect by using temperature distribution simulation showed good agreement with experimental values. Using the selective permeation film can suppress the maximum temperature of a laser rod to 68%, as well as the thermal stress. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Design and development of hybrid energy generator (photovoltaics) with solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Sabarudin, Mohamad Syabil Bin; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Izan Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the outcome of a small scale hybrid energy generator (hydro and photovoltaic) project. It contains the photovoltaics part of the project. The demand of energy resources is increasing day by day. That is why people nowadays tend to move on and changes their energy usage from using fossil fuels to a cleaner and green energy like hydro energy, solar energy etc. Nevertheless, energy is hard to come by for people who live in remote areas and also campsites in the remote areas which need continuous energy sources to power the facilities. Thus, the purpose of this project is to design and develop a small scale hybrid energy generator to help people that are in need of power. This main objective of this project is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of solar trackers in order to increase the electricity generation from solar energy. Software like Solidworks and Arduino is used to sketch and construct the design and also to program the microcontroller respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the designed solar tracker sytem.

  3. On-Orbit Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Star Tracker Warm Pixel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felikson, Denis; Ekinci, Matthew; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Vess, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of identification and analysis of warm pixels in two autonomous star trackers on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. A brief description of the mission orbit and attitude regimes is discussed and pertinent star tracker hardware specifications are given. Warm pixels are defined and the Quality Index parameter is introduced, which can be explained qualitatively as a manifestation of a possible warm pixel event. A description of the algorithm used to identify warm pixel candidates is given. Finally, analysis of dumps of on-orbit star tracker charge coupled devices (CCD) images is presented and an operational plan going forward is discussed. SDO, launched on February 11, 2010, is operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SDO is in a geosynchronous orbit with a 28.5 inclination. The nominal mission attitude points the spacecraft X-axis at the Sun, with the spacecraft Z-axis roughly aligned with the Solar North Pole. The spacecraft Y-axis completes the triad. In attitude, SDO moves approximately 0.04 per hour, mostly about the spacecraft Z-axis. The SDO star trackers, manufactured by Galileo Avionica, project the images of stars in their 16.4deg x 16.4deg fields-of-view onto CCD detectors consisting of 512 x 512 pixels. The trackers autonomously identify the star patterns and provide an attitude estimate. Each unit is able to track up to 9 stars. Additionally, each tracker calculates a parameter called the Quality Index, which is a measure of the quality of the attitude solution. Each pixel in the CCD measures the intensity of light and a warns pixel is defined as having a measurement consistently and significantly higher than the mean background intensity level. A warns pixel should also have lower intensity than a pixel containing a star image and will not move across the field of view as the attitude changes (as would a dim star image). It should be noted that the maximum error introduced in the star tracker

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  5. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  6. Control of interfacial charge-transfer interaction of dye and p-CuI in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Shinya; Kato, Naohiko; Higuchi, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Katsuyoshi; Toyoda, Tatsuo

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the photovoltaic and absorption characteristics of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with CuI to elucidate the impact of the interaction between the dye and CuI. For the ruthenium complex N719, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) on the longer-wavelength side decreased owing to the change of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (CT) of N719 due to the interaction between the thiocyanate groups of N719 and CuI. In contrast, when D149 — which included rhodanine groups — was used, the interaction with CuI and the resultant CT increased the IPCE. The results provide a new strategy for improving the photovoltaic performance by controlling the interfacial CT between the dye and CuI.

  7. Quasi Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Incorporating Highly Conducting Polythiophene-Coated Carbon Nanotube Composites in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polythiophene (PTh composites with the host filler multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT have been used, for the first time, in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. A quasi solid-state DSCs with the hybrid MWNT-PTh composites, an ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl imidazolium iodide (PMII, was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and higher cell efficiency (4.76% was achieved, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.29%. The MWNT-PTh nanoparticles are exploited as the extended electron transfer materials and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I−3.

  8. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  9. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  10. An efficient binary ionic liquid based quasi solid-state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junnian; Peng, Tianyou; Shi, Wenye; Li, Renjie; Xia, Jiangbin

    2013-01-01

    A novel binary ionic liquid electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) and binary ionic liquids, which is composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (BMII) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (BMISCN), is developed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that incorporation of LiTFSI as charge transfer promoter with BMII has positive effect on the interfacial charge transfer of the dye/TiO 2 film, further addition of BMISCN into the above composite electrolyte can take advantage of its low viscosity to enhance the ionic conductivity and reduce the interfacial charge transfer resistance, and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.55% is obtained from the solar cell fabricated with the optimized binary ionic liquid electrolyte without iodine participation under AM 1.5 illumination at 100 mW cm −2 , with a 108.6% improvement in the efficiency with lower resistance and higher ionic conductivity as compared to the solar cell fabricated with single BMII ionic liquid-based electrolyte. The above results should be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and the effective interfacial charge transfer in the solar cell

  11. A Novel Polymer Electrolyte Using In-situ Quanternization for All Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a mesoporous network of interconnected TiO2 nanocrystals have attracted wide-spread scientific and technological interest over the past decades due to its low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. Meantime, it also has been considered as potential alternative to conventional photovoltaic devices. In 2001, Gratzel group constructed such kind of DSSC with the conversion efficiency of more than 11%[1]. But this system uses liquid electrolyte with...

  12. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  13. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  14. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  15. Improved Composite Gel Electrolyte by Layered Vermiculite for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcai He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite quasisolid electrolyte is prepared by adding a layered vermiculite (VMT into the iodide/triiodide electrolyte including 4-tert-butylpyridine, which obviously improves the photovoltaic properties of quasisolid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. When adding 6 wt% VMT, the maximum photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.89% is obtained, which reaches more than two times greater than that without VMT. This enhancement effect is primarily explained by studying the Nyquist spectra, dark currents, and photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Function of 4- tert-Butyl Pyridine for Interface Energy Level Adjustment in Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Lindblad, Rebecka; Gabrielsson, Erik; Boschloo, Gerrit; Rensmo, Håkan; Sun, Licheng; Hagfeldt, Anders; Edvinsson, Tomas; Johansson, Erik M J

    2018-04-11

    4- tert-Butylpyridine ( t-BP) is commonly used in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) to increase the photovoltaic performance. In this report, the mechanism how t-BP functions as a favorable additive is investigated comprehensively. ssDSSCs were prepared with different concentrations of t-BP, and a clear increase in efficiency was observed up to a maximum concentration and for higher concentrations the efficiency thereafter decreases. The energy level alignment in the complete devices was measured using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The results show that the energy levels of titanium dioxide are shifted further away from the energy levels of spiro-OMeTAD as the t-BP concentration is increased. This explains the higher photovoltage obtained in the devices with higher t-BP concentration. In addition, the electron lifetime was measured for the devices and the electron lifetime was increased when adding t-BP, which can be explained by the recombination blocking effect at the surface of TiO 2 . The results from the HAXPES measurements agree with those obtained from density functional theory calculations and give an understanding of the mechanism for the improvement, which is an important step for the future development of solar cells including t-BP.

  17. Control of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by Block-Copolymer-Directed TiO2 Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo

    2010-04-21

    Hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells are typically composed of mesoporous titania (TiO2), light-harvesting dyes, and organic molecular hole-transporters. Correctly matching the electronic properties of the materials is critical to ensure efficient device operation. In this study, TiO 2 is synthesized in a welldefined morphological confinement that arises from the self-assembly of a diblock copolymer - poly(isoprene-b-ethylene oxide) (Pl-b-PEO). The crystallization environment, tuned by the inorganic (TiO2 mass) to organic (polymer) ratio, is shown to be a decisive factor in determining the distribution of sub-bandgap electronic states and the associated electronic function in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, the tuning of the sub-bandgap states does not appear to strongly influence the charge transport and recombination in the devices. However, increasing the depth and breadth of the density of sub-bandgap states correlates well with an increase in photocurrent generation, suggesting that a high density of these sub-bandgap states is critical for efficient photo-induced electron transfer and charge separation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Control of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by Block-Copolymer-Directed TiO2 Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Stefik, Morgan; Tiwana, Priti; Orilall, M. Christopher; Hü ttner, Sven; Sai, Hiroaki; Wiesner, Ulrich; Steiner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells are typically composed of mesoporous titania (TiO2), light-harvesting dyes, and organic molecular hole-transporters. Correctly matching the electronic properties of the materials is critical to ensure efficient device operation. In this study, TiO 2 is synthesized in a welldefined morphological confinement that arises from the self-assembly of a diblock copolymer - poly(isoprene-b-ethylene oxide) (Pl-b-PEO). The crystallization environment, tuned by the inorganic (TiO2 mass) to organic (polymer) ratio, is shown to be a decisive factor in determining the distribution of sub-bandgap electronic states and the associated electronic function in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, the tuning of the sub-bandgap states does not appear to strongly influence the charge transport and recombination in the devices. However, increasing the depth and breadth of the density of sub-bandgap states correlates well with an increase in photocurrent generation, suggesting that a high density of these sub-bandgap states is critical for efficient photo-induced electron transfer and charge separation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Triblock-terpolymer-directed self-assembly of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}: High-performance photoanodes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docampo, Pablo; Gunning, Robert; Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Stefik, Morgan; Wiesner, Ulrich [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Guldin, Stefan; Yufa, Nataliya A.; Steiner, Ullrich [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cai, Ning; Wang, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-06-15

    A new self-assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co-assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub-bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state-of-the-art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co-assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle-based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power-conversion efficiencies of over 5%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  1. Effects of crown ethers in nanocomposite silica-gel electrolytes on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh

    2010-04-01

    The effects of crown ethers (CEs) on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been investigated. Nanocomposite silica was used to form gel matrices in the electrolytes, which contained lithium iodide (LiI) and iodine (I2) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN) solvent. Three types of CEs, 12-crown-4 (12-C-4), 15-crown-5 (15-C-5), and 18-crown-6 (18-C-6) were used as additives to the gel electrolytes. DSSCs containing CEs showed enhancements in solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies (η), with reference to the one without them. The crown ether, 15-C-5, with a size of cavity matching with the size of Li+ in the electrolyte rendered for its DSSC the best performance with an η of 3.60%, under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, as compared to 2.44% for the cell without any CE. Enhancements in the photovoltaic parameters of the cells with the CEs were explained based on the binding abilities of the CEs with lithium ions (Li+) in the electrolyte. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectra were used to substantiate the explanations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The importance of dye chemistry and TiCl4 surface treatment in the behavior of Al2O3 recombination barrier layers deposited by atomic layer deposition in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Ding, I-Kang; Hardin, Brian E.; Nguyen, William H.; Mondal, Rajib; Bailie, Colin D.; Margulis, George Y.; Hoke, Eric T.; Sellinger, Alan; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to fabricate Al 2O 3 recombination barriers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs) employing an organic hole transport material (HTM) for the first time. Al 2O 3 recombination barriers of varying

  3. Effect of Al 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition in Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2013-03-21

    Despite the promise of quantum dots (QDs) as a light-absorbing material to replace the dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) efficiencies remain low, due in part to high rates of recombination. In this article, we demonstrate that ultrathin recombination barrier layers of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition can improve the performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole transport material. We explored depositing the Al2O3 barrier layers either before or after the QDs, resulting in TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO 2/QD/Al2O3 configurations. The effects of barrier layer configuration and thickness were tracked through current-voltage measurements of device performance and transient photovoltage measurements of electron lifetimes. The Al2O3 layers were found to suppress dark current and increase electron lifetimes with increasing Al 2O3 thickness in both configurations. For thin barrier layers, gains in open-circuit voltage and concomitant increases in efficiency were observed, although at greater thicknesses, losses in photocurrent caused net decreases in efficiency. A close comparison of the electron lifetimes in TiO2 in the TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO2/QD/Al2O3 configurations suggests that electron transfer from TiO2 to spiro-OMeTAD is a major source of recombination in ss-QDSSCs, though recombination of TiO2 electrons with oxidized QDs can also limit electron lifetimes, particularly if the regeneration of oxidized QDs is hindered by a too-thick coating of the barrier layer. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. A flexible and portable powerpack by solid-state supercapacitor and dye-sensitized solar cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Alberto; Bella, Federico; Lamberti, Andrea; Bianco, Stefano; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Tresso, Elena; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2017-08-01

    The recent need to benefit from electricity in every moment of daily life, particularly when the access to the electric grid is limited, is forcing the scientific and industrial community to an intensive effort towards the production of integrated energy harvesting and storage devices able to drive low power electronics. In this framework, flexibility represents a mandatory requirement to cover non-planar or bendable surfaces, more and more common in nowadays-electronic devices. To this purpose, here we present an innovative device consisting of a TiO2 nanotube-based dye sensitized solar cell and a graphene-based electrical double layer capacitor integrated in a flexible architecture. Both the units are obtained by easily scalable fabrication processes exploiting photopolymer membranes as electrolytes and metal grids as current collectors. The performance of the two units and of the integrated system are thoroughly investigated by electrochemical measurements also under different irradiation conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this work shows the highest energy conversion and storage efficiency (1.02%) ever attained under 1 Sun irradiation condition for a flexible dye-sensitized-based non-wired photocapacitor. Noteworthy, this value dramatically increases while lowering the illumination condition to 0.3 Sun, achieving a remarkable value of 1.46%, thus showing optimal performances in real operation conditions.

  5. Panchromatic response composed of hybrid visible-light absorbing polymers and near-IR absorbing dyes for nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Joong; Graetzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Leventis, Henry C.; Haque, Saif A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom); Torres, Tomas [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    In pursuit of panchromatic sensitizers for mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-based solid-state solar cells, a near-IR absorbing zinc phthalocyanine dye (coded TT1) was firstly adsorbed over relatively thin ({proportional_to}1 {mu}m) TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films and then a visible-light absorbing polymer [regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT] was incorporated into the mesopores as both a second sensitizer and a solid hole conductor. After optimizing some experimental parameters, these hybrid solid-state cells exhibited a clear panchromatic response, and an overall conversion efficiency of around 1% at full sun intensity. (author)

  6. Inovasi Peningkatan Efisiensi Panel Surya Berbasis Fresnel Solar Concentrator Dan Solar Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Muhammad Adhijaya; Azis, Muhammad Fadli

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country with great potential for solar energy is about 4.5 kWh per m2. However, this potential can not be fully utilized due to the efficiency of solar panels is still very low at around 16%. Various research and development of solar panels has been done in order to get a system with higher efficiency. Starting from the development of constituent materials, the selection of topology until the latest is the change construction design of the solar panels. That is a chang...

  7. TiO2 nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO2 hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe; Nam, Chang-Yong; Shi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO 2 layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO 2 nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO 2 layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO 2 precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO 2 layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO 2 blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO 2 layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime

  8. A Novel Activated-Charcoal-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Outperforming Pt Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Choi, Yun Seon; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-03-23

    Highly conductive mesoporous carbon structures based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and activated charcoal (AC) were synthesized by an enzymatic dispersion method. The synthesized carbon configuration consists of synchronized structures of highly conductive MWCNT and porous activated charcoal morphology. The proposed carbon structure was used as counter electrode (CE) for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The AC-doped MWCNT hybrid showed much enhanced electrocatalytic activity (ECA) toward polymer gel electrolyte and revealed a charge transfer resistance (RCT) of 0.60 Ω, demonstrating a fast electron transport mechanism. The exceptional electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity of the AC-doped MWCNT hybrid CE are associated with its synchronized features of high surface area and electronic conductivity, which produces higher interfacial reaction with the quasi-solid electrolyte. Morphological studies confirm the forms of amorphous and conductive 3D carbon structure with high density of CNT colloid. The excessive oxygen surface groups and defect-rich structure can entrap an excessive volume of quasi-solid electrolyte and locate multiple sites for iodide/triiodide catalytic reaction. The resultant D719 DSSC composed of this novel hybrid CE fabricated with polymer gel electrolyte demonstrated an efficiency of 10.05% with a high fill factor (83%), outperforming the Pt electrode. Such facile synthesis of CE together with low cost and sustainability supports the proposed DSSCs' structure to stand out as an efficient next-generation photovoltaic device.

  9. Efficiency-limiting processes in cyclopentadithiophene-bridged donor-acceptor-type dyes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hinkel, Felix

    2018-01-26

    The charge generation and recombination processes in three novel push-pull photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are studied by ps–μs transient absorption (TA) and quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. The three cyclopentadithiophene-based photosensitizer dye molecules exhibit comparably low power conversion efficiencies ranging from 0.8% to 1.7% in solid-state DSSCs. We find that the photocurrents increase in the presence of Li-salt additives. Both TA and PIA measurements observe long-lived dye cations created by electron injection from the dyes’ excited state for two dyes from the series. However, the third dye shows significantly lower performance as a consequence of the less efficient electron injection even after the addition of Li-salts and faster electron-hole recombination on the ns-μs time scale. In essence, the prerequisites for this class of donor-π bridge-acceptor photosensitizers to reach higher charge generation efficiencies are a combination of strong dipole moments and fine tuning of the electronic landscape at the titania-dye interface by Li-salt addition.

  10. Study of the pore filling fraction of carbazole-based hole-transporting materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Ben Manaa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbazole-based molecular glasses have emerged as a promising alternative to the widely used hole-transporting materials (HTM spiro-OMeTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The pore filling fraction (PFF of the mesoporous TiO2 layer by the HTM appears as a key parameter determining the final efficiency of a DSSC. In this work, the pore-filling properties of a family of carbazole-based HTMs are investigated for the first time and the photovoltaic behavior of DSSC devices (fabricated using the D102 dye is discussed in light of the present findings. It is found that N-aryl substituted 3,6-bis(diphenylaminyl-carbazole derivatives exhibit relatively low PFF of ca. 60%. Methoxy groups on the diphenylamine moieties have little influence on the PFF, indicating that the strong enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE is not related to an improved filling of the pores by the HTM. N-alkylated HTMs lead to higher PFF, increasing with the alkyl chain length, up to 78%.

  11. TiO{sub 2} nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO{sub 2} hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Nam, Chang-Yong, E-mail: cynam@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: Yong.Shi@stevens.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO{sub 2} layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO{sub 2} nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO{sub 2} layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO{sub 2} precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO{sub 2} layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO{sub 2} layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime.

  12. Quasi-solid state electrolyte for semi-transparent bifacial dye-sensitized solar cell with over 10% power conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Kue; Nam, Jung Eun; Jo, Hyo Jeong; Sung, Shi-Joon

    2017-09-01

    In traditional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the liquid electrolyte (LE) presents a problem for long-term stability. Herein, we demonstrate a bifacial DSSC by combining a new metal-free organic dye and a quasi-solid state electrolyte (QSSE) that contains poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP)-based polymer gel. The incident light irradiates the front side of the DSSC, and the transmitted light is reused after reflection on the back side. Owing to the semi-transparent DSSC electrode, the reflected light can penetrate and be absorbed by the dye molecules in the DSSC, thereby enhancing the short-circuit current density and thus the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE). The PCE for the DSSC device with QSSE from bifacial irradiation is 10.37%, a value that is comparable to that obtained with LE-based DSSC (9.89%). The stability of the device is enhanced when the polymer gel containing PVdF-HFP is mixed with the LE, and the effectiveness of PVdF-HFP as a gelator is attributed to its interaction with the Li+ ions. Based on our preliminary results, this architecture can lead to more stable bifacial QSSE-based DSSCs without sacrificing the photovoltaic performance.

  13. Efficiency-limiting processes in cyclopentadithiophene-bridged donor-acceptor-type dyes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hinkel, Felix; Kim, Yoojin M.; Zagraniarsky, Yulian; Schlü tter, Florian; Andrienko, Denis; Mü llen, Klaus; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2018-01-01

    The charge generation and recombination processes in three novel push-pull photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are studied by ps–μs transient absorption (TA) and quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. The three cyclopentadithiophene-based photosensitizer dye molecules exhibit comparably low power conversion efficiencies ranging from 0.8% to 1.7% in solid-state DSSCs. We find that the photocurrents increase in the presence of Li-salt additives. Both TA and PIA measurements observe long-lived dye cations created by electron injection from the dyes’ excited state for two dyes from the series. However, the third dye shows significantly lower performance as a consequence of the less efficient electron injection even after the addition of Li-salts and faster electron-hole recombination on the ns-μs time scale. In essence, the prerequisites for this class of donor-π bridge-acceptor photosensitizers to reach higher charge generation efficiencies are a combination of strong dipole moments and fine tuning of the electronic landscape at the titania-dye interface by Li-salt addition.

  14. Enhanced performance of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with aluminum nitride in its gel polymer electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh

    2011-08-01

    The effects of incorporation of aluminum nitride (AlN) in the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were studied in terms of performance of the cell. The electrolyte, consisting of lithium iodide (LiI), iodine (I2), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN), was solidified with poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP). The 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt% of AlN were added to the electrolyte for this study. XRD analysis showed a reduction of crystallinity in the polymer PVDF-HFP for all the additions of AlN. The DSSC fabricated with a GPE containing 0.1 wt% AlN showed a short-circuit current density (JSC) and power-conversion efficiency (η) of 12.92±0.54 mA/cm2 and 5.27±0.23%, respectively, at 100 mW/cm2 illumination, in contrast to the corresponding values of 11.52±0.21 mA/cm2 and 4.75±0.08% for a cell without AlN. The increases both in JSC and in η of the promoted DSSC are attributed to the higher apparent diffusion coefficient of I- in its electrolyte (3.52×10-6 cm2/s), compared to that in the electrolyte without AlN of a DSSC (2.97×10-6 cm 2/s). At-rest stability of the quasi-solid-state DSSC with 0.1 wt% of AlN was found to decrease hardly by 5% and 7% at room temperature and at 40 °C, respectively, after 1000 h duration. The DSSC with a liquid electrolyte showed a decrease of about 40% at room temperature, while it virtually lost its performance in about 150 h at 40 °C. Explanations are further substantiated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by porosity measurements. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  16. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  17. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  18. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  19. Artificial Neural Network Maximum Power Point Tracker for Solar Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodore Amissah OCRAN; CAO Junyi; CAO Binggang; SUN Xinghua

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial neural network maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for solar electric vehicles. The MPPT is based on a highly efficient boost converter with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power switch. The reference voltage for MPPT is obtained by artificial neural network (ANN) with gradient descent momentum algorithm. The tracking algorithm changes the duty-cycle of the converter so that the PV-module voltage equals the voltage corresponding to the MPPT at any given insolation, temperature, and load conditions. For fast response, the system is implemented using digital signal processor (DSP). The overall system stability is improved by including a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, which is also used to match the reference and battery voltage levels. The controller, based on the information supplied by the ANN, generates the boost converter duty-cycle. The energy obtained is used to charge the lithium ion battery stack for the solar vehicle. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed scheme is highly efficient.

  20. Two-Axis Solar Heat Collection Tracker System for Solar Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using a continuous operation two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. This heat-collection sun tracking which LDR (light dependent resistor sensors installed on the Fersnel lens was used to control the tracking path of the sun with programming method of control with a closed loop system. The control hardware was connected to a computer through Zigbee wireless module and it also can monitor the whole tracking process information on a computer screen. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. The results indicate that sun tracking systems are being increasingly employed to enhance the efficiency of heat collection by polar-axis tracking of the sun. Besides, the heating power was also measured by designed power measurement module at the different focal length of Fresnel lens, and the design of shadow mask of LDR sensors is an important factor for solar photothermal applications. Moreover, the results also indicated that the best time to obtain the largest solar irradiation power is during 11:00 –13:00  in Taiwan.

  1. TiO 2 Conduction Band Modulation with In 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-11-21

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow subnanometer indium oxide recombination barriers in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the spiro-OMeTAD hole-transport material (HTM) and the WN1 donor-π-acceptor organic dye. While optimal device performance was achieved after 3-10 ALD cycles, 15 ALD cycles (∼2 Å of In2O 3) was observed to be optimal for increasing open-circuit voltage (VOC) with an average improvement of over 100 mV, including one device with an extremely high VOC of 1.00 V. An unexpected phenomenon was observed after 15 ALD cycles: the increasing VOC trend reversed, and after 30 ALD cycles VOC dropped by over 100 mV relative to control devices without any In2O3. To explore possible causes of the nonmonotonic behavior resulting from In2O3 barrier layers, we conducted several device measurements, including transient photovoltage experiments and capacitance measurements, as well as density functional theory (DFT) studies. Our results suggest that the VOC gains observed in the first 20 ALD cycles are due to both a surface dipole that pulls up the TiO2 conduction band and recombination suppression. After 30 ALD cycles, however, both effects are reversed: the surface dipole of the In2O3 layer reverses direction, lowering the TiO 2 conduction band, and mid-bandgap states introduced by In 2O3 accelerate recombination, leading to a reduced V OC. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Influences of alcoholic solvents on spray pyrolysis deposition of TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Changyun, E-mail: jiangc@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Koh, Wei Lin; Leung, Man Yin [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Hong, Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Li, Yuning, E-mail: yuning.li@uwaterloo.ca [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zhang, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-02-15

    Influences of alcoholic solvents for titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TPA) precursor solutions on the spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} films and the photovoltaic performance of the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) using these TiO{sub 2} films as the blocking layers were investigated. Smooth TiO{sub 2} films were obtained by spray pyrolysis deposition of a TPA solution in isopropanol (IPA) at a relatively low temperature of 260 Degree-Sign C. On the other hand, when ethanol was used as solvent, the TiO{sub 2} films fabricated at the same temperature showed much rougher surfaces with many pinholes. Our results showed that ethanol reacts with TPA to form titanium diethoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TEA), which requires a higher thermal decomposition temperature than that of TPA. SDSCs with TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films fabricated using a TPA solution in IPA showed higher power conversion efficiencies with smaller variations. - Graphical abstract: Alcoholic solvents used for the TiO{sub 2} precursor play a critical role in determining the surface morphology of blocking layers and thus the photovoltaic performance of the SDSCs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent influences morphology of spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol reacts with TPA, resulting poor quality of blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isopropanol is better than ethanol for obtaining smooth blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SDSC with blocking layer made with isopropanol showed better performance.

  3. Low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 films for efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient perovskite solar cells were prepared with solid-state reaction at 75 °C. • Ln-PbI 2 is superior to c-PbI 2 when applied in low-temperature solid-state reaction. • A higher champion PCE was obtained at 75 °C (13.8%) than that of 140 °C (11.8%). • Non-radiative defects increase significantly when annealed at high temperature. - Abstract: Organohalide perovskite films are usually prepared with the solid-state reaction at a high temperature ≥100 °C, which causes the increase of non-radiative defects and decomposition of perovskite films. Here, we demonstrate it’s feasible to prepare high-quality perovskite films with the solid-state reaction method even at a temperature of 75 °C, when enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI 2 (ln-PbI 2 ) films. The replacement of compact PbI 2 (c-PbI 2 ) by ln-PbI 2 , results in a significant improvement of crystallinity of perovskite films, besides the elimination of remnant PbI 2 . As a result, ln-PbI 2 based perovskite solar cells display much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and better stability. Moreover, annealing duration was found to be critical for high PCE and was optimized as 60 min. Finally, with the optimal process, the champion device displayed a PCE of 13.8% and the average PCE reached 10.1% with a satisfactory deviation. Furthermore, we found annealing at high temperature (140 °C) led to a lower PCE compared with that annealed at 75 °C, because non-radiative defects increased significantly during high-temperature annealing. This work may open up a promising avenue for preparing high-quality perovskite films with the low-temperature solid-state reaction method, which is desirable for real application.

  4. High-Efficiency Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fast Charge Extraction through Self-Assembled 3D Fibrous Network of Crystalline TiO 2 Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2010-12-28

    Herein, we present a novel morphology for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on the simple and straightforward self-assembly of nanorods into a 3D fibrous network of fused single-crystalline anatase nanowires. This architecture offers a high roughness factor, significant light scattering, and up to several orders of magnitude faster electron transport to reach a near-record-breaking conversion efficiency of 4.9%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  6. Performance of Dual-Axis Solar Tracker versus Static Solar System by Segmented Clearness Index in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhee Fhong Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Dual-Axis Solar Tracker (DAST and Static Solar System (SSS with respect to clearness index in Malaysia is presented. An attempt to investigate the correlation between clearness index with energy gain and efficiency of DAST over SSS is being done experimentally. A good correlation could not be found out from the daily clearness index. It is due to the more profound advantage of DAST in the morning and evening compared to midday as it is able to follow the sun’s position. Hence, the daily clearness index is divided into three segments which are morning, midday, and evening to interpret the energy gain and efficiency better. A clearer correlation with low standard deviation can be observed on the segmented clearness index analysis. The energy gain and efficiency of seven cities in Malaysia is being estimated with the segmented clearness index and compared to the result generated from anisotropic radiation model. A similar trend is obtained and it has shown that the segmented clearness index could be utilized as a graphical method for estimation of energy gain and efficiency of DAST over SSS.

  7. Photovoltaic energy: environmental and economic analysis of axis solar trackers for photovoltaic installations; Energia fotovoltaica: analise economica ambiental de seguidores solares para instalacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Andrea Galvao; Bertolon, Expedito; Pacca, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades. Curso de Gestao Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    In this work we present an economic assessment photovoltaic systems using single axis and dual axis solar trackers. The analysis was carried out for the city of Sao Paulo and the results show that in comparison with fixed installations, the single axis system and the dual axis system produce respectively 19.6% and 24.7% more power. The power output of the dual axis system is 4.3% greater than the power output of the single axis system. Considering an annual discount rate of 12% and the equipment cost, the cost of the surplus energy due to the use of the single axis and the dual axis trackers was R$0.25/kWh and R$0.18/kWh. Because the average cost of electricity produced by photovoltaic modules is R$3/kWh, we recommend the installation of solar trackers. (author)

  8. Fixed-head star tracker magnitude calibration on the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitone, Daniel S.; Twambly, B. J.; Eudell, A. H.; Roberts, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivity of the fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) is defined as the accuracy of the electronic response to the magnitude of a star in the sensor field-of-view, which is measured as intensity in volts. To identify stars during attitude determination and control processes, a transformation equation is required to convert from star intensity in volts to units of magnitude and vice versa. To maintain high accuracy standards, this transformation is calibrated frequently. A sensitivity index is defined as the observed intensity in volts divided by the predicted intensity in volts; thus, the sensitivity index is a measure of the accuracy of the calibration. Using the sensitivity index, analysis is presented that compares the strengths and weaknesses of two possible transformation equations. The effect on the transformation equations of variables, such as position in the sensor field-of-view, star color, and star magnitude, is investigated. In addition, results are given that evaluate the aging process of each sensor. The results in this work can be used by future missions as an aid to employing data from star cameras as effectively as possible.

  9. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  10. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  11. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  12. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  13. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  14. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  15. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  16. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  17. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  18. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  19. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  20. Planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection collectors and an innovative compound tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Lai, Wei-Che

    2014-12-15

    This study proposed a planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection (TIR) collectors and an innovative compound tracker. The compound tracker, combining a mechanical single-axis tracker and scrollable prism sheets, can achieve a performance on a par with dual-axis tracking while reducing the cost of the tracking system and increasing its robustness. The alignment-free TIR collectors are assembled on the waveguide without requiring alignment, so the planar concentrator is relatively easily manufactured and markedly increases the feasibility for use in large concentrators. Further, the identical TIR collector is applicable to various-sized waveguide slab without requiring modification, which facilitates flexibility regarding the size of the waveguide slab. In the simulation model, the thickness of the slab was 2 mm, and its maximal length reached 6 m. With an average angular tolerance of ±0.6°, and after considering both the Fresnel loss and the angular spread of the sun, the simulation indicates that the waveguide concentrator of a 1000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 62-77% at the irradiance concentrations of 387-688, and the one of a 2000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 52-64.5% at the irradiance concentrations of 645-1148. Alternatively, if a 100-mm horizontally staggered waveguide slab is collocated with the alignment-free TIR collectors, the optical efficiency would be greatly improved up to 91.5% at an irradiance concentration of 1098 (C(geo) = 1200X).

  1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-04-07

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs.

  2. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  3. Effect of Al 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition in Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.; Brennan, Thomas P.; Dominguez, Juan C.; Bailie, Colin D.; Margulis, George Y.; Hoke, Eric T.; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the promise of quantum dots (QDs) as a light-absorbing material to replace the dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) efficiencies remain low, due in part to high rates of recombination. In this article

  4. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  5. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  6. Solid-state synthesis of ZnO and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to form p–n junction composite in the use of dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jing; Xie, Yahong, E-mail: xyh0707@163.com; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jianya

    2016-08-15

    In this study, ZnO and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures are rapidly synthesized at relatively low temperature and without any organic surfactants using an economical, simple, and environmentally friendly solid-state synthesis. Results shows that the formation of p–n heterojunction electric field at the interface between ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO is significantly effective in improving the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) by efficiently promoting the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs on the surface of semiconductor, and an enhanced light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) reaches 7.28%, which improve by 54.9% compared with that of pure ZnO based DSSCs (4.70%). - Highlights: • A ZnO–ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure was fabricated by a low-temperature solid-state method. • A p–n heterojunction electric field was successfully formed at the interface between ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO. • The p–n heterojunction could effectively promote the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. • The power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs improved by 54.9% compared with that of pure ZnO based DSSCs (4.70%).

  7. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-09-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand-alone solar-powered LED lighting systems. The field test in the particular days shows that the 1A-3P tracking PV can generate 35.8% more electricity than the fixed PV in a partly-cloudy weather with daily-total solar irradiation HT=11.7MJ/m2day, or 35.6% in clear weather with HT=18.5MJ/m2day. This indicates that the present 1A-3P tracking PV can perform very close to a dual-axis continuous tracking PV (Kacira et al., 2004). The long-term outdoor test results have shown that the increase of daily power generation of 1A-3P tracking PV increases with increasing daily-total solar irradiation. The increase of monthly-total power generation for 1A-3P sun tracking PV is between 18.5-28.0%. The total power generation increase in the test period from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, is 23.6% in Taipei (an area of low solar energy resource). The long-term performance of the present 1X-3P tracking PV is shown very close to the 1-axis continuous tracking PV in Taiwan (Chang, 2009). If the 1A-3P tracking PV is used in the area of high solar energy resource with yearly-average HT>17MJ/m2day, the increase of total long-term power generation with respect to fixed PV will be higher than 37.5%. This is very close to that of dual-axis continuous tracking PV. The 1A-3P tracker can be easily mounted on the wall of a building. The cost of the whole tracker is about the same as the regular mounting cost of a conventional rooftop PV system. This means that there is no extra cost for 1A-3P PV mounted on buildings. The 1A-3P PV is quite suitable for building-integrated applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  9. Component Energy Efficiencies in a Novel Linear to Rotary Motion Inter-conversion Hydro-mechanism Running a Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Eliab Kanyarusoke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism interconverting linear and rotary motion was investigated for energy transfers among its components. It employed a gear-rack set, a Hooke coupling and a specially designed bladder-valve system that regulated the motion. The purpose was to estimate individual component mechanical efficiencies as they existed in the prototype so that future reengineering of the mechanism could be properly targeted. Theoretical modelling of the mechanism was first done to obtain equations for efficiencies of the key components. Two-stage experimentation followed when running a solar tracker. The first stage produced data for inputting into the model to determine the efficiencies’ theoretical variation with the Hooke coupling shaft angle. The second one verified results of the Engineering Equation Solver (EES software solutions of the model. It was found that the energy transfer to focus on was that between the Hooke coupling and the output shaft because its efficiency was below 4%

  10. Effects of crown ethers in nanocomposite silica-gel electrolytes on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Vittal, R.; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    I) and iodine (I2) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN) solvent. Three types of CEs, 12-crown-4 (12-C-4), 15-crown-5 (15-C-5), and 18-crown-6 (18-C-6) were used as additives to the gel electrolytes. DSSCs containing CEs showed enhancements in solar

  11. Layer-by-Layer Formation of Block-Copolymer-Derived TiO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan; Docampo, Pablo; Stefik, Morgan; Kamita, Gen; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2011-01-01

    Morphology control on the 10 nm length scale in mesoporous TiO 2 films is crucial for the manufacture of high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells. While the combination of block-copolymer self-assembly with sol-gel chemistry yields good results

  12. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  13. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  14. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  15. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  16. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  17. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  18. Tris(2-(1 H -pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) as p-Type Dopant for Organic Semiconductors and Its Application in Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burschka, Julian

    2011-11-16

    Chemical doping is an important strategy to alter the charge-transport properties of both molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors that find widespread application in organic electronic devices. We report on the use of a new class of Co(III) complexes as p-type dopants for triarylamine-based hole conductors such as spiro-MeOTAD and their application in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). We show that the proposed compounds fulfill the requirements for this application and that the discussed strategy is promising for tuning the conductivity of spiro-MeOTAD in ssDSCs, without having to rely on the commonly employed photo-doping. By using a recently developed high molar extinction coefficient organic D-π-A sensitizer and p-doped spiro-MeOTAD as hole conductor, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 7.2%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm -2). We expect these promising new dopants to find widespread applications in organic electronics in general and photovoltaics in particular. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Triblock-Terpolymer-Directed Self-Assembly of Mesoporous TiO2: High-Performance Photoanodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo

    2012-04-30

    A new self-assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO 2 films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene - b - styrene - b - ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co-assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solidstate dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub-bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state-of-the-art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co-assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle-based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power-conversion efficiencies of over 5%. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Triblock-Terpolymer-Directed Self-Assembly of Mesoporous TiO2: High-Performance Photoanodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo; Stefik, Morgan; Guldin, Stefan; Gunning, Robert; Yufa, Nataliya A.; Cai, Ning; Wang, Peng; Steiner, Ullrich; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2012-01-01

    A new self-assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO 2 films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene - b - styrene - b - ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co-assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solidstate dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub-bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state-of-the-art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co-assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle-based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power-conversion efficiencies of over 5%. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Solid state perovskite solar modules by vacuum-vapor assisted sequential deposition on Nd:YVO_4 laser patterned rutile TiO_2 nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakharuddin, Azhar; Wali, Qamar; Rauf, Muhammad; Jose, Rajan; Palma, Alessandro L; Giacomo, Francesco Di; Casaluci, Simone; Matteocci, Fabio; Carlo, Aldo Di; Brown, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed remarkable progress in solution-processed methylammonium lead halide (CH_3NH_3PbX_3, X = halide) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with reported photoconversion efficiency (η) exceeding 20% in laboratory-scale devices and reaching up to 13% in their large area perovskite solar modules (PSMs). These devices mostly employ mesoporous TiO_2 nanoparticles (NPs) as an electron transport layer (ETL) which provides a scaffold on which the perovskite semiconductor can grow. However, limitations exist which are due to trap-limited electron transport and non-complete pore filling. Herein, we have employed TiO_2 nanorods (NRs), a material offering a two-fold higher electronic mobility and higher pore-filing compared to their particle analogues, as an ETL. A crucial issue in NRs’ patterning over substrates is resolved by using precise Nd:YVO_4 laser ablation, and a champion device with η ∼ 8.1% is reported via a simple and low cost vacuum-vapor assisted sequential processing (V-VASP) of a CH_3NH_3PbI_3 film. Our experiments showed a successful demonstration of NRs-based PSMs via the V-VASP technique which can be applied to fabricate large area modules with a pin-hole free, smooth and dense perovskite layer which is required to build high efficiency devices. (paper)

  2. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  3. Particles Size and Conductivity Study of P-Type Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) Thin Film for Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainun, A R; Mamat, M H; Noor, U M; Rusop, M

    2011-01-01

    Copper Iodide based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has been reported either deliver small photocurrents or highly unstable. In this research, by added in a small amount of Tetra-methyl-ethylene-diamine (TMED) into CuI sol-gel (CuI in acetonitrile), performance of electrical properties and optical properties of CuI based DSSC have been studied. Particles size and conductivity of CuI solution were measured when addition of TMED to the sol at 0.05M concentrations. Spin-coating technique has been explored to prepare nano-crystalline CuI films at room temperature. The film was examined for their surface morphology, optical and electrical properties by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The results were then compared with CuI sol-gel which prepared by dissolving CuI powder with acetonitrile only. It showed some improvement to the CuI-based DSSC by incorporation of a small quantity of TMED in the solution of precursor.

  4. Particle size and conductivity study of P-type copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin film for solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayib Rosdi Zainun; Mohd Hafiz Mamat; Rusop, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Copper Iodide based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has been reported either deliver small photocurrents or highly unstable. In this research, by added in a small amount of Tetra-methyl-ethylene-diamine (TMED) into CuI sol-gel (CuI in acetonitrile), performance of electrical properties and optical properties of CuI based DSSC have been studied. Particles size and conductivity of CuI solution were measured when addition of TMED to the sol at 0.05 M concentrations. Spin-coating technique has been explored to prepare nano-crystalline CuI films at room temperature. The film was examined for their surface morphology, optical and electrical properties by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The results were then compared with CuI sol-gel which prepared by dissolving CuI powder with acetonitrile only. It showed some improvement to the CuI-based DSSC by incorporation of a small quantity of TMED in the solution of precursor. (author)

  5. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  6. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  7. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  8. SOLAR LIMB PROMINENCE CATCHER AND TRACKER (SLIPCAT): AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM AND ITS PRELIMINARY STATISTICAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuming; Cao Hao; Chen Junhong; Zhang Tengfei; Yu Sijie; Zheng Huinan; Shen Chenglong; Wang, S.; Zhang Jie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automated system, which has the capability to catch and track solar limb prominences based on observations from the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) 304 A passband. The characteristic parameters and their evolution, including height, position angle, area, length, and brightness, are obtained without manual interventions. By applying the system to the STEREO-B/SECCHI/EUVI 304 A data during 2007 April-2009 October, we obtain a total of 9477 well-tracked prominences and a catalog of these events available online. A detailed analysis of these prominences suggests that the system has a rather good performance. We have obtained several interesting statistical results based on the catalog. Most prominences appear below the latitude of 60 0 and at the height of about 26 Mm above the solar surface. Most of them are quite stable during the period they are tracked. Nevertheless, some prominences have an upward speed of more than 100 km s -1 , and some others show significant downward and/or azimuthal speeds. There are strong correlations among the brightness, area, and height. The expansion of a prominence is probably one major cause of its fading during the rising or erupting process.

  9. Natural pigment sensitized solar cells based on ZnO-TiO2-Fe2O3 nanocomposite in quasi-solid state electrolyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mebrahtu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of Zn-Ti-Fe oxide using zinc as a host with different ratios of precursor salts were prepared by co-precipitation method to use as semiconductors for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. DSSCs based on the new semiconductors and di-tetrabutylammoniumcis-bis(isothiocyanatobis(2,2’-bipyridyl-4,4’-dicarboxylato-ruthenium(II (N719 dye has been constructed and characterized. Stability towards dissolution of deposited films of semiconductors in the acidic dye and conversion efficiency was obtained in the order of: ZnO(100%

  10. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  11. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  12. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  13. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  14. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  15. Enhancement of efficiency by embedding ZnS and Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles in P3HT:PCBM hybrid solid state solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Badshah, Amin; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to find particle size while chemical composition of the synthesized materials was investigated by EDAX. UV-visible absorption spectrum of Mn-doped ZnS was slightly shifted to lower wavelength with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide with decrease in the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.04 to 3.13 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) emission positioned at 597 nm was ascribed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition within the 3d shell of Mn2+. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the synthesized nanomaterials existed in cubic crystalline state. The effect of embedding un-doped and doped ZnS nanoparticles in the active layer and changing the ratio of PCBM ([6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) to nanoparticles on the performance of hybrid solar cell was studied. The device with active layer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and un-doped ZnS nanoparticles combined in the ratio of (1:0.5:0.5) attained an efficiency of 2.42% which was found 71% higher than the reference device under the same conditions but not containing nanoparticles. Replacing ZnS nanoparticles with Mn-doped ZnS had a little effect on the enhancement of efficiency. The packing behavior and morphology of blend of nanoparticles with P3HT:PCBM were examined using atomic force microscope (AFM) and XRD. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  16. The use of carbon black-TiO2 composite prepared using solid state method as counter electrode and E. conferta as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hidayani; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Ain, Mohd Fadzil

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, counter electrodes based on carbon black (CB)-TiO2 composite are proposed as a cost-effective alternative to conventional Pt counter electrodes used in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. CB-TiO2 composite counter electrodes with different weight percentages of CB were prepared using the solid state method and coated onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using doctor blade method while Eleiodoxa conferta (E. conferta) and Nb-doped TiO2 were used as sensitizer and photoanode, respectively, with electrolyte containing I-/I-3 redox couple. The experimental results revealed that the CB-TiO2 composite influenced the photovoltaic performance by enhancing the electrocatalytic activity. As the amount of CB increased, the catalytic activity improved due to the increase in surface area which then led to low charge-transfer resistance (RCT) at the electrolyte/CB electrode interface. Due to the use of the modified photoanode together with natural dye sensitizers, the counter electrode based on 15 wt% CB-TiO2 composite was able to produce the highest energy conversion efficiency (2.5%) making it a viable alternative counter electrode.

  17. Growth of a sea urchin-like rutile TiO2 hierarchical microsphere film on Ti foil for a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ri, Jin Hyok; Wu, Shufang; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2017-11-30

    A sea urchin-like rutile TiO 2 microsphere (RMS) film was fabricated on Ti foil via a hydrothermal process. The resulting rutile TiO 2 hierarchical microspheres with a diameter of 5-6 μm are composed of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1-2 μm. The sea urchin-like hierarchical structure leads to the Ti foil-based RMS film possessing much better light-scattering capability in the visible region than the bare Ti foil. By using it as an underlayer of a nanosized anatase TiO 2 film (bTPP3) derived from a commercially available paste (TPP3), the corresponding bilayer Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) only gives a conversion efficiency of 4.05%, much lower than the single bTPP3 film-based one on Ti foil (5.97%). By spin-coating a diluted TPP3 paste (sTPP3) on the RMS film prior to scraping the bTPP3 film, the resulting RMS/sTPP3/bTPP3 film-based DSSC achieves a significantly enhanced efficiency (7.27%). The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) show that the RMS/sTPP3/bTPP3 film possesses better electron transport capability and longer electron lifetime than the bTPP3 film. This work not only provides the first example of directly growing rutile TiO 2 hierarchically structured microsphere film on Ti foil suitable for replacing the rigid, heavy and expensive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass substrate to serve as a light-scattering underlayer of Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state DSSCs, but also paves a new route to develop Ti foil-based flexible DSSCs with high efficiency, low cost and a wide application field through optimizing the composition and structure of the photoanode.

  18. Combination of short-length TiO_2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO_2 nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO_2 nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO_2 nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO_2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open

  19. Combination of short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengguo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan 750021 (China); Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion

  20. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  1. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  2. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  3. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  4. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  5. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  6. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  7. Effect of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the electron transport and recombination kinetics in ionic gel electrolytes based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Tao, Li; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A series of novel IGEs based on 12-hydroxystearicacid as LMOG were prepared. •The QS-DSSCs exhibit excellent stability during the accelerated aging tests. •The influence of Im + alkyl chain length on the electron kinetic process is investigated. -- Abstract: A series of stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs) are prepared by the 12-hydroxystearicacid as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to gelate the ionic liquid with different alkyl chain lengths (3, 4, and 7). The influence of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations (Im + ) on the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination are investigated by Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). It is found that the ionic gel electrolytes (IGEs) with different alkyl chain lengths of Im + can influence the competitive adsorption effects of imidazolium cations (Im + ) and Li + , and further affect the charge diffusion, the electron recombination/transport processes, the shift of TiO 2 conduction band edge and surface states distribution. The IGE with longer alkyl chain length of Im + can prolong the electron recombination lifetime, promote the incidental photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and the short circuit photocurrent density (J sc ). An excellent QS-DSSC based on the IGE with the longer alkyl chain of Im + gives the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency. Moreover, all the QS-DSSCs based on IGEs exhibit excellent durability without losing their photovoltaic performances during the accelerated thermal and light–soaking test. These results are very important to the researches on the electrochemical mechanism and application of QS-DSSCs based on IGEs

  8. The importance of dye chemistry and TiCl4 surface treatment in the behavior of Al2O3 recombination barrier layers deposited by atomic layer deposition in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to fabricate Al 2O 3 recombination barriers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs) employing an organic hole transport material (HTM) for the first time. Al 2O 3 recombination barriers of varying thickness were incorporated into efficient ss-DSSCs utilizing the Z907 dye adsorbed onto a 2 μm-thick nanoporous TiO 2 active layer and the HTM spiro-OMeTAD. The impact of Al 2O 3 barriers was also studied in devices employing different dyes, with increased active layer thicknesses, and with substrates that did not undergo the TiCl 4 surface treatment. In all instances, electron lifetimes (as determined by transient photovoltage measurements) increased and dark current was suppressed after Al 2O 3 deposition. However, only when the TiCl 4 treatment was eliminated did device efficiency increase; in all other instances efficiency decreased due to a drop in short-circuit current. These results are attributed in the former case to the similar effects of Al 2O 3 ALD and the TiCl 4 surface treatment whereas the insulating properties of Al 2O 3 hinder charge injection and lead to current loss in TiCl 4-treated devices. The impact of Al 2O 3 barrier layers was unaffected by doubling the active layer thickness or using an alternative ruthenium dye, but a metal-free donor-π-acceptor dye exhibited a much smaller decrease in current due to its higher excited state energy. We develop a model employing prior research on Al 2O 3 growth and dye kinetics that successfully predicts the reduction in device current as a function of ALD cycles and is extendable to different dye-barrier systems. © This journal is the Owner Societies 2012.

  9. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  10. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  11. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  12. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  13. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  14. Rendezvous and docking tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Art J.; Ross, Susan E.; Deming, Douglas R.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual solid-state rendezvous and docking tracker (RDT) has been devised for generating range and attitude data for a docking vehicle relative to a target vehicle. Emphasis is placed on the approach of the Orbiter to a link with the Space Station. Three laser illuminators ring the optical axis of the lens a directed toward retroreflectors on the target vehicle. Each retroreflector is equipped with a bandpass filter for a designated illumination frequency. Data are collected sequentially over a 20 deg field of view as the range closes to 100-1000 m. A fourth ranging retroreflector 0.3 m from center is employed during close-in maneuvers. The system provides tracking data on motions with 6 deg of freedom, and furnishes 500 msec updates (to be enhanced to 100 msec) to the operator at a computer console.

  15. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. On 21 March 2007, the integration of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker was completed with the successful integration of TEC- into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). Since then ~25% of the complete Tracker Systems has been commission at the TIF at both room temperature and operating temperature (-100 C), and the Tracker Community has gained very valuable experience in operating, calibrating and aligning the Tracker at the TIF before it is prepared for transportation to P5 in July 2007. The CMS Pixel System continues to make good progress. Module and Plaquette production is very well advanced. The first 25% of the Forward Pixel detector (Fpix) was delivered to CERN in April and the second 25% will shipped to CERN on 19 ...

  16. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill.

    The clear highlight of recent months was switching on the Tracker to capture the first LHC collisions with 450GeV beams. This was during the first trial run of the LHC on 23rd November. On that day, the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) was powered and the detector performance was excellent, in accord with our expectations. Since then, the full Tracker, strips and pixels, has been powered up during “quiet” beam periods when there was judged to be little risk of damage due to sudden beam losses. All Tracker systems performed very well, considering the beam and trigger conditions in place, and we now eagerly anticipate the first collisions with stable beams. Besides this very intense and exciting recent period there has been a lot of other activity in the last 6 months. The full Tracker participated in CRAFT09 and operations of all systems went very smoothly for both pixels and strips, validating all the meticulous work that had taking place during the long shutdown, the subsequent re-commissionin...

  17. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Karl Gill

    A series of important milestones have been passed during the last 3 months. With the delivery of refurbished cooling systems, pixels and strip systems have been brought back into operation after long shutdowns. Pixels has been operating since reinsertion of FPIX in April, and has been running at 4°C since May 16 when the bulkhead thermal screen was commissioned. More recently, on June 10 the Strip Tracker was powered up in its entirety, with cooling fluid circulating at 4°C, allowing commissioning of the Strip Tracker to proceed at full speed. The full Tracker is well on course to be ready for CRAFT, with Strip Tracker readout operation in ‘peak’ mode remaining also on track to be ready for beam operations in the Autumn in ‘deconvolution’ readout mode. The main Tracker activity during the shutdown was the cooling plant refurbishment for Strips and Pixels systems. The objectives were to reduce the serious leaks observed in 2008 and improve the longevity...

  18. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  19. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  20. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  1. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    K. Gill

    During the winter shutdown several parts of the Tracker system are undergoing maintenance, revision or upgrade. The main items are the revision of the strips and pixels cooling plants, removal and maintenance of FPIX, sealing of Tracker patch-panels and the bulkhead, integration of strips and pixels DCS, and further development of the DAQ, Online and commissioning software and firmware. The revision of the cooling system involves the complete replacement of the tanks, distribution lines, valves and manifolds on the SS1 and SS2 strip tracker (182 circuits) and pixels (36 circuits) cooling plants. The objectives are to eliminate the large leaks experienced during 2008 operations and to assure the long-term reliability of the cooling systems. Additional instrumentation is being added to provide more detailed monitoring of the performance of the cooling system. This work is proceeding smoothly under close supervision. Procurements are almost completed and the quality of delivered parts and the subsequent assembl...

  2. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  3. 1480 W Plts Solar Power Plant Architecture With Solar Tracker For Controlling Microcontroller-Based Solar Panel In Tigaraja Village Sub-District Of Tigadolok Regency Of Simalungun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Samosir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy has become a basic need for human being. In some remote areas however electricity is unreachable and poses a taboo subject and cannot be enjoyed by local people such as in Tigaraja Village Sub-District of Tigadolok Regency of Simalungun. The sun is a renewable energy that it is beneficial for power plant use. With PLTS solar energy can be changed into the sun through the solar panel. Battery Charge Regulator BCR operates stabilizing voltage from solar panel to battery. The battery will save electrical power to be distributed for household consumption. Since battery power has direct current however Inverter operates changing its direct current into alternating current. To optimize absorption of solar energy a servo motor is used to make solar panel moving by following the suns path. Arduino Uno as direct control of solar panel using solar sensor gives current for servo motor. Then the servo motor can move in reverse and forward. Therefore Household goods like water pumps lamps and televisions have been worked when people come home from their work.

  4. Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymer templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajkumar; Jung, Ye Eun; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr

    2014-02-03

    An amphiphilic graft copolymer, poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG), consisting of a PEAA backbone and PEG side chains was synthesized via an esterification reaction. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transformed infrared analysis demonstrated esterification between carboxylic acid of PEAA and hydroxyl group of PEG. Small angle X-ray scattering results revealed that the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA increased from 11.3 to 12.8 nm upon using a more polar solvent with a higher affinity for poly(acrylic acid), while the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA disappeared with PEG grafting, indicating structural change to an amorphous state. Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized via a sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG graft copolymer as a structure-directing agent. The hydrophilically-preformed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were selectively confined in the hydrophilic PEG domains of the graft copolymer, and mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films were formed, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of TiO{sub 2} films was tunable by varying the concentrations of polymer solutions and the amount of preformed TiO{sub 2}. A quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with PEAA-g-PEG templated TiO{sub 2} film exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 3.8% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which was greater than that of commercially-available paste (2.6%) at a similar film thickness (3 μm). The improved performance was due to the larger surface area for high dye loading and organized structure with good interconnectivity. - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG) graft copolymer is synthesized. • Amphiphilic PEAA-g-PEG acts as a structure directing agent. • Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films are prepared by sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG template. • Efficiency of DSSC with templated TiO{sub 2} is greater than with commercial TiO{sub 2} paste.

  5. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  6. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  7. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  8. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  9. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  10. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  11. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  12. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  13. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  14. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  15. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  16. Low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI{sub 2} films for efficient CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Huifeng [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Yangqiao, E-mail: yqliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Suzhou Institute of SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), 238 North Changchun Road, Taicang 215499, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Jing, E-mail: jingsun@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Efficient perovskite solar cells were prepared with solid-state reaction at 75 °C. • Ln-PbI{sub 2} is superior to c-PbI{sub 2} when applied in low-temperature solid-state reaction. • A higher champion PCE was obtained at 75 °C (13.8%) than that of 140 °C (11.8%). • Non-radiative defects increase significantly when annealed at high temperature. - Abstract: Organohalide perovskite films are usually prepared with the solid-state reaction at a high temperature ≥100 °C, which causes the increase of non-radiative defects and decomposition of perovskite films. Here, we demonstrate it’s feasible to prepare high-quality perovskite films with the solid-state reaction method even at a temperature of 75 °C, when enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI{sub 2} (ln-PbI{sub 2}) films. The replacement of compact PbI{sub 2} (c-PbI{sub 2}) by ln-PbI{sub 2}, results in a significant improvement of crystallinity of perovskite films, besides the elimination of remnant PbI{sub 2}. As a result, ln-PbI{sub 2} based perovskite solar cells display much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and better stability. Moreover, annealing duration was found to be critical for high PCE and was optimized as 60 min. Finally, with the optimal process, the champion device displayed a PCE of 13.8% and the average PCE reached 10.1% with a satisfactory deviation. Furthermore, we found annealing at high temperature (140 °C) led to a lower PCE compared with that annealed at 75 °C, because non-radiative defects increased significantly during high-temperature annealing. This work may open up a promising avenue for preparing high-quality perovskite films with the low-temperature solid-state reaction method, which is desirable for real application.

  17. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  18. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort

  19. INNER TRACKER

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sharp

    In March the Silicon Strip Detector had been successfully connected to the PP1 patch panels on the CMS Cryostat, and every thing had been prepared to check out the Tracker and commission it with CMS with the ambition of joining the CMS Global Cosmic Run in April.  There followed serious problems with the cooling plant which through tremendous effort have been overcome and recently allowed commissioning of the tracker to proceed. In November 2007 there had been a failure of the heat exchanger in one of the seven cooling plants in the UXC cavern. After an analysis of the failure it was decided to replace this heat exchanger with a well-proven commercial heat exchanger and to re-commission the system. Re-commissioning the system proved to be more difficult than anticipated as on May 8 there was a second failure of a heat exchanger, in the main chiller plant in the USC service cavern. The analysis of the failure showed it was very similar to the previous failure. It was decided to replace all the heat ...

  20. A New Fuzzy-Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for a Solar Panel Based on Datasheet Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kargarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking maximum power point of a solar panel is of interest in most of photovoltaic applications. Solar panel modeling is also very interesting exclusively based on manufacturers data. Knowing that the manufacturers generally give the electrical specifications of their products at one operating condition, there are so many cases in which the specifications in other conditions are of interest. In this research, a comprehensive one-diode model for a solar panel with maximum obtainable accuracy is fully developed only based on datasheet values. The model parameters dependencies on environmental conditions are taken into consideration as much as possible. Comparison between real data and simulations results shows that the proposed model has maximum obtainable accuracy. Then a new fuzzy-based controller to track the maximum power point of the solar panel is also proposed which has better response from speed, accuracy and stability point of view respect to the previous common developed one.

  1. Formation of doubly and triply bonded unsaturated compounds HCN, HNC, and CH2NH via N + CH4 low-temperature solid state reaction: from molecular clouds to solar system objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencos, Alejandro; Krim, Lahouari

    2018-06-01

    We show in the current study carried out in solid phase at cryogenic temperatures that methane (CH4) ice exposed to nitrogen atoms is a source of two acids HCN, HNC, and their corresponding hydrogenated unsaturated species CH2NH, in addition to CH3, C2H6, CN-, and three nitrogen hydrides NH, NH2, and NH3. The solid state N + CH4 reaction taken in the ground state seems to be strongly temperature dependent. While at temperatures lower than 10 K only CH3, NH, NH2, and NH3 species formation is promoted due to CH bond dissociation and NH bond formation, stable compounds with CN bonds are formed at temperatures ranged between 10 and 40 K. Many of these reaction products, resulting from CH4 + N reaction, have already been observed in N2-rich regions such as the atmospheres of Titan, Kuiper belt objects, and molecular clouds of the interstellar medium. Our results show the power of the solid state N-atom chemistry in the transformation of simple astrochemical relevant species, such as CH4 molecules and N atoms into complex organic molecules which are also potentially prebiotic species.

  2. Solar tracker motor having a fixed caliper and a translating caliper each with an electromagnetic brake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Scott James

    2013-01-29

    Concepts and technologies described herein provide for an accurate and cost-effective method for rotating a solar array disk for tracking the movement of the sun. According to various aspects, a motor includes a fixed caliper and a translating caliper positioned adjacent to one another. Electromagnetically controlled brakes on the translating caliper grip the solar array disk while adjacent, but spaced apart, electromagnets on the fixed caliper and the translating caliper are energized to create an attractive force that pulls the translating caliper with the solar array disk toward the fixed caliper. After reaching the fixed caliper, brakes on the fixed caliper are engaged with the disk, brakes on the translating caliper are released from the disk, and the translating caliper is pushed back to the starting location where the process repeats until the desired rotation is completed.

  3. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  4. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  5. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  6. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  7. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  8. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  9. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  10. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  11. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  12. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Ding, W.L.; Huang, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand

  13. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  14. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  15. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  16. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  17. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  18. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  19. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  20. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  1. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Kongyin; Tang Baoyin; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Langping; Wang Songyan; Wu Hongchen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 μs waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  4. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  5. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  6. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  7. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  8. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  9. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  10. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  11. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  12. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  13. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  14. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  15. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  16. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  17. Solid State nuclear track detector - [Part] III : applications in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Nand

    1992-01-01

    The present article describes the applications of solid state nuclear track detection techniques in different branches of science (e.g. life sciences, nuclear physics, cosmic ray and solar physics, earth sciences, teaching laboratories) and technology with selected examples from voluminous literature available on the subject. (author). 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  19. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  20. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  1. Applications of solid state ionics for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G.

    1988-09-01

    An overview is presented of solid state battery systems, especially those based on inorganic materials such as AgI, CuI and LiI. Emphasis is focussed on the structural and other modifications that are required to produce room temperature, compacted powder electrolytes with enhanced conductivity. The implications for primary batteries of discharge-induced changes of the local structure surrounding the mobile species are considered with reference to cuprous electrolytes. The use of these materials for other applications is discussed.

  2. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  3. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300 0 C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO 4 :Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot-pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150 0 C prior to first use dosimeters

  4. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  5. Solid State Research, 1980:4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Fetterman G. A. Koepf* P. F. Goldsmith6 B.J. Clifton D. Buhl* N. R. Eriekson" D.D. Peck N. McAvoy* P. F. Tannenwald Accepted by Science St40... Fetterman 22 **** -^m^m-i^jm^ -«%, j». ■*** REFERENCES 1. Solid State Research Report, Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (1980:2), pp. 11-12. DTK? AD-A092724...17. M.G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, and J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2304(1979). - 18. W. A.M. Blumberg, U.R. Fetterman , D.D. Peck, and P.F

  6. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  8. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  9. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  10. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  11. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  12. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  13. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  14. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  15. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  16. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  17. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  18. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  19. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  20. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  1. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  2. Kinetic study of solid-state processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Jiri; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for kinetic analysis of solid-state processes has been developed and the criteria capable of classifying different processes are explored. They provide a useful tool for the determination of the most suitable kinetic model. The method has been applied to the analysis of calorimetric data corresponding to the crystallization processes in amorphous ZrO 2 . It is found that the crystallization kinetics of amorphous powder sample exhibits a complex behavior under non-isothermal conditions. A two-parameter model provides a satisfactory description of the crystallization process for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. This enables better control of crystallization extent in fine ZrO 2 powders that is important for preparation of zirconia ceramics with defined properties. (author)

  3. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  4. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  5. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  6. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  7. Optical model and calibration of a sun tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Sergei N.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2016-01-01

    Sun trackers are widely used to investigate scattering and absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. We present a method for optimization of the optical altazimuth sun tracker model with output radiation direction aligned with the axis of a stationary spectrometer. The method solves the problem of stability loss in tracker pointing at the Sun near the zenith. An optimal method for tracker calibration at the measurement site is proposed in the present work. A method of moving calibration is suggested for mobile applications in the presence of large temperature differences and errors in the alignment of the optical system of the tracker. - Highlights: • We present an optimal optical sun tracker model for atmospheric spectroscopy. • The problem of loss of stability of tracker pointing at the Sun has been solved. • We propose an optimal method for tracker calibration at a measurement site. • Test results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed optimization methods.

  8. UV sensitivity of various solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Zeljka; Ranogajec-Komor, Maria; Miljanic, Saveta

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The light sensitivity is an important characteristic of solid state passive dosimeters used in individual, clinical and environmental dosimetry. Light sensitivity stands for the response directly induced by visible or UV light in a fully annealed material. For the above mentioned applications a negligible light sensitivity is an advantage. However, high light sensitivity and linear response allows the use of detectors as UV dosimeters. For this purpose various TL detectors and the glass element of the RPL dosemeter type SC-1 were systematically investigated after exposure to UV light (254 and 366 nm) as a function of time. The following solid state detectors were investigated relative to TLD-100: Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,Cu,Si, Al 2 O 3 :C and the glass element of RPL dosimeter. UV irradiations were performed with Camag UV lamp at 254 nm and at 366 nm. The illumination times were 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Day light illumination was also carried out at room temperature over time period of several hours up to 2 weeks. The UV light response of each detector was compared to the response obtained after irradiation with 137 Cs. Al 2 O 3 :C, showed high light sensitivity; after 10 minutes illumination with 254 nm UV light the response was equivalent to 130 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation. The 254 nm UV response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200 A), as well as TLD-700H and Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P were proportional to the time of illumination. The responses after 10 min UV illumination were equivalent to 0.001 mGy, 0.01 mGy and 0.1 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation, respectively. The complete SC-1 RPL dosimeter is insensitive to light because the glass element is encapsulated in light protected holder throughout the automatic evaluation process following the annealing (irradiation, preheat, readout). The responses of the previously annealed glass element after 20 min illumination with 254 nm and 366 nm UV light were equivalent to 45μSv and 3 μSv of 137 Cs gamma

  9. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  10. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  11. Automatic measurement for solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Since in solid state track detectors, their tracks are measured with a microscope, observers are forced to do hard works that consume time and labour. This causes to obtain poor statistic accuracy or to produce personal error. Therefore, many researches have been done to aim at simplifying and automating track measurement. There are two categories in automating the measurement: simple counting of the number of tracks and the requirements to know geometrical elements such as the size of tracks or their coordinates as well as the number of tracks. The former is called automatic counting and the latter automatic analysis. The method to generally evaluate the number of tracks in automatic counting is the estimation of the total number of tracks in the total detector area or in a field of view of a microscope. It is suitable for counting when the track density is higher. The method to count tracks one by one includes the spark counting and the scanning microdensitometer. Automatic analysis includes video image analysis in which the high quality images obtained with a high resolution video camera are processed with a micro-computer, and the tracks are automatically recognized and measured by feature extraction. This method is described in detail. In many kinds of automatic measurements reported so far, frequently used ones are ''spark counting'' and ''video image analysis''. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  13. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  14. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  16. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  17. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Manchado, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T 1/2 for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6x10 9 years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6x10 9 years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant k rac .

  18. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astrofisica di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Angelini, Giancarlo [Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche, CNR, Via Salaria Km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy); Iglesias-Groth, Susana [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Manchado, Arturo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain) and CSIC (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T{sub 1/2} for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6x10{sup 9} years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6x10{sup 9} years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant k{sub rac}.

  19. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  20. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  1. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  2. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  3. Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced

  4. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  5. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  6. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  7. Harwell's atomic, molecular and solid state computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.H.

    1976-02-01

    This document is intended to introduce the computational facilities available in the fields of atomic, molecular the solid state theory on the IBM370/165 at Harwell. The programs have all been implemented and thoroughly tested by the Theory of Solid State Materials Group. (author)

  8. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  9. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  10. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  12. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of

  13. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  14. Solid state laser applications in photovoltaics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, Corey; Colville, Finlay

    2008-02-01

    Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by increasing government and societal pressure to use renewable energy as part of an overall strategy to address global warming attributed to greenhouse gas emissions. Initially supported in several countries by generous tax subsidies, solar cell manufacturers are relentlessly pushing the performance/cost ratio of these devices in a quest to reach true cost parity with grid electricity. Clearly this eventual goal will result in further acceleration in the overall market growth. Silicon wafer based solar cells are currently the mainstay of solar end-user installations with a cost up to three times grid electricity. But next-generation technology in the form of thin-film devices promises streamlined, high-volume manufacturing and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. Notwithstanding the modest conversion efficiency of thin-film devices compared to wafered silicon products (around 6-10% versus 15-20%), this cost reduction is driving existing and start-up solar manufacturers to switch to thin-film production. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. Lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. This paper examines these processes and discusses the optimization of industrial lasers to meet their specific needs.

  15. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  16. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  17. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  18. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  19. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  20. LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Gandini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator (VELO) and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade.

  1. LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Gandini, P

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator (VELO) and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade

  2. Tracker Performance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie

    2002-01-01

    .... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...

  3. Solid state photon upconversion utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules as triplet sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony C.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A., E-mail: baldo@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The ability to upconvert light is useful for a range of applications, from biological imaging to solar cells. But modern technologies have struggled to upconvert incoherent incident light at low intensities. Here, we report solid state photon upconversion employing triplet-triplet exciton annihilation in an organic semiconductor, sensitized by a thermally activated-delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye. Compared to conventional phosphorescent sensitizers, the TADF dye maximizes the wavelength shift in upconversion due to its small singlet-triplet splitting. The efficiency of energy transfer from the TADF dye is 9.1%, and the conversion yield of sensitizer exciton pairs to singlet excitons in the annihilator is 1.1%. Our results demonstrate upconversion in solid state geometries and with non-heavy metal-based sensitizer materials.

  4. Photonic design for efficient solid state energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mukul

    The efficiency of conversion between electrical and photonic energy in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and solar cells is strongly affected by the photonic modes supported by the device structure. In this thesis, we show how tuning of the local photon density of states in subwavelength structures can be used to optimize device performance. The first part of the thesis is focused on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), a candidate technology for next-generation displays and solid-state lighting. An important unsolved problem in OLEDs is to ensure that a significant fraction of photons emitted by the organic emissive layer couple out of the device structure instead of remaining trapped in the device. It is shown using modeling and experiments that optimized non-periodic dielectric multilayer stacks can significantly increase the photon outcoupling while maintaining display quality brightness uniformity over the viewing cone. In the second part, we discuss the theoretical limits to broadband light harvesting in photovoltaic cells. First, it is shown that the extent to which one-dimensional optical cavities can be used to enhance light absorption over a broad spectral range is limited by the requirement that the cavity mirrors have a causal response. This result is used as a guide to design practical dielectric structures that enhance light harvesting in planar thin-film organic solar cells. Finally, we consider the enhancement of optical absorption in two- and three-dimensional structures in which incident light is scattered into quasi-trapped modes for more effective utilization of solar radiation. It is shown that there is an upper bound to the degree to which optical absorption can be enhanced that is identical to the limit found in the geometric optics regime. Rigorous optical simulations are used to show that an optical structure consisting of a two-dimensional array of inverted pyramids comes close to this limit. Before

  5. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  6. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  7. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  8. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Solid State Ionics: Recent Advances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become an important research tool in Solid State Ionics. Some new developments are highlighted: new methods of automatic parameter extraction from impedance measurements are briefly discussed. The Kramers–Kronig data validation test presents another

  9. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  10. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  11. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  12. The distribution choice for the threshold of solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    Either normal distribution or Weibull distribution can be accepted as sample distribution of the threshold of solid state relay. By goodness-of-fit method, bootstrap method and Bayesian method, the Weibull distribution is chosen later. (authors)

  13. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  14. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  15. A Low Power, Solid State, Method of Oxygen Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of the work prior to the start of this project is the planar monolith - allowing for solid state oxygen production at pressures up to 300 psig....

  16. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  17. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  18. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  19. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  20. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  1. Proceedings of the DAE solid state physics symposium. V. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, is organized annually. The topics covered are phase transitions, soft condensed matter, nano-materials, experimental techniques, instrumentation and solid state devices, superconductivity, magnetism, electronic structure and phonons, semiconductor physics, transport properties, surface - interface and thin films, liquids, glasses and amorphous systems, etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  3. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  4. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  5. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  6. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  7. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  8. Intelligent robotic tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaguro, W. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, K. C.; Rhoades, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    An intelligent tracker capable of robotic applications requiring guidance and control of platforms, robotic arms, and end effectors has been developed. This packaged system capable of supervised autonomous robotic functions is partitioned into a multiple processor/parallel processing configuration. The system currently interfaces to cameras but has the capability to also use three-dimensional inputs from scanning laser rangers. The inputs are fed into an image processing and tracking section where the camera inputs are conditioned for the multiple tracker algorithms. An executive section monitors the image processing and tracker outputs and performs all the control and decision processes. The present architecture of the system is presented with discussion of its evolutionary growth for space applications. An autonomous rendezvous demonstration of this system was performed last year. More realistic demonstrations in planning are discussed.

  9. CMS silicon tracker developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civinini, C.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.D.R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Silicon tracker consists of 70 m 2 of microstrip sensors which design will be finalized at the end of 1999 on the basis of systematic studies of device characteristics as function of the most important parameters. A fundamental constraint comes from the fact that the detector has to be operated in a very hostile radiation environment with full efficiency. We present an overview of the current results and prospects for converging on a final set of parameters for the silicon tracker sensors

  10. Model of CMS Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Breuker

    1999-01-01

    A full scale CMS tracker mock-up exposed temporarily in the hall of building 40. The purpose of the mock-up is to study the routing of services, assembly and installation. The people in front are only a small fraction of the CMS tracker collaboration. Left to right : M. Atac, R. Castaldi, H. Breuker, D. Pandoulas,P. Petagna, A. Caner, A. Carraro, H. Postema, M. Oriunno, S. da Mota Silva, L. Van Lancker, W. Glessing, G. Benefice, A. Onnela, M. Gaspar, G. M. Bilei

  11. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  12. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  13. Solid-State Synthesis and Effect of Temperature on Optical Properties of CuO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.C.Vidyasagar; Y.Arthoba Naik; T.G.Venkatesha; R.Viswanatha

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of band energies through size control offers new ways to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The P-type semiconductor of copper oxide is an important functional material used for photovoltaic cells. Cu O is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbance and a low thermal emittance. The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconducting Cu O nanoparticles via one-step, solid-state reaction in the presence of Polyethylene glycol400 as size controlling agent for the preparation of Cu O nanoparticles at different temperatures. Solid-state mechanochemical processing, which is not only a physical size reduction process in conventional milling but also a chemical reaction, is mechanically activated at the nanoscale during grinding. The present method is a simple and efficient method of preparing nanoparticles with high yield at low cost. The structural and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. Optical properties and band gap of Cu O nanoparticles were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results showed that the band gap energy decreased with increase of annealing temperature, which can be attributed to the improvement in grain size of the samples.

  14. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  15. LHCb: LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Manning Jr, P; Stone, S

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade. We will describe the new detector being constructed and show its improved performance in charged particle tracking and triggering.

  16. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  17. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  18. MediaTracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, D. M. (Dana M.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Abeyta, J. D. (Joline D.); Brown, J. (John); Marks, T. (Thomas), Jr.; Martinez, B. J. (Benny J.); Jones, D. B. (Dana Benelli); Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can

  19. MediaTracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.M.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Abeyta, J.D.; Brown, J.; Marks, T. Jr.; Martinez, B.J.; Jones, D.B.; Hsue, W.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access to the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can accommodate

  20. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  1. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  2. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  4. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  5. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  6. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  7. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  8. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  9. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  10. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  11. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  12. Space-time complexity in solid state models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this Workshop on symmetry-breaking it is appropriate to include the evolving fields of nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems in which transitions to and between various degrees of ''complexity'' (including ''chaos'') occur in time or space or both. These notions naturally bring together phenomena of pattern formation and chaos and therefore have ramifications for a huge array of natural sciences - astrophysics, plasmas and lasers, hydrodynamics, field theory, materials and solid state theory, optics and electronics, biology, pattern recognition and evolution, etc. Our particular concerns here are with examples from solid state and condensed matter

  13. Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Akana, G.L.; Gower, E.J.; Hawkins, S.A.; Hickman, B.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Brooksby, C.A.; /NONE - BECHTEL NEVADA LAS VEGAS; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Nguyen, M.N.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  14. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-01-01

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems

  15. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-05-05

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  16. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  17. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  18. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  19. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  20. Radiation-chemical aspects of solid state hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.; Collins, K.E.; Collins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of nuclear hot atom chemical (NHAC) processes occurring in solids is seriously limited by the lack of adequate methods for directly studying the chemical species containing hot atoms. In the present review the effects of ionizing radiation on parent and non-parent yields from solid state targets is surveyed and qualitative interpretations are given. After a few general remarks of the relationship of radiation chemistry to solid state NHAC, a detailed description of the radiation effects is given (radiation annealing, neutron activation, changes in separable yield). (Auth.)

  1. Two ATLAS trackers become one

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS inner detector barrel comes one step closer to completion as the semiconductor tracker is merged with the transition radiation tracker. ATLAS collaborators prepare for the insertion of the semiconductor tracker (SCT, behind) into the transition radiation tracker (TRT, in front). Some had hoped it would fall on Valentine's Day. But despite the slight delay, Friday 17 February was lovingly embraced as 'Conception Day,' when dozens of physicists and engineers from the international collaboration gathered to witness the insertion of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker into the transition radiation tracker, a major milestone in the assembly of the experiment's inner detector. With just millimeters of room for error, the cylindrical trackers were slid into each other as inner detector integration coordinator Heinz Pernegger issued commands and scientists held out flashlights, lay on their backs and stood on ladders to take careful measurements. Each tracker is the result of about 10 years of international ...

  2. LHCb upstream tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Artuso, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The detector for the LHCb upgrade is designed for 40MHz readout, allowing the experiment to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10^33 cm$^2$s$^-1$. The upgrade of the tracker subsystem in front of the dipole magnet, the Upstream Tracker, is crucial for charged track reconstruction and fast trigger decisions based on a tracking algorithm involving also vertex detector information. The detector consists of 4 planes with a total area of about 8.5m$^2$, made of single sided silicon strip sensors read-out by a novel custom-made ASIC (SALT). Details on the performance of prototype sensors, front-end electronics, near-detector electronics and mechanical components are presented.

  3. CMS Tracker Visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    To provide improvements in the performance of existing tracker data visualization tools in IGUANA, a 2D visualisation software has been developed, using the object oriented paradigm and software engineering techniques. We have designed 2D graphics objects and some of them have been implemented. The access to the new objects is made in ORCA plugin of IGUANA CMS. A new tracker object oriented model has been designed for developing these 2D graphics objects. The model consists of new classes which represent all its components (layers, modules, rings, petals, rods).The new classes are described here. The last part of this document contains a user manual of the software and will be updated with new releases.

  4. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Leubelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B.Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Silicon microstrip Tracker of the CMS experiment at LHC. It consists of a barrel part with 5 layers and two endcaps with 10 disks each. About 10 000 single-sided equivalent modules have to be built, each one carrying two daisy-chained silicon detectors and their front-end electronics. Back-to-back modules are used to read-out the radial coordinate. The tracker will be operated in an environment kept at a temperature of T=-10 deg. C to minimize the Si sensors radiation damage. Heavily irradiated detectors will be safely operated due to the high-voltage capability of the sensors. Full-size mechanical prototypes have been built to check the system aspects before starting the construction

  5. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    cells with polyacrylonitrile based electrolyte / K. Perera ... [et al.]. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical behavior of MoO[symbol] nanobelts for lithium batteries / Y. Qi ... [et al.]. Electrochemical behaviour of a PPy (DBS)/polyacrylonitrile: LiTF:EC:PC/Li cell / K. Vidanapathirana ... [et al.]. Characteristics of thick film CO[symbol] sensors based on NASICON using Li[symbol]CO[symbol]-CaCO[symbol] auxiliary phases / H. J. Kim ... [et al.]. Solid state battery discharge characteristic study on fast silver ion conducting composite system: 0.9[0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]: 0.1TiO[symbol] / R. K. Nagarch, R. Kumar, P. Rawat. Intercalating protonic solid-state batteries with series and parallel combination / K. Singh, S. S. Bhoga, S. M. Bansod. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO fiber by microwave processing / Lin Wang ... [et al.]. Preparation of Sn-Ge alloy coated Ge nanoparticles and Sn-Si alloy coated Si nanoparticles by ball-milling / J. K. D. S. Jayanett, S. M. Heald. Synthesis of ultrafine and crystallized TiO[symbol] by alalkoxied free polymerizable precursor method / M. Vijayakumar ... [et al.]. Development and characterization of polythiophene/fullerene composite solar cells and their degradation studies / P. K. Bhatnagar ... [et al.].

  6. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  7. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, R.; Biggeri, U.; Bruzzi, M.; Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Angarano, M.; Creanza, D.; Palma, M. de; Fiore, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Raso, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Tempesta, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Castro, A.; Da Rold, M.; Giraldo, A.; Martignon, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Stavitsky, I.; Babucci, E.; Bartalini, P.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Wang, Y.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Bosi, F.; Borello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Castaldi, R.; Dell'Orso, R.; Giassi, A.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Sguazzoni, G.; Starodumov, A.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Xie, Z.; Breuker, H.; Caner, A.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Glessing, B.; Hammerstrom, R.; Huhtinen, M.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Schmitt, B.; Stefanini, G.; Connotte, J.; Gu, W.H.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Pandoulas, D.; Siedling, R.; Wittmer, B.; Della Marina, R.; Freudenreich, K.; Lustermann, W.; Viertel, G.; Eklund, C.; Karimaeki, V.; Skog, K.; French, M.; Hall, G.; Mc Evoy, B.; Raymond, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Piperov, S.; Tuuva, T.; Watts, S.; Silvestris, L.

    1998-01-01

    The new silicon tracker layout (V4) is presented. The system aspects of the construction are discussed together with the expected tracking performance. Because of the high radiation environment in which the detectors will operate, particular care has been devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. This includes studies on performance (charge collection, cluster size, resolution, efficiency) as a function of the bias voltage, integrated fluence, incidence angle and temperature. (author)

  8. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  9. Advanced Solid-state Lasers - to Ignition and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.; Bibeau, C.; Orth, C; Meier, W.R.; Payne, S.; Sutton, S.

    1998-01-01

    This brochure concentrates on the diode-pumped solid-state laser. Surrounding it on the cover are some of the primary technological developments that make it a candidate for the means by which inertial confinement fusion will create inertial fusion energy as an inexhaustible source of electric power

  10. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  11. Atomic and solid state physics with the 14UD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.S.

    1975-02-01

    The use of energetic heavy ions in atomic and solid state physics is discussed. Topics that are discussed include: 1) Properties of excited ions, 2) radiation damage studies by channeling, 3) energy loss of ions and range measurements, 4) oscillating effects in channeling, 5) x-ray production in solids, 6) coherence effects in channeling and 7) formation of united atoms. (author)

  12. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  13. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  14. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  15. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  16. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  17. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  18. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  19. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  20. Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.

  1. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker .... authors, a slowly utilizable carbon source is preferable for high lovastatin ...

  2. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker et .... Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin yield by Aspergillus ...

  3. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the me...... of a DCM-FA-rich phase in the forming microsphere....

  4. Bayesian Analysis for EMP Survival Probability of Solid State Relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    The principle to estimate the parameter p of binomial distribution by Bayesian method and the several non-informative prior are introduced. The survival probability of DC solid state relay under current injection at certain amplitude is obtained by this method. (authors)

  5. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  6. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off [de

  7. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  8. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  9. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  10. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  11. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  12. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  13. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  14. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  15. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  16. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  17. Microelectronics: Atoms diffusion in solid state. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Higuera, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamentals on which the technology for the diffusion of impurities in solid state is based, is presented. This technology is widely used to produce controlled and localized concentrations of atoms of the mentioned impurities in base solids in order to obtain those characteristics which may lead to the implementation of electronic, optoelectronic and electrooptic devices. (Author)

  18. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  19. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  20. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  1. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  2. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  4. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  5. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  6. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  7. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Elsasser, Ch; Gallas Torreira, A; Pérez Trigo, A; Rodríguez Pérez, P; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Dupertuis, F; Haefeli, G; Komarov, I; Märki, R; Muster, B; Nakada, T; Schneider, O; Tobin, M; Tran, M T; Anderson, J; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; Saornil, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A; Britsch, M; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is to study rare heavy quark decays and CP vio- lation with the high rate of beauty and charmed hadrons produced in $pp$ collisions at the LHC. The detector is designed as a single-arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification performance. The Silicon Tracker is a key part of the tracking system to measure the particle trajectories to high precision. This paper reports the performance as well as the results of the radiation damage monitoring based on leakage currents and on charge collection efficiency scans during the data taking in the LHC Run I.

  8. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  9. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  10. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  11. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  12. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...

  13. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  14. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Robert; Odronitz, Florian; Hammesfahr, Bjorn; Hellkamp, Marcel; Kollmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  15. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  16. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng, E-mail: Xinsheng_Ling@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  17. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  18. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  19. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  20. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.