WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid-state photoelectrochemical device

  1. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  2. Solid-state photoelectrochemical H2 generation with gaseous reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwu, Kingsley O.; Galeckas, Augustinas; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.; Norby, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Photocurrent and H 2 production were demonstrated in an all solid-state photoelectrochemical cell employing gaseous methanol and water vapour at the photoanode. Open circuit photovoltage of around −0.4 V and short circuit photocurrent of up to 250 μA/cm 2 were obtained. At positive bias, photocurrent generation was limited by the irradiance, i.e., the amount of photogenerated charge carriers at the anode. Time constants and impedance spectra showed an electrochemical capacitance of the cell of about 15 μF/cm 2 in the dark, which increased with increasing irradiance. With only water vapour at the anode, the short circuit photocurrent was about 6% of the value with gaseous methanol and water vapour. The photoanode and electrocatalyst on carbon paper support were affixed to the proton conducting membrane using Nafion ® as adhesive, an approach that yielded photocurrents up to 15 times better than that of a cell assembled by hot-pressing, in spite of the overall cell resistance of the latter being up to five times less than that of the former. This is attributed, at least partially, to reactants being more readily available at the photoanode of the better performing cell

  3. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  4. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  5. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  6. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  7. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  8. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  9. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  10. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  11. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  12. Photoelectrochemical Polymerization of EDOT for Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Role of Dye and Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Jarboui, Adel; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Jouini, Mohamed; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The aromatic-unit, commercially available, and cost-effective precursor 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), was employed instead of bis-EDOT to generate by in-situ photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) a conducting polymer-type hole conductor poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) for dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices. In order to conduct efficiently the PEP of EDOT, two electrolytic media, aqueous micellar and organic, and two Donor-π-Acceptor sensitizers, were investigated. By using the electrolytic aqueous micellar medium, the PEP was efficient due to the low oxidation potential of the precursor in water. A DSC device based on PEDOT generated from aqueous PEP showed an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 3.0% under 100 mWcm"−"2, higher by two orders of magnitude than that of a DSC device based on PEDOT from organic PEP (η = 0.04%). The comparison of the properties of the as-obtained PEDOT polymers from aqueous and organic PEP by UV–VIS–NIR measurements shows the formation of PEDOT at a highly doped state from aqueous PEP. The thermodynamic and kinetic requirements for efficiency of PEP process in each medium are investigated and discussed on the basis of the light absorption abilities and electrochemical redox potentials measured for the two organic sensitizers.

  13. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  14. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  15. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  16. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Nagarale, R K; Pandey, S P; Rhee, H W

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  17. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Nagarale, R. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Rhee, H. W.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2011-06-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described.

  18. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  19. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  20. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Defect engineering: design tools for solid state electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuller, Harry L.

    2003-01-01

    The interest in solid state electrochemical devices including sensors, fuel cells, batteries, oxygen permeation membranes, etc. has grown rapidly in recent years. Many of the same figures of merit apply to these different applications, the key ones being ionic conduction in solid electrolytes, mixed ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) in electrodes and permeation membranes, and gas-solid reaction kinetics in sensors and fuel cells. Optimization of device performance often relies on the careful understanding and control of both ionic and electronic defects in the materials that make up the key device components. To date, most materials in use have been discovered serendipitously. A key focus of this paper is on the tools available to scientists and engineers to practice 'defect engineering' for the purpose of optimizing the performance of such materials. Dopants, controlled structural disorder, and interfaces are examined in relation to increasing the conductivity of solid electrolytes. The creation of defect bands is demonstrated as a means for introducing high levels of electronic conductivity into a solid electrolyte for the purpose of creating a mixed conductor and thereby a monolithic fuel cell structure. Dopants are also examined as a means of reducing losses in a high temperature resonant sensor platform. The control of microstructure, down to the nano-scale, is shown capable of inverting the predominant ionic to an electronic charge carrier and thereby markedly modifying electrical properties. Electrochemical bias and light are also discussed in terms of creating defects locally thereby providing means for micromachining a broad range of materials with precise dimensional control, low residual stress and controlled etch rates

  3. Lessons learned: from dye-sensitized solar cells to all-solid-state hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-06-25

    The field of solution-processed photovoltaic cells is currently in its second spring. The dye-sensitized solar cell is a widely studied and longstanding candidate for future energy generation. Recently, inorganic absorber-based devices have reached new record efficiencies, with the benefits of all-solid-state devices. In this rapidly changing environment, this review sheds light on recent developments in all-solid-state solar cells in terms of electrode architecture, alternative sensitizers, and hole-transporting materials. These concepts are of general applicability to many next-generation device platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Analysis of field usage failure rate data for plastic encapsulated solid state devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Survey and questionnaire techniques were used to gather data from users and manufacturers on the failure rates in the field of plastic encapsulated semiconductors. It was found that such solid state devices are being successfully used by commercial companies which impose certain screening and qualification procedures. The reliability of these semiconductors is now adequate to support their consideration in NASA systems, particularly in low cost systems. The cost of performing necessary screening for NASA applications was assessed.

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-04-07

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs.

  6. Solid-State Electrochromic Device Consisting of Amorphous WO3 and Various Thin Oxide Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Makoto; Shimizu, Isamu; Inoue, Eiichi

    1980-11-01

    A mixed oxide containing Cr2O3 was introduced into an amorphous WO3 solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) in order to improve its colour memory effect. The electrochromic characteristics were greatly affected by the chemical constituents of a dielectric layer on the a-WO3 layer. Particularly, long memory effect and low power dissipation were attained in a solid-state ECD consisting of a-WO3 and Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5(50 wt.%). Some electrochromic characteristics of the a-WO3/Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5 ECD and the role of V2O5 were investigated.

  7. Electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Bryan M.; Wachsman, Eric D.; Van Assche, IV, Frederick Martin

    2015-05-19

    Electrode configurations for electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases are provided. According to an embodiment, electric-field electrodes can be incorporated in devices such as gas sensors and fuel cells to shape an electric field provided with respect to sensing electrodes for the gas sensors and surfaces of the fuel cells. The shaped electric fields can alter surface dynamics, system thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and adsorption/desorption processes. In one embodiment, ring-shaped electric-field electrodes can be provided around sensing electrodes of a planar gas sensor.

  8. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  9. Photoelectrochemical devices for solar water splitting - materials and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Junwang

    2017-07-31

    It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This review commences with a fundamental understanding of semiconductor properties and charge transfer processes in a PEC device. We then describe various configurations of PEC devices, including single light-absorber cells and multi light-absorber devices (PEC, PV-PEC and PV/electrolyser tandem cell). Recent progress on both photoelectrode materials (light absorbers) and electrocatalysts is summarized, and important factors which dominate photoelectrode performance, including light absorption, charge separation and transport, surface chemical reaction rate and the stability of the photoanode, are discussed. Controlling semiconductor properties is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting. Accordingly, strategies to address the challenges for materials development in this area, such as the adoption of smart architectures, innovative device configuration design, co-catalyst loading, and surface protection layer deposition, are outlined throughout the text, to deliver a highly efficient and stable PEC device for water splitting.

  10. Rechargeable membraneless glucose biobattery: Towards solid-state cathodes for implantable enzymatic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Alireza Ahmadian; Preite, Roberto; Milton, Ross D.; Hickey, David P.; Minteer, Shelley D.; Xu, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic biobatteries can be implanted in living organisms to exploit the chemical energy stored in physiological fluids. Generally, commonly-used electron donors (such as sugars) are ubiquitous in physiological environments, while electron acceptors such as oxygen are limited due to many factors including solubility, temperature, and pressure. The wide range of solid-state cathodes, however, may replace the need for oxygen breathing electrodes and serve in enzymatic biobatteries for implantable devices. Here, we have fabricated a glucose biobattery suitable for in vivo applications employing a glucose oxidase (GOx) anode coupled to a solid-state Prussian Blue (PB) thin-film cathode. PB is a non-toxic material and its electrochemistry enables fast regeneration if used in a secondary cell. This novel biobattery can effectively operate in a membraneless architecture as PB can reduce the peroxide produced by some oxidase enzymes. The resulting biobattery delivers a maximum power and current density of 44 μW cm-2 and 0.9 mA cm-2 , respectively, which is ca. 37% and 180% higher than an equivalent enzymatic fuel cell equipped with a bilirubin oxidase cathode. Moreover, the biobattery demonstrated a stable performance over 20 cycles of charging and discharging periods with only ca. 3% loss of operating voltage.

  11. A flexible super-capacitive solid-state power supply for miniature implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Gall, Oren Z; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2013-12-01

    We present a high-energy local power supply based on a flexible and solid-state supercapacitor for miniature wireless implantable medical devices. Wireless radio-frequency (RF) powering recharges the supercapacitor through an antenna with an RF rectifier. A power management circuit for the super-capacitive system includes a boost converter to increase the breakdown voltage required for powering device circuits, and a parallel conventional capacitor as an intermediate power source to deliver current spikes during high current transients (e.g., wireless data transmission). The supercapacitor has an extremely high area capacitance of ~1.3 mF/mm(2), and is in the novel form of a 100 μm-thick thin film with the merit of mechanical flexibility and a tailorable size down to 1 mm(2) to meet various clinical dimension requirements. We experimentally demonstrate that after fully recharging the capacitor with an external RF powering source, the supercapacitor-based local power supply runs a full system for electromyogram (EMG) recording that consumes ~670 μW with wireless-data-transmission functionality for a period of ~1 s in the absence of additional RF powering. Since the quality of wireless powering for implantable devices is sensitive to the position of those devices within the RF electromagnetic field, this high-energy local power supply plays a crucial role in providing continuous and reliable power for medical device operations.

  12. Micro/Nano Fabricated Solid-State Thermoelectric Generator Devices for Integrated High Voltage Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Ryan, M. A.; Snyder, G. J.; Huang, C.-K.; Whitacre, J. F.; Patel, J.; Lim, J.; Borshchevsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    Deep space missions have a strong need for compact, high power density, reliable and long life electrical power generation and storage under extreme temperature conditions. Except for electrochemical batteries and solar cells, there are currently no available miniaturized power sources. Conventional power generators devices become inefficient in extreme environments (such as encountered in Mars, Venus or outer planet missions) and rechargeable energy storage devices can only be operated in a narrow temperature range thereby limiting mission duration. The planned development of much smaller spacecrafts incorporating a variety of micro/nanodevices and miniature vehicles will require novel, reliable power technologies. It is also expected that such micro power sources could have a wide range of terrestrial applications, in particular when the limited lifetime and environmental limitations of batteries are key factors. Advanced solid-state thermoelectric combined with radioisotope or waste heat sources and low profile energy storage devices are ideally suited for these applications. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been actively pursuing the development of thermoelectric micro/nanodevices that can be fabricated using a combination of electrochemical deposition and integrated circuit processing techniques. Some of the technical challenges associated with these micro/nanodevice concepts, their expected level of performance and experimental fabrication and testing results to date are presented and discussed.

  13. Routes to Ultrahigh Efficiency Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, Carissa; Lloyd, John; Flowers, Cris; Darbe, Sunita; Warmann, Emily; Verlage, Erik; Fountaine, Kate; Hu, Shu; Lewis, Nathan; Atwater, Harry

    2014-10-15

    We discuss ‘full spectrum’ photovoltaic modules that leverage low-cost III-V compound semiconductor cells, efficient optics and unconventional fabrication/assembly methods, and discuss advances in photoelectrochemical water-splitting with high efficiency.

  14. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-chun; Li, Linsen; Cabá n-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-01-01

    photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly

  15. Studies of solid-state electrochromic devices based on Peo/siliceous hybrids doped with lithium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, P.C.; Silva, M.M.; Smith, M.J.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic networks, doped with a lithium salt, have been used as electrolytes in prototype smart windows. The work described in this presentation is focused on the application of these networks as dual-function electrolyte/adhesive components in solid-state electrochromic devices. The performance of multi-layer electrochromic devices was characterized as a function of the choice of precursor used to prepare the polymer electrolyte component and the guest salt concentration. The prototype devices exhibited good open-circuit memory, coloration efficiency, optical contrast and stability

  16. Development of a prototype solid state fault current limiting and interrupting device for low voltage distribution networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.; Putrus, G. A.; Ran, L.; Penlington, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a solid-state Fault Current Limiting and Interrupting Device (FCLID) suitable for low voltage distribution networks. The main components of the FCLID are a bidirectional semiconductor switch that can disrupt the short-circuit current, and a voltage clamping element that helps in controlling the current and absorbing the inductive energy stored in the network during current interruption. Using a hysteresis type control algorithm, the short-circuit curren...

  17. High-Throughput Computational Assessment of Previously Synthesized Semiconductors for Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhar, Korina; Pandey, Mohnish; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2018-01-01

    Using computational screening we identify materials with potential use as light absorbers in photovoltaic or photoelectrochemical devices. The screening focuses on compounds of up to three different chemical elements which are abundant and nontoxic. A prescreening is carried out based on informat...

  18. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  19. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  20. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thermoelectric Devices: Solid-State Refrigerators and Electrical Generators in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Edmund J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.

    1996-10-01

    Thermoelectric devices are solid-state devices that convert thermal energy from a temperature gradient into electrical energy (the Seebeck effect) or convert electrical energy into a temperature gradient (the Peltier effect). The first application is used most notably in spacecraft power generation systems (for example, in Voyager I and II) and in thermocouples for temperature measurement, while the second application is largely used in specialized cooling applications. Both applications can be demonstrated in the lecture hall to illustrate thermodynamic principles in a compelling manner. They also provide insight into the workings of a high-tech system that is achieving more widespread consumer use. The most visible consumer use of thermoelectric devices utilizing the Peltier effect is in portable electric food coolers/warmers that plug into an automobile cigarette lighter. Conventional cooling systems such as those used in refrigerators utilize a compressor and a working fluid to transfer heat. Thermal energy is absorbed and released as the working fluid undergoes expansion and compression and changes phase from liquid to vapor and back, respectively (1). Semiconductor thermoelectric coolers (also known as Peltier coolers) offer several advantages over conventional systems. They are entirely solid-state devices, with no moving parts; this makes them rugged, reliable, and quiet. They use no ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, potentially offering a more environmentally responsible alternative to conventional refrigeration. They can be extremely compact, much more so than compressor-based systems. Precise temperature control (screws have to be removed to access the thermoelectric module. The module comes equipped with finned aluminum heat sinks attached to both sides; one of these has to be detached in order to remove the module from the lid. The heat sink is then reattached to the module, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Thermoelectric module with attached heat

  2. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  3. The improvement of all-solid-state electrochromic devices fabricated with the reactive sputter and cathodic arc technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed for smart electrochromic (EC glass application. The EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The ion conductor layer Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better porous material structure for ion transportation and showed 1.76 times ion conductivity than devices with all sputtering process. At the same time, the EC layer WO3 and NiO deposited by the reactive DCMS have also provided the high quality and uniform characteristic to overcome the surface roughness effect of the CVAP ion conductor layer in multilayer device structure. The all-solid-state ECD with the CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 55% at 550nm and a faster-switching speed. Furthermore, the lower equipment cost and higher deposition rate could be achieved by the application of CVAP technology.

  4. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on new solid state devices for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This paper contains articles on semiconductor devices used in the detection of high energy particles. Some articles reported: Position sensitive semiconductor devices; Scintillation techniques and optical devices; Radiation damage to detectors; VLSI for physics; and experience with Si detectors in NA32

  6. Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2012-06-15

    A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light-matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.

  7. Solid state MEMS devices on flexible and semi-transparent silicon (100) platform

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report fabrication of MEMS thermal actuators on flexible and semi-transparent silicon fabric released from bulk silicon (100). We fabricated the devices first and then released the top portion of the silicon (≈ 19 μm) which is flexible and semi-transparent. We also performed chemical mechanical polishing to reuse the remaining wafer. A tested thermal actuator with 3 μm wide 240 μm hot arm and 10 μm wide 185 μm long cold arm deflected by 1.7 μm at 1 V. The fabricated thermal actuators exhibit similar performance before and after bending. We believe the demonstrated process will expand the horizon of flexible electronics into MEMS world devices. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    extraction with minimization of electron -hole recombination, resistive losses, down conversions and so on and on device processing. Meeting the...the establishment of multiple feedback loops through Mexico/US video conferencing (including all students) needed to capitalize on the high degree of...PCBM) as electron acceptor material. The cells were not optimized in active layer preparation conditions such as solvent, thickness, annealing, or

  9. Red light emitting solid state hybrid quantum dot-near-UV GaN LED devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hongjoo; Lee, Seonghoon

    2007-01-01

    We produced core-shell (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots by direct colloidal chemical synthesis and the surface-passivation method-an overcoating of the core CdSe with a larger-bandgap material ZnSe. The (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots(QDs) play the role of a colour conversion centre. We call these quantum dots nanophosphors. We fabricated red light emitting hybrid devices of (CdSe)ZnSe QDs and a near-UV GaN LED by combining red light emitting (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots (as a colour conversion centre) with a near-UV(NUV) GaN LED chip (as an excitation source). A few good red phosphors have been known for UV excitation wavelengths, and red phosphors for UV excitation have been sought for a long time. Here we tested the possibility of using (CdSe)ZnSe QDs as red nanophosphors for UV excitation. The fabricated red light emitting hybrid device of (CdSe)ZnSe and a NUV GaN LED chip showed a good luminance. We demonstrated that the (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots were promising red nanophosphors for NUV excitation and that a red LED made of QDs and a NUV excitation source was a highly efficient hybrid device

  10. Three-peak standard white organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunping; Wei, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Standard white organic light-emitting device (OLED) lighting provides a warm and comfortable atmosphere and shows mild effect on melatonin suppression. A high-efficiency red OLED employing phosphorescent dopant has been investigated. The device generates saturated red emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.66, 0.34), characterized by a low driving voltage of 3.5 V and high external quantum efficiency of 20.1% at 130 cd m-2. In addition, we have demonstrated a two-peak cold white OLED by combining with a pure blue emitter with the electroluminescent emission of 464 nm, 6, 12-bis{[N-(3,4-dimethylpheyl)-N-(2,4,5-trimethylphenyl)]} chrysene (BmPAC). It was found that the man-made lighting device capable of yielding a relatively stable color emission within the luminance range of 1000-5000 cd m-2. And the chromaticity coordinates, varying from (0.25, 0.21) to (0.23, 0.21). Furthermore, an ultrathin layer of green-light-emitting tris (2-phenylpyridinato)iridium(Ⅲ) Ir(ppy)3 in the host material was introduced to the emissive region for compensating light. By appropriately controlling the layer thickness, the white light OLED achieved good performance of 1280 cd m-2 at 5.0 V and 5150 cd m-2 at 7.0 V, respectively. The CIE coordinates of the emitted light are quite stable at current densities from 759 cd m-2 to 5150 cd m-2, ranging from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.33).

  11. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Invited Papers * Recent Trends in Solid State Ionics * Theoretical Aspects of Fast Ion Conduction in Solids * Chemical Bonding and Intercalation Processes in Framework Structures * Extra-Large Near-Electrode Regions and Diffusion Length on the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface as Studied by Photo-EMF Method * Frequency Response of Glasses * XPS Studies on Ion Conducting Glasses * Characterization of New Ambient Temperature Lithium Polymer-Electrolyte * Recent Development of Polymer Electrolytes: Solid State Voltammetry in Polymer Electrolytes * Secondary Solid State Batteries: From Material Properties to Commercial Development * Silver Vanadium Oxide Bronze and its Applications for Electrochemical Devices * Study on β''-Alumina Solid Electrolyte and β Battery in SIC * Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Processing for Super Superionic Ceramics * Hydrogen Production Using Oxide Ionic or Protonic Conductor * Ionically Conductive Sulfide-Based Lithium Glasses * Relation of Conductivity to Structure and Structural Relaxation in Ion-Conducting Glasses * The Mechanism of Ionic Conductivity in Glass * The Role of Synthesis and Structure in Solid State Ionics - Electrodes to Superconductors * Electrochromism in Spin-Coated Thin Films from Peroxo-Poly tungstate Solutions * Electrochemical Studies on High Tc Superconductors * Multivalence Fast Ionic Conductors - Montmorillonites * Contributed Papers * Volt-Ampere Characteristics and Interface Charge Transport in Solid Electrolytes * Internal Friction of Silver Chalcogenides * Thermal Expansion of Ionic and Superionic Solids * Improvement of PEO-LiCF3SO3 Complex Electrolytes Using Additives * Ionic Conductivity of Modified Poly (Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Methacrylate) s-Lithium Salt Complexes * Solid Polymer Electrolytes of Crosslinked Polyethylene Glycol and Lithium Salts * Single Ionic Conductors Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid

  12. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  13. Towards room temperature solid state quantum devices at the edge of quantum chaos for long-living quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prati, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Long living coherent quantum states have been observed in biological systems up to room temperature. Light harvesting in chromophoresis realized by excitonic systems living at the edge of quantum chaos, where energy level distribution becomes semi-Poissonian. On the other hand, artificial materials suffer the loss of coherence of quantum states in quantum information processing, but semiconductor materials are known to exhibit quantum chaotic conditions, so the exploitation of similar conditions are to be considered. The advancements of nanofabrication, together with the control of implantation of individual atoms at nanometric precision, may open the experimental study of such special regime at the edge of the phase transitions for the electronic systems obtained by implanting impurity atoms in a silicon transistor. Here I review the recent advancements made in the field of theoretical description of the light harvesting in biological system in its connection with phase transitions at the few atoms scale and how it would be possible to achieve transition point to quantum chaotic regime. Such mechanism may thus preserve quantum coherent states at room temperature in solid state devices, to be exploited for quantum information processing as well as dissipation-free quantum electronics. (paper)

  14. Automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell driven by visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Han, Yanchao; Xu, Miao; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications.Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00759g

  15. CuO-Functionalized Silicon Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Han, Tingting; Berardi, Serena; Lanza, Mario; Llobet, Antoni

    2016-01-13

    One main difficulty for the technological development of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting (WS) devices is the fabrication of active, stable and cost-effective photoelectrodes that ensure high performance. Here, we report the development of a CuO/Silicon based photoanode, which shows an onset potential for the water oxidation of 0.53 V vs SCE at pH 9, that is, an overpotential of 75 mV, and high stability above 10 h. These values account for a photovoltage of 420 mV due to the absorbed photons by silicon, as proven by comparing with analogous CuO/FTO electrodes that are not photoactive. The photoanodes have been fabricated by sputtering a thin film of Cu(0) on commercially available n-type Si wafers, followed by a photoelectrochemical treatment in basic pH conditions. The resulting CuO/Cu layer acts as (1) protective layer to avoid the corrosion of nSi, (2) p-type hole conducting layer for efficient charge separation and transportation, and (3) electrocatalyst to reduce the overpotential of the water oxidation reaction. The low cost, low toxicity, and good performance of CuO-based coatings can be an attractive solution to functionalize unstable materials for solar energy conversion.

  16. Total integrated dose testing of solid-state scientific CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 devices by irradiation with CO-60 gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A. R. V.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The total integrated dose response of three CMOS devices manufactured by Solid State Scientific has been measured using CO-60 gamma rays. Key parameter measurements were made and compared for each device type. The data show that the CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 produced by this manufacturers should not be used in any environments where radiation levels might exceed 1,000 rad(Si).

  17. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  18. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  19. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  20. First report on synthesis of ZnFe_2O_4 thin film using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction: Approach towards solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Shrikant S.; Sankapal, Babasaheb R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report on synthesis of ZnFe_2O_4 thin film using SILAR method. • ZnFe_2O_4 electrode yields the specific capacitance of 471 Fg"−"1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s"−"1 in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution. • Solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device based on ZnFe_2O_4 sandwiched in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–LiClO_4 gel electrolyte exhibits voltage windows of 1.0 V. • ZnFe_2O_4-SSS supercapacitor device shows good energy and power density with long cycle life. - Abstract: ZnFe_2O_4 thin film has been synthesized by a simple and low cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method without the use of surfactant or template. The nanoplate composed of nanoparticles with porous surface morphology has been revealed which is beneficial towards supercapacitor application. Formed ZnFe_2O_4 thin film has been tested as an electrode material for supercapacitor through electrochemical analysis. First attempt for SILAR synthesized ZnFe_2O_4 thin film exhibited a specific capacitance of 471 Fg"−"1 at a scan rate of 5 mVs"−"1 in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution. Further, ZnFe_2O_4 solid-state symmetric (SSS) supercapacitor device demonstrated voltage window of 1.0 V with specific capacitance of 32 Fg"−"1, energy density of 4.47 Whkg"−"1 and power density of 277 Wkg"−"1 at 1 Ag"−"1 current density. Such high performance capacitive behavior indicates ZnFe_2O_4 thin film is promising and low cost electrode material towards energy storage devices for various portable electronic systems.

  1. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  2. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  3. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  4. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  5. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  6. Universal chemiluminescence flow-through device based on directed self-assembly of solid-state organic chromophores on layered double hydroxide matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Teng, Xu; Lu, Chao

    2013-02-19

    In this work, a universal chemiluminescence (CL) flow-through device suitable for various CL resonance energy transfer (CRET) systems has been successfully fabricated. Highly efficient CRET in solid-state photoactive organic molecules can be achieved by assembling them on the surface of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). We attribute these observations to the suppression of the intermolecular π-π stacking interactions among aromatic rings and the improvement of molecular orientation and planarity in the LDH matrix, enabling a remarkable increase in fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of organic molecules. Under optimal conditions, using peroxynitrous acid-fluorescein dianion (FLUD) as a model CRET system, trace FLUD (10 μM) was assembled on the surface of LDHs. Peroxynitrous acid/nitrite could be assayed in the range of 1.0-500 μM, and the detection limit for peroxynitrous acid/nitrite (S/N = 3) was 0.6 μM. This CL flow-through device exhibited operational stability, high reproducibility, and long lifetime. While LDHs were immobilized in a flow-through device in the absence of FLUD, the detection limit for peroxynitrous acid/nitrite was 100 μM. On the other hand, FLUD at the same concentration can not enhance the CL intensity of peroxynitrous acid system. This fabricated CL flow-through column has been successfully applied to determine nitrite in sausage samples with recoveries of 98-102%. These satisfactory results demonstrated that our studies pave a novel way toward flow-through column-based CRET using solid-state organic molecules as acceptors for signal amplification.

  7. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  8. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  9. European Solid State Device Research Conference (18th) ESSDERC 88 Held In Montpellier, France on 13-16 September 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-16

    to values of more then 100 pm. If this has happened an enormous amount of plastic deformation has occurred. And plastic deformation in monocrystalline...photoconductors, the photocurrent is not proportional to the bias voltage but determined by the reverse Schottky diode caracteristics . The sensitivity...of the fabricated devices. The caracteristics of Ill-V semiconductor devices and the fabrication yield are critically influenced by nonuniform and

  10. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  11. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  12. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  13. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  14. Observations on the reliability of COTS-device-based solid state data recorders operating in low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Surrey Space Centre's experience in using different coding schemes and hardware configurations to protect data and protect data and software stored in COTS-device (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) based memories on-board operational spacecraft in low Earth orbit. (author)

  15. ESSDERC (European Solid State Device Research Conference) 17th Held in Bologna, Italy on 14-17 September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-17

    wavelength devices - composed of sentation: I diode current, Ith threshold current, P optical power, PCOD power limit GaAlAs/GaAs heterostructure...separate sections since maximum output power is limited by different Cf- 2 . mechanisms Lm the two material systems. PCOD 10 8 * . 3. GaAIAs/GaAs LASERS...levels /2/. The basic mechanism responsible FIGURE 3Optical power density limit PCOD of catas- for COD is the local heating caused by ab- trophic optical

  16. European Solid State Device Research Conference (18th) Held on September 13-16 1988 in Montpellier, France. (ESSDERC 88)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-16

    amount of plastic deformation has occurred. And plastic deformation in monocrystalline materials is the sure proof of many defects present, often complete...photocurrent is not proportional to the bias voltage but determined by the reverse Schottky diode caracteristics . The sensitivity is 0.46 A/W (Fig. 3...noninvasive, contactless and fast, we have obtained a considerable improvement of the fabricated devices. 1- INTRODUCTIN The caracteristics of III-V

  17. Phonon-induced dissipation and decoherence in solid-state quantum devices: Markovian versus non-Markovian treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Rita Claudia; Rossi, Fausto

    2017-12-01

    Microscopic modeling of electronic phase coherence versus energy dissipation plays a crucial role in the design and optimization of new-generation electronic quantum nanodevices, like quantum-cascade light sources and quantum logic gates; in this context, non-Markovian density-matrix approaches are widely used simulation strategies. Here we show that such methods, along with valuable virtues, in some circumstances may exhibit potential limitations that need to be taken into account for a reliable description of quantum materials and related devices. More specifically, extending the analysis recently proposed in [EPL 112, 67005 (2015)] to high temperatures and degenerate conditions, we show that the usual mean-field treatment - employed to derive quantum-kinetic equations - in some cases may lead to anomalous results, characterized by decoherence suppression and positivity violations. By means of a simple two-level model, we show that such unexpected behaviors may affect zero-dimensional electronic systems coupled to dispersionless phonon modes, while such anomalies are expected to play a negligible role in nanosystems with higher dimensionality; these limitations are found to be significant in the low-density and low-temperature limit, while in the degenerate and/or finite-temperature regime - typical of many state-of-the-art quantum devices - their impact is strongly reduced.

  18. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  19. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  20. Direct solar energy conversion and storage through coupling between photoelectrochemical and ferroelectric effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wei Lo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and storing solar energy has become more and more important. Current solid-state photovoltaic cells and conventional photoelectrochemical cells are not capable of directly storing the converted energy, which has to be facilitated by connecting to external storing devices. We demonstrate a device architecture that can convert and store solar energy in the electrical form within an intrinsically single structure. Mobile charge is internally stored, based on the coupling between photoelectrochemical and ferroelectric effects. The tested device architecture can be photo-charged under 1000 W/m2 of white light to an open-circuit voltage of 0.47V with a capacity of 37.62 mC/cm2. After removal of the light source, the mobile charge stored lasts more than 8 hours, and the open-circuit output voltage lasts more than 24 hours.

  1. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  2. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  3. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  4. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  5. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  6. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  7. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  8. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  9. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  10. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  11. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  12. Explanation of the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) enhancements through the CAN's model equation for the p-CuI sensitized methylviolet-C18 LB films in the photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) and Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI solid-state photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, C A N; Liyanaarachchi, U S; AARajapaksha, R D

    2013-01-01

    Photocurrent enhancements in a dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a Cu/p-CuI/M-C 18 photoelectrode and a dye sensitized solid state photovoltaic cell (DSSC) with Cu/n-Cu 2 O/M-C 18 /p-CuI are studied by controlling the formation of dye aggregates of M-C 18 Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films on the p-CuI layer. LB films of M-C 18 are deposited under biasing conditions during the LB deposition process on Cu/p-CuI, Cu/n-Cu 2 O/p-CuI and conductive glass plates with the three-electrode configuration setup coupling to the LB trough. LB films prepared under positive biasing conditions enhance the photocurrent quantum efficiencies for both PECs and DSSCs controlling and minimizing the formation of dye aggregates. The electrolyte used for LB deposition and photocurrent measurements is (10 −2 M) Fe 2+ + Fe 3+ (10 −2 M) and (10 −2 M) NaH 2 PO 4 –Na 2 HPO 4 , pH = 6 buffer solution. Maximum photocurrent quantum efficiencies (φmax%) obtained are ≈22% for PEC and ≈20% for DSSCs, where the M-C 18 LB film deposition applied potentials +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mechanism of the photocurrent enhancement is discussed through the CAN's model equation, φ = AD 0 –BD 0 2 , where A = k 1 k 2 /F, B = I k 1 2 k 2 [2k 6 /F 3 + k 2 k 4 /k 3 2 X 2 F 2 ], F = k 2 + k 5 Y + k 7 + k 1 I [1 + k 2 /k 3 X], presented from our previous study [1]. Experimental evidence for the formation of the aggregates of M-C 18 LB films for the negative applied potentials and suppression of the aggregates with positive applied potentials are presented from absorption spectra, AFM pictures and fluorescence measurements of the samples. Conversion efficiency obtained is ≈2.5%, V oc ≈750 mV and I sc ≈ 5.8 mA cm −2 for DSSC fabricated with +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl applied deposition potential of M-C 18 LB films. (paper)

  13. Explanation of the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) enhancements through the CAN's model equation for the p-CuI sensitized methylviolet-C18 LB films in the photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) and Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI solid-state photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, C. A. N.; Liyanaarachchi, U. S.; AARajapaksha, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    Photocurrent enhancements in a dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a Cu/p-CuI/M-C18 photoelectrode and a dye sensitized solid state photovoltaic cell (DSSC) with Cu/n-Cu2O/M-C18/p-CuI are studied by controlling the formation of dye aggregates of M-C18 Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on the p-CuI layer. LB films of M-C18 are deposited under biasing conditions during the LB deposition process on Cu/p-CuI, Cu/n-Cu2O/p-CuI and conductive glass plates with the three-electrode configuration setup coupling to the LB trough. LB films prepared under positive biasing conditions enhance the photocurrent quantum efficiencies for both PECs and DSSCs controlling and minimizing the formation of dye aggregates. The electrolyte used for LB deposition and photocurrent measurements is (10-2 M) Fe2+ + Fe3+ (10-2 M) and (10-2 M) NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4, pH = 6 buffer solution. Maximum photocurrent quantum efficiencies (Фmax%) obtained are ≈22% for PEC and ≈20% for DSSCs, where the M-C18 LB film deposition applied potentials +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mechanism of the photocurrent enhancement is discussed through the CAN's model equation, Ф = AD0-BD02, where A = k1k2/F, B = I k12 k2[2k6/F3 + k2k4/k32 X2F2], F = k2 + k5Y + k7 + k1 I [1 + k2/k3 X], presented from our previous study [1]. Experimental evidence for the formation of the aggregates of M-C18 LB films for the negative applied potentials and suppression of the aggregates with positive applied potentials are presented from absorption spectra, AFM pictures and fluorescence measurements of the samples. Conversion efficiency obtained is ≈2.5%, Voc ≈750 mV and Isc ≈ 5.8 mA cm-2 for DSSC fabricated with +0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl applied deposition potential of M-C18 LB films.

  14. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  15. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  16. Experimental study on the EMP failure mode of DC solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Chen Xiangyue; Zhai Aibin; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    DC solid state relay is a new type switch device without touch point, and is extensive used by aviation and spaceflight technique. In this paper, the EMP failure modes of solid state relays were obtained by current injection method. (authors)

  17. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  18. Solid State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    G. E. Betts Analog Optical Links for High Dynamic L. M. Johnson Range C. H. Cox III Nonimaging Concentrators for Diode- P. Lacovara Pumped Slab Lasers...P. Gleckman* SPIEs 1991 International R. Holman* Symposium on Optical Science R. Winston * and Engineering, San Diego, California, Free-Space Board-to...xxv 1. ELECTROOPTICAL DEVICES 1 1.1 Optical Phase Difference Measurement and Correction Using AIGaAs Integrated Guided-Wave Components 1 1.2 Two

  19. Photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion based on blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl propyl-1-phenyl [6,6]C61 (PCBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teketel Yohannes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solid-state photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion device based on blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and 1-(3-methoxycarbonylpropyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (PCBM, and an amorphous poly(ethylene oxide complexed with I3-/I- redox couple has been constructed and characterized. The photoelectrochemical performance parameters of the device were compared with pure P3HT and P3HT:C60 blend solid-state photoelectrochemical cell. The current density-voltage characteristics in the dark and under white light illumination and photocurrent spectra for front and backside illuminations have been studied. An open-circuit voltage of 140 mV and a short-circuit current density of 28.4 μA/cm2 at light intensity of 100 mW/cm2; IPCE% of 1.52% for front side illumination (ITO|PEDOT and IPCE% of 0.17% for backside illumination (ITO|P3HT:PCBM at a wavelength of 510 nm were obtained. The dependence of the short-circuit current density and an open-circuit voltage on the light intensity and time have also been studied.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.12

  20. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  1. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  2. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  4. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  5. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  6. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  7. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  8. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  9. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  10. Proceedings of the DAE solid state physics symposium. V. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, is organized annually. The topics covered are phase transitions, soft condensed matter, nano-materials, experimental techniques, instrumentation and solid state devices, superconductivity, magnetism, electronic structure and phonons, semiconductor physics, transport properties, surface - interface and thin films, liquids, glasses and amorphous systems, etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  12. Characterization of pore-filling of spiro-MeOTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells and its consequence in device performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2009-08-27

    In this paper, the pore filling of spiro-MeOTAD (2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9, 9\\'-spirobifluorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UVVis absorption spectroscopy. We show that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-•m-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60-65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device

  13. Pore-Filling of Spiro-OMeTAD in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Quantification, Mechanism, and Consequences for Device Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2009-08-10

    In this paper, the pore filling of spiro-OMeTAD (2,2′,7,7′- tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9′-spirobtfIuorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-μm-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60-65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Pore-Filling of Spiro-OMeTAD in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Quantification, Mechanism, and Consequences for Device Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang; Té treault, Nicolas; Brillet, Jé ré mie; Hardin, Brian E.; Smith, Eva H.; Rosenthal, Samuel J.; Sauvage, Fré dé ric; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the pore filling of spiro-OMeTAD (2,2′,7,7′- tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9′-spirobtfIuorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-μm-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60-65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  16. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  17. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  18. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  19. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  20. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  1. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  2. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  3. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Structural and luminescence properties of CaTiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method for the application of solid state lighting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dhananjay Kumar, E-mail: dksism89@gmail.com; Manam, J., E-mail: jairam.manam@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The present work report a series of trivalent Europium (Eu{sup 3+}) doped well crystallized perovskite CaTiO{sub 3} phosphors successfully synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The crystal structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which is in good agreement with pure orthorhombic phase with space group Pbnm, and it also indicated that the incorporation of the dopant did not affect the crystal structure. The impact of doping on the photoluminescence performances of the sample has been investigated by emission, excitation, and diffuse reflectance spectra at the room temperature. Photoluminescence spectra of Eu{sup 3+} doped CaTiO{sub 3} nanophosphor revealed the characteristic emission peak around wavelength 618 nm in the visible region upon the excitation of near-UV light at wavelength 397 nm due to {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition in Eu{sup 3+}. It was further proved that the dipole– dipole interactions results in the concentration quenching of Eu{sup 3+} in CaTiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors. The elemental composition of sample carried out by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). EDS analysis reveals that the Eu{sup 3+} doped successfully into host CaTiO{sub 3}. The experimental result reveals that prepared nanophosphor can be used in the application of solid state lighting devices.

  5. Solid-state, ambient-operation thermally activated delayed fluorescence from flexible, non-toxic gold-nanocluster thin films: towards the development of biocompatible light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talite, M. J. A.; Lin, H. T.; Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Huang, H. Y.; Heredia, E.; Flores, A.; Chao, Y. C.; Shen, J. L.; Lin, C. A. J.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    Luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with good biocompatibility have gained much attention in bio-photonics. In addition, they also exhibit a unique photo-physical property, namely thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), by which both singlet and triplet excitons can be harvested. The combination of their non-toxic material property and unique TADF behavior makes AuNCs biocompatible nano-emitters for bio-related light-emitting devices. Unfortunately, the TADF emission is quenched when colloidal AuNCs are transferred to solid states under ambient environment. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method was used to generate efficient and stable TADF emissions from solid AuNCs under ambient environment using polyvinyl alcohol as a solid matrix. To unravel the underlying mechanism, temperature-dependent static and transient photoluminescence measurements were performed and we found that two factors are crucial for solid TADF emission: small energy splitting between singlet and triplet states and the stabilization of the triplet states. Solid TADF films were also deposited on the flexible plastic substrate with patterned structures, thus mitigating the waveguide-mode losses. In addition, we also demonstrated that warm white light can be generated based on a co-doped single emissive layer, consisting of non-toxic, solution-processed TADF AuNCs and fluorescent carbon dots under UV excitation.

  6. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  7. Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Akana, G.L.; Gower, E.J.; Hawkins, S.A.; Hickman, B.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Brooksby, C.A.; /NONE - BECHTEL NEVADA LAS VEGAS; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Nguyen, M.N.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  8. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-01-01

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems

  9. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-05-05

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  10. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  11. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  12. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  14. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  16. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  17. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  18. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  19. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  20. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  1. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  2. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  3. Microelectronics: Atoms diffusion in solid state. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Higuera, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamentals on which the technology for the diffusion of impurities in solid state is based, is presented. This technology is widely used to produce controlled and localized concentrations of atoms of the mentioned impurities in base solids in order to obtain those characteristics which may lead to the implementation of electronic, optoelectronic and electrooptic devices. (Author)

  4. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  5. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  6. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  7. Internal Light Source-Driven Photoelectrochemical 3D-rGO/Cellulose Device Based on Cascade DNA Amplification Strategy Integrating Target Analog Chain and DNA Mimic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feifei; Liang, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Li; Ren, Na; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a chemiluminescence-driven collapsible greeting card-like photoelectrochemical lab-on-paper device (GPECD) with hollow channel was demonstrated, in which target-triggering cascade DNA amplification strategy was ingeniously introduced. The GPECD had the functions of reagents storage and signal collection, and the change of configuration could control fluidic path, reaction time and alterations in electrical connectivity. In addition, three-dimentional reduced graphene oxide affixed Au flower was in situ grown on paper cellulose fiber for achieving excellent conductivity and biocompatibility. The cascade DNA amplification strategy referred to the cyclic formation of target analog chain and its trigger action to hybridization chain reaction (HCR), leading to the formation of numerous hemin/G-quadruplex DNA mimic enzyme with the presence of hemin. Subjected to the catalysis of hemin/G-quadruplex, the strong chemiluminiscence of luminol-H 2 O 2 system was obtained, which then was used as internal light source to excite photoactive materials realizing the simplification of instrument. In this analyzing process, thrombin served as proof-of-concept, and the concentration of target was converted into the DNA signal output by the specific recognition of aptamer-protein and target analog chain recycling. The target analog chain was produced in quantity with the presence of target, which further triggered abundant HCR and introduced hemin/G-quadruplex into the system. The photocurrent signal was obtained after the nitrogen-doped carbon dots sensitized ZnO was stimulated by chemiluminescence. The proposed GPECD exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity toward thrombin with a detection limit of 16.7 fM. This judiciously engineered GPECD paved a luciferous way for detecting other protein with trace amounts in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine.

  8. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  9. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  10. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  11. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  12. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  13. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA); Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques.

  14. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  15. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  16. Photoelectrochemical enzymatic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-06-15

    Enzymatic biosensors have been valuable bioanalytical devices for analysis of diverse targets in disease diagnosis, biological and biomedical research, etc. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis is a recently emerged method that promptly becoming a subject of new research interests due to its attractive potential for future bioanalysis with high sensitivity and specificity. PEC enzymatic biosensors integrate the inherent sensitivities of PEC bioanalysis and the selectivity of enzymes and thus share their both advantages. Currently, PEC enzymatic biosensors have become a hot topic of significant research and the recent impetus has grown rapidly as demonstrated by increased research papers. Given the pace of advances in this area, this review will make a thorough discussion and survey on the fundamentals, sensing strategies, applications and the state of the art in PEC enzymatic biosensors, followed by future prospects based on our own opinions. We hope this work could provide an accessible introduction to PEC enzymatic biosensors for any scientist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  18. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. A Further Comparison of Solid-State Thermionic and Thermoelectric Refrigeration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humphrey, T. E; O'Dwyer, M. F; Shakouri, A

    2005-01-01

    We show that the expressions for current and heat current calculated via (the non-linearized) ballistic and diffusive transport formalisms reduce to the same form for solid-state devices one electron mean free path in length...

  20. Large-Scale Integration of Solid-State Microfluidic Valves With No Moving Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastangelo, Carlos H; Gianchandani, Yogesh B; Frechet, J. M

    2005-01-01

    This research concerns the development of a new kind of revolutionary design, solid-state microvalves that will permit the realization of complex microfluidic systems with arrays of hundreds of flow-control devices...

  1. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  2. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  3. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  4. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  5. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  6. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  7. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  8. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  9. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  10. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  11. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng, E-mail: Xinsheng_Ling@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  12. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  13. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  14. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  15. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  16. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  17. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  18. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  19. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  20. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  1. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  2. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  3. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  4. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  5. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  6. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  7. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  8. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  9. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  10. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  11. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  12. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  13. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  14. Design and Control of a 13.2 kV/10 kVA Single-Phase Solid-State-Transformer with 1.7 kV SiC Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Woo Lim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the power stage design, control, and performance evaluation of a 13.2 kV/10 kVA solid-state-transformer (SST for a power distribution system. The proposed SST consists of 10 modules where each individual module contains a unidirectional three-level power factor correction (PFC converter for the active-front-end (AFE stage and an LLC resonant converter for the isolated DC-DC stage. The operating principles of the converters are analyzed and the modulation and the control schemes for the entire module are described in detail. The DC-link voltage imbalance is also less than other SST topologies due to the low number of uncontrollable switching states. In order to simplify the control of the power stage, a modulation strategy for the AFE stage is proposed, and the modulation frequency of the LLC converter is also fixed. In addition, a compensation algorithm is suggested to eliminate the current measurement offset in the AFE stage. The proposed SST achieves the unity power factor at the input AC current regardless of the reactive or nonlinear load and a low voltage regulation at the AC output. In order to verify the effectiveness of the SST, the 13.2 kV/10 kV SST prototype is built and tested. Both the simulation and the experimental results under actual 13.2 kV line show the excellent performance of the proposed SST scheme.

  15. Observations of spectroscopic binaries with a solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, F. Jr.; Lacy, C.H.; Tomkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent installation of a solid-state 1024-element silicon photodiode array detector (Reticon) at the coude focus of the 2.7 m McDonald Observatory reflector has greatly extended its limits of observation for binary and multiple systems which have weak and/or broad-lined components. This detector can produce extremely high signal-to-noise ratio observations and has high quantum efficiency over the wavelength region 3000-11000 A. The observational programs of three users of this device are described. (Auth.)

  16. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  17. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  18. Recent Developments of All-Solid-State Lithium Secondary Batteries with Sulfide Inorganic Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruochen; Zhang, Shengzhao; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Yan; Xia, Xinhui; Wu, Jianbo; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-04-20

    Due to the increasing demand of security and energy density, all-solid-state lithium ion batteries have become the promising next-generation energy storage devices to replace the traditional liquid batteries with flammable organic electrolytes. In this Minireview, we focus on the recent developments of sulfide inorganic electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries. The challenges of assembling bulk-type all-solid-state batteries for industrialization are discussed, including low ionic conductivity of the present sulfide electrolytes, high interfacial resistance and poor compatibility between electrolytes and electrodes. Many efforts have been focused on the solutions for these issues. Although some progresses have been achieved, it is still far away from practical application. The perspectives for future research on all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Kongyin; Tang Baoyin; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Langping; Wang Songyan; Wu Hongchen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 μs waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  20. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  1. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  2. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  3. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  4. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  5. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  6. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  7. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  8. stability analysis of a three-phase solid-state var compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... solid-state devices (bipolar junction transistor (BJT), insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), gate-turn- off thyristor (GTO) and power MOSFET has elim- inated these problems. The voltage source inverter. (VSI) employing any one of these devices is an efficient equipment for reactive power compensation or ...

  9. Demonstration Experiments for Solid-State Physics Using a Table-Top Mechanical Stirling Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, M. R.; Morales, A. Palacio; Rodrigo, J. G.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-free cryogenic devices are acquiring importance in basic science and engineering. But they can also lead to improvements in teaching low temperature and solid-state physics to graduate students and specialists. Most of the devices are relatively expensive, but small-sized equipment is slowly becoming available. Here, we have designed…

  10. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  11. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  12. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  13. Interim report on the state-of-the-art of solid-state motor controllers. Part 4. Failure-rate and failure-mode data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaross, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    An assessment of the reliability of solid-state motor controllers for nuclear power plants is made. Available data on failure-rate and failure-mode data for solid-state motor controllers based on industrial operating experience is meager; the data are augmented by data on other solid-state power electronic devices that are shown to have components similar to those found in solid-state motor controllers. In addition to large nonnuclear solid-state adjustable-speed motor drives, the reliability of nuclear plant inverter systems and high-voltage solid-state dc transmission-line converters is assessed. Licensee Event Report analyses from several sources, the open literature, and personal communications are used to determine the realiability of solid-state devices typical of those expected to be used in nuclear power plants in terms of failures per hour

  14. Nanogap Electrodes towards Solid State Single-Molecule Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ajuan; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2015-12-01

    With the establishment of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based integrated circuit technology, it has become more difficult to follow Moore's law to further downscale the size of electronic components. Devices based on various nanostructures were constructed to continue the trend in the minimization of electronics, and molecular devices are among the most promising candidates. Compared with other candidates, molecular devices show unique superiorities, and intensive studies on molecular devices have been carried out both experimentally and theoretically at the present time. Compared to two-terminal molecular devices, three-terminal devices, namely single-molecule transistors, show unique advantages both in fundamental research and application and are considered to be an essential part of integrated circuits based on molecular devices. However, it is very difficult to construct them using the traditional microfabrication techniques directly, thus new fabrication strategies are developed. This review aims to provide an exclusive way of manufacturing solid state gated nanogap electrodes, the foundation of constructing transistors of single or a few molecules. Such single-molecule transistors have the potential to be used to build integrated circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short

  16. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  17. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  18. Applications of solid state ionics for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G.

    1988-09-01

    An overview is presented of solid state battery systems, especially those based on inorganic materials such as AgI, CuI and LiI. Emphasis is focussed on the structural and other modifications that are required to produce room temperature, compacted powder electrolytes with enhanced conductivity. The implications for primary batteries of discharge-induced changes of the local structure surrounding the mobile species are considered with reference to cuprous electrolytes. The use of these materials for other applications is discussed.

  19. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  20. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300 0 C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO 4 :Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot-pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150 0 C prior to first use dosimeters

  1. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  2. Solid State Research, 1980:4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Fetterman G. A. Koepf* P. F. Goldsmith6 B.J. Clifton D. Buhl* N. R. Eriekson" D.D. Peck N. McAvoy* P. F. Tannenwald Accepted by Science St40... Fetterman 22 **** -^m^m-i^jm^ -«%, j». ■*** REFERENCES 1. Solid State Research Report, Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (1980:2), pp. 11-12. DTK? AD-A092724...17. M.G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, and J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2304(1979). - 18. W. A.M. Blumberg, U.R. Fetterman , D.D. Peck, and P.F

  3. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  4. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  5. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  6. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  7. Unravelling radiative energy transfer in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikov, Rustamzhon; Press, Daniel Aaron; Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of organic and inorganic luminescent materials (e.g., phosphors, quantum dots, etc.) are being used for lighting and new materials (e.g., graphene, perovskite, etc.) are currently under investigation. However, the understanding of radiative energy transfer is limited, even though it is critical to understand and improve the performance levels of solid-state lighting devices. In this study, we derived a matrix approach that includes absorption, reabsorption, inter-absorption and their iterative and combinatorial interactions for one and multiple types of fluorophores, which is simplified to an analytical matrix. This mathematical approach gives results that agree well with the measured spectral and efficiency characteristics of color-conversion light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it also provides a deep physical insight by uncovering the entire radiative interactions and their contribution to the output optical spectrum. The model is universal and applicable for all kinds of fluorophores.

  8. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  9. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    * The Sputtered La0.5Sr0.5MnO3-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Composite Electrode in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * A Solid Electrochemical Ferro Sensor for Molten Matte * SnO2-based Sensor for H2S Monitoring-Electrical Conductivity Measurements and Device Testing * Humidity Sensor using Potassium Tungsten Bronze Synthesized from Peroxo-Polytungstic Acid * Study on Li/LiClO4/V6O13 Test Cells * Fabrication and Characterisation of Some Solid Electrolyte Cells Containing CuI and Silver Oxysalts * Solid State Battery of Proton Conducting Sodium Thiosulphate Pentahydrate * Low Temperature Synthesis of LiMn2O4 for Secondary Lithium Batteries * Effect of Different Cathode Active Materials on Battery Performance with Silver Molybdate Electrolyte Partially Substituted with Zinc Oxide * Fabrication and Characterization of Electrochemical Cells based on Silver Molybdoarsenate and Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolytes * Lorentz Force Dependence of Dissipation in a Granular Superconductor * Late Entry (Invited paper) * Simultaneous Voltammetry and Spectroscopy of Polyaniline in Propylene Carbonate * Author Index * Tentative List of Participants

  10. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  11. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  12. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  13. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  14. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  15. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  16. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  17. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  18. Kinetic study of solid-state processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Jiri; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for kinetic analysis of solid-state processes has been developed and the criteria capable of classifying different processes are explored. They provide a useful tool for the determination of the most suitable kinetic model. The method has been applied to the analysis of calorimetric data corresponding to the crystallization processes in amorphous ZrO 2 . It is found that the crystallization kinetics of amorphous powder sample exhibits a complex behavior under non-isothermal conditions. A two-parameter model provides a satisfactory description of the crystallization process for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. This enables better control of crystallization extent in fine ZrO 2 powders that is important for preparation of zirconia ceramics with defined properties. (author)

  19. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  20. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  1. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  2. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  3. Plasma-assisted ALD of LiPO(N) for solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, B.; Mees, M.J.; Hornsveld, N.; Sepúlveda, A.; Vereecken, P.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Creatore, M.

    2016-01-01

    All solid state 3D batteries are pursued for their increased safety and high power capabilities. At present conformai coating of the solid electrolyte remains one of the key hurdles for the implementation of such devices. In the present work we investigate atomic layer deposition (ALD) as means of

  4. Nanochannels Photoelectrochemical Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Ruan, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-02-06

    Nanochannels have brought new opportunities for biosensor development. Herein, we present the novel concept of a nanochannels photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the integration of a unique Cu x O-nanopyramid-islands (NPIs) photocathode, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalytic chemistry. The Cu x O-NPIs photocathode possesses good performance, and further assembly with AAO yields a designed architecture composed of vertically aligned, highly ordered nanoarrays on top of the Cu x O-NPIs film. After biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) was stimulated within the channels, the biosensor was used for the successful detection of ALP activity. This study has not only provided a novel paradigm for an unconventional nanochannels PEC biosensor, which can be used for general bioanalytical purposes, but also indicated that the new concept of nanochannel-semiconductor heterostructures is a step toward innovative biomedical applications.

  5. Freestanding mesoporous VN/CNT hybrid electrodes for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Peng, Xiang; Jin, Huanyu; Li, Tianqi; Zhang, Chengcheng; Gao, Biao; Hu, Bin; Huo, Kaifu; Zhou, Jun

    2013-09-25

    High-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) are fabricated based on thin, lightweight, and flexible freestanding MVNN/CNT hybrid electrodes. The device shows a high volume capacitance of 7.9 F/cm(3) , volume energy and power density of 0.54 mWh/cm(3) and 0.4 W/cm(3) at a current density of 0.025 A/cm(3) . By being highly flexible, environmentally friendly, and easily connectable in series and parallel, the all-solid-state SCs promise potential applications in portable/wearable electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  7. Controlling Long-Lived Triplet Generation from Intramolecular Singlet Fission in the Solid State

    KAUST Repository

    Pace, Natalie A.

    2017-11-30

    The conjugated polymer poly(benzothiophene dioxide) (PBTDO1) has recently been shown to exhibit efficient intramolecular singlet fission in solution. In this paper, we investigate the role of intermolecular interactions in triplet separation dynamics after singlet fission. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to determine the singlet fission rate and triplet yield in two polymers differing only by side chain motif in both solution and the solid state. Whereas solid-state films show singlet fission rates identical to those measured in solution, the average lifetime of the triplet population increases dramatically, and is strongly dependent on side-chain identity. These results show that it may be necessary to carefully engineer the solid-state microstructure of these “singlet fission polymers” in order to produce the long-lived triplets needed to realize efficient photovoltaic devices.

  8. Controlling Long-Lived Triplet Generation from Intramolecular Singlet Fission in the Solid State

    KAUST Repository

    Pace, Natalie A.; Zhang, Weimin; Arias, Dylan H.; McCulloch, Iain; Rumbles, Garry; Johnson, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    The conjugated polymer poly(benzothiophene dioxide) (PBTDO1) has recently been shown to exhibit efficient intramolecular singlet fission in solution. In this paper, we investigate the role of intermolecular interactions in triplet separation dynamics after singlet fission. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to determine the singlet fission rate and triplet yield in two polymers differing only by side chain motif in both solution and the solid state. Whereas solid-state films show singlet fission rates identical to those measured in solution, the average lifetime of the triplet population increases dramatically, and is strongly dependent on side-chain identity. These results show that it may be necessary to carefully engineer the solid-state microstructure of these “singlet fission polymers” in order to produce the long-lived triplets needed to realize efficient photovoltaic devices.

  9. UV sensitivity of various solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Zeljka; Ranogajec-Komor, Maria; Miljanic, Saveta

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The light sensitivity is an important characteristic of solid state passive dosimeters used in individual, clinical and environmental dosimetry. Light sensitivity stands for the response directly induced by visible or UV light in a fully annealed material. For the above mentioned applications a negligible light sensitivity is an advantage. However, high light sensitivity and linear response allows the use of detectors as UV dosimeters. For this purpose various TL detectors and the glass element of the RPL dosemeter type SC-1 were systematically investigated after exposure to UV light (254 and 366 nm) as a function of time. The following solid state detectors were investigated relative to TLD-100: Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,Cu,Si, Al 2 O 3 :C and the glass element of RPL dosimeter. UV irradiations were performed with Camag UV lamp at 254 nm and at 366 nm. The illumination times were 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Day light illumination was also carried out at room temperature over time period of several hours up to 2 weeks. The UV light response of each detector was compared to the response obtained after irradiation with 137 Cs. Al 2 O 3 :C, showed high light sensitivity; after 10 minutes illumination with 254 nm UV light the response was equivalent to 130 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation. The 254 nm UV response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200 A), as well as TLD-700H and Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P were proportional to the time of illumination. The responses after 10 min UV illumination were equivalent to 0.001 mGy, 0.01 mGy and 0.1 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation, respectively. The complete SC-1 RPL dosimeter is insensitive to light because the glass element is encapsulated in light protected holder throughout the automatic evaluation process following the annealing (irradiation, preheat, readout). The responses of the previously annealed glass element after 20 min illumination with 254 nm and 366 nm UV light were equivalent to 45μSv and 3 μSv of 137 Cs gamma

  10. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  11. Automatic measurement for solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Since in solid state track detectors, their tracks are measured with a microscope, observers are forced to do hard works that consume time and labour. This causes to obtain poor statistic accuracy or to produce personal error. Therefore, many researches have been done to aim at simplifying and automating track measurement. There are two categories in automating the measurement: simple counting of the number of tracks and the requirements to know geometrical elements such as the size of tracks or their coordinates as well as the number of tracks. The former is called automatic counting and the latter automatic analysis. The method to generally evaluate the number of tracks in automatic counting is the estimation of the total number of tracks in the total detector area or in a field of view of a microscope. It is suitable for counting when the track density is higher. The method to count tracks one by one includes the spark counting and the scanning microdensitometer. Automatic analysis includes video image analysis in which the high quality images obtained with a high resolution video camera are processed with a micro-computer, and the tracks are automatically recognized and measured by feature extraction. This method is described in detail. In many kinds of automatic measurements reported so far, frequently used ones are ''spark counting'' and ''video image analysis''. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  13. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  14. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  16. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  17. III-Nitride Blue Laser Diode with Photoelectrochemically Etched Current Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalini, Ludovico

    Group III-nitride is a remarkable material system to make highly efficient and high-power optoelectronics and electronic devices because of the unique electrical, physical, chemical and structural properties it offers. In particular, InGaN-based blue Laser Diodes (LDs) have been successfully employed in a variety of applications ranging from biomedical and military devices to scientific instrumentation and consumer electronics. Recently their use in highly efficient Solid State Lighting (SSL) has been proposed because of their superior beam quality and higher efficiency at high input power density. Tremendous advances in research of GaN semi-polar and non-polar crystallographic planes have led both LEDs and LDs grown on these non-basal planes to rival with, and with the promise to outperform, their equivalent c-plane counterparts. However, still many issues need to be addressed, both related to material growth and device fabrication, including a lack of conventional wet etching techniques. GaN and its alloys with InN and AlN have proven resistant essentially to all known standard wet etching techniques, and the predominant etching methods rely on chlorine-based dry etching (RIE). These introduce sub-surface damage which can degrade the electrical properties of the epitaxial structure and reduce the reliability and lifetime of the final device. Such reasons and the limited effectiveness of passivation techniques have so far suggested to etch the LD ridges before the active region, although it is well-known that this can badly affect the device performance, especially in narrow stripe width LDs, because the gain guiding obtained in the planar configuration is weak and the low index step and high lateral current leakage result in devices with threshold current density higher than devices whose ridge is etched beyond the active region. Moreover, undercut etching of III-nitride layers has proven even more challenging, with limitations in control of the lateral etch

  18. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D. (PI); McFarland, Eric W. (PI)

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  19. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  20. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  1. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  2. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  3. Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced

  4. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  5. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  6. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  7. Harwell's atomic, molecular and solid state computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.H.

    1976-02-01

    This document is intended to introduce the computational facilities available in the fields of atomic, molecular the solid state theory on the IBM370/165 at Harwell. The programs have all been implemented and thoroughly tested by the Theory of Solid State Materials Group. (author)

  8. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  9. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  11. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of

  12. Parameters influencing charge separation in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using novel hole conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, J.E.; Hirata, N.; Schmidt-Mende, L.; Orizu, C.; Ogier, S.D.; Carr, K.; Grätzel, M.; Durrant, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid organic hole-transport material (HTM) are currently under intensive investigation, since they offer a number of practical advantages over liquid-electrolyte junction devices. Of particular importance to the design of such devices is the

  13. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-01-01

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths (λ=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range (λ=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution

  14. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  15. Solid-state physics for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Describing the fundamental physical properties of materials used in electronics, the thorough coverage of this book will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices. The book opens with an introduction to the basic applied physics of simple electronic states and energy levels. Silicon and copper, the building blocks for many electronic devices, are used as examples. Next, more advanced theories are developed to better account for the electronic and optical behavior of ordered materials, such as diamond, and disordered ma

  16. All-solid-state lithium-ion microbatteries: a review of various three-dimensional concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudenhoven, Jos F.M.; Baggetto, Loic; Notten, Peter H.L. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing importance of wireless microelectronic devices the need for on-board power supplies is evidently also increasing. Possible candidates for microenergy storage devices are planar all-solid-state Li-ion microbatteries, which are currently under development by several start-up companies. However, to increase the energy density of these microbatteries further and to ensure a high power delivery, three-dimensional (3D) designs are essential. Therefore, several concepts have been proposed for the design of 3D microbatteries and these are reviewed. In addition, an overview is given of the various electrode and electrolyte materials that are suitable for 3D all-solid-state microbatteries. Furthermore, methods are presented to produce films of these materials on a nano- and microscale. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  18. Sintered Cathodes for All-Solid-State Structural Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, William; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state structural lithium ion batteries serve as both structural load-bearing components and as electrical energy storage devices to achieve system level weight savings in aerospace and other transportation applications. This multifunctional design goal is critical for the realization of next generation hybrid or all-electric propulsion systems. Additionally, transitioning to solid state technology improves upon battery safety from previous volatile architectures. This research established baseline solid state processing conditions and performance benchmarks for intercalation-type layered oxide materials for multifunctional application. Under consideration were lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide. Pertinent characteristics such as electrical conductivity, strength, chemical stability, and microstructure were characterized for future application in all-solid-state structural battery cathodes. The study includes characterization by XRD, ICP, SEM, ring-on-ring mechanical testing, and electrical impedance spectroscopy to elucidate optimal processing parameters, material characteristics, and multifunctional performance benchmarks. These findings provide initial conditions for implementing existing cathode materials in load bearing applications.

  19. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  20. Coupling DNA nano-breadboards to solid state conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liqian; Morales, Piero; Dalmastri, Claudia; Rapone, Bruno; Gothelf, Kurt; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Rettere, Scott

    2015-01-01

    DNA is not only a most extraordinary information storage medium: the programmable pairing of DNA single strands into precisely engineered, connecting double helices make it an extremely appealing material for assemblage of nanoscale architectures. This is the basis of DNA nanotechnology, and designing almost any structure made of DNA at the nanometer scale, decorating it with a variety of functional molecules, and accomplishing it by virtually inexpensive self-assembly, is already a reality in many research laboratories in the world. But can we extend the range of applications of this technology by coupling DNA grafted molecular electronic nano circuitry to solid state devices, and interface molecular smart functions to our senses? This challenging research is addressed by a collaborative research among ENEA, the Universities of Roma 'Tor Vergata' and 'Aarhus', and the CNMS of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first results obtained by our consortium pave the way to the technological ability to interface and use completely self-assembled, DNA-based electronic nano-breadboards, endowed with ultra-high-density functional organic components [it

  1. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  2. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  3. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  4. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladeji, I. [Planar Energy Devices, Inc.; Wood, D. L. [ORNL; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  5. Solid state laser applications in photovoltaics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, Corey; Colville, Finlay

    2008-02-01

    Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by increasing government and societal pressure to use renewable energy as part of an overall strategy to address global warming attributed to greenhouse gas emissions. Initially supported in several countries by generous tax subsidies, solar cell manufacturers are relentlessly pushing the performance/cost ratio of these devices in a quest to reach true cost parity with grid electricity. Clearly this eventual goal will result in further acceleration in the overall market growth. Silicon wafer based solar cells are currently the mainstay of solar end-user installations with a cost up to three times grid electricity. But next-generation technology in the form of thin-film devices promises streamlined, high-volume manufacturing and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. Notwithstanding the modest conversion efficiency of thin-film devices compared to wafered silicon products (around 6-10% versus 15-20%), this cost reduction is driving existing and start-up solar manufacturers to switch to thin-film production. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. Lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. This paper examines these processes and discusses the optimization of industrial lasers to meet their specific needs.

  6. Sub-micrometer-thick all-solid-state supercapacitors with high power and energy densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanhui [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ding, Yi [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Applied Research Center for Gold Technology (Au-SDARC), Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A sub-micrometer-thick, flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated. Through simultaneous realization of high dispersity of pseudocapacitance materials and quick electrode response, the hybrid nanostructures show enhanced volumetric capacitance and excellent stability, as well as very high power and energy densities. This suggests their potential as next-generation, high-performance energy conversion and storage devices for wearable electronics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The calibration of the solid state nuclear track detector LR 115 for radon measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, C; Jönsson, G; Freyer, K; Treutler, H C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    An experimental calibration of indoor room and outdoor soil detector devices which are based on LR 115 as sensitive element has taken place at the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm (Sweden) in 1994 and 1996, at the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (Germany) in 1997 and at the Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany) in 1997. Special properties of the used solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) material LR 115 have been measured to define the application of the experimental calibration.

  8. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  9. Solid State Research, 1977:2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-15

    Chem. Phys. 4726 Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter- Wave Modulators and Polarizers J.C.C. Fan H. R. Fetterman F. J. Bachner P. M. Zavracky C. D. Parker... Fetterman IEEE Groups on Sonics and Ultrasonics and on Electron Devices, Technical Meeting of Boston Chapters, MITRE Corp., Bedford...Leader P. L. Kelley, Associate Leader Barch, W. E. Brueck, S. R. J. Burke, J. W. Chinn, S. R. DeFeo, W. E. Deutsch, T. F. Fetterman , H. R

  10. Photonic design for efficient solid state energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mukul

    The efficiency of conversion between electrical and photonic energy in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and solar cells is strongly affected by the photonic modes supported by the device structure. In this thesis, we show how tuning of the local photon density of states in subwavelength structures can be used to optimize device performance. The first part of the thesis is focused on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), a candidate technology for next-generation displays and solid-state lighting. An important unsolved problem in OLEDs is to ensure that a significant fraction of photons emitted by the organic emissive layer couple out of the device structure instead of remaining trapped in the device. It is shown using modeling and experiments that optimized non-periodic dielectric multilayer stacks can significantly increase the photon outcoupling while maintaining display quality brightness uniformity over the viewing cone. In the second part, we discuss the theoretical limits to broadband light harvesting in photovoltaic cells. First, it is shown that the extent to which one-dimensional optical cavities can be used to enhance light absorption over a broad spectral range is limited by the requirement that the cavity mirrors have a causal response. This result is used as a guide to design practical dielectric structures that enhance light harvesting in planar thin-film organic solar cells. Finally, we consider the enhancement of optical absorption in two- and three-dimensional structures in which incident light is scattered into quasi-trapped modes for more effective utilization of solar radiation. It is shown that there is an upper bound to the degree to which optical absorption can be enhanced that is identical to the limit found in the geometric optics regime. Rigorous optical simulations are used to show that an optical structure consisting of a two-dimensional array of inverted pyramids comes close to this limit. Before

  11. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  12. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  13. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  14. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Solid State Ionics: Recent Advances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become an important research tool in Solid State Ionics. Some new developments are highlighted: new methods of automatic parameter extraction from impedance measurements are briefly discussed. The Kramers–Kronig data validation test presents another

  15. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  16. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  17. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  18. The distribution choice for the threshold of solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    Either normal distribution or Weibull distribution can be accepted as sample distribution of the threshold of solid state relay. By goodness-of-fit method, bootstrap method and Bayesian method, the Weibull distribution is chosen later. (authors)

  19. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  20. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  1. A Low Power, Solid State, Method of Oxygen Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of the work prior to the start of this project is the planar monolith - allowing for solid state oxygen production at pressures up to 300 psig....

  2. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  3. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  4. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  5. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  6. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  7. Eutectic and solid-state wafer bonding of silicon with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouie, Maryam; Liu, Qi; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Eutectic and solid-state Au-Si bonding are compared for both a-Si and c-Si samples. ► Exchange of a-Si and Au layer was observed in both types of bonded samples. ► Use of c-Si for bonding resulted in formation of craters at the Au/c-Si interface. ► Solid-state Au-Si bonding produces better bonds in terms of microstructure. - Abstract: The simple Au-Si eutectic, which melts at 363 °C, can be used to bond Si wafers. However, faceted craters can form at the Au/Si interface as a result of anisotropic and non-uniform reaction between Au and crystalline silicon (c-Si). These craters may adversely affect active devices on the wafers. Two possible solutions to this problem were investigated in this study. One solution was to use an amorphous silicon layer (a-Si) that was deposited on the c-Si substrate to bond with the Au. The other solution was to use solid-state bonding instead of eutectic bonding, and the wafers were bonded at a temperature (350 °C) below the Au-Si eutectic temperature. The results showed that the a-Si layer prevented the formation of craters and solid-state bonding not only required a lower bonding temperature than eutectic bonding, but also prevented spill out of the solder resulting in strong bonds with high shear strength in comparison with eutectic bonding. Using amorphous silicon, the maximum shear strength for the solid-state Au-Si bond reached 15.2 MPa, whereas for the eutectic Au-Si bond it was 13.2 MPa.

  8. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  9. Dye-sensitized PS-b-P2VP-templated nickel oxide films for photoelectrochemical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Massin, Julien; Bräutigam, Maximilian; Kaeffer, Nicolas; Queyriaux, Nicolas; Field, Martin J.; Schacher, Felix H.; Popp, Jürgen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dietzek, Benjamin; Artero, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Moving from homogeneous water-splitting photocatalytic systems to photoelectrochemical devices requires the preparation and evaluation of novel p-type transparent conductive photoelectrode substrates. We report here on the sensitization of polystyrene-block-poly-(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer-templated NiO films with an organic push–pull dye. The potential of these new templated NiO film preparations for photoelectrochemical applications is compared with NiO material template...

  10. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Park, Jihoon; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  11. A conducting polymer nucleation scheme for efficient solid-state supercapacitors on paper

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-08-19

    In this study, a thin nucleation layer is used to tune the morphology of conducting polymer electrodes and to optimize the performance of paper based solid-state supercapacitors. It is found that using an acid-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nucleation layer, prior to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, electrochemical deposition, gives 5-6 times higher areal capacitance compared to a gold metal nucleation layer. Specifically, PEDOT supercapacitors with a high volumetric capacitance of 327 F cm-3, higher than any other PEDOT based supercapacitors reported in the literature, is achieved on the PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer; for the same devices, an areal capacitance of 242 mF cm-2 and an energy density of 14.5 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 350 mW cm-3 are obtained. Furthermore, these optimized PEDOT/PEDOT:PSS/paper electrodes are employed to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors using aqueous and ion gel electrolytes, with 32 and 11 mF cm-2 cell capacitance, respectively. The solid-state PEDOT device showed an energy density of 1.5 mW h cm-3 (normalised to the volume of the whole cell, including both the electrodes and the electrolyte), which is higher than the best reported ppy/paper (E = 1 mW h cm-3) and PAni/pencil/paper (E = 0.32 mW h cm-3) solid-state devices. The cycling performance showed that capacitance retention up to 80% is achieved after 10000 cycles. This journal is

  12. Hydrogen photoproduction by photoelectrochemical conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The water-splitting reaction by photoelectrochemical processes has gained much more attention than any of many reactions proposed for solar generation of energy-rich molecules (fuels). The conversion efficiency of the photosystem is the key factor. The higher the efficiency, the more economically feasible will be the conversion scheme. The conversion efficiency is a function of the semiconductor properties, light intensity, spectral quality, properties of the electrolyte, counterelectrode, cell configuration, etc. The semiconductor parameters include band gap, absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The area and material used for a counterelectrode are important when considering polarization losses in a two-electrode system. Besides, the stability problem is also a very important one to meet the requirement for practical applications. This paper reviews some important issues on photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting. It includes energy conversion efficiency, market assessment and cost goal, state of the technology, and future directions for research

  13. Integrating a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell into a redox flow battery for unassisted photocharging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shichao; Zong, Xu; Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas; Yao, Tingting; Ding, Chunmei; Shi, Jingying; Chen, Jian; Li, Can

    2016-05-04

    Solar rechargeable flow cells (SRFCs) provide an attractive approach for in situ capture and storage of intermittent solar energy via photoelectrochemical regeneration of discharged redox species for electricity generation. However, overall SFRC performance is restricted by inefficient photoelectrochemical reactions. Here we report an efficient SRFC based on a dual-silicon photoelectrochemical cell and a quinone/bromine redox flow battery for in situ solar energy conversion and storage. Using narrow bandgap silicon for efficient photon collection and fast redox couples for rapid interface charge injection, our device shows an optimal solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency of ∼5.9% and an overall photon-chemical-electricity energy conversion efficiency of ∼3.2%, which, to our knowledge, outperforms previously reported SRFCs. The proposed SRFC can be self-photocharged to 0.8 V and delivers a discharge capacity of 730 mAh l(-1). Our work may guide future designs for highly efficient solar rechargeable devices.

  14. SU-D-209-01: Can Fluoroscopic Air-Kerma Rates Be Reliably Measured with Solid-State Meters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, C; Thai, L; Wagner, L; Ozus, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ionization chambers remain the standard for calibration of air-kerma rate measuring devices. Despite their strong energy-dependent response, solid state radiation detectors are increasingly used, primarily due to their efficiency in making standardized measurements. To test the reliability of these devices in measuring air-kerma rates, we compared ion chambers measurements with solid-state measurements for various mobile fluoroscopes operated at different beam qualities and air-kerma rates. Methods: Six mobile fluoroscopes (GE OEC models 9800 and 9900) were used to generate test beams. Using various field sizes and dose rate controls, copper attenuators and a lead attenuator were placed at the image receptor in varying combinations to generate a range of air-kerma rates. Air-kerma rates at 30 centimeters from the image receptors were measured using two 6-cm"3 ion chambers with electrometers (Radcal, models 1015 and 9015) and two with solid state detectors (Unfors Xi and Raysafe X2). No error messages occurred during measurements. However, about two months later, one solid-state device stopped working and was replaced by the manufacturer. Two out of six mobile fluoroscopic units were retested with the replacement unit. Results: Generally, solid state and ionization chambers agreed favorably well, with two exceptions. Before replacement of the detector, the Xi meter when set in the “RF High” mode deviated from ion chamber readings by factors of 2 and 10 with no message indicating error in measurement. When set in the “RF Low” mode, readings were within −4% to +3%. The replacement Xi detector displayed messages alerting the user when settings were not compatible with air-kerma rates. Conclusion: Air-kerma rates can be measured favorably well using solid-state devices, but users must be aware of the possibility that readings can be grossly in error with no discernible indication for the deviation.

  15. SU-D-209-01: Can Fluoroscopic Air-Kerma Rates Be Reliably Measured with Solid-State Meters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, C; Thai, L; Wagner, L [The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Ozus, B [CHI St Luke’s Health, Baylor St Luke’s Medical Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ionization chambers remain the standard for calibration of air-kerma rate measuring devices. Despite their strong energy-dependent response, solid state radiation detectors are increasingly used, primarily due to their efficiency in making standardized measurements. To test the reliability of these devices in measuring air-kerma rates, we compared ion chambers measurements with solid-state measurements for various mobile fluoroscopes operated at different beam qualities and air-kerma rates. Methods: Six mobile fluoroscopes (GE OEC models 9800 and 9900) were used to generate test beams. Using various field sizes and dose rate controls, copper attenuators and a lead attenuator were placed at the image receptor in varying combinations to generate a range of air-kerma rates. Air-kerma rates at 30 centimeters from the image receptors were measured using two 6-cm{sup 3} ion chambers with electrometers (Radcal, models 1015 and 9015) and two with solid state detectors (Unfors Xi and Raysafe X2). No error messages occurred during measurements. However, about two months later, one solid-state device stopped working and was replaced by the manufacturer. Two out of six mobile fluoroscopic units were retested with the replacement unit. Results: Generally, solid state and ionization chambers agreed favorably well, with two exceptions. Before replacement of the detector, the Xi meter when set in the “RF High” mode deviated from ion chamber readings by factors of 2 and 10 with no message indicating error in measurement. When set in the “RF Low” mode, readings were within −4% to +3%. The replacement Xi detector displayed messages alerting the user when settings were not compatible with air-kerma rates. Conclusion: Air-kerma rates can be measured favorably well using solid-state devices, but users must be aware of the possibility that readings can be grossly in error with no discernible indication for the deviation.

  16. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on three-dimensional graphene hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-05-28

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors are of considerable interest as mobile power supply for future flexible electronics. Graphene or carbon nanotubes based thin films have been used to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high gravimetric specific capacitances (80-200 F/g), but usually with a rather low overall or areal specific capacitance (3-50 mF/cm(2)) due to the ultrasmall electrode thickness (typically a few micrometers) and ultralow mass loading, which is not desirable for practical applications. Here we report the exploration of a three-dimensional (3D) graphene hydrogel for the fabrication of high-performance solid-state flexible supercapacitors. With a highly interconnected 3D network structure, graphene hydrogel exhibits exceptional electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness to make it an excellent material for flexible energy storage devices. Our studies demonstrate that flexible supercapacitors with a 120 μm thick graphene hydrogel thin film can exhibit excellent capacitive characteristics, including a high gravimetric specific capacitance of 186 F/g (up to 196 F/g for a 42 μm thick electrode), an unprecedented areal specific capacitance of 372 mF/cm(2) (up to 402 mF/cm(2) for a 185 μm thick electrode), low leakage current (10.6 μA), excellent cycling stability, and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. This study demonstrates the exciting potential of 3D graphene macrostructures for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  17. Hybrid Integration of Solid-State Quantum Emitters on a Silicon Photonic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Je-Hyung; Aghaeimeibodi, Shahriar; Richardson, Christopher J K; Leavitt, Richard P; Englund, Dirk; Waks, Edo

    2017-12-13

    Scalable quantum photonic systems require efficient single photon sources coupled to integrated photonic devices. Solid-state quantum emitters can generate single photons with high efficiency, while silicon photonic circuits can manipulate them in an integrated device structure. Combining these two material platforms could, therefore, significantly increase the complexity of integrated quantum photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate hybrid integration of solid-state quantum emitters to a silicon photonic device. We develop a pick-and-place technique that can position epitaxially grown InAs/InP quantum dots emitting at telecom wavelengths on a silicon photonic chip deterministically with nanoscale precision. We employ an adiabatic tapering approach to transfer the emission from the quantum dots to the waveguide with high efficiency. We also incorporate an on-chip silicon-photonic beamsplitter to perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss measurement. Our approach could enable integration of precharacterized III-V quantum photonic devices into large-scale photonic structures to enable complex devices composed of many emitters and photons.

  18. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  19. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijiong; Zhou, Zhihua; Yun, Gaoqian; Shi, Kai; Lv, Xiaowei; Yang, Baocheng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s-1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors.

  20. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s−1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24215772

  1. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on carbon nanoparticles/MnO2 nanorods hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Longyan; Lu, Xi-Hong; Xiao, Xu; Zhai, Teng; Dai, Junjie; Zhang, Fengchao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xue; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Hu, Chenguo; Tong, Yexiang; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-01-24

    A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor was fabricated through a simple flame synthesis method and electrochemical deposition process based on a carbon nanoparticles/MnO(2) nanorods hybrid structure using polyvinyl alcohol/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte. Carbon fabric is used as a current collector and electrode (mechanical support), leading to a simplified, highly flexible, and lightweight architecture. The device exhibited good electrochemical performance with an energy density of 4.8 Wh/kg at a power density of 14 kW/kg, and a demonstration of a practical device is also presented, highlighting the path for its enormous potential in energy management. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Fundamentals of solid-state lighting LEDs, OLEDs, and their applications in illumination and displays

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    History and Basics of LightingChronological History of LightingLearning Objectives How Early Man Looked at the ""Sun"" The Need for Artificial Light Sources First Steps in the Evolution of Artificial Lighting The First Solid-State Lighting Device The First Practical Electrical Lighting Device The Incandescent Filament Lamp Mercury and Sodium Vapor Lamps The Fluorescent Lamp The Compact Fluorescent Lamp Revolution in the World of Lighting: Advent of Light-Emitting Diodes Birth of the First LED and the Initial Stages of LED Development The Father of the LED: Holonyak Jr. The Post-1962 Developmen

  3. Ultra-Thin Solid-State Nanopores: Fabrication and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Aaron Tzeyang

    Solid-state nanopores are a nanofluidic platform with unique advantages for single-molecule analysis and filtration applications. However, significant improvements in device performance and scalable fabrication methods are needed to make nanopore devices competitive with existing technologies. This dissertation investigates the potential advantages of ultra-thin nanopores in which the thickness of the membrane is significantly smaller than the nanopore diameter. Novel, scalable fabrication methods were first developed and then utilized to examine device performance for water filtration and single molecule sensing applications. Fabrication of nanometer-thin pores in silicon nitride membranes was achieved using a feedback-controlled ion beam method in which ion sputtering is arrested upon detection of the first few ions that drill through the membrane. Performing fabrication at liquid nitrogen temperatures prevents surface atom rearrangements that have previously complicated similar processes. A novel cross-sectional imaging method was also developed to allow careful examination of the full nanopore geometry. Atomically-thin graphene nanopores were fabricated via an electrical pulse method in which sub-microsecond electrical pulses applied across a graphene membrane in electrolyte solution are used to create a defect in the membrane and controllably enlarge it into a nanopore. This method dramatically increases the accuracy and reliability of graphene nanopore production, allowing consistent production of single nanopores down to subnanometer sizes. In filtration applications in which nanopores are used to selectively restrict the passage of dissolved contaminants, ultra-thin nanopores minimize the flow resistance, increasing throughput and energy-efficiency. The ability of graphene nanopores to separate different ions was characterized via ionic conductance and reversal potential measurements. Graphene nanopores were observed to conduct cations preferentially over

  4. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  5. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  6. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  7. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingxia; Li, Ruizhi; Guo, Junling; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenpei; Wang, Chong; Huang, Yu; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2013-08-01

    Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V). It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s-1 and a long cyclability (˜60000 cycles) even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  8. Microporous Ni₁₁(HPO₃)₈(OH)₆ nanocrystals for high-performance flexible asymmetric all solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanping; Zhao, Junhong; Run, Zhen; Zhang, Guangqin; Pang, Huan

    2014-12-07

    Microporous nickel phosphite [Ni11(HPO3)8(OH)6] nanocrystals were prepared using a hydrothermal method, and were successfully applied as a positive electrode in a flexible all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor. Because of the specific micro/nanostructure, the flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can achieve a maximum energy density of 0.45 mW h cm(-3), which is higher than most reported supercapacitors. More importantly, the device performance remains efficient for 10,000 cycles.

  9. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V. It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s−1 and a long cyclability (∼60000 cycles even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  10. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  11. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  12. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  14. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten-thousand hour LM

  15. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  16. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  17. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  18. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  19. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  20. Space-time complexity in solid state models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this Workshop on symmetry-breaking it is appropriate to include the evolving fields of nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems in which transitions to and between various degrees of ''complexity'' (including ''chaos'') occur in time or space or both. These notions naturally bring together phenomena of pattern formation and chaos and therefore have ramifications for a huge array of natural sciences - astrophysics, plasmas and lasers, hydrodynamics, field theory, materials and solid state theory, optics and electronics, biology, pattern recognition and evolution, etc. Our particular concerns here are with examples from solid state and condensed matter

  1. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  2. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  3. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  4. Radiation-chemical aspects of solid state hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.; Collins, K.E.; Collins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of nuclear hot atom chemical (NHAC) processes occurring in solids is seriously limited by the lack of adequate methods for directly studying the chemical species containing hot atoms. In the present review the effects of ionizing radiation on parent and non-parent yields from solid state targets is surveyed and qualitative interpretations are given. After a few general remarks of the relationship of radiation chemistry to solid state NHAC, a detailed description of the radiation effects is given (radiation annealing, neutron activation, changes in separable yield). (Auth.)

  5. Nanostructured TiO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid state polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Kang, Yong Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous, anatase TiO 2 microspheres with particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2 μm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. The photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 microspheres in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a solid state electrolyte was investigated. The solid state electrolyte DSSC device based on the TiO 2 microspheres exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is greater than that of commercial P25 TiO 2 (3.6%). The higher photocurrent density was primarily achieved as a result of the greater specific surface area and pore size, which resulted in an increase in the dye uptake of the TiO 2 microspheres and easy transport of solid electrolyte through mesopores. In addition, the greater electron lifetime and superior light scattering ability also enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the TiO 2 microsphere-based, solid state DSSCs

  6. Nano-Ionic Solid State Resistive Memories (Re-RAM): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satyajeet; Prabaharan, S R S

    2017-01-01

    Nano-ionic devices based on modest to fast ion conductors as active materials intrigued a revolution in the field of nano solid state resistive memories (the so-called Re-RAM) ever since HP labs unveiled the first solid state memristor device based on titanium dioxide (TiO2). This has brought impetus to the practical implementation of fourth missing element called “Memristor” correlating charge (q) and flux (φ) based on the conceptual thought by Chua in 1971 completing a missing gap between the passive electronic components (R, C and L). It depicts various functional features as memory element in terms of ionic charge transport in solid state by virtue of external electric flux variations. Consequently, a new avenue has been found by manipulating the ionic charge carriers creating a fast switching resistive random access memory (Re-RAM) or the so-called Memristors. The recent research has led to low power, faster switching speed, high endurance and high retention time devices that can be scaled down the order of few nanometers dimension and the 3D stacking is employed that significantly reduces the die area. This review is organized to provide the progress hitherto accomplished in the materials arena to make memristor devices with respect to current research attempts, different stack structures of ReRAM cells using various materials as well as the application of memristive system. Different synthesis approaches to make nano-ionic conducting metal oxides, the fabrication methods for ReRAM cells and its memory performance are reviewed comprehensively.

  7. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  8. Polyaniline-Modified Oriented Graphene Hydrogel Film as the Free-Standing Electrode for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Huckleberry C; Yi, Chao; Wang, Kai; Gong, Xiong

    2015-11-04

    In this study, we report polyaniline (PANI)-modified oriented graphene hydrogel (OGH) films as the free-standing electrode for flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs). The OGH films are prepared by a facile filtration method using chemically converted graphene sheets and then introduced to PANI on the surface of OGH films by in situ chemical polymerization. The PANI-modified OGH films possess high flexibility, high electrical conductivity, and mechanical robustness. The flexible solid-state SCs based on the PANI-modified OGH films exhibit a specific capacitance of 530 F/g, keeping 80% of its original value up to 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at the current density of 10 A/g. Remarkably, the flexible solid-state SCs maintain ∼100% capacitance retention bent at 180° for 250 cycles. Moreover, the flexible solid-state SCs are further demonstrated to be able to light up a red-light-emitting diode. These results indicate that the flexible solid-state SCs based on PANI-modified OGH films as the free-standing electrode have potential applications as energy-storage devices.

  9. The future of diode pumped solid state lasers and their applicability to the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Hackel, L.

    1994-03-01

    The largest commercial application of high power lasers is for cutting and welding. Their ability to increase productivity by introducing processing flexibility and integrated automation into the fabrication process is well demonstrated. This paper addresses the potential importance of recent developments in laser technology to further impact their use within the automotive industry. The laser technology we will concentrate upon is diode laser technology and diode-pumped solid-state laser technology. We will review present device performance and cost and make projections for the future in these areas. Semiconductor laser arrays have matured dramatically over the last several years. They are lasers of unparalleled efficiency (greater than 50%), reliability (greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation), and offer the potential of dramatic cost reductions (less than a dollar per watt). They can be used directly in many applications or can be used to pump solid-state lasers. When used as solid-state laser pump arrays, they simultaneously improve overall laser efficiency, reduce size, and improve reliability.

  10. One-step spray processing of high power all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Grant, Patrick S.

    2013-08-01

    Aqueous suspensions of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in dilute H2SO4 were sprayed onto both sides of a Nafion membrane and dried to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors. A single cell with MWNT-only electrodes had a capacitance of 57 F g-1 per electrode at 2 mV s-1 and 44 F g-1 at 150 mV s-1 but with low H+ mobility. Cells with MWNT + ionomer hybrid electrodes showed higher H+ mobility, and the electric double layer (EDL) capacitance increased to 145 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 and 91 F g-1 at 150 mV s-1. The energy and power densities of one electrode charged to 1 V at 1 A g-1 were 12.9 Wh kg-1 and 3.3 kW kg-1 respectively. Three solid-state supercapacitor cells connected in series charged to 3 V at 1 and 2 A g-1 provided a device power density of 8.9 kW kg-1 at 1 A g-1 and 9.4 kW kg-1 at 2 A g-1, the highest for all-solid-state EDL supercapacitors.

  11. One-step spray processing of high power all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Grant, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous suspensions of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in dilute H2SO4 were sprayed onto both sides of a Nafion membrane and dried to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors. A single cell with MWNT-only electrodes had a capacitance of 57 F g−1 per electrode at 2 mV s−1 and 44 F g−1 at 150 mV s−1 but with low H+ mobility. Cells with MWNT + ionomer hybrid electrodes showed higher H+ mobility, and the electric double layer (EDL) capacitance increased to 145 F g−1 at 2 mV s−1 and 91 F g−1 at 150 mV s−1. The energy and power densities of one electrode charged to 1 V at 1 A g−1 were 12.9 Wh kg−1 and 3.3 kW kg−1 respectively. Three solid-state supercapacitor cells connected in series charged to 3 V at 1 and 2 A g−1 provided a device power density of 8.9 kW kg−1 at 1 A g−1 and 9.4 kW kg−1 at 2 A g−1, the highest for all-solid-state EDL supercapacitors. PMID:23928828

  12. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Anil Kumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  13. Molecular and solid-state properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Richard L.; Kress, Joel D.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    We use a hybrid density-functional-theory approach to calculate ground-state electronic properties and a time-dependent density-functional-theory approach to investigate the excited state electronic properties of molecular tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum, Alq. The calculated molecular results are compared with measurements on dense solid-state films of Alq. We specifically consider: the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold, the ionization potential, the single-particle energy gap, the static dielectric constant, and the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. We find that the molecular calculations can describe the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold without significant corrections for solid-state effects. The energies of the triplet excited states are computed and the lowest triplet is found to lie 0.64 eV below the lowest excited singlet state. In contrast, large dielectric corrections must be included for the molecular calculations to describe the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap. When these dielectric corrections are made, using the calculated molecular polarizability, which accurately gives the measured static dielectric constant, both the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap are well described. The calculated molecular dipole moment can be used to interpret the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. The solid-state properties, determined from the molecular calculations, are then used in a device model to describe the measured current-voltage characteristics in Alq diodes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanoparticle and nanorod array hybrid photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hung-Jue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of ZnO photoanode morphology on the performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is reported. Four different structures of dye-loaded ZnO layers have been fabricated in conjunction with poly(3-hexylthiophene. A significant improvement in device efficiency with ZnO nanorod arrays as photoanodes has been achieved by filling the interstitial voids of the nanorod arrays with ZnO nanoparticles. The overall power conversion efficiency increases from 0.13% for a nanorod-only device to 0.34% for a device with combined nanoparticles and nanorod arrays. The higher device efficiency in solid-state DSSCs with hybrid nanorod/nanoparticle photoanodes is originated from both large surface area provided by nanoparticles for dye adsorption and efficient charge transport provided by the nanorod arrays to reduce the recombinations of photogenerated carriers.

  15. Dynamic average modeling of a bidirectional solid state transformer for feasibility studies and real-time implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Velasco, Juan Antonio; Alepuz Menéndez, Salvador; Gonzalez Molina, Francisco; Martín Arnedo, Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    Detailed switching models of power electronics devices often lead to long computing times, limiting the size of the system to be simulated. This drawback is especially important when the goal is to implement the model in a real-time simulation platform. An alternative is to use dynamic average models (DAM) for analyzing the dynamic behavior of power electronic devices. This paper presents the development of a DAM for a bidirectional solid-state transformer and its implementation in a real-tim...

  16. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  17. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  18. Advanced Solid-state Lasers - to Ignition and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.; Bibeau, C.; Orth, C; Meier, W.R.; Payne, S.; Sutton, S.

    1998-01-01

    This brochure concentrates on the diode-pumped solid-state laser. Surrounding it on the cover are some of the primary technological developments that make it a candidate for the means by which inertial confinement fusion will create inertial fusion energy as an inexhaustible source of electric power

  19. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  20. Atomic and solid state physics with the 14UD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.S.

    1975-02-01

    The use of energetic heavy ions in atomic and solid state physics is discussed. Topics that are discussed include: 1) Properties of excited ions, 2) radiation damage studies by channeling, 3) energy loss of ions and range measurements, 4) oscillating effects in channeling, 5) x-ray production in solids, 6) coherence effects in channeling and 7) formation of united atoms. (author)

  1. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  2. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  3. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  4. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  5. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  6. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  7. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  8. Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.

  9. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker .... authors, a slowly utilizable carbon source is preferable for high lovastatin ...

  10. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker et .... Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin yield by Aspergillus ...

  11. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the me...... of a DCM-FA-rich phase in the forming microsphere....

  12. Bayesian Analysis for EMP Survival Probability of Solid State Relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    The principle to estimate the parameter p of binomial distribution by Bayesian method and the several non-informative prior are introduced. The survival probability of DC solid state relay under current injection at certain amplitude is obtained by this method. (authors)

  13. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  14. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off [de

  15. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  16. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  17. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  18. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  19. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  20. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  1. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  2. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  3. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  4. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  5. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  6. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  7. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  8. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  9. Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activity of the Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics is focused on experimental research in condensed matter physics. Thermal neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect are the main techniques mastered in the laboratory. Most of the studies aim at better understanding of properties and processes observed in modern materials. Some applied research and theoretical studies were also performed. Research activities of the Department in 2001 can be summarized as follows: Neutron scattering studies concerned the magnetic ordering in TbB 12 and TmIn 3 and some special features of magnetic excitations in antiferromagnetic γ-Mn-alloys. Some work was devoted to optimization of the neutron single crystal monochromators and polarizers grown in Crystal Growth Laboratory. Small angle scattering studies on the surfactant - water ternary system were performed in cooperation with JINR Dubna. Moessbauer effect investigations of dysprosium intermetallic compounds yielded the new data for Pauling-Slater curves. The same technique applied to perovskites and ferrocene adduct to fullerene helped to resolve their structure. X-ray topographic and diffractometric studies were performed on hydrogen implanted semiconductor surfaces employing the synchrotron radiation sources. The X-ray method was applied also to investigations of plasma spraying process and phase composition of ceramic oxide coatings. Large part of studies concerned the structure of biologically active, pharmacologically important organic complexes, supported by modeling of their electron structure. Crystal growth of large size single-crystals of metals and alloys was used for preparation of specimens with mosaic structure suitable for neutron monochromator and polarizer systems. The construction work of the Neutron and Gamma Radiography Station has been completed. The results of first tests and studies proved the expected abilities of the systems. The possibility to visualize inner structures

  10. Toward high brightness, multi-kilowatt solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, L.E.; Manes, K.R.

    1990-11-01

    High average power (HAP) solid state laser output with improved beam quality has introduced new capabilities in materials processing. At the 500 W level and with a beam quality of a ''few'' times the diffraction limit, the General Electric NY slab is able to drill 5 cm of stainless steel in a few seconds. We expect that 2--3 kW of near infrared laser output in a low order spatial mode would enable metal working now unknown to industry. The HAP output of slab lasers is limited by the size of the available laser crystals and the pump power. Core free, six cm diameter NY boules have been grown on an experimental basis. High optical quality NG can be obtained up to 10 cm in diameter. We present the results of our modeling based on these crystals pumped by advanced arc-lamps or laser diode arrays. We project HAP laser outputs of 1.6 kW from an existing Vortek pumped NG oscillator and about 2 kW from diode pumped NY device. Several kW of laser output can be expected from two such slabs in a MOPA configuration before optical damage limits are reached. The three dimensional stress-optic code which we used to optimize our designs, was normalized to available experimental data obtained with the above NG slab at the 500 W level and a 40 W diode pumped NY test bed. Our calculations indicate the essential parameters for attainment of high beam quality. Cooling uniformity across the pumped faces of the slab is critical and the location of the transition between pumped and un-pumped regions towards the slab tips is very important. A flat pumping profile was found to be desirable and predicted one wave of distortion which should be correctable over about 75% of the aperture however, an even better wavefront was predicted over 90% of the aperture when the regions near the edges of the slab were slightly over-pumped relative to the central regions and the regions near to the ends were tapered to compensate for transition effects

  11. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  12. Fiber-based all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors for self-powered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Li, Tianqi; Yang, Peihua; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Huanyu; Ni, Weijian; Zhan, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Zhong, Junwen; Gong, Li; Yen, Wen-Chun; Mai, Wenjie; Chen, Jian; Huo, Kaifu; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhou, Jun

    2012-10-23

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on a carbon/MnO(2) (C/M) core-shell fiber structure were fabricated with high electrochemical performance such as high rate capability with a scan rate up to 20 V s(-1), high volume capacitance of 2.5 F cm(-3), and an energy density of 2.2 × 10(-4) Wh cm(-3). By integrating with a triboelectric generator, supercapacitors could be charged and power commercial electronic devices, such as a liquid crystal display or a light-emitting-diode, demonstrating feasibility as an efficient storage component and self-powered micro/nanosystems.

  13. Flexible all solid-state supercapacitors based on chemical vapor deposition derived graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinming; Zhao, Tianshuo; Chen, Qiao; Li, Peixu; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Wei, Bingqing; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-11-07

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene fibers are demonstrated in this study. Surface-deposited oxide nanoparticles are used as pseudo-capacitor electrodes to achieve high capacitance. This supercapacitor electrode has an areal capacitance of 42 mF cm(-2), which is comparable to the capacitance for fiber-based supercapacitors reported to date. During the bending and cycling of the fiber-based supercapacitor, the stability could be maintained without sacrificing the electrochemical performance, which provides a novel and simple way to develop flexible, lightweight and efficient graphene-based devices.

  14. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from lo...

  15. Short-pulse generation in a diode-end-pumped solid-state laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , Development of High Average Power Picosecond Laser Systems, Opto- Electronic Devices, (2002). INTRODUCTION A Nd:YVO4 modelocked laser has been constructed using a resonator designed according to the theoretical parameters. The laser produced pulses... theoretical PQSML,th of 2.08W. Short-Pulse Generation in a Diode-End-Pumped Solid-State Laser S. Ngcobo1,2, C. Bollig1 and H. Von Bergmann2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Laser Research Center, University...

  16. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  17. Nanocarbon-Based Materials for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian; Liu, Mingxian; Zhu, Dazhang; Gan, Lihua; Chen, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Because of the rapid development of flexible electronics, it is important to develop high-performance flexible energy-storage devices, such as supercapacitors and metal-ion batteries. Compared with metal-ion batteries, supercapacitors exhibit higher power density, longer cycling life, and excellent safety, and they can be easily fabricated into all-solid-state devices by using polymer gel electrolytes. All-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have the advantages of being lightweight and flexible, thus showing great potential to be used as power sources for flexible portable electronics. Because of their high specific surface area and excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanocarbon materials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanofibers, and so on) have been widely used as efficient electrode materials for flexible ASSSCs, and great achievements have been obtained. Here, the recent advances in flexible ASSSCs are summarized, from design strategies to fabrication techniques for nanocarbon electrodes and devices. Current challenges and future perspectives are also discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Embedded Ag Grid Electrodes as Current Collector for Ultraflexible Transparent Solid-State Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Long; Liu, Yan-Hua; Gao, Xu; Sun, Yilin; Shen, Su; Cai, Xinlei; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2017-08-23

    Flexible transparent solid-state supercapacitors have attracted immerse attention for the power supply of next-generation flexible "see-through" or "invisible" electronics. For fabrication of such devices, high-performance flexible transparent current collectors are highly desired. In this paper, the utilization of embedded Ag grid transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) fabricated by a facile soft ultraviolet imprinting lithography method combined with scrap techniques, as the current collector for flexible transparent solid-state supercapacitors, is demonstrated. The embedded Ag grid TCEs exhibit not only excellent optoelectronic properties (R S ∼ 2.0 Ω sq -1 and T ∼ 89.74%) but also robust mechanical properties, which could meet the conductivity, transparency, and flexibility needs of current collectors for flexible transparent supercapacitors. The obtained supercapacitor exhibits large specific capacitance, long cycling life, high optical transparency (T ∼ 80.58% at 550 nm), high flexibility, and high stability. Owing to the embedded Ag grid TCE structure, the device shows a slight capacitance loss of 2.6% even after 1000 cycles of repetitive bending for a bending radius of up to 2.0 mm. This paves the way for developing high-performance current collectors and thus flexible transparent energy storage devices, and their general applicability opens up opportunities for flexible transparent electronics.

  19. Improved color metrics in solid-state lighting via utilization of on-chip quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Benjamin D.; Landes, Tiemo S.; Theobald, Brian R.; Kurtin, Juanita N.

    2017-02-01

    While Quantum Dots (QDs) have found commercial success in display applications, there are currently no widely available solid state lighting products making use of QD nanotechnology. In order to have real-world success in today's lighting market, QDs must be capable of being placed in on-chip configurations, as remote phosphor configurations are typically much more expensive. Here we demonstrate solid-state lighting devices made with on-chip QDs. These devices show robust reliability under both dry and wet high stress conditions. High color quality lighting metrics can easily be achieved using these narrow, tunable QD downconverters: CRI values of Ra > 90 as well as R9 values > 80 are readily available when combining QDs with green phosphors. Furthermore, we show that QDs afford a 15% increase in overall efficiency compared to traditional phosphor downconverted SSL devices. The fundamental limit of QD linewidth is examined through single particle QD emission studies. Using standard Cd-based QD synthesis, it is found that single particle linewidths of 20 nm FWHM represent a lower limit to the narrowness of QD emission in the near term.

  20. Morphologically different WO3 nanocrystals in photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Soumya Kanti; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kong, Ki-jeong; So, Won-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Different morphologies of WO 3 nanocrystals such as nanorods and nanoplates have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions using ammonium metatungstate as the precursor in presence of different organic acids such as citric, oxalic, and tartaric acid in the reaction medium. Detailed characterization of the crystal structure, particle morphology, and optical band gap of the synthesized powders have been done by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state UV–visible spectroscopy study. The as-synthesized materials are WO 3 hydrates with orthorhombic phase which transform to the hexagonal WO 3 through dehydration upon heating at 350 °C. The resultant products are crystalline with nanoscale dimensions. Finally, the photoactivity of the synthesized materials annealed at 500 °C has been compared employing in photoelectrochemical water oxidation under the illumination of AM 1.5G simulated solar light (100 mWcm −2 ). The photocurrent measurements upon irradiation of light exhibit obvious photocatalytic activity with a photocurrent of about 0.77, 0.61, and 0.65 mAcm −2 for the WO 3 film derived with the oxalic acid, tartaric, and citric acid assisting agents, respectively, at 1.8 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode.

  1. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  2. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  3. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  4. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...

  5. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Robert; Odronitz, Florian; Hammesfahr, Bjorn; Hellkamp, Marcel; Kollmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  6. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  7. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  8. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  9. Advances in solid-state NMR of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foston, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations

  11. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  12. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  13. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  14. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  15. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acid s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  16. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  17. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  18. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-08-27

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ({approx}10 T) and at low temperature {approx}1 K .

  19. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (∼10 T) and at low temperature ∼1 K

  20. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  1. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  2. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  3. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  4. Experimental solid state NMR of gas hydrates : problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudrakovski, I.; Lu, H.; Ripmeester, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences; Kumar, R.; Susilo, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Luzi, M. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Solid State NMR is a suitable spectroscopic technique for hydrate research for several reasons, including its capability to distinguish between different structural types of hydrates, its quantitative nature and potential for both in-situ and time resolved experiments. This study illustrated the applications of solid state NMR for compositional and structural studies of clathrate hydrates, with particular emphasis on experimental techniques and potential ways to overcome technical difficulties. In order to use the method to its full capacity, some instrumental developments are needed to adapt it to the specific experimental requirements of hydrate studies, such as very low temperatures and high pressures. This presentation discussed the quantification of the Carbon-13 spectra with examples from natural and synthetic hydrates prepared from multi-component mixtures of hydrocarbons. The main approach used for the first two examples was Carbon-13 NMR with Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) at -100 degrees C. The detailed characterization of mixed hydrogen hydrates required low temperature hydrogen MAS. The quantification problems encountered during these experiments were also discussed. The purpose of these recent experimental developments was to prompt wider application of Solid State NMR in hydrate research. NMR proved to be a viable method for analyzing the composition and structure of multi-component mixed gas hydrates; characterizing natural gas hydrates; and, evaluating the formation conditions and properties of mixed hydrogen hydrates. The limitations of the method were highlighted and sensible choices of experimental conditions and techniques that ensure accurate results were discussed. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  5. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  7. Solid State Pathways towards Molecular Complexity in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Harold; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Bouwman, Jordy; Cuppen, Herma M.; Cuylle, Steven H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Fedoseev, Gleb; Fuchs, Guido W.; Ioppolo, Sergio; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lamberts, Thanja; Öberg, Karin I.; Romanzin, Claire; Tenenbaum, Emily; Zhen, Junfeng

    2011-12-01

    It has been a long standing problem in astrochemistry to explain how molecules can form in a highly dilute environment such as the interstellar medium. In the last decennium more and more evidence has been found that the observed mix of small and complex, stable and highly transient species in space is the cumulative result of gas phase and solid state reactions as well as gas-grain interactions. Solid state reactions on icy dust grains are specifically found to play an important role in the formation of the more complex ``organic'' compounds. In order to investigate the underlying physical and chemical processes detailed laboratory based experiments are needed that simulate surface reactions triggered by processes as different as thermal heating, photon (UV) irradiation and particle (atom, cosmic ray, electron) bombardment of interstellar ice analogues. Here, some of the latest research performed in the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics in Leiden, the Netherlands is reviewed. The focus is on hydrogenation, i.e., H-atom addition reactions and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues at astronomically relevant temperatures. It is shown that solid state processes are crucial in the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, providing pathways towards molecular complexity in space.

  8. All-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon using graphene from silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bei; Ahmed, Mohsin; Iacopi, Francesca, E-mail: f.iacopi@griffith.edu.au [Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan 4111 (Australia); Wood, Barry [Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4072 (Australia)

    2016-05-02

    Carbon-based supercapacitors are lightweight devices with high energy storage performance, allowing for faster charge-discharge rates than batteries. Here, we present an example of all-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon for on-chip applications, paving the way towards energy supply systems embedded in miniaturized electronics with fast access and high safety of operation. We present a nickel-assisted graphitization method from epitaxial silicon carbide on a silicon substrate to demonstrate graphene as a binder-free electrode material for all-solid-state supercapacitors. We obtain graphene electrodes with a strongly enhanced surface area, assisted by the irregular intrusion of nickel into the carbide layer, delivering a typical double-layer capacitance behavior with a specific area capacitance of up to 174 μF cm{sup −2} with about 88% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. The fabrication technique illustrated in this work provides a strategic approach to fabricate micro-scale energy storage devices compatible with silicon electronics and offering ultimate miniaturization capabilities.

  9. Titanium dioxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowires for all solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Zeng, Yinxiang; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Chenghui; Yao, Chenzhong; Yang, Yangyi; Tong, Yexiang

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance.Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD pattern, FT-IR absorption spectrum and CV curves of TiO2@PPy NWs, and SEM images of the PPy. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03578f

  10. Stretchable, Weavable Coiled Carbon Nanotube/MnO2/Polymer Fiber Solid-State Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, A Young; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices. Previously reported yarn and fiber supercapacitors are expensive to fabricate, difficult to upscale, or non-stretchable, which limits possible use. The elastomeric electrodes of the present solid-state supercapacitors are made by using giant inserted twist to coil a nylon sewing thread that is helically wrapped with a carbon nanotube sheet, and then electrochemically depositing pseudocapacitive MnO2 nanofibers. These solid-state supercapacitors decrease capacitance by less than 15% when reversibly stretched by 150% in the fiber direction, and largely retain capacitance while being cyclically stretched during charge and discharge. The maximum linear and areal capacitances (based on active materials) and areal energy storage and power densities (based on overall supercapacitor dimensions) are high (5.4 mF/cm, 40.9 mF/cm2, 2.6 μWh/cm2 and 66.9 μW/cm2, respectively), despite the engineered superelasticity of the fiber supercapacitor. Retention of supercapacitor performance during large strain (50%) elastic deformation is demonstrated for supercapacitors incorporated into the wristband of a glove. PMID:25797351

  11. Stretchable, weavable coiled carbon nanotube/MnO2/polymer fiber solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, A Young; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-03-23

    Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices. Previously reported yarn and fiber supercapacitors are expensive to fabricate, difficult to upscale, or non-stretchable, which limits possible use. The elastomeric electrodes of the present solid-state supercapacitors are made by using giant inserted twist to coil a nylon sewing thread that is helically wrapped with a carbon nanotube sheet, and then electrochemically depositing pseudocapacitive MnO2 nanofibers. These solid-state supercapacitors decrease capacitance by less than 15% when reversibly stretched by 150% in the fiber direction, and largely retain capacitance while being cyclically stretched during charge and discharge. The maximum linear and areal capacitances (based on active materials) and areal energy storage and power densities (based on overall supercapacitor dimensions) are high (5.4 mF/cm, 40.9 mF/cm(2), 2.6 μWh/cm(2) and 66.9 μW/cm(2), respectively), despite the engineered superelasticity of the fiber supercapacitor. Retention of supercapacitor performance during large strain (50%) elastic deformation is demonstrated for supercapacitors incorporated into the wristband of a glove.

  12. Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-02-07

    We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430 μF cm(-2) for a scan rate of 0.1 V s(-1) and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100 V s(-1). Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices.

  13. All-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon using graphene from silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bei; Ahmed, Mohsin; Iacopi, Francesca; Wood, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based supercapacitors are lightweight devices with high energy storage performance, allowing for faster charge-discharge rates than batteries. Here, we present an example of all-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon for on-chip applications, paving the way towards energy supply systems embedded in miniaturized electronics with fast access and high safety of operation. We present a nickel-assisted graphitization method from epitaxial silicon carbide on a silicon substrate to demonstrate graphene as a binder-free electrode material for all-solid-state supercapacitors. We obtain graphene electrodes with a strongly enhanced surface area, assisted by the irregular intrusion of nickel into the carbide layer, delivering a typical double-layer capacitance behavior with a specific area capacitance of up to 174 μF cm"−"2 with about 88% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. The fabrication technique illustrated in this work provides a strategic approach to fabricate micro-scale energy storage devices compatible with silicon electronics and offering ultimate miniaturization capabilities.

  14. Microscale solid-state thermal diodes enabling ambient temperature thermal circuits for energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Song

    2017-05-10

    Thermal diodes, or devices that transport thermal energy asymmetrically, analogous to electrical diodes, hold promise for thermal energy harvesting and conservation, as well as for phononics or information processing. The junction of a phase change material and phase invariant material can form a thermal diode; however, there are limited constituent materials available for a given target temperature, particularly near ambient. In this work, we demonstrate that a micro and nanoporous polystyrene foam can house a paraffin-based phase change material, fused to PMMA, to produce mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of ambient operation with Young\\'s moduli larger than 11.5 MPa and 55.2 MPa above and below the melting transition point, respectively. Moreover, the composites show significant changes in thermal conductivity above and below the melting point of the constituent paraffin and rectification that is well-described by our previous theory and the Maxwell–Eucken model. Maximum thermal rectifications range from 1.18 to 1.34. We show that such devices perform reliably enough to operate in thermal diode bridges, dynamic thermal circuits capable of transforming oscillating temperature inputs into single polarity temperature differences – analogous to an electrical diode bridge with widespread implications for transient thermal energy harvesting and conservation. Overall, our approach yields mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of engineering design from a mathematical model of phase change and thermal transport, with implications for energy harvesting.

  15. Parallel recognition of cancer cells using an addressable array of solid-state micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Azhar; Asghar, Waseem; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M

    2014-12-15

    Early stage detection and precise quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients are important for early diagnosis. Early diagnosis improves the effectiveness of the therapy and results in better prognosis. Several techniques have been used for CTC detection but are limited by their need for dye tagging, low throughput and lack of statistical reliability at single cell level. Solid-state micropores can characterize each cell in a sample providing interesting information about cellular populations. We report a multi-channel device which utilized solid-state micropores array assembly for simultaneous measurement of cell translocation. This increased the throughput of measurement and as the cells passed the micropores, tumor cells showed distinctive current blockade pulses, when compared to leukocytes. The ionic current across each micropore channel was continuously monitored and recorded. The measurement system not only increased throughput but also provided on-chip cross-relation. The whole blood was lysed to get rid of red blood cells, so the blood dilution was not needed. The approach facilitated faster processing of blood samples with tumor cell detection efficiency of about 70%. The design provided a simple and inexpensive method for rapid and reliable detection of tumor cells without any cell staining or surface functionalization. The device can also be used for high throughput electrophysiological analysis of other cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dye-sensitized PS-b-P2VP-templated nickel oxide films for photoelectrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Julien; Bräutigam, Maximilian; Kaeffer, Nicolas; Queyriaux, Nicolas; Field, Martin J; Schacher, Felix H; Popp, Jürgen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dietzek, Benjamin; Artero, Vincent

    2015-06-06

    Moving from homogeneous water-splitting photocatalytic systems to photoelectrochemical devices requires the preparation and evaluation of novel p-type transparent conductive photoelectrode substrates. We report here on the sensitization of polystyrene-block-poly-(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer-templated NiO films with an organic push-pull dye. The potential of these new templated NiO film preparations for photoelectrochemical applications is compared with NiO material templated by F108 triblock copolymers. We conclude that NiO films are promising materials for the construction of dye-sensitized photocathodes to be inserted into photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. However, a combined effort at the interface between materials science and molecular chemistry, ideally funded within a Global Artificial Photosynthesis Project, is still needed to improve the overall performance of the photoelectrodes and progress towards economically viable PEC devices.

  17. Two dimensional electron systems for solid state quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sumit

    Two dimensional electron systems based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are extremely useful in various scientific investigations of recent times including the search for quantum computational schemes. Although significant strides have been made over the past few years to realize solid state qubits on GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs, there are numerous factors limiting the progress. We attempt to identify factors that have material and design-specific origin and develop ways to overcome them. The thesis is divided in two broad segments. In the first segment we describe the realization of a new field-effect induced two dimensional electron system on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the novel device-design is expected to suppress the level of charge noise present in the device. Modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are utilized extensively in the study of quantum transport in nanostructures, but charge fluctuations associated with remote ionized dopants often produce deleterious effects. Electric field-induced carrier systems offer an attractive alternative if certain challenges can be overcome. We demonstrate a field-effect transistor in which the active channel is locally devoid of modulation-doping, but silicon dopant atoms are retained in the ohmic contact region to facilitate low-resistance contacts. A high quality two-dimensional electron gas is induced by a field-effect that is tunable over a density range of 6.5x10 10cm-2 to 2.6x1011cm-2 . Device design, fabrication, and low temperature (T=0.3K) characterization results are discussed. The demonstrated device-design overcomes several existing limitations in the fabrication of field-induced 2DEGs and might find utility in hosting nanostructures required for making spin qubits. The second broad segment describes our effort to correlate transport parameters measured at T=0.3K to the strength of the fractional quantum Hall state observed at nu=5/2 in the second Landau level of high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional

  18. An automatic analyzer of solid state nuclear track detectors using an optic RAM as image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, A.

    1986-01-01

    An optic RAM is a conventional digital random access read/write dynamic memory device featuring a quartz windowed package and memory cells regularly ordered on the chip. Such a device is used as an image sensor because each cell retains data stored in it for a time depending on the intensity of the light incident on the cell itself. The authors have developed a system which uses an optic RAM to acquire and digitize images from electrochemically etched CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the track count rate up to 5000 cm -2 . On the digital image so obtained, a microprocessor, with appropriate software, performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Recombination barrier layers in solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2012-06-01

    By replacing the dye in the dye-sensitized solar cell design with semiconductor quantum dots as the light-absorbing material, solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (ss-QDSSCs) were fabricated. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Aluminum oxide recombination barrier layers were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at the TiO2/hole-conductor interface. For low numbers of ALD cycles, the Al2O3 barrier layer increased open circuit voltage, causing an increase in device efficiency. For thicker Al2O3 barrier layers, photocurrent decreased substantially, leading to a decrease in device efficiency. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Three-dimensional nitrogen and boron co-doped graphene for high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Chen, Long; Sun, Yi; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Winter, Andreas; Turchanin, Andrey [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Physik Supramolekularer Systeme und Oberflaechen, Universitaetsstr. 25D, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Feng, Xinliang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-25

    A simplified prototype device of high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSs) based on 3D nitrogen and boron co-doped monolithic graphene aerogels (BN-GAs) is demonstrated for the first time. The resulting ASSSs show high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and enhanced energy density or power density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Annual Report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated by the University's researchers and engineers. Except for the tank opening for regular inspection we met twice the troubles which forced to change the accelerating tube. The experiences teach us that it needs about 20 days to finish the conditioning after changing the accelerating tube. A sputter ion source of new version is now being installed on the top floor. Two devices for the detection of X-rays were tested. An apparatus for bombardment of samples in air for biological and medical sciences has been successfully used. The subjects of researches on nuclear physics cover the light-ion reactions, heavy-ion reactions and nuclear spectroscopy. A special emphasis has been put on the measurements on vector- and tensor-analyzing powers in the light-ion reactions, because of a higher efficiency of the polarized ion source. Elaborate works on the heavy-ion reactions including the angular correlation patterns and excitation functions have been made in parallel. Papers of these works are now being prepared, a few having been published already. Moreover, in the University of Tsukuba, a new research system, called Special Research Project on Nuclear and Solid State Sciences Using Accelerated Beams (Nuclear and Solid State Research Project) started in 1978 and will continue for five years. In this research project, researchers from various Institutes in the University of Tsukuba, as well as visiting researchers from other institutions in Japan and from abroad, participate. Using a variety of accelerated beams, i.e. of heavy, light and polarized beams, this research project aims mainly at the high excitation, short life, transient and inhomogeneous states both in nuclear and extra-nuclear world. It covers both fundamental research in nuclear, atomic and solid state sciences as well as their application in various fields. (J.P.N.)

  2. Proceedings of 5. scientific conference on solid state physics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 5. Kazakhstan scientific conference on solid state physics was held on 28-30 October, 1999 in Karaganda. Scientists and researchers from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Estonia present various reports on different problems of solid state physics

  3. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  4. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  5. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  6. Photoelectrochemical Cell of Hybrid Regioregular POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE-2,5-DIYL) and Molybdenum Disulfide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmola, Fatmaelzahraa M.; Ram, Manoj K.; Takshi, Arash; Stafanakos, Elias; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi

    The photoelectrochemical cell attracts attention worldwide due to conversion of optical energy into electricity, production of hydrogen through water splitting and use in photodetector and photo-sensor applications. We have been working on the photochemical cell based on regioregular polyhexylthiophenes hybrid-structured films for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic applications. This paper discusses the hybrid film studies on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for photoelectrochemical cell. The hybrid P3HT/MoS2 films deposited over indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate or n-type silicon substrates were characterized using FTIR, UV/vis, electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The optical measurements showed a higher absorption magnitude with low reflection properties of P3HT/MoS2 hybrid films revealing a superior photocurrent compared to both P3HT and MoS2 films. The P3HT/MoS2 hybrid-based photoelectrochemical cell yielded a short-circuit current (Isc) of 183.16μAṡcm-2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92V, fill factor (FF) of 25% and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.18% under the light intensity of 242Wṡm-2. The estimated power conversion efficiency and fill factor are comparable to organic-based photovoltaic devices.

  7. Coupling of the electrocaloric and electromechanical effects for solid-state refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradeško, A.; Juričić, Äń.; Santo Zarnik, M.; Malič, B.; Kutnjak, Z.; Rojac, T.

    2016-10-01

    Electrocaloric (EC) materials have shown the potential to replace some of the technologies in current commercial refrigeration systems. The key problem when fabricating an efficient EC refrigerator is the small adiabatic temperature change that current bulk materials can achieve. Therefore, such a solid-state EC refrigerator should be engineered to enhance the EC temperature change by rectifying the induced EC heat flow. Here, we present a numerical study of a device that couples the EC and electromechanical (EM) effects in a single active material. The device consists of several elements made from a functional material with coupled EC and EM properties, allowing the elements to bend and change their temperature with the application of an electric field. The periodic excitation of these elements results in a temperature span across the device. By assuming heat exchange with the environment and a low thermal contact resistivity between the elements, we show that a device with 15 elements and an EC effect of 1.2 K achieves a temperature span between the hot and cold sides of the device equal to 12.6 K. Since the temperature span can be controlled by the number of elements in the device, the results suggest that in combination with the so-called "giant" EC effect (ΔTEC ≥ 10 K), a very large temperature span would be possible. The results of this work should motivate the development of efficient EC refrigeration systems based on a coupling of the EC and EM effects.

  8. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I

    2010-01-01

    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  9. Fungal Invertase Expression in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitlahuac Aranda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study invertase activity expression in Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated under different concentrations of two substrates using solid-state fermentation (SSF on polyurethane foam. Glucose was used as repressor and sucrose was the inducer. Invertase production increased when glucose was present in the medium (up to 100 g/L; however, higher concentration than this reduced the enzyme production. Induction-repression ratio obtained using any glucose concentration was at least 2.5 times higher than that under basal conditions (without inducer.

  10. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, M.; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol -1 , respectively. (Authors)

  11. Solid state lasers: a major direction in quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the report is to analyze development of solid-state lasers (SSL) as one of the most important avenues of the quantum electronics. The obtained intensity of a laser radiation at the focus equal to 5x10 1 0 W/cm 2 (the field intensity equal to about 5x10 1 0 V/cm 2 ) is noted to enable to observe nonlinear quantum- electrodynamic effects. Besides, one managed to increase the SSL efficiency conventionally equal to maximum 3% up to 48-50%. Paper describes new types of SSLs, namely, the crystalline fiber lasers with the lateral gradient of the index of refraction [ru

  12. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  13. Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.

  14. Gamma camera system with composite solid state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A composite solid-state detector is described for utilization within gamma cameras. The detector's formed of an array of detector crystals, the opposed surfaces of each of which are formed incorporating an impedance-derived configuration for determining one coordinate of the location of discrete impinging photons upon the detector. A combined read-out for all detectors within the composite array is achieved through a row and column interconnection of the impedance configurations. Utilizing the read-outs for respective sides of the discrete crystals, a resultant time-constant characteristic for the composite detector crystal array remains essentially that of individual crystal detectors

  15. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  16. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  17. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature...... electrochemical cells are still a "black box". In order to identify local reaction sites, surface coverage and potential/current introduced materials and surface modifications, in situ techniques are needed to gain a better understanding of the elementary and performance limiting steps for these cells...

  19. Solid state theory. An introduction. 2. rev. and ext. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields. (orig.)

  20. Quantum theory of the solid state part B

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed

  1. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  2. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  3. Design Considerations of a Solid State Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbozorgi, Mohammad; Houssainy, Sammy; Thacker, Ariana; Ip, Peggy; Ismail, Walid; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2016-11-01

    With the growing governmental restrictions on carbon emission, renewable energies are becoming more prevalent. A reliable use of a renewable source however requires a built-in storage to overcome the inherent intermittent nature of the available energy. Thermal design of a solid state energy storage has been investigated for optimal performance. The impact of flow regime, laminar vs. turbulent, on the design and sizing of the system is also studied. The implications of low thermal conductivity of the storage material are discussed and a design that maximizes the round trip efficiency is presented. This study was supported by Award No. EPC-14-027 Granted by California Energy Commission (CEC).

  4. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and its application in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used are the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulations experiments and field measurements were carried out to verify the method possibilities. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author) [pt

  5. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    /polymer composite films showed that their energy-conversion properties were comparable to those of an array attached to the growth substrate. High quantum efficiencies were observed relative to the packing density of the wires, particularly with illumination at high angles of incidence. The results indicate that an inexpensive, solid-state Si wire array solar cell is possible, and a plan is presented to develop one.

  6. Monolayer Nickel Cobalt Hydroxyl Carbonate for High Performance All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ma, Hongnan; Huang, Shifei; Zhang, Xuejiao; Xia, Meirong; Tang, Yongfu; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2016-09-07

    The emergence of atomically thick nanolayer materials, which feature a short ion diffusion channel and provide more exposed atoms in the electrochemical reactions, offers a promising occasion to optimize the performance of supercapacitors on the atomic level. In this work, a novel monolayer Ni-Co hydroxyl carbonate with an average thickness of 1.07 nm is synthesized via an ordinary one-pot hydrothermal route for the first time. This unique monolayer structure can efficiently rise up the exposed electroactive sites and facilitate the surface dependent electrochemical reaction processes, and thus results in outstanding specific capacitance of 2266 F g(-1). Based on this material, an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor is developed adopting alkaline PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) gel (PVA/KOH) as electrolyte, which performs remarkable cycling stability (no capacitance fade after 19 000 cycles) together with promising energy density of 50 Wh kg(-1) (202 μWh cm(-2)) and high power density of 8.69 kW kg(-1) (35.1 mW cm(-2)). This as-assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (AASC) holds great potential in the field of portable energy storage devices.

  7. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.bisogni@pi.infn.it; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-02-11

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  8. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  9. Design and performance of a vacuum-bottle solid-state calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Cech, R.

    1997-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies calorimetry personnel have developed a small, thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter, which is now undergoing performance testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter is an evaluation prototype for characterizing the heat output of small heat standards and other homogeneous heat sources. The current maximum sample size is 3.5 in. long with a diameter of 0.8 in. The overall size of the thermos bottle and thermoelectric cooling device is 9.25 in. high by 3.75 in. diameter and less than 3 lb. Coupling this unit with compact electronics and a laptop computer makes this calorimeter easily hand carried by a single individual. This compactness was achieved by servo controlling the reference temperature below room temperature and replacing the water bath used in conventional calorimeter design with the thermos-bottle insulator. Other design features will also be discussed. The performance of the calorimeter will be presented

  10. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiong; Tan Weiwei; Xiang Wangchun; Lin Yuan; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Li Xueping; Zhou Xiaowen; Fang Shibi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and α,ω-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] y I) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, α-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH 3 O[(EO) 0.8 -co-(PO) 0.2 ] x I) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at 90 o C for 30 min. The characteristics for this kind of electrolyte were investigated by means of ionic conductivity, thermogravimetric and photocurrent-voltage. The ambient ionic conductivity was significantly enhanced to 2.3 x 10 -4 S cm -1 after introducing plasticizer, modified-ionic liquid. The weight loss of the solid state electrolyte at 200 o C was 1.8%, and its decomposition temperature was 287 o C. Solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on chemically cross-linked electrolyte presented an overall conversion efficiency of 2.35% under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm -2 ). The as-fabricated device maintained 88% of its initial performance at room temperature even without sealing for 30 days, showing a good stability.

  11. Hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Ghods, Farbod; Docampo, Pablo; Abrusci, Agnese; Martí-Rujas, Javier; Ghidelli, Matteo; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Binda, Maddalena; Guarnera, Simone; Li Bassi, Andrea; Casari, Carlo Spartaco; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2013-11-26

    In this work we demonstrate hyperbranched nanostructures, grown by pulsed laser deposition, composed of one-dimensional anatase single crystals assembled in arrays of high aspect ratio hierarchical mesostructures. The proposed growth mechanism relies on a two-step process: self-assembly from the gas phase of amorphous TiO2 clusters in a forest of tree-shaped hierarchical mesostructures with high aspect ratio; oriented crystallization of the branches upon thermal treatment. Structural and morphological characteristics can be optimized to achieve both high specific surface area for optimal dye uptake and broadband light scattering thanks to the microscopic feature size. Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells fabricated with arrays of hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures on FTO-glass sensitized with D102 dye showed a significant 66% increase in efficiency with respect to a reference mesoporous photoanode and reached a maximum efficiency of 3.96% (among the highest reported for this system). This result was achieved mainly thanks to an increase in photogenerated current directly resulting from improved light harvesting efficiency of the hierarchical photoanode. The proposed photoanode overcomes typical limitations of 1D TiO2 nanostructures applied to ss-DSC and emerges as a promising foundation for next-generation high-efficiency solid-state devices comprosed of dyes, polymers, or quantum dots as sensitizers.

  12. Solid state pump lasers with high power and high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    We built a laser diode pumped solid state green laser (LDPSSGL) rated at high repetition rate. Two laser heads are placed in one cavity with a rotator in between to design to avoid thermal lensing and thermal birefringence effect. Although average green laser power higher than 10 W was obtained at 1 kHz repetition rate with pulse width of 20-30 nsec, the beam quality was so much deteriorated that energy efficiency was as low as 2 %. Learning from this experience that high power oscillator causes a lot of thermal distortion not only in the laser rod but also in the Q-switch device, we proceeded to built a oscillator/amplifier system. A low power oscillator has a slab type crystal in the cavity. As a result spatial distribution of laser power was extremely improved. As we expect that the high repetition rate solid state laser should be CW operated Q-switch type laser from the view point of lifetime of diode lasers, a conventional arc lamp pumped CW Q-switch green YAG laser of which the repetition rate is changeable from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and the pulse width is 250-570 nsec was also tested to obtain pumping characteristics of a dye laser as a function of power, pulse width etc., and dye laser pulse width of 100-130 nsec were obtained. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  14. Templated Solid-State Dewetting of Thin Silicon Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Delobbe, Anne; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Thin film dewetting can be efficiently exploited for the implementation of functionalized surfaces over very large scales. Although the formation of sub-micrometer sized crystals via solid-state dewetting represents a viable method for the fabrication of quantum dots and optical meta-surfaces, there are several limitations related to the intrinsic features of dewetting in a crystalline medium. Disordered spatial organization, size, and shape fluctuations are relevant issues not properly addressed so far. This study reports on the deterministic nucleation and precise positioning of Si- and SiGe-based nanocrystals by templated solid-state dewetting of thin silicon films. The dewetting dynamics is guided by pattern size and shape taking full control over number, size, shape, and relative position of the particles (islands dimensions and relative distances are in the hundreds nm range and fluctuate ≈11% for the volumes and ≈5% for the positioning). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. State of the art of solid state dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Susana O.; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; D'Errico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed

  16. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  17. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  18. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  19. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  20. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  1. Synthesisofc-lifepo4 composite by solid state reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, I.; Hidayat, S.; Noviyanti, A. R.; Rakhmawaty, D.; Ernawati, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the enhancement of LiFePO4 conductivity was conducted by doping method with carbon materials. Carbon-based materials were obtained from the mixture of sucrose, and the precursor of LiH2PO4 and α-Fe2O3 was synthesized by solid state reaction. Sintering temperature was varied at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C and 1,000°C. The result showed that C-LiFePO4 could be synthesized by using solid state reaction method. Based on the XRD and FTIR spectrums, C-LiFePO4 can be identified as the type of crystal, characterized by the appearance of sharp signal on (011), (211) and typical peak of LiFePO4 materials. The result of conductivity measurement from C-LiFePO4 at sintering temperature of 900°C and 1,000°C was 2×10-4 S/cm and 4×10-4S/cm, respectively. The conductivity value at sintering temperature of 700°C and 800°C was very small (<10-6 S/cm), which cannot be measured by the existing equipment.

  2. Muon beams, used for studying the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The positive muon provides a remarkable spectroscopic probe of the solid state. Implanted in virtually any material, its spin polarisation may be monitored to define the sites it occupies in lattices or molecules and to report on local structure and dynamics. Wide ranging applications in solid state science are illustrated in this article by examples in magnetics, chemistry and quantum diffusion. Primarily, the muon is a sensitive microscopic magnetometer: this elementary particle has spin 1/2 and a magnetic moment about three times that of the proton. The frequencies of its resonance or precession signals provide a direct and accurate measurement of local magnetic or hyperfine fields. Its relaxation functions characterise the distribution in space or the fluctuation in time of these fields. The muon is rarely a passive probe, however, since it represents a defect carrying unit positive charge. In fact its interactions with the local environment are commonly the main focus of interest; studies of this most fundamental of defects have eliminated complacency in several areas. The interactions, chemical and elastic, are essentially identical with those of the proton, so that their study is invaluable in situations where hydrogen cannot be detected by conventional spectroscopies. Alternatively, when muon and proton behaviour may be compared, the comparison reveals a variety of kinetic and dynamic isotope effects: the muon has about one ninth the proton mass. This order of magnitude ratio greatly facilitates identification of specifically quantum effects, ie those including zero point energy or tunnelling. (author)

  3. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  4. Cellulose nanofiber-templated three-dimension TiO 2 hierarchical nanowire network for photoelectrochemical photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaodong Li; Chunhua Yao; Fei Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Xudong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) nanostructures with extremely large porosity possess a great promise for the development of high-performance energy harvesting storage devices. In this paper, we developed a high-density 3D TiO2 fiber-nanorod (NR) heterostructure for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The hierarchical structure was synthesized on a...

  5. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  6. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-07-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll-to-roll compatible, large-area coating technique, is capable of achieving the same spiro-OMeTAD pore filling fraction as spin coating, and uses much less material. The average power conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells made from doctorblading is 3.0% for 2-lm thick films and 2.0% for 5-lm thick films, on par with devices made with spin coating. Directions to further improve the filling fraction are also suggested. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid-state physics. An introduction to principles of materials science. 4. ext. upd. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completely updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. (orig.)

  8. An explanation for the high stability of polycarboxythiophenes in photovoltaic devices—A solid-state NMR dipolar recoupling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bierring, M.; Nielsen, J.S.; Siu, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Continuous operation of a polymer photovoltaic device under accelerated conditions for more than 1 year has been demonstrated (8760h at 72 degrees C, 1000Wm(-2), AM 1.5, under vacuum). Formation of hydrogen-bonded networks is proposed to be responsible for the long lifetime and high stability...... observed in photovoltaic devices employing polythiophene substituted with carboxylic-acid moieties under oxygen free conditions. H-1 and C-13 solid-state NMR, IR, and ESR spectroscopy of unmodified and isotopically labeled polythiophenes were studied. Distances between the isotopically labeled carboxylic...

  9. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  10. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  11. Photoelectrochemical study of Si type P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Decker, F.

    1984-01-01

    Electrochemical reductions were studied at p-Si electrode under illumination and in the dark. Charge transfer mechanisms from the conduction and the valence band to different redox ions in solution were distinguished. Photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion has been studied as a particular case. (C.L.B.) [pt

  12. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical reduction of furfurals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Roylance, John James; Kubota, Stephen R.

    2018-02-06

    Electrochemical cells and photoelectrochemical cells for the reduction of furfurals are provided. Also provided are methods of using the cells to carry out the reduction reactions. Using the cells and methods, furfurals can be converted into furan alcohols or linear ketones.

  13. All-solid-state carbon nanotube torsional and tensile artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ah; Kim, Youn Tae; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Suh, Dongseok; Lepró, Xavier; Lima, Mácio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2014-05-14

    We report electrochemically powered, all-solid-state torsional and tensile artificial yarn muscles using a spinnable carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet that provides attractive performance. Large torsional muscle stroke (53°/mm) with minor hysteresis loop was obtained for a low applied voltage (5 V) without the use of a relatively complex three-electrode electromechanical setup, liquid electrolyte, or packaging. Useful tensile muscle strokes were obtained (1.3% at 2.5 V and 0.52% at 1 V) when lifting loads that are ∼25 times heavier than can be lifted by the same diameter human skeletal muscle. Also, the tensile actuator maintained its contraction following charging and subsequent disconnection from the power supply because of its own supercapacitor property at the same time. Possible eventual applications for the individual tensile and torsional muscles are in micromechanical devices, such as for controlling valves and stirring liquids in microfluidic circuits, and in medical catheters.

  14. All-solid-state micro-supercapacitors based on inkjet printed graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Mishukova, Viktoriia; Östling, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are fabricated simply through reliable inkjet printing of pristine graphene in interdigitated structure on silicon wafers to serve as both electrodes and current collectors, and a following drop casting of polymer electrolytes (polyvinyl alcohol/H3PO4). Benefiting from the printing processing, an attractive porous electrode microstructure with a large number of vertically orientated graphene flakes is observed. The devices exhibit commendable areal capacitance over 0.1 mF/cm2 and a long cycle life of over 1000 times. The simple and scalable fabrication technique for efficient micro-supercapacitors is promising for on-chip energy storage applications in emerging electronics.

  15. Recent advances in rare earth doped alkali-alkaline earth borates for solid state lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shefali; Verma, Kartikey; Kumar, Deepak; Chaudhary, Babulal; Som, Sudipta; Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2018-04-01

    As a novel class of inorganic phosphor, the alkali-alkaline earth borate phosphors have gained huge attention due to their charming applications in solid-state lighting (SSL) and display devices. The current research drive shows that phosphors based on the alkali-alkaline earth borates have transformed the science and technology due to their high transparency over a broad spectral range, their flexibility in structure and durability for mechanical and high-laser applications. Recent advances in various aspects of rare-earth (RE) doped borate based phosphors and their utilizations in SSL and light emitting diodes are summarized in this review article. Moreover, the present status and upcoming scenario of RE-doped borate phosphors were reviewed in general along with the proper credential from the existing literature. It is believed that this review is a sole compilation of crucial information about the RE-doped borate phosphors in a single platform.

  16. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program

  17. Thermoacoustics of solids: A pathway to solid state engines and refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haitian; Scalo, Carlo; Sen, Mihir; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Thermoacoustic oscillations have been one of the most exciting discoveries of the physics of fluids in the 19th century. Since its inception, scientists have formulated a comprehensive theoretical explanation of the basic phenomenon which has later found several practical applications to engineering devices. To date, all studies have concentrated on the thermoacoustics of fluid media where this fascinating mechanism was exclusively believed to exist. Our study shows theoretical and numerical evidence of the existence of thermoacoustic instabilities in solid media. Although the underlying physical mechanism exhibits some interesting similarities with its counterpart in fluids, the theoretical framework highlights relevant differences that have important implications on the ability to trigger and sustain the thermoacoustic response. This mechanism could pave the way to the development of highly robust and reliable solid-state thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  18. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O' Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  19. Why the developing world is the perfect market place for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, C. [Light Up the World, Calgary, AB (Canada); Platonova, I. [Light Up the World, Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Design; Doluweera, G.; Irvine-Halliday, D. [Light Up the World, Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Light Up The World (LUTW) is an organization dedicated to bringing renewable energy (RE) based solid state lighting (SSL) to the developing world. A typical SSL system consists of white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), a renewable energy source, and an energy storage device. Sufficient energy to operate a system with 2 1W lamps can be obtained using a 5W photovoltaic (PV) module. Use of the systems will help to eliminate the use of fuel-based lighting sources and their associated environmental impacts and safety and health hazards. This paper included a case study of a rural African community, as well as case studies of refugee camps in Sri Lanka and Nepal. The socio-economic impacts of SSL were evaluated, including potential impacts on taxation, business activities, and economic growth. The paper also demonstrated how the implementation of SSL will achieve all 8 of the United Nations' millennium development goals. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Solid-state laser source of narrowband ultraviolet B light for skin disease care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Aleksandr A.; Chu, Hong

    2013-03-01

    We report about the development of all-solid-state laser source of narrowband UV-B light for medical applications. The device is based on a gain-switched Ti: Sapphire laser with volume Bragg grating, pumped at 532 nm and operating at 931.8 nm, followed by a third harmonic generator and a fiber optic beam homogenizer. The maximum available pulse energy exceeded 5 mJ at 310.6 nm, with a pulse repetition rates of 50 Hz. The output characteristics satisfy the medical requirements for psoriasis and vitiligo treatment. A new optical scheme for third harmonic generation enhancement at moderate levels of input intensities is proposed and investigated. As a result, 40% harmonic efficiency was obtained, when input pulse power was only 300 kW.