WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid-state imaging ssi

  1. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  2. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  3. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  4. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans

    2014-01-01

    and excipients in a non-invasive way, as well as mapping the glibenclamide solid state form. An exploratory data analysis supported the critical evaluation of the mapping results and the selection of model parameters for the chemical mapping. The present study demonstrated that the multi-wavelength UV imaging......Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide...

  5. Enhanced 2D-image upconversion using solid-state lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Karamehmedovic, Emir; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2009-01-01

    the image inside a nonlinear PPKTP crystal located in the high intra-cavity field of a 1342 nm solid-state Nd:YVO4 laser, an upconverted image at 488 nm is generated. We have experimentally achieved an upconversion efficiency of 40% under CW conditions. The proposed technique can be further adapted for high...

  6. Overview of solid state lasers with applications as LIDAR transmitters and optical image amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.C.; Basiev, T.T.; Zverev, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: This talk will review the current status of solid state lasers. Then a specific class of solid state lasers, Raman lasers, will be discussed as a specific example of new technology development. The spectroscopic properties of the materials are used in these lasers is presented and the use of these materials in shared-, coupled-, and external-resonator laser systems is described. System design parameters affecting efficiency, beam quality, and temporal pulse width are discussed. Examples will be presented of the use of these lasers for transmitters in atmospheric and marine imaging light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems and in optical amplifiers

  7. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Henderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.

  8. Soft x-ray imaging by a commercial solid-state television camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, I.; Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Yano, M.

    1987-01-01

    A commerical, solid-state television camera has been used to record images of soft x radiation (0.8--12 keV). The performance of the camera is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated compared with an x-ray photographic film (Kodak direct exposure film). In the application, the camera has been used to provide image patterns of x rays from laser-produced plasmas. It is demonstrated that the camera has several advantages over x-ray photographic film

  9. Imaging of fast-neutron sources using solid-state track-recorder pinhole radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Kaiser, B.J.; Preston, C.C.

    1983-08-01

    Pinhole imaging methods are being developed and tested for potential future use in imaging the intense neutron source of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Previously reported, extensive calibration measurements of the proton, neutron, and alpha particle response characteristics of CR-39 polymer solid state track recorders (SSTRs) are being used to interpret the results of imaging experiments using both charged particle and neutron pinhole collimators. High resolution, neutron pinhole images of a 252 Cf source have been obtained in the form of neutron induced proton recoil tracks in CR-39 polymer SSTR. These imaging experiments are described as well as their potential future applications to FMIT

  10. Solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors and their physical imaging characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, A.R. [LXi Research, Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.r.cowen@leeds.ac.uk; Kengyelics, S.M.; Davies, A.G. [LXi Research, Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Solid-state, digital radiography (DR) detectors, designed specifically for standard projection radiography, emerged just before the turn of the millennium. This new generation of digital image detector comprises a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material combined with an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a thin film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). DR detectors can offer both efficient (low-dose) x-ray image acquisition plus on-line readout of the latent image as electronic data. To date, solid-state, flat-panel, DR detectors have come in two principal designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator-based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor-based) types. This review describes the underlying principles and enabling technologies exploited by these designs of detector, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing performance both against each other and computed radiography (CR). In standard projection radiography indirect conversion DR detectors currently offer superior physical image quality and dose efficiency compared with direct conversion DR and modern point-scan CR. These conclusions have been confirmed in the findings of clinical evaluations of DR detectors. Future trends in solid-state DR detector technologies are also briefly considered. Salient innovations include WiFi-enabled, portable DR detectors, improvements in x-ray absorber layers and developments in alternative electronic media to a-Si:H.

  11. A Practical and Portable Solids-State Electronic Terahertz Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Smart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A practical compact solid-state terahertz imaging system is presented. Various beam guiding architectures were explored and hardware performance assessed to improve its compactness, robustness, multi-functionality and simplicity of operation. The system performance in terms of image resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, the electronic signal modulation versus optical chopper, is evaluated and discussed. The system can be conveniently switched between transmission and reflection mode according to the application. A range of imaging application scenarios was explored and images of high visual quality were obtained in both transmission and reflection mode.

  12. An automatic analyzer of solid state nuclear track detectors using an optic RAM as image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, A.

    1986-01-01

    An optic RAM is a conventional digital random access read/write dynamic memory device featuring a quartz windowed package and memory cells regularly ordered on the chip. Such a device is used as an image sensor because each cell retains data stored in it for a time depending on the intensity of the light incident on the cell itself. The authors have developed a system which uses an optic RAM to acquire and digitize images from electrochemically etched CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the track count rate up to 5000 cm -2 . On the digital image so obtained, a microprocessor, with appropriate software, performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  14. Coherent diffractive imaging of solid state reactions in zinc oxide crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Steven J.; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the doping of zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystals with iron and nickel via in situ coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) in vacuum. Evaporated thin metal films were deposited onto the ZnO microcrystals. A single crystal was selected and tracked through annealing cycles. A solid state reaction was observed in both iron and nickel experiments using CXDI. A combination of the shrink wrap and guided hybrid-input-output phasing methods were applied to retrieve the electron density. The resolution was 33 nm (half order) determined via the phase retrieval transfer function. The resulting images are nevertheless sensitive to sub-angstrom displacements. The exterior of the microcrystal was found to degrade dramatically. The annealing of ZnO microcrystals coated with metal thin films proved an unsuitable doping method. In addition the observed defect structure of one crystal was attributed to the presence of an array of defects and was found to change upon annealing.

  15. Toward 1-mm depth precision with a solid state full-field range imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Carnegie, Dale A.; Cree, Michael J.

    2006-02-01

    Previously, we demonstrated a novel heterodyne based solid-state full-field range-finding imaging system. This system is comprised of modulated LED illumination, a modulated image intensifier, and a digital video camera. A 10 MHz drive is provided with 1 Hz difference between the LEDs and image intensifier. A sequence of images of the resulting beating intensifier output are captured and processed to determine phase and hence distance to the object for each pixel. In a previous publication, we detailed results showing a one-sigma precision of 15 mm to 30 mm (depending on signal strength). Furthermore, we identified the limitations of the system and potential improvements that were expected to result in a range precision in the order of 1 mm. These primarily include increasing the operating frequency and improving optical coupling and sensitivity. In this paper, we report on the implementation of these improvements and the new system characteristics. We also comment on the factors that are important for high precision image ranging and present configuration strategies for best performance. Ranging with sub-millimeter precision is demonstrated by imaging a planar surface and calculating the deviations from a planar fit. The results are also illustrated graphically by imaging a garden gnome.

  16. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Imaging for Sensitive Detection of Multiple Pharmaceutical Solid-State Forms and Surface Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Dunja; Saarinen, Jukka; Rojalin, Tatu; Antikainen, Osmo; Fraser-Miller, Sara J; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Isomäki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J

    2017-11-07

    Two nonlinear imaging modalities, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), were successfully combined for sensitive multimodal imaging of multiple solid-state forms and their changes on drug tablet surfaces. Two imaging approaches were used and compared: (i) hyperspectral CARS combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and SFG imaging and (ii) simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging. Three different solid-state forms of indomethacin-the crystalline gamma and alpha forms, as well as the amorphous form-were clearly distinguished using both approaches. Simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging was faster, but hyperspectral CARS and SFG imaging has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of more complex samples. These methodologies were further used to follow crystallization of indomethacin on tablet surfaces under two storage conditions: 30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH. Imaging with (sub)micron resolution showed that the approach allowed detection of very early stage surface crystallization. The surfaces progressively crystallized to predominantly (but not exclusively) the gamma form at lower humidity and the alpha form at higher humidity. Overall, this study suggests that multimodal nonlinear imaging is a highly sensitive, solid-state (and chemically) specific, rapid, and versatile imaging technique for understanding and hence controlling (surface) solid-state forms and their complex changes in pharmaceuticals.

  17. Image transmission in mid-IR using a solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kratovil, Pat; Magee, James R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, image transmission using a mid-wave IR (MWIR) optical transceiver based free-space data link under low visibility conditions is presented. The all-solid-state MWIR transceiver primarily consisted of a passively Q-switched, short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumping a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric oscillator and a Dember effect detector. The MILES transceiver generates pulse position waveforms. The optical data link consisting of transmitter drive electronics, pulse conditioning electronics and a computer generating pulses compatible with the 2400-baud rate RS232 receiver was utilized. Data formatting and RS232 transmission and reception were achieved using a computer. Data formatting transformed an arbitrary image file format compatible with the basic operation of pump laser. Images were transmitted at a date rate of 2400 kbits/sec with 16 bits/pixel. Test images consisting of 50X40 pixels and 100X80 pixels were transmitted through free-space filled with light fog up to 120 ft. Besides optical parametric oscillators, the proposed concept can be extended to optical parametric amplifiers, Raman lasers and other nonlinear optical devices to achieve multi-functionality.

  18. Secondary signal imaging (SSI) electron tomography (SSI-ET): A new three-dimensional metrology for mesoscale specimens in transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang Wan; Ortalan, Volkan

    2015-09-01

    We have demonstrated a new electron tomography technique utilizing the secondary signals (secondary electrons and backscattered electrons) for ultra thick (a few μm) specimens. The Monte Carlo electron scattering simulations reveal that the amount of backscattered electrons generated by 200 and 300keV incident electrons is a monotonic function of the sample thickness and this causes the thickness contrast satisfying the projection requirement for the tomographic reconstruction. Additional contribution of the secondary electrons emitted from the edges of the specimens enhances the visibility of the surface features. The acquired SSI tilt series of the specimen having mesoscopic dimensions are successfully reconstructed verifying that this new technique, so called the secondary signal imaging electron tomography (SSI-ET), can directly be utilized for 3D structural analysis of mesoscale structures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  20. Technical guidance for the development of a solid state image sensor for human low vision image warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderspiegel, Jan

    1994-01-01

    This report surveys different technologies and approaches to realize sensors for image warping. The goal is to study the feasibility, technical aspects, and limitations of making an electronic camera with special geometries which implements certain transformations for image warping. This work was inspired by the research done by Dr. Juday at NASA Johnson Space Center on image warping. The study has looked into different solid-state technologies to fabricate image sensors. It is found that among the available technologies, CMOS is preferred over CCD technology. CMOS provides more flexibility to design different functions into the sensor, is more widely available, and is a lower cost solution. By using an architecture with row and column decoders one has the added flexibility of addressing the pixels at random, or read out only part of the image.

  1. Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with a solid-state dedicated cardiac camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Simona; Kacperski, Krzysztof; Hain, Sharon; Van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F; Erlandsson, Kjell; Sharir, Tali; Roth, Nathaniel; Waddington, Wendy A; Berman, Daniel S; Ell, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    We compared simultaneous dual-radionuclide (DR) stress and rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with a novel solid-state cardiac camera and a conventional SPECT camera with separate stress and rest acquisitions. Of 27 consecutive patients recruited, 24 (64.5+/-11.8 years of age, 16 men) were injected with 74 MBq of (201)Tl (rest) and 250 MBq (99m)Tc-MIBI (stress). Conventional MPI acquisition times for stress and rest are 21 min and 16 min, respectively. Rest (201)Tl for 6 min and simultaneous DR 15-min list mode gated scans were performed on a D-SPECT cardiac scanner. In 11 patients DR D-SPECT was performed first and in 13 patients conventional stress (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT imaging was performed followed by DR D-SPECT. The DR D-SPECT data were processed using a spill-over and scatter correction method. DR D-SPECT images were compared with rest (201)Tl D-SPECT and with conventional SPECT images by visual analysis employing the 17-segment model and a five-point scale (0 normal, 4 absent) to calculate the summed stress and rest scores. Image quality was assessed on a four-point scale (1 poor, 4 very good) and gut activity was assessed on a four-point scale (0 none, 3 high). Conventional MPI studies were abnormal at stress in 17 patients and at rest in 9 patients. In the 17 abnormal stress studies DR D-SPECT MPI showed 113 abnormal segments and conventional MPI showed 93 abnormal segments. In the nine abnormal rest studies DR D-SPECT showed 45 abnormal segments and conventional MPI showed 48 abnormal segments. The summed stress and rest scores on conventional SPECT and DR D-SPECT were highly correlated (r=0.9790 and 0.9694, respectively). The summed scores of rest (201)Tl D-SPECT and DR-DSPECT were also highly correlated (r=0.9968, pstress perfusion defects were significantly larger on stress DR D-SPECT images, and five of these patients were imaged earlier by D-SPECT than by conventional SPECT. Fast and high-quality simultaneous DR MPI is feasible with D-SPECT in a

  2. Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with a solid-state dedicated cardiac camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, Simona; Kacperski, Krzysztof; Hain, Sharon; Van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F.; Erlandsson, Kjell; Waddington, Wendy A.; Ell, Peter J.; Sharir, Tali; Roth, Nathaniel; Berman, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    We compared simultaneous dual-radionuclide (DR) stress and rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with a novel solid-state cardiac camera and a conventional SPECT camera with separate stress and rest acquisitions. Of 27 consecutive patients recruited, 24 (64.5±11.8 years of age, 16 men) were injected with 74 MBq of 201 Tl (rest) and 250 MBq 99m Tc-MIBI (stress). Conventional MPI acquisition times for stress and rest are 21 min and 16 min, respectively. Rest 201 Tl for 6 min and simultaneous DR 15-min list mode gated scans were performed on a D-SPECT cardiac scanner. In 11 patients DR D-SPECT was performed first and in 13 patients conventional stress 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT imaging was performed followed by DR D-SPECT. The DR D-SPECT data were processed using a spill-over and scatter correction method. DR D-SPECT images were compared with rest 201 Tl D-SPECT and with conventional SPECT images by visual analysis employing the 17-segment model and a five-point scale (0 normal, 4 absent) to calculate the summed stress and rest scores. Image quality was assessed on a four-point scale (1 poor, 4 very good) and gut activity was assessed on a four-point scale (0 none, 3 high). Conventional MPI studies were abnormal at stress in 17 patients and at rest in 9 patients. In the 17 abnormal stress studies DR D-SPECT MPI showed 113 abnormal segments and conventional MPI showed 93 abnormal segments. In the nine abnormal rest studies DR D-SPECT showed 45 abnormal segments and conventional MPI showed 48 abnormal segments. The summed stress and rest scores on conventional SPECT and DR D-SPECT were highly correlated (r=0.9790 and 0.9694, respectively). The summed scores of rest 201 Tl D-SPECT and DR-DSPECT were also highly correlated (r=0.9968, p 201 Tl D-SPECT acquisition. (orig.)

  3. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope: all-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaole; Schelen, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van den Oever, Rein; Leenen, René; van Kuijk, Harry; Peters, Inge; Polderdijk, Frank; Bosiers, Jan; Raspe, Marcel; Jalink, Kees; Geert Sander de Jong, Jan; van Geest, Bert; Stoop, Karel; Young, Ian Ted

    2012-12-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device design in a frequency-domain FLIM system. The first stage of evaluation for the camera has been carried out. Camera characteristics such as noise distribution, dark current influence, camera gain, sampling density, sensitivity, linearity of photometric response, and optical transfer function have been studied through experiments. We are able to do lifetime measurement using our modulated, electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (MEM-FLIM) camera for various objects, e.g., fluorescein solution, fixed green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells, and GFP-actin stained live cells. A detailed comparison of a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)-based FLIM system and the MEM-FLIM system is presented. The MEM-FLIM camera shows higher resolution and a better image quality. The MEM-FLIM camera provides a new opportunity for performing frequency-domain FLIM.

  4. The design and imaging characteristics of dynamic, solid-state, flat-panel x-ray image detectors for digital fluoroscopy and fluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, A.R.; Davies, A.G.; Sivananthan, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic, flat-panel, solid-state, x-ray image detectors for use in digital fluoroscopy and fluorography emerged at the turn of the millennium. This new generation of dynamic detectors utilize a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material superimposed upon an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Dynamic solid-state detectors come in two basic designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor based). This review explains the underlying principles and enabling technologies associated with these detector designs, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing their performance against the long established x-ray image intensifier television (TV) system. Solid-state detectors afford a number of physical imaging benefits compared with the latter. These include zero geometrical distortion and vignetting, immunity from blooming at exposure highlights and negligible contrast loss (due to internal scatter). They also exhibit a wider dynamic range and maintain higher spatial resolution when imaging over larger fields of view. The detective quantum efficiency of indirect-conversion, dynamic, solid-state detectors is superior to that of both x-ray image intensifier TV systems and direct-conversion detectors. Dynamic solid-state detectors are playing a burgeoning role in fluoroscopy-guided diagnosis and intervention, leading to the displacement of x-ray image intensifier TV-based systems. Future trends in dynamic, solid-state, digital fluoroscopy detectors are also briefly considered. These include the growth in associated three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques and potential improvements in dynamic detector design

  5. One-step synthesis of solid state luminescent carbon-based silica nanohybrids for imaging of latent fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Hongren; Cui, Tianfang

    2017-11-01

    Fluorescent carbon-based nanomaterials(CNs) with tunable visible emission are biocompatible, environment friendly and most suitable for various biomedical applications. Despite the successes in preparing strongly fluorescent CNs, preserving the luminescence in solid materials is still challenging because of the serious emission quenching of CNs in solid state materials. In this work, fluorescent carbon and silica nanohybrids (SiCNHs) were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal approach by carbonizing sodium citrate and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane(APTES), and hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS). The resultant SiCNs were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The SiCNs exhibited strong fluorescence in both aqueous and solid states. The luminescent solid state SiCNs power were successfully used as a fluorescent labeling material for enhanced imaging of latent fingerprints(LFPs) on single background colour and multi-coloured surfaces substrates in forensic science for individual identification.

  6. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, D; Gaydecki, P; Quek, S; Torres, V

    2007-01-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research

  7. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2007-07-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  8. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W

    2011-05-20

    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  9. Monitoring of multiple solid-state transformations at tablet surfaces using multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the solid-state stability of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or excipients in solid dosage forms during manufacturing and storage is mandatory for safeguarding quality of the final products. In this work, the solid-state transformations in tablets prepared as blends...... of piroxicam monohydrate (API), polyvinylpyrrolidone and the lactose forms monohydrate or anhydrate were studied when the tablets were exposed to the 23-120°C range. Multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral images were obtained from the surface of each sample for unveiling the local evolution of the solid......-state transformations. The preprocessed spectra from the images (dataset) were arranged in augmented matrices, according to the composition of the tablets, and the profile of the overlapped compounds (relative concentration) along the solid-state transformations in the pixels was resolved by using multivariate curve...

  10. Achieving sub-millimetre precision with a solid-state full-field heterodyning range imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, A. A.; Cree, M. J.; Payne, A. D.; Conroy, R. M.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a full-field solid-state range imaging system capable of capturing range and intensity data simultaneously for every pixel in a scene with sub-millimetre range precision. The system is based on indirect time-of-flight measurements by heterodyning intensity-modulated illumination with a gain modulation intensified digital video camera. Sub-millimetre precision to beyond 5 m and 2 mm precision out to 12 m has been achieved. In this paper, we describe the new sub-millimetre class range imaging system in detail, and review the important aspects that have been instrumental in achieving high precision ranging. We also present the results of performance characterization experiments and a method of resolving the range ambiguity problem associated with homodyne and heterodyne ranging systems.

  11. Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging Using Solid-State Detectors: Characteristics, Present Status, and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayed, Mrwan; Deen, M Jamal

    2017-09-14

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and diffuse optical imaging (DOI) are emerging non-invasive imaging modalities that have wide spread potential applications in many fields, particularly for structural and functional imaging in medicine. In this article, we review time-resolved diffuse optical imaging (TR-DOI) systems using solid-state detectors with a special focus on Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These TR-DOI systems can be categorized into two types based on the operation mode of the detector (free-running or time-gated). For the TR-DOI prototypes, the physical concepts, main components, figures-of-merit of detectors, and evaluation parameters are described. The performance of TR-DOI prototypes is evaluated according to the parameters used in common protocols to test DOI systems particularly basic instrumental performance (BIP). In addition, the potential features of SPADs and SiPMs to improve TR-DOI systems and expand their applications in the foreseeable future are discussed. Lastly, research challenges and future developments for TR-DOI are discussed for each component in the prototype separately and also for the entire system.

  12. Ultra-high performance, solid-state, autoradiographic image digitization and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Pratt, J.P.; Ackermann, R.F.; Plotnick, J.; Rumley, S.

    1990-01-01

    We developed a Macintosh II-based, charge-coupled device (CCD), image digitization and analysis system for high-speed, high-resolution quantification of autoradiographic image data. A linear CCD array with 3,500 elements was attached to a precision drive assembly and mounted behind a high-uniformity lens. The drive assembly was used to sweep the array perpendicularly to its axis so that an entire 20 x 25-cm autoradiographic image-containing film could be digitized into 256 gray levels at 50-microns resolution in less than 30 sec. The scanner was interfaced to a Macintosh II computer through a specially constructed NuBus circuit board and software was developed for autoradiographic data analysis. The system was evaluated by scanning individual films multiple times, then measuring the variability of the digital data between the different scans. Image data were found to be virtually noise free. The coefficient of variation averaged less than 1%, a value significantly exceeding the accuracy of both high-speed, low-resolution, video camera (VC) systems and low-speed, high-resolution, rotating drum densitometers (RDD). Thus, the CCD scanner-Macintosh computer analysis system offers the advantage over VC systems of the ability to digitize entire films containing many autoradiograms, but with much greater speed and accuracy than achievable with RDD scanners

  13. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  14. The Detection of Faint Space Objects Using Solid State Imaging Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-31

    are con.iposed of baryonic matter . New arguments were presented against halos being composed of planets or asteroids. D. Hegyi was also invited to...being made up of baryonic matter . 5.0 THE CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE IMAGING SYSTEM Our major hardware improvement during the past year is a stainless steel...Hegyi Department of Physics University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan ABSIR:CT The problems with massive halos being composed of baryonic matter are

  15. Non-Invasive Imaging Method of Microwave Near Field Based on Solid State Quantum Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Du, Guanxiang; Dong, Yue; Liu, Guoquan; Hu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-invasive imaging method of microwave near field using a diamond containing nitrogen-vacancy centers. We applied synchronous pulsed sequence combined with charge coupled device camera to measure the amplitude of the microwave magnetic field. A full reconstruction formulation of the local field vector, including the amplitude and phase, is developed by measuring both left and right circular polarizations along the four nitrogen-vacancy axes. Compared to the raste...

  16. Evaluation of Origin Ensemble algorithm for image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state detectors with large number of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Mikhaylova, E.; Chmeissani, M.; Ariño, G.; Calderón, Y.; Ozsahin, I.; Uzun, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For PET scanners, conventional algorithms like Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) and Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) are straightforward to use and give good results. However, FBP presents difficulties for detectors with limited angular coverage like PEM and Compton gamma cameras, whereas OSEM has an impractically large time and memory consumption for a Compton gamma camera with a large number of channels. In this article, the Origin Ensemble (OE) algorithm is evaluated as an alternative algorithm for image reconstruction. Monte Carlo simulations of the PET design are used to compare the performance of OE, FBP and OSEM in terms of the bias, variance and average mean squared error (MSE) image quality metrics. For the PEM and Compton camera designs, results obtained with OE are presented.

  17. Lipase Production in Solid-State Fermentation Monitoring Biomass Growth of Aspergillus niger Using Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Julio C. V.; da Terzi, Selma C.; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C. T.; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A. P.; Senna, Lilian F.

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

  18. Lipase production in solid-state fermentation monitoring biomass growth of aspergillus niger using digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Júlio C V; da C Terzi, Selma; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C T; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A P; Senna, Lilian F

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

  19. Amorphous silicon solid-state detectors and their future application in medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, M.; Alexander, J.; Gmeinwieser, J.

    1997-01-01

    With the goal of testing the new technology under clinical conditions, in a cooperation between Thomson Tubes Electroniques (Moirans, France) and the Siemens Medical Engineering Group the first a-Si detector prototypes have been developed. On the basis of these activities and together with another European partner the independent company Trixell S.A.S. was established. A technological prototype with a matrix size of 1k x 1k and a pixel size of 200 μm [4] was installed in 1995 in the Cardiology Department of the University Hospital in Freiburg (Germany). The system was designed to operate at 12.5 frames per seconds with full geometrical resolution and 25 frames per second with half the full geometrical resolution. In the clinical environment, both the high contrast and the good image impression, especially at cinematographic doses, was acknowledged. In this early stage of development, however, the signal-to-noise ratio was somewhat inferior to that of I.I.-TV systems at fluoroscopic doses. (orig.)

  20. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  1. Pocket Size Solid State FLASH and iPOD Drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.

    2008-01-01

    The transition of radiological imaging from analog to digital was closely followed by the development of the Picture Archiving and Communication (PACS) system. Concomitantly, multidimensional imaging ( 4D and 5D, for motion and functional studies on 3D images) have presented new challenges, particularly in handling gigabyte size images from CT, MRI and PET scanners, which generate thousands of images. The storage and analysis of these images necessitate expensive image workstations. This paper highlights the recent innovations in mass storage, display and transfer of images, using miniature/pocket size solid state FLASH and iPOD drives

  2. Unveiling multiple solid-state transitions in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms using multi-series hyperspectral imaging and different curve resolution approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state transitions at the surface of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (SDF) were monitored using multi-series hyperspectral imaging (HSI) along with Multivariate Curve Resolution – Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC and PARAFAC2). First, the solid-stat...

  3. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  4. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  5. Development of an image converter of radical design. [employing solid state electronics towards the production of an advanced engineering model camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, E. L.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    A long term investigation of thin film sensors, monolithic photo-field effect transistors, and epitaxially diffused phototransistors and photodiodes to meet requirements to produce acceptable all solid state, electronically scanned imaging system, led to the production of an advanced engineering model camera which employs a 200,000 element phototransistor array (organized in a matrix of 400 rows by 500 columns) to secure resolution comparable to commercial television. The full investigation is described for the period July 1962 through July 1972, and covers the following broad topics in detail: (1) sensor monoliths; (2) fabrication technology; (3) functional theory; (4) system methodology; and (5) deployment profile. A summary of the work and conclusions are given, along with extensive schematic diagrams of the final solid state imaging system product.

  6. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  7. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  8. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  9. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  10. Galileo SSI Observations of Volcanic Activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Keszthely, L. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Davies, A. G.; Turtle, E. P.; Geissler, P.; Klaasen, K. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on the analysis of the Galileo SSI's observations of the volcanic activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io as discussed by Milazzo et al. Galileo's Solid State Imager (SSI) observed Tvashtar Catena (63 deg N, 120 deg W) four times between November 1999 and October 2001, providing a unique look at the distinctive high latitude volcanism on Io. The November 1999 observation spatially resolved, for the first time, an active extraterrestrial fissure eruption. The brightness temperature of the lavas at the November 1999 fissure eruption was 1300 K. The second observation (orbit I27, February 2000) showed a large (approx. 500 sq km) region with many, small spots of hot, active lava. The third observation was taken in conjunction with a Cassini observation in December 2000 and showed a Pele-like plume deposition ring, while the Cassini images revealed a 400 km high Pele-type plume above the Catena. The final Galileo SSI observation of Tvashtar was acquired in October 2001, and all obvious (to SSI) activity had ceased, although data from Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) indicated that there was still significant thermal emission from the Tvashtar region. We have concentrated on analyzing the style of eruption during orbit I27 (February 2000). Comparison with a lava flow cooling model indicates that the behavior of the Tvashtar eruption during I27 does not match that of "simple" advancing lava flows. Instead, it may be an active lava lake or a complex set of lava flows with episodic, overlapping (in time and space) eruptions.

  11. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  12. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  13. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  14. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  15. In Situ Imaging the Oxygen Reduction Reactions of Solid State Na-O2 Batteries with CuO Nanowires as the Air Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiunan; Yang, Tingting; Du, Congcong; Tang, Yongfu; Sun, Yong; Jia, Peng; Chen, Jingzhao; Ye, Hongjun; Shen, Tongde; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Liqiang; Huang, Jianyu

    2018-05-14

    We report real time imaging of the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) in all solid state sodium oxygen batteries (SOBs) with CuO nanowires (NWs) as the air cathode in an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope under an oxygen environment. The ORR occurred in a distinct two-step reaction, namely, a first conversion reaction followed by a second multiple ORR. In the former, CuO was first converted to Cu 2 O and then to Cu; in the latter, NaO 2 formed first, followed by its disproportionation to Na 2 O 2 and O 2 . Concurrent with the two distinct electrochemical reactions, the CuO NWs experienced multiple consecutive large volume expansions. It is evident that the freshly formed ultrafine-grained Cu in the conversion reaction catalyzed the latter one-electron-transfer ORR, leading to the formation of NaO 2 . Remarkably, no carbonate formation was detected in the oxygen cathode after cycling due to the absence of carbon source in the whole battery setup. These results provide fundamental understanding into the oxygen chemistry in the carbonless air cathode in all solid state Na-O 2 batteries.

  16. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  17. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  18. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  19. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  20. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  1. Evaluation of list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state compton gamma camera with large number of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.

  2. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  3. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  4. Prospects for sub-micron solid state nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2010-06-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with sub-micron voxel dimensions using a combination of low temperatures and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Experiments are performed on nitroxide-doped glycerol-water at 9.4 T and temperatures below 40 K, using a 30 mW tunable microwave source for DNP. With DNP at 7 K, a 0.5 microL sample yields a (1)H NMR signal-to-noise ratio of 770 in two scans with pulsed spin-lock detection and after 80 db signal attenuation. With reasonable extrapolations, we infer that (1)H NMR signals from 1 microm(3) voxel volumes should be readily detectable, and voxels as small as 0.03 microm(3) may eventually be detectable. Through homonuclear decoupling with a frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg spin echo technique, we obtain 830 Hz (1)H NMR linewidths at low temperatures, implying that pulsed field gradients equal to 0.4 G/d or less would be required during spatial encoding dimensions of an imaging sequence, where d is the resolution in each dimension.

  5. Cherenkov light imaging tests with state-of-the-art solid state photon counter for the CLAS12 RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balossino, Ilaria; Barion, L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Lenisa, P.; Lucherini, V.; Malaguti, R.; Mirazita, M.; Movsisyan, A.; Squerzanti, S.; Turisini, M.

    2017-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector will be operated for hadron identification in the 3 GeV / c to 8 GeV / c momentum range at the CLAS12 experiment at the upgraded continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab. The detector, consisting of aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and photon counters, will be built with a hybrid optics design to allow the detection of Cherenkov light for both forward and large angle hadron tracks. The active area has to be densely packed and highly segmented, covering about 1m2 with pixels of 6mm2 , and to allow a time resolution of 1 ns. A technology that can offer a cost-effective solution and low material budget could be Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) thanks to their high gain at low bias voltage, fast timing, good single-photoelectron resolution and insensitivity to magnetic fields. An investigation is ongoing on samples of 3 × 3mm2 SiPM of different micro-cell size to assess the single photon detection capability in the presence of high dark count rate due to thermal generation effects, after-pulses or optical cross-talk and to study the response to the moderate radiation damage expected at CLAS12. In this work, a brief review of the latest and most interesting results from these studies will be shown.

  6. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  7. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  8. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  9. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  10. Use of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to evaluate pretreated sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for cellulase production under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Crestana, Silvio; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2014-03-01

    The enzymatic cocktail of cellulases is one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels and other chemicals. Here, the influence of liquid hot water, dilute acid, alkali, and combined acid/alkali pretreatments on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) used for cellulase production was investigated by means of spectroscopic and imaging techniques. Chemical composition and structural characteristics, such as crystallinity (determined by X-ray diffraction), functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy), were used to correlate SCB pretreatments with enzymatic biosynthesis by a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The combined acid/alkali pretreatment resulted in a SCB with higher cellulose content (86.7%). However, the high crystallinity (74%) of the resulting biomass was detrimental to microbial uptake and enzyme production. SCB pretreated with liquid hot water yielded the highest filter paper cellulase (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase activities (0.4, 14.9, and 26.1 U g(-1), respectively). The results showed that a suitable pretreatment for SCB to be used as a substrate for cellulase production should avoid severe conditions in order to preserve amorphous cellulose and to enhance the physical properties that assist microbial access.

  11. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, M; Zhao, W; Tanioka, K; Decrescenzo, G; Rowlands, J A

    2012-11-01

    The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography∕fluoroscopy (R∕F) applications. The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all clinically relevant

  12. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  13. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  14. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  15. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  16. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  18. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  19. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  20. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  1. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  2. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  3. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  4. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  5. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  6. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  7. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  8. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  9. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  10. Active Volcanism on Io as Seen by Galileo SSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Geissler, P.; Simonelli, D.P.; Carr, M.H.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Senske, D.A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Schubert, G.

    1998-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io has been monitored during the nominal Galileo satellite tour from mid 1996 through late 1997. The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment was able to observe many manifestations of this active volcanism, including (1) changes in the color and albedo of the surface, (2) active airborne plumes, and (3) glowing vents seen in eclipse. About 30 large-scale (tens of kilometers) surface changes are obvious from comparison of the SSI images to those acquired by Voyager in 1979. These include new pyroclastic deposits of several colors, bright and dark flows, and caldera-floor materials. There have also been significant surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission itself, such as a new 400-km-diameter dark pyroclastic deposit around Pillan Patera. While these surface changes are impressive, the number of large-scale changes observed in the four months between the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979 suggested that over 17 years the cumulative changes would have been much more impressive. There are two reasons why this was not actually the case. First, it appears that the most widespread plume deposits are ephemeral and seem to disappear within a few years. Second, it appears that a large fraction of the volcanic activity is confined to repeated resurfacing of dark calderas and flow fields that cover only a few percent of Io's surface. The plume monitoring has revealed 10 active plumes, comparable to the 9 plumes observed by Voyager. One of these plumes was visible only in the first orbit and three became active in the later orbits. Only the Prometheus plume has been consistently active and easy to detect. Observations of the Pele plume have been particularly intriguing since it was detected only once by SSI, despite repeated attempts, but has been detected several times by the Hubble Space Telescope at 255 nm. Pele's plume is much taller (460 km) than during Voyager 1 (300 km) and much fainter at visible wavelengths. Prometheus-type plumes (50

  11. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  12. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  13. Bottom-up electrochemical preparation of solid-state carbon nanodots directly from nitriles/ionic liquids using carbon-free electrodes and the applications in specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fushuang; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Mengli; Sun, Jing; Guo, Pengran; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-03-14

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots), a new type of potential alternative to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, have attracted numerous attentions in various applications including bio-chemical sensing, cell imaging, etc., due to their chemical inertness, low toxicity and flexible functionalization. Various methods including electrochemical (EC) methods have been reported for the synthesis of C-dots. However, complex procedures and/or carbon source-containing electrodes are often required. Herein, solid-state C-dots were simply prepared by bottom-up EC carbonization of nitriles (e.g. acetonitrile) in the presence of an ionic liquid [e.g. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6)], using carbon-free electrodes. Due to the positive charges of BMIM(+) on the C-dots, the final products presented in a precipitate form on the cathode, and the unreacted nitriles and BMIMPF6 can be easily removed by simple vacuum filtration. The as-prepared solid-state C-dots can be well dispersed in an aqueous medium with excellent photoluminescence properties. The average size of the C-dots was found to be 3.02 ± 0.12 nm as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Other techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were applied for the characterization of the C-dots and to analyze the possible generation mechanism. These C-dots have been successfully applied in efficient cell imaging and specific ferric ion detection.

  14. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  15. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  16. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  17. The TANF/SSI connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamhoff, Steve; Wiseman, Michael

    Interactions and overlap of social assistance programs across clients interest policymakers because such interactions affect both the clients' well-being and the programs' efficiency. This article investigates the connections between Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and TANF's predecessor, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Connections between receipt of TANF and SSI are widely discussed in both disability policy and poverty research literatures because many families receiving TANF report disabilities. For both states and the individuals involved, it is generally financially advantageous for adults and children with disabilities to transfer from TANF to SSI. States gain because the federal government pays for the SSI benefit, and states can then use the TANF savings for other purposes. The families gain because the SSI benefits they acquire are greater than the TANF benefits they lose. The payoff to states from transferring welfare recipients to SSI was substantially increased when Congress replaced AFDC with TANF in 1996. States retained less than half of any savings achieved through such transfers under AFDC, but they retain all of the savings under TANF. Also, the work participation requirements under TANF have obligated states to address the work support needs of adults with disabilities who remain in TANF, and states can avoid these costs if adults have disabilities that satisfy SSI eligibility requirements. The incentive for TANF recipients to apply for SSI has increased over time as inflation has caused real TANF benefits to fall relative to payments received by SSI recipients. Trends in the financial incentives for transfer to SSI have not been studied in detail, and reliable general data on the extent of the interaction between TANF and SSI are scarce. In addition, some estimates of the prevalence of TANF receipt among SSI awardees are flawed because they fail to include adults

  18. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  19. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  20. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  1. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  2. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  3. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  4. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  5. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  6. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  7. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  8. SSI and structural benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the ongoing program entitled, Standard Problems for Structural Computer Codes, currently being worked on at BNL for the USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. During FY 1986, efforts were focussed on three tasks, namely, (1) an investigation of ground water effects on the response of Category I structures, (2) the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop and (3) studies on structural benchmarks associated with Category I structures. The objective of the studies on ground water effects is to verify the applicability and the limitations of the SSI methods currently used by the industry in performing seismic evaluations of nuclear plants which are located at sites with high water tables. In a previous study by BNL (NUREG/CR-4588), it has been concluded that the pore water can influence significantly the soil-structure interaction process. This result, however, is based on the assumption of fully saturated soil profiles. Consequently, the work was further extended to include cases associated with variable water table depths. In this paper, results related to cut-off depths beyond which the pore water effects can be ignored in seismic calculations, are addressed. Comprehensive numerical data are given for soil configurations typical to those encountered in nuclear plant sites. These data were generated by using a modified version of the SLAM code which is capable of handling problems related to the dynamic response of saturated soils. Further, the paper presents some key aspects of the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop (NUREG/CP-0054) which was held in Bethesda, MD on June 1, 1986. Finally, recent efforts related to the task on the structural benchmarks are described

  9. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  10. A preliminary feasibility study of simultaneous dual-isotope imaging with a solid-state dedicated cardiac camera for evaluating myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Toshiyuki; Utanohara, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kurihara, Makiko; Iguchi, Nobuo; Umemura, Jun; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging with 201Tl and (123)I-β-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is used to study the perfusion-metabolism mismatch. It predicts post-ischemic functional recovery by detecting stunned myocardium. On the other hand, (99m)Tc-MIBI is another radioisotope widely used in myocardial perfusion imaging because of its better image quality and lower radiation exposure than 201Tl. However, since the photopeak energies of (99m)Tc and (123)I are very similar, crosstalk hampers the simultaneous use of these two radioisotopes. To overcome this problem, we conducted simultaneous dual-isotope imaging study using the D-SPECT scanner (Spectrum-Dynamics, Israel) which has a novel detector design and excellent energy resolution. We first conducted a basic experiment using cardiac phantom to simulate the condition of normal perfusion and impaired fatty acid metabolism. Subsequently, we prospectively recruited 30 consecutive patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, and performed (99m)Tc-MIBI/(123)I-BMIPP dual-isotope imaging within 5 days after reperfusion. Images were interpreted by two experienced cardiovascular radiologists to identify the infarcted and stunned areas based on the coronary artery territories. As a result, cardiac phantom experiment revealed no significant crosstalk between (99m)Tc and (123)I. In the subsequent clinical study, (99m)Tc-MIBI/(123)I-BMIPP dual-isotope imaging in all participant yielded excellent image quality and detected infarcted and stunned areas correctly when compared with coronary angiographic findings. Furthermore, we were able to reduce radiation exposure to significantly approximately one-eighth. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated the practical application of simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism by (99m)Tc-MIBI and (123)I-BMIPP using a D-SPECT cardiac scanner. Compared with conventional (201)Tl

  11. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  12. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  13. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  14. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  15. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  16. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  17. Automatic measurement for solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Since in solid state track detectors, their tracks are measured with a microscope, observers are forced to do hard works that consume time and labour. This causes to obtain poor statistic accuracy or to produce personal error. Therefore, many researches have been done to aim at simplifying and automating track measurement. There are two categories in automating the measurement: simple counting of the number of tracks and the requirements to know geometrical elements such as the size of tracks or their coordinates as well as the number of tracks. The former is called automatic counting and the latter automatic analysis. The method to generally evaluate the number of tracks in automatic counting is the estimation of the total number of tracks in the total detector area or in a field of view of a microscope. It is suitable for counting when the track density is higher. The method to count tracks one by one includes the spark counting and the scanning microdensitometer. Automatic analysis includes video image analysis in which the high quality images obtained with a high resolution video camera are processed with a micro-computer, and the tracks are automatically recognized and measured by feature extraction. This method is described in detail. In many kinds of automatic measurements reported so far, frequently used ones are ''spark counting'' and ''video image analysis''. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  19. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  20. The final Galileo SSI observations of Io: Orbits G28-I33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Radebaugh, J.; Milazzo, M.; Simonelli, D.P.; Geissler, P.; Williams, D.A.; Perry, J.; Jaeger, W.L.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Denk, T.; Phillips, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    We present the observations of Io acquired by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment during the Galileo Millennium Mission (GMM) and the strategy we used to plan the exploration of Io. Despite Galileo's tight restrictions on data volume and downlink capability and several spacecraft and camera anomalies due to the intense radiation close to Jupiter, there were many successful SSI observations during GMM. Four giant, high-latitude plumes, including the largest plume ever observed on Io, were documented over a period of eight months; only faint evidence of such plumes had been seen since the Voyager 2 encounter, despite monitoring by Galileo during the previous five years. Moreover, the source of one of the plumes was Tvashtar Catena, demonstrating that a single site can exhibit remarkably diverse eruption styles - from a curtain of lava fountains, to extensive surface flows, and finally a ??? 400 km high plume - over a relatively short period of time (??? 13 months between orbits 125 and G29). Despite this substantial activity, no evidence of any truly new volcanic center was seen during the six years of Galileo observations. The recent observations also revealed details of mass wasting processes acting on Io. Slumping and landsliding dominate and occur in close proximity to each other, demonstrating spatial variation in material properties over distances of several kilometers. However, despite the ubiquitous evidence for mass wasting, the rate of volcanic resurfacing seems to dominate; the floors of paterae in proximity to mountains are generally free of debris. Finally, the highest resolution observations obtained during Galileo's final encounters with Io provided further evidence for a wide diversity of surface processes at work on Io. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must... limitation statement on the bottom, of— (1) The outside of any front and back cover, including a binder cover... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  2. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  3. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  4. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  5. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  6. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  7. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  8. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  9. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  10. Solid state insurrection how the science of substance made American physics matter

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Solid state physics—the study of the physical properties of solid matter—was far and away the most populous subfield of Cold War American physics. But despite prolific contributions to consumer and medical technology, such as the transistor and magnetic resonance imaging, it garnered much less professional prestige and public attention than nuclear and particle physics. Solid State Insurrection argues that solid state physics was nonetheless essential to securing the vast social, political, and financial capital Cold War physics enjoyed. Solid state’s technological bent, and its challenge to the “pure science” ideal many physicists cherished, helped physics as a whole respond more readily to Cold War social, political, and economic pressures. Solid state research kept physics economically and technologically relevant, sustaining its lofty cultural standing and policy influence long after the sheen of the Manhattan Project had faded. By placing solid state at the center of the story of twentieth cent...

  11. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  12. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  13. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  14. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  15. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  16. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  17. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  18. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  19. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  20. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  1. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  2. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  3. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  4. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  5. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  6. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  7. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  8. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Kongyin; Tang Baoyin; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Langping; Wang Songyan; Wu Hongchen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 μs waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  9. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  10. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  11. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  12. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  13. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  14. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  15. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  16. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  17. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  18. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  19. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  20. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  1. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  2. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  4. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  5. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  6. Applications of solid state ionics for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G.

    1988-09-01

    An overview is presented of solid state battery systems, especially those based on inorganic materials such as AgI, CuI and LiI. Emphasis is focussed on the structural and other modifications that are required to produce room temperature, compacted powder electrolytes with enhanced conductivity. The implications for primary batteries of discharge-induced changes of the local structure surrounding the mobile species are considered with reference to cuprous electrolytes. The use of these materials for other applications is discussed.

  7. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  8. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300 0 C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO 4 :Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot-pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150 0 C prior to first use dosimeters

  9. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  10. Solid State Research, 1980:4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Fetterman G. A. Koepf* P. F. Goldsmith6 B.J. Clifton D. Buhl* N. R. Eriekson" D.D. Peck N. McAvoy* P. F. Tannenwald Accepted by Science St40... Fetterman 22 **** -^m^m-i^jm^ -«%, j». ■*** REFERENCES 1. Solid State Research Report, Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (1980:2), pp. 11-12. DTK? AD-A092724...17. M.G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, and J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2304(1979). - 18. W. A.M. Blumberg, U.R. Fetterman , D.D. Peck, and P.F

  11. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  13. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  14. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  15. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  16. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  17. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  18. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  19. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  20. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  1. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  2. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  3. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  4. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  5. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  6. Kinetic study of solid-state processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Jiri; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for kinetic analysis of solid-state processes has been developed and the criteria capable of classifying different processes are explored. They provide a useful tool for the determination of the most suitable kinetic model. The method has been applied to the analysis of calorimetric data corresponding to the crystallization processes in amorphous ZrO 2 . It is found that the crystallization kinetics of amorphous powder sample exhibits a complex behavior under non-isothermal conditions. A two-parameter model provides a satisfactory description of the crystallization process for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. This enables better control of crystallization extent in fine ZrO 2 powders that is important for preparation of zirconia ceramics with defined properties. (author)

  7. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  8. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  9. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  10. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  11. UV sensitivity of various solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Zeljka; Ranogajec-Komor, Maria; Miljanic, Saveta

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The light sensitivity is an important characteristic of solid state passive dosimeters used in individual, clinical and environmental dosimetry. Light sensitivity stands for the response directly induced by visible or UV light in a fully annealed material. For the above mentioned applications a negligible light sensitivity is an advantage. However, high light sensitivity and linear response allows the use of detectors as UV dosimeters. For this purpose various TL detectors and the glass element of the RPL dosemeter type SC-1 were systematically investigated after exposure to UV light (254 and 366 nm) as a function of time. The following solid state detectors were investigated relative to TLD-100: Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,Cu,Si, Al 2 O 3 :C and the glass element of RPL dosimeter. UV irradiations were performed with Camag UV lamp at 254 nm and at 366 nm. The illumination times were 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Day light illumination was also carried out at room temperature over time period of several hours up to 2 weeks. The UV light response of each detector was compared to the response obtained after irradiation with 137 Cs. Al 2 O 3 :C, showed high light sensitivity; after 10 minutes illumination with 254 nm UV light the response was equivalent to 130 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation. The 254 nm UV response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200 A), as well as TLD-700H and Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P were proportional to the time of illumination. The responses after 10 min UV illumination were equivalent to 0.001 mGy, 0.01 mGy and 0.1 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation, respectively. The complete SC-1 RPL dosimeter is insensitive to light because the glass element is encapsulated in light protected holder throughout the automatic evaluation process following the annealing (irradiation, preheat, readout). The responses of the previously annealed glass element after 20 min illumination with 254 nm and 366 nm UV light were equivalent to 45μSv and 3 μSv of 137 Cs gamma

  12. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  13. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  14. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  15. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  16. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  18. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  19. An X-ray computed tomography demonstrator using a CZT solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, Th.; Kerek, A.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.

    2002-01-01

    A demonstrator of Computed Tomography (CT) has been designed and built for educational purposes. The system is based on a solid-state CdZnTe detector and a standard PC. The mechanics of the system is controlled and data is acquired by programs written in LabVIEW. CT images are reconstructed using MATLAB programs

  20. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records... back cover, including a binder cover or folder, if the document has a front and back cover; (2) Any.... 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d) Other types of records. In the case of non-paper records that...

  1. SSI's review of ASAR Oskarshamn 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godaas, T.

    1995-11-01

    Swedish nuclear power reactors are subject to periodic safety reviews, ASAR. Parts of ASAR deal with questions concerning radiation protection and are therefore submitted to a review performed by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute. This report consists of SSI's review of ASAR Oskarshamn 1. The following areas have been included in this review: Organisation, education, occupational exposures, effluents and discharges, emergency preparedness. 13 figs

  2. SSI's Review of RD and D Programme 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The report contains SSI's review of SKB's research programme and SSI's background review PM. In the interest of transparency of the site selection process, SSI has made requirements concerning additional reporting from SKB, prior to the next step in the site selection process, and advice to the government regarding the need for clarification on a number of issues

  3. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  4. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  5. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  6. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  7. Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced

  8. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  9. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  10. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  11. Harwell's atomic, molecular and solid state computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.H.

    1976-02-01

    This document is intended to introduce the computational facilities available in the fields of atomic, molecular the solid state theory on the IBM370/165 at Harwell. The programs have all been implemented and thoroughly tested by the Theory of Solid State Materials Group. (author)

  12. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  13. Initial clinical experience with dedicated ultra fast solid state cardiac gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aland, Nusrat; Lele, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To analyze the imaging and diagnostic performance of new dedicated ultra fast solid state detector gamma camera and compare it with standard dual detector gamma camera in myocardial perfusion imaging. Material and Methods: In total 900 patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging between 1st February 2010 and 29th August 2010 either stress/rest or rest/stress protocol. There was no age or gender bias (there were 630 males and 270 females). 5 and 15 mCi of 99m Tc - Tetrofosmin/MIBI was injected for 1st and 2nd part of the study respectively. Waiting period after injection was 20 min for regular stress and 40 min for pharmacological stress and 40 min after rest injection. Acquisition was performed on solid state detector gamma camera for a duration of 5 min and 3 min for 1st and 2nd part respectively. Interpretation of myocardial perfusion was done and QGS/QPS protocol was used for EF analysis. Out of these, 20 random patients underwent back to back myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging on standard dual detector gamma camera on same day. There was no age or gender bias (there were 9 males, 11 females). Acquisition time was 20 min for each part of the study. Interpretation was done using Autocard and EF analyses with 4 DM SPECT. Images obtained were then compared with those of solid state detector gamma camera. Result: Good quality and high count myocardial perfusion images were obtained with lesser amount of tracer activity on solid state detector gamma camera. Obese patients also showed good quality images with less tracer activity. As compared to conventional dual detector gamma camera images were brighter and showed better contrast with solid state gamma camera. Right ventricular imaging was better seen. Analyses of diastolic dysfunction was possible with 16 frame gated studies with solid state gamma camera. Shorter acquisition time with comfortable position reduced possibility of patient motion. All cardiac views were obtained with no movement of the

  14. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Dicty_cDB: SSI473 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI473 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SSI473Z (Link to Original s...ite) - - SSI473Z 416 - - - - Show SSI473 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI473 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dict...yBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/...uences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N M77492 |M77492.1 Dictyost...Hdk03092 Head kidney cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' similar to Dual specificity phosphatase 10 (DU

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSI339 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI339 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U04467-1 SSI339Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSI339Z 563 - - - - Show SSI339 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI339 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U04467-1 Original site URL http://dict...1998. 1.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---FTCSNNQVISSSLVSENNCIYTVEMSGNIFCPTPTPTPTPTPTPTPNPTSNVTCKSS NGISITSSDIITCIGYGQSICT...NQVISSSLVSENNCIYTVEMSGNIFCPTPTPTPTPTPTPTPNPTSNVTCKSS NGISITSSDIITCIGYGQSICTTSSGYSCETNQTNGVLKCISPDNSISCIGNQFY

  17. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  18. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of

  19. Galileo SSI Observations of Io During Orbits C30 I33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Williams, D.; Milazzo, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Jaeger, W.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    New Galileo SSI imaging of Io from orbits C30 I33 will be presented. The aging Galileo spacecraft continues to produce spectacular new results, including the tallest volcanic plume yet found on Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Development of a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance system, calculation of SSI rates and specification of important factors affecting SSI in a digestive organ surgical department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Koji; Sawa, Akihiro; Akagi, Shinji; Kihira, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    We have developed an original system to conduct surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance. This system accumulates SSI surveillance information based on the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System and the Japanese Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JNIS) System. The features of this system are as follows: easy input of data, high generality, data accuracy, SSI rate by operative procedure and risk index category (RIC) can be promptly calculated and compared with the current NNIS SSI rate, and the SSI rates and accumulated data can be exported electronically. Using this system, we monitored 798 patients in 24 operative procedure categories in the Digestive Organs Surgery Department of Mazda Hospital, Mazda Motor Corporation, from January 2004 through December 2005. The total number and rate of SSI were 47 and 5.89%, respectively. The SSI rates of 777 patients were calculated based on 15 operative procedure categories and Risk Index Categories (RIC). The highest SSI rate was observed in the rectum surgery of RIC 1 (30%), followed by the colon surgery of RIC3 (28.57%). About 30% of the isolated infecting bacteria were Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Using quantification theory type 2, the American Society of Anesthesiology score (4.531), volume of hemorrhage under operation (3.075), wound classification (1.76), operation time (1.352), and history of diabetes (0.989) increased to higher ranks as factors for SSI. Therefore, we evaluated this system as a useful tool in safety control for operative procedures.

  1. High speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yang, Ping; Chen, Shanqiu; Ma, Lifang; Xu, Bing

    2008-03-01

    A high speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser beam cleanup system has been built. This system consists of a core2 Industrial PC (IPC) using Linux and real-time Linux (RT-Linux) operation system (OS), a PCI image grabber, a D/A card. More often than not, the phase aberrations of the output beam from solid-state lasers vary fast with intracavity thermal effects and environmental influence. To compensate the phase aberrations of solid-state lasers successfully, a high speed real-time wavefront processing system is presented. Compared to former systems, this system can improve the speed efficiently. In the new system, the acquisition of image data, the output of control voltage data and the implementation of reconstructor control algorithm are treated as real-time tasks in kernel-space, the display of wavefront information and man-machine conversation are treated as non real-time tasks in user-space. The parallel processing of real-time tasks in Symmetric Multi Processors (SMP) mode is the main strategy of improving the speed. In this paper, the performance and efficiency of this wavefront processing system are analyzed. The opened-loop experimental results show that the sampling frequency of this system is up to 3300Hz, and this system can well deal with phase aberrations from solid-state lasers.

  2. Preoperative antiseptic skin preparations and reducing SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    Surgical site infection (SSI) can affect the quality of care and increase the morbidity and mortality rate in after-surgical procedure. The use of an antiseptic skin preparation agent before the procedure can reduce the pathogens in the skin surface around the incision. Indicating the type of skin antiseptic preparation could prevent the infection and contamination of the wound. The most commonly used types of skin preparations are chlorhexidine and povidone iodine. However, the antiseptic solutions of both agents are strengthened with alcohol to prevent postoperative wound infection. The aim of this paper is to identify the best antiseptic agent in terms of skin preparation by evaluating the evidence in the literature. The factors associated with choosing the antiseptic skin agent, such as patients' allergies, skin condition and environmental risk, are also taken into account. This review suggests that cholorhexdine with alcohol may be the most effective in terms of reducing SSI.

  3. SSI's review of ASAR Ringhals 2, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofvander, P.

    1995-11-01

    Swedish nuclear power reactors are subject to periodic safety reviews, ASAR. Parts of ASAR deal with questions concerning radiation protection and are therefore submitted to a review performed by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute. This report consists of SSI's review of ASAR Ringhals 2, 1994 . The following areas have been included in this review: Organisation, education, occupational exposures, effluents and discharges, emergency preparedness. 13 figs

  4. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  5. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  6. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  7. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  8. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  9. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  10. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Solid State Ionics: Recent Advances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become an important research tool in Solid State Ionics. Some new developments are highlighted: new methods of automatic parameter extraction from impedance measurements are briefly discussed. The Kramers–Kronig data validation test presents another

  11. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  12. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  13. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  14. The distribution choice for the threshold of solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    Either normal distribution or Weibull distribution can be accepted as sample distribution of the threshold of solid state relay. By goodness-of-fit method, bootstrap method and Bayesian method, the Weibull distribution is chosen later. (authors)

  15. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  16. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  17. A Low Power, Solid State, Method of Oxygen Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of the work prior to the start of this project is the planar monolith - allowing for solid state oxygen production at pressures up to 300 psig....

  18. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  19. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  20. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  1. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  2. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  3. Proceedings of the DAE solid state physics symposium. V. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, is organized annually. The topics covered are phase transitions, soft condensed matter, nano-materials, experimental techniques, instrumentation and solid state devices, superconductivity, magnetism, electronic structure and phonons, semiconductor physics, transport properties, surface - interface and thin films, liquids, glasses and amorphous systems, etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  5. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  6. Application of solid state track detector to neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takao

    1979-01-01

    Though solid state track detectors (SSTD) are radiation measuring instrument for heavy charged particles by itself, it can be used as radiation measuring instrument for neutrons, if nuclear reactions such as (n, f) or (n, α) reaction are utilized. Since the means was found, which permits to observe the tracks of heavy charged particles in a solid with an optical microscope by chemically etching the tracks to enlarge them to etch pits, various types of detectors have been developed for the purpose of measuring neutron dose. The paper is described on the materials and construction of the SSTDs for neutron dosimetry, and the sensitivity is explained with mathematical equations. The features of neutron dosimetry with SSTDs are as follows: They are compact, and scarcely disturb neutron field, thus delicate dose distribution can be known; integration measurement is possible regardless of dose rate values because of integrating type detectors; it is not influenced by β-ray or γ-ray except the case when there is high energy radiation such as causing photonuclear reactions or high dose such as degrading solids, it has pretty high sensitivity; track fading is negligible during the normal measuring time around room temperature; and the etching images of tracks are relatively clear, and various automatic counting systems can be employed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  8. Solid state scintillators for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Mela, G.; Torrisi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Using different scintillator crystals, measurements of energy resolution and detection efficiency have been performed to detect gamma rays of energy ranging between 500 en 1550 KeV. This investigation is devoted to characterize the best systems to detect photons coming from positron annihilation processes, such as a PET apparatus where the medical image is the final aim of the investigation, and gamma emission from radioisotopes of biomedical interest

  9. Union operation image processing of data cubes separately processed by different objective filters and its application to void analysis in an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Muto, Shunsuke

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we propose a smart image-analysis method suitable for extracting target features with hierarchical dimension from original data. The method was applied to three-dimensional volume data of an all-solid lithium-ion battery obtained by the automated sequential sample milling and imaging process using a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope to investigate the spatial configuration of voids inside the battery. To automatically fully extract the shape and location of the voids, three types of filters were consecutively applied: a median blur filter to extract relatively larger voids, a morphological opening operation filter for small dot-shaped voids and a morphological closing operation filter for small voids with concave contrasts. Three data cubes separately processed by the above-mentioned filters were integrated by a union operation to the final unified volume data, which confirmed the correct extraction of the voids over the entire dimension contained in the original data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  11. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  12. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  13. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  14. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  16. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  17. "Jazz Ruuler" toob dzhässi Rock Cafesse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Muhu tulevikumuusika festival "Ju jääb" ja Rock Cafe avavad uue dzhässiürituste sarja "Jazz Ruuler", mille raames soovitakse igal kuul Eesti publiku ette tuua mõni maailma dzhässi tuntud artist. Kontserdist 24. jaan. Rock Cafés

  18. Solid state photon upconversion utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules as triplet sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony C.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A., E-mail: baldo@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The ability to upconvert light is useful for a range of applications, from biological imaging to solar cells. But modern technologies have struggled to upconvert incoherent incident light at low intensities. Here, we report solid state photon upconversion employing triplet-triplet exciton annihilation in an organic semiconductor, sensitized by a thermally activated-delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye. Compared to conventional phosphorescent sensitizers, the TADF dye maximizes the wavelength shift in upconversion due to its small singlet-triplet splitting. The efficiency of energy transfer from the TADF dye is 9.1%, and the conversion yield of sensitizer exciton pairs to singlet excitons in the annihilator is 1.1%. Our results demonstrate upconversion in solid state geometries and with non-heavy metal-based sensitizer materials.

  19. Environmental performance evaluation of an advanced-design solid-state television camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The development of an advanced-design black-and-white solid-state television camera which can survive exposure to space environmental conditions was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element buried-channel CCD is utilized as the image sensor to ensure compatibility with 525-line transmission and display equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included: (1) component and circuit sensitivity to temperature; (2) circuit board thermal and mechanical design; and (3) CCD temperature control. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into the final design for two deliverable solid-state TV cameras. One of these cameras was subjected to environmental tests to determine stress limits for exposure to vibration, shock, acceleration, and temperature-vacuum conditions. These tests indicate performance at the design goal limits can be achieved for most of the specified conditions.

  20. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  1. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  2. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  3. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  4. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  5. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  6. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  7. Space-time complexity in solid state models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this Workshop on symmetry-breaking it is appropriate to include the evolving fields of nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems in which transitions to and between various degrees of ''complexity'' (including ''chaos'') occur in time or space or both. These notions naturally bring together phenomena of pattern formation and chaos and therefore have ramifications for a huge array of natural sciences - astrophysics, plasmas and lasers, hydrodynamics, field theory, materials and solid state theory, optics and electronics, biology, pattern recognition and evolution, etc. Our particular concerns here are with examples from solid state and condensed matter

  8. Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Akana, G.L.; Gower, E.J.; Hawkins, S.A.; Hickman, B.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Brooksby, C.A.; /NONE - BECHTEL NEVADA LAS VEGAS; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Nguyen, M.N.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  9. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-01-01

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems

  10. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-05-05

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  11. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  12. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  13. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  14. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  15. Radiation-chemical aspects of solid state hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.; Collins, K.E.; Collins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of nuclear hot atom chemical (NHAC) processes occurring in solids is seriously limited by the lack of adequate methods for directly studying the chemical species containing hot atoms. In the present review the effects of ionizing radiation on parent and non-parent yields from solid state targets is surveyed and qualitative interpretations are given. After a few general remarks of the relationship of radiation chemistry to solid state NHAC, a detailed description of the radiation effects is given (radiation annealing, neutron activation, changes in separable yield). (Auth.)

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSI468 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI468 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16310-1 SSI468Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSI468Z 300 - - - - Show SSI468 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI468 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16310-1 Original site URL http://dict...gnments: (bits) Value N AC116330 |AC116330.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 3191214-3323468 strai...NCING IN PROGRESS ***, 3 unordered pieces. 46 6.0 2 BM029242 |BM029242.1 IpSkn00196 Skin cDNA library Ictalu

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSI527 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI527 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16209-1 SSI527F (Link... to Original site) SSI527F 685 - - - - - - Show SSI527 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI527 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16209-1 Original site URL http://dict...N BM438323 |BM438323.1 IpLvr01076 Liver cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5' ...6357825 5' similar to SW:RSP4_CHICK P50890 40S RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN SA ;, mRNA sequence. 46 4e-06 2 BQ096846 |BQ096846.1 IfHdk00487 Ict

  18. Dicty_cDB: SSI485 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ate cortex cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, clone:A830088K09, 3' end partial sequence. 42 5.7 1 AC068663 |AC068663.4 Mus mu...SS (Link to library) SSI485 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14077-1 SSI485F (Link... to Original site) SSI485F 438 - - - - - - Show SSI485 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI485 (Link to dic...cia MC0-3 ... 115 4e-25 EF100191_35( EF100191 |pid:none) Uncultured marine bacterium HF10_... 115 5e-25 AP00...9385_2657( AP009385 |pid:none) Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 1... 114 1e-24 BC056

  19. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  20. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  1. Advanced Solid-state Lasers - to Ignition and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.; Bibeau, C.; Orth, C; Meier, W.R.; Payne, S.; Sutton, S.

    1998-01-01

    This brochure concentrates on the diode-pumped solid-state laser. Surrounding it on the cover are some of the primary technological developments that make it a candidate for the means by which inertial confinement fusion will create inertial fusion energy as an inexhaustible source of electric power

  2. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  3. Atomic and solid state physics with the 14UD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.S.

    1975-02-01

    The use of energetic heavy ions in atomic and solid state physics is discussed. Topics that are discussed include: 1) Properties of excited ions, 2) radiation damage studies by channeling, 3) energy loss of ions and range measurements, 4) oscillating effects in channeling, 5) x-ray production in solids, 6) coherence effects in channeling and 7) formation of united atoms. (author)

  4. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  5. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  6. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  7. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  8. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  9. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  10. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  11. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  12. Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.

  13. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker .... authors, a slowly utilizable carbon source is preferable for high lovastatin ...

  14. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker et .... Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin yield by Aspergillus ...

  15. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the me...... of a DCM-FA-rich phase in the forming microsphere....

  16. Bayesian Analysis for EMP Survival Probability of Solid State Relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    The principle to estimate the parameter p of binomial distribution by Bayesian method and the several non-informative prior are introduced. The survival probability of DC solid state relay under current injection at certain amplitude is obtained by this method. (authors)

  17. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  18. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off [de

  19. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  20. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  1. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  2. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  3. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  4. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  5. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  6. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  7. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  8. Microelectronics: Atoms diffusion in solid state. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Higuera, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamentals on which the technology for the diffusion of impurities in solid state is based, is presented. This technology is widely used to produce controlled and localized concentrations of atoms of the mentioned impurities in base solids in order to obtain those characteristics which may lead to the implementation of electronic, optoelectronic and electrooptic devices. (Author)

  9. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  10. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  11. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  12. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  13. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Synthesising and comparing electrical properties of NTC thermistors prepared from nano powder and solid state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, N.; Ghanbari Shohany, B.; Hosseini, S. M.; Kompany, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, NTC thermistors with composition of NiMn 2-x Co x O 4 (x = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6) prepared by two methods: solid state reaction and sol-gel (gel-combustion). The average particle size was monitored and structure of the calcinated powders have been investigated using x-ray diffraction and tunneling electron microscopy techniques. The average particle size was estimated to be about 65 nm with the cubic and cubic + tetragonal phases for low and high cobalt concentrations, respectively. The grain size of samples verifies with scanning electron microscopy images. Upon increasing the cobalt fraction, the grain size of samples increases from about 2μm to a few μm in size. The electrical properties of these thermistors depend on the grain size. The grain size of samples made from sol-gel is smaller than from solid state reaction under the same condition. For longer sintering time of the samples prepared by gel-combustion method, the grain size was increased then the electrical parameters of nano powder improved and we obtain better results than the samples prepared from solid state reaction.

  15. SSI's review of SKB's RDandD Program 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebert, Anders

    2008-05-01

    In this report, the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) provides a review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Managements Company's (SKB) RDandD programme 2007. The report is a statement from SSI in the matter submitted earlier to SKI. In the review, SSI comments SKB's feedback to the continuous research and development program on the basis of the latest carried out safety analysis, SR-Can and the biosphere research. In the statement SSI points to a number of issues that need to be resolved before a licence application is handed in. SSI suggests that the Government asks for complements to the RDandD programme 2007. According to SSI, the programme concerning low and intermediate level waste and decommissioning of the nuclear power plants does not fulfil the requirements established by the Act on Nuclear Activities. Neither does the programme fulfil the expectations set by the Government decision regarding the RDandD programme 2004. SSI suggests that the programme should be complemented

  16. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  17. SU-D-209-01: Can Fluoroscopic Air-Kerma Rates Be Reliably Measured with Solid-State Meters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, C; Thai, L; Wagner, L; Ozus, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ionization chambers remain the standard for calibration of air-kerma rate measuring devices. Despite their strong energy-dependent response, solid state radiation detectors are increasingly used, primarily due to their efficiency in making standardized measurements. To test the reliability of these devices in measuring air-kerma rates, we compared ion chambers measurements with solid-state measurements for various mobile fluoroscopes operated at different beam qualities and air-kerma rates. Methods: Six mobile fluoroscopes (GE OEC models 9800 and 9900) were used to generate test beams. Using various field sizes and dose rate controls, copper attenuators and a lead attenuator were placed at the image receptor in varying combinations to generate a range of air-kerma rates. Air-kerma rates at 30 centimeters from the image receptors were measured using two 6-cm"3 ion chambers with electrometers (Radcal, models 1015 and 9015) and two with solid state detectors (Unfors Xi and Raysafe X2). No error messages occurred during measurements. However, about two months later, one solid-state device stopped working and was replaced by the manufacturer. Two out of six mobile fluoroscopic units were retested with the replacement unit. Results: Generally, solid state and ionization chambers agreed favorably well, with two exceptions. Before replacement of the detector, the Xi meter when set in the “RF High” mode deviated from ion chamber readings by factors of 2 and 10 with no message indicating error in measurement. When set in the “RF Low” mode, readings were within −4% to +3%. The replacement Xi detector displayed messages alerting the user when settings were not compatible with air-kerma rates. Conclusion: Air-kerma rates can be measured favorably well using solid-state devices, but users must be aware of the possibility that readings can be grossly in error with no discernible indication for the deviation.

  18. SU-D-209-01: Can Fluoroscopic Air-Kerma Rates Be Reliably Measured with Solid-State Meters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, C; Thai, L; Wagner, L [The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Ozus, B [CHI St Luke’s Health, Baylor St Luke’s Medical Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ionization chambers remain the standard for calibration of air-kerma rate measuring devices. Despite their strong energy-dependent response, solid state radiation detectors are increasingly used, primarily due to their efficiency in making standardized measurements. To test the reliability of these devices in measuring air-kerma rates, we compared ion chambers measurements with solid-state measurements for various mobile fluoroscopes operated at different beam qualities and air-kerma rates. Methods: Six mobile fluoroscopes (GE OEC models 9800 and 9900) were used to generate test beams. Using various field sizes and dose rate controls, copper attenuators and a lead attenuator were placed at the image receptor in varying combinations to generate a range of air-kerma rates. Air-kerma rates at 30 centimeters from the image receptors were measured using two 6-cm{sup 3} ion chambers with electrometers (Radcal, models 1015 and 9015) and two with solid state detectors (Unfors Xi and Raysafe X2). No error messages occurred during measurements. However, about two months later, one solid-state device stopped working and was replaced by the manufacturer. Two out of six mobile fluoroscopic units were retested with the replacement unit. Results: Generally, solid state and ionization chambers agreed favorably well, with two exceptions. Before replacement of the detector, the Xi meter when set in the “RF High” mode deviated from ion chamber readings by factors of 2 and 10 with no message indicating error in measurement. When set in the “RF Low” mode, readings were within −4% to +3%. The replacement Xi detector displayed messages alerting the user when settings were not compatible with air-kerma rates. Conclusion: Air-kerma rates can be measured favorably well using solid-state devices, but users must be aware of the possibility that readings can be grossly in error with no discernible indication for the deviation.

  19. Ultra-Thin Solid-State Nanopores: Fabrication and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Aaron Tzeyang

    Solid-state nanopores are a nanofluidic platform with unique advantages for single-molecule analysis and filtration applications. However, significant improvements in device performance and scalable fabrication methods are needed to make nanopore devices competitive with existing technologies. This dissertation investigates the potential advantages of ultra-thin nanopores in which the thickness of the membrane is significantly smaller than the nanopore diameter. Novel, scalable fabrication methods were first developed and then utilized to examine device performance for water filtration and single molecule sensing applications. Fabrication of nanometer-thin pores in silicon nitride membranes was achieved using a feedback-controlled ion beam method in which ion sputtering is arrested upon detection of the first few ions that drill through the membrane. Performing fabrication at liquid nitrogen temperatures prevents surface atom rearrangements that have previously complicated similar processes. A novel cross-sectional imaging method was also developed to allow careful examination of the full nanopore geometry. Atomically-thin graphene nanopores were fabricated via an electrical pulse method in which sub-microsecond electrical pulses applied across a graphene membrane in electrolyte solution are used to create a defect in the membrane and controllably enlarge it into a nanopore. This method dramatically increases the accuracy and reliability of graphene nanopore production, allowing consistent production of single nanopores down to subnanometer sizes. In filtration applications in which nanopores are used to selectively restrict the passage of dissolved contaminants, ultra-thin nanopores minimize the flow resistance, increasing throughput and energy-efficiency. The ability of graphene nanopores to separate different ions was characterized via ionic conductance and reversal potential measurements. Graphene nanopores were observed to conduct cations preferentially over

  20. Technical aspects in the obtention of tissue autoradiography using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Martin, Gisela; Bernaola, Omar A.; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia; Cabrini, Romulo L.; Tomasi, V.H.

    2007-01-01

    The autoradiography images produced in solid state nuclear track detectors by heavy ions originated in tissue provide relevant information about the spatial biodistribution of heavy particle emitters. Some preliminary aspects of the autoradiography technique are evaluated by two experiments which are in progress, using Lexan and CR 39 foils as solid state nuclear track detectors. In the first case, a tissue sample from rat kidney intoxicated with UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 was embedded in paraffin and put in contact with a 1 mm thick CR 39 foil. After a two months exposure the foil was chemically developed resulting in scarce tracks. A satisfactory image cannot be obtained in these conditions. More prolonged exposure time is needed to obtain better images of such samples. The second experience consisted in the irradiation of fresh kidney tissue slices from healthy rats in contact with 250 μm thick Lexan foils, in a thermal neutrons flux. The irradiation was performed at the RA-3 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE). The contribution to image produced by tracks of particles due to reactions between neutrons and tissue elements (i.e. 14 N) was evaluated. The etching conditions should be modified in order to desensitize the detector material. (author) [es

  1. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  2. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  3. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  4. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  5. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...

  6. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  7. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Robert; Odronitz, Florian; Hammesfahr, Bjorn; Hellkamp, Marcel; Kollmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  8. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  9. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng, E-mail: Xinsheng_Ling@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  10. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  11. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  12. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  13. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  14. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  15. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  16. Advances in solid-state NMR of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foston, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations

  18. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  19. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  20. The SSI reviews of the SKB research programs 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael.

    1993-02-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) has scrutinized the research programs 1992 of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The judgement is that SKB has both the competence and resources to perform the presented research programs

  1. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  2. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  3. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acid s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  4. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  5. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  6. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-08-27

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ({approx}10 T) and at low temperature {approx}1 K .

  7. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (∼10 T) and at low temperature ∼1 K

  8. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  9. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  10. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  11. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  12. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  13. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  14. Experimental solid state NMR of gas hydrates : problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudrakovski, I.; Lu, H.; Ripmeester, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences; Kumar, R.; Susilo, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Luzi, M. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Solid State NMR is a suitable spectroscopic technique for hydrate research for several reasons, including its capability to distinguish between different structural types of hydrates, its quantitative nature and potential for both in-situ and time resolved experiments. This study illustrated the applications of solid state NMR for compositional and structural studies of clathrate hydrates, with particular emphasis on experimental techniques and potential ways to overcome technical difficulties. In order to use the method to its full capacity, some instrumental developments are needed to adapt it to the specific experimental requirements of hydrate studies, such as very low temperatures and high pressures. This presentation discussed the quantification of the Carbon-13 spectra with examples from natural and synthetic hydrates prepared from multi-component mixtures of hydrocarbons. The main approach used for the first two examples was Carbon-13 NMR with Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) at -100 degrees C. The detailed characterization of mixed hydrogen hydrates required low temperature hydrogen MAS. The quantification problems encountered during these experiments were also discussed. The purpose of these recent experimental developments was to prompt wider application of Solid State NMR in hydrate research. NMR proved to be a viable method for analyzing the composition and structure of multi-component mixed gas hydrates; characterizing natural gas hydrates; and, evaluating the formation conditions and properties of mixed hydrogen hydrates. The limitations of the method were highlighted and sensible choices of experimental conditions and techniques that ensure accurate results were discussed. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  15. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  17. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  18. Solid State Pathways towards Molecular Complexity in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Harold; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Bouwman, Jordy; Cuppen, Herma M.; Cuylle, Steven H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Fedoseev, Gleb; Fuchs, Guido W.; Ioppolo, Sergio; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lamberts, Thanja; Öberg, Karin I.; Romanzin, Claire; Tenenbaum, Emily; Zhen, Junfeng

    2011-12-01

    It has been a long standing problem in astrochemistry to explain how molecules can form in a highly dilute environment such as the interstellar medium. In the last decennium more and more evidence has been found that the observed mix of small and complex, stable and highly transient species in space is the cumulative result of gas phase and solid state reactions as well as gas-grain interactions. Solid state reactions on icy dust grains are specifically found to play an important role in the formation of the more complex ``organic'' compounds. In order to investigate the underlying physical and chemical processes detailed laboratory based experiments are needed that simulate surface reactions triggered by processes as different as thermal heating, photon (UV) irradiation and particle (atom, cosmic ray, electron) bombardment of interstellar ice analogues. Here, some of the latest research performed in the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics in Leiden, the Netherlands is reviewed. The focus is on hydrogenation, i.e., H-atom addition reactions and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues at astronomically relevant temperatures. It is shown that solid state processes are crucial in the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, providing pathways towards molecular complexity in space.

  19. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in measurement of natural alpha- radioactivity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maged, A F; El-Behay, A Z; Borham, E [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is one of the most convenient techniques to assess the average radiation levels of alpha activities in the environment. This technique has been used to assess radon gas and its daughters in buildings. Exposed SSNTD films are chemically etched in an alkali solution and alpha tracks are evaluated by using the image analyzer system. The detailed procedure for this study and the etched films for conversion of alpha track density to radon concentration in Bq m{sup -}3 are given and discussed in the text.1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Science teachers teaching socioscientific issues (SSI): Four case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju

    Socioscientific issues (SSI) are a class of issues that represent the social, ethical, and moral aspects of science in society. The need for the inclusion of SSI into science curricula has been generally accepted, but relatively few science teachers have incorporated SSI into their courses. Most science teachers feel that their most important task by far is to teach the principles of science, and any substantive pedagogical changes represent a burden. However, there are some teachers who address SSI out of personal initiatives. This dissertation study investigates four high school science teachers who address SSI out of their own initiative and explores their deeper inspirations, values, philosophies, and personal ideals that lead them to teach SSI. The overall approach is based on essentialist methodology (Witz, Goodwin, Hart, & Thomas, 2001; Witz, 2006a) with its focus on "the participant as ally" and "essentialist portraiture." The primary data source is four to six in-depth interviews with individual teachers (about 40-90 minutes for each interview). The interviews are complemented by extensive classroom observations of individual teachers' teaching SSI and by document analysis (including teaching materials, rubrics, student group projects and journals, etc.). There are two major findings. First, the teachers' deeper values and ideals are a source of larger inspiration that plays a significant role in changing their teaching practice. This inspiration may involve higher aspects (e.g., deep concern for students' development, unselfishness, caring, etc.) and commitment. Their teaching represents an integration of their personal experiences, values, concerns, and worldviews, which forms a larger inspiration for teaching. Teaching SSI is a part of this larger process. Second, the current curriculum reforms (STS, SSI, and NOS) only suggest theoretical ideals and do not effectively touch teachers' deeper values and ideals. Basically, the teachers are doing what they

  1. Experimental study on the EMP failure mode of DC solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Chen Xiangyue; Zhai Aibin; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    DC solid state relay is a new type switch device without touch point, and is extensive used by aviation and spaceflight technique. In this paper, the EMP failure modes of solid state relays were obtained by current injection method. (authors)

  2. Proceedings of 5. scientific conference on solid state physics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 5. Kazakhstan scientific conference on solid state physics was held on 28-30 October, 1999 in Karaganda. Scientists and researchers from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Estonia present various reports on different problems of solid state physics

  3. Multi-equilibrium property of metabolic networks: SSI module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Luonan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Revealing the multi-equilibrium property of a metabolic network is a fundamental and important topic in systems biology. Due to the complexity of the metabolic network, it is generally a difficult task to study the problem as a whole from both analytical and numerical viewpoint. On the other hand, the structure-oriented modularization idea is a good choice to overcome such a difficulty, i.e. decomposing the network into several basic building blocks and then studying the whole network through investigating the dynamical characteristics of the basic building blocks and their interactions. Single substrate and single product with inhibition (SSI metabolic module is one type of the basic building blocks of metabolic networks, and its multi-equilibrium property has important influence on that of the whole metabolic networks. Results In this paper, we describe what the SSI metabolic module is, characterize the rates of the metabolic reactions by Hill kinetics and give a unified model for SSI modules by using a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with multi-variables. Specifically, a sufficient and necessary condition is first given to describe the injectivity of a class of nonlinear systems, and then, the sufficient condition is used to study the multi-equilibrium property of SSI modules. As a main theoretical result, for the SSI modules in which each reaction has no more than one inhibitor, a sufficient condition is derived to rule out multiple equilibria, i.e. the Jacobian matrix of its rate function is nonsingular everywhere. Conclusions In summary, we describe SSI modules and give a general modeling framework based on Hill kinetics, and provide a sufficient condition for ruling out multiple equilibria of a key type of SSI module.

  4. Experience with dedicated ultra fast solid state cardiac gamma camera: technologist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parab, Anil; Gaikar, Anil; Patil, Kashinath; Lele, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To describe technologist perspective of working with ultra fast solid state gamma camera and comparison with conventional dual head gamma camera. Material and Methods: 900 Myocardial Perfusion scan were carried out on dedicated solid state detector cardiac camera between 1st February 2010 till 29th August 2010. 27 studies were done back to back on a conventional dual head gamma camera. In 2 cases dual head isotope imaging was done (Thallium+ 99m Tc-tetrofosmin). Rest stress protocol was used in 600 patients and stress - rest protocol was used in 300. 1:3 ratio of injected activity was maintained for both protocols (5 mCi for 1st study and 15 mCi for second study). For Rest - Stress protocol, 5 mCi of 99m Tc - Tetrofosmin was injected at rest, 40 minutes later, 5 min image was acquired on the solid state detector. Patient was then stressed. 15 mCi 99m Tc - Tetrofosmin was injected at peak stress. Images were acquired 20 minutes later for 3 minutes (total duration of study 90-100 min). For stress rest protocol, 5 mCi 99m Tc - Tetrofosmin was injected at peak stress. 5 mCi images were acquired 20 minutes later. Rest injection of 15 mCi was given 1 hour post stress injection. Rest images were acquired 40 minutes after rest injection (total duration of study 110-120 min). Results: We observed even with lesser amount activity and acquisition time of 5 min/cardiac scan it showed high sensitivity count rate over 2.2-4.7 kcps (10 times more counts than standard gamma camera). System gives better energy resolution < 7%. Better image contrast. Dual isotope imaging can be possible. Spatial resolution 4.3-4.9 mm. Excellent quality images were obtained using low activities (5 mCi/15 mCi) using 1/3rd the acquisition time compared to conventional dual head gamma camera Even in obese patients 7 mCi/21 mCi activity yielded excellent images at 1/3 rd acquisition time Quick acquisition resulted in greater patient comfort and no motion artifact also due to non rotation of

  5. Solid state NMR studies for a new carbonization process with high temperature preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Koji; Hatakeyama, Moriaki; Komaki, Ikuo; Katoh, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    A new carbonization process with rapid preheating and coke discharging at medium temperature has been developed in Japan. The result of this process shows that even when no or slightly coking coal is by 50 wt% the coking property is improved and a coking coke with cold strength usable at blast furnace can be manufactured with the new carbonization process. The mechanism of the coking property improvement was examined by coal properties using mainly solid state NMR ( 1H CRAMPS and 13C SPE/MAS, CP/MAS) and NMR imaging (single point imaging, in-situ imaging). It has been clarified that the molecular structure of coal is relaxed by the rapid heating treatment and, in addition, there is a close relation between hydrogen bonding and relaxation of the molecular structure of coal.

  6. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  7. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  8. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I

    2010-01-01

    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  9. Fungal Invertase Expression in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitlahuac Aranda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study invertase activity expression in Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated under different concentrations of two substrates using solid-state fermentation (SSF on polyurethane foam. Glucose was used as repressor and sucrose was the inducer. Invertase production increased when glucose was present in the medium (up to 100 g/L; however, higher concentration than this reduced the enzyme production. Induction-repression ratio obtained using any glucose concentration was at least 2.5 times higher than that under basal conditions (without inducer.

  10. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, M.; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol -1 , respectively. (Authors)

  11. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  12. Solid state lasers: a major direction in quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the report is to analyze development of solid-state lasers (SSL) as one of the most important avenues of the quantum electronics. The obtained intensity of a laser radiation at the focus equal to 5x10 1 0 W/cm 2 (the field intensity equal to about 5x10 1 0 V/cm 2 ) is noted to enable to observe nonlinear quantum- electrodynamic effects. Besides, one managed to increase the SSL efficiency conventionally equal to maximum 3% up to 48-50%. Paper describes new types of SSLs, namely, the crystalline fiber lasers with the lateral gradient of the index of refraction [ru

  13. Observations of spectroscopic binaries with a solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, F. Jr.; Lacy, C.H.; Tomkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent installation of a solid-state 1024-element silicon photodiode array detector (Reticon) at the coude focus of the 2.7 m McDonald Observatory reflector has greatly extended its limits of observation for binary and multiple systems which have weak and/or broad-lined components. This detector can produce extremely high signal-to-noise ratio observations and has high quantum efficiency over the wavelength region 3000-11000 A. The observational programs of three users of this device are described. (Auth.)

  14. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  15. Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.

  16. Gamma camera system with composite solid state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A composite solid-state detector is described for utilization within gamma cameras. The detector's formed of an array of detector crystals, the opposed surfaces of each of which are formed incorporating an impedance-derived configuration for determining one coordinate of the location of discrete impinging photons upon the detector. A combined read-out for all detectors within the composite array is achieved through a row and column interconnection of the impedance configurations. Utilizing the read-outs for respective sides of the discrete crystals, a resultant time-constant characteristic for the composite detector crystal array remains essentially that of individual crystal detectors

  17. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  18. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  19. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature...... electrochemical cells are still a "black box". In order to identify local reaction sites, surface coverage and potential/current introduced materials and surface modifications, in situ techniques are needed to gain a better understanding of the elementary and performance limiting steps for these cells...

  1. Solid state theory. An introduction. 2. rev. and ext. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields. (orig.)

  2. Quantum theory of the solid state part B

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed

  3. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  4. Design Considerations of a Solid State Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbozorgi, Mohammad; Houssainy, Sammy; Thacker, Ariana; Ip, Peggy; Ismail, Walid; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2016-11-01

    With the growing governmental restrictions on carbon emission, renewable energies are becoming more prevalent. A reliable use of a renewable source however requires a built-in storage to overcome the inherent intermittent nature of the available energy. Thermal design of a solid state energy storage has been investigated for optimal performance. The impact of flow regime, laminar vs. turbulent, on the design and sizing of the system is also studied. The implications of low thermal conductivity of the storage material are discussed and a design that maximizes the round trip efficiency is presented. This study was supported by Award No. EPC-14-027 Granted by California Energy Commission (CEC).

  5. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and its application in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used are the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulations experiments and field measurements were carried out to verify the method possibilities. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author) [pt

  6. Templated Solid-State Dewetting of Thin Silicon Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Delobbe, Anne; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Thin film dewetting can be efficiently exploited for the implementation of functionalized surfaces over very large scales. Although the formation of sub-micrometer sized crystals via solid-state dewetting represents a viable method for the fabrication of quantum dots and optical meta-surfaces, there are several limitations related to the intrinsic features of dewetting in a crystalline medium. Disordered spatial organization, size, and shape fluctuations are relevant issues not properly addressed so far. This study reports on the deterministic nucleation and precise positioning of Si- and SiGe-based nanocrystals by templated solid-state dewetting of thin silicon films. The dewetting dynamics is guided by pattern size and shape taking full control over number, size, shape, and relative position of the particles (islands dimensions and relative distances are in the hundreds nm range and fluctuate ≈11% for the volumes and ≈5% for the positioning). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. State of the art of solid state dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Susana O.; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; D'Errico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed

  8. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  9. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  10. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  11. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  12. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  13. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  14. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  15. Synthesisofc-lifepo4 composite by solid state reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, I.; Hidayat, S.; Noviyanti, A. R.; Rakhmawaty, D.; Ernawati, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the enhancement of LiFePO4 conductivity was conducted by doping method with carbon materials. Carbon-based materials were obtained from the mixture of sucrose, and the precursor of LiH2PO4 and α-Fe2O3 was synthesized by solid state reaction. Sintering temperature was varied at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C and 1,000°C. The result showed that C-LiFePO4 could be synthesized by using solid state reaction method. Based on the XRD and FTIR spectrums, C-LiFePO4 can be identified as the type of crystal, characterized by the appearance of sharp signal on (011), (211) and typical peak of LiFePO4 materials. The result of conductivity measurement from C-LiFePO4 at sintering temperature of 900°C and 1,000°C was 2×10-4 S/cm and 4×10-4S/cm, respectively. The conductivity value at sintering temperature of 700°C and 800°C was very small (<10-6 S/cm), which cannot be measured by the existing equipment.

  16. Muon beams, used for studying the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The positive muon provides a remarkable spectroscopic probe of the solid state. Implanted in virtually any material, its spin polarisation may be monitored to define the sites it occupies in lattices or molecules and to report on local structure and dynamics. Wide ranging applications in solid state science are illustrated in this article by examples in magnetics, chemistry and quantum diffusion. Primarily, the muon is a sensitive microscopic magnetometer: this elementary particle has spin 1/2 and a magnetic moment about three times that of the proton. The frequencies of its resonance or precession signals provide a direct and accurate measurement of local magnetic or hyperfine fields. Its relaxation functions characterise the distribution in space or the fluctuation in time of these fields. The muon is rarely a passive probe, however, since it represents a defect carrying unit positive charge. In fact its interactions with the local environment are commonly the main focus of interest; studies of this most fundamental of defects have eliminated complacency in several areas. The interactions, chemical and elastic, are essentially identical with those of the proton, so that their study is invaluable in situations where hydrogen cannot be detected by conventional spectroscopies. Alternatively, when muon and proton behaviour may be compared, the comparison reveals a variety of kinetic and dynamic isotope effects: the muon has about one ninth the proton mass. This order of magnitude ratio greatly facilitates identification of specifically quantum effects, ie those including zero point energy or tunnelling. (author)

  17. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  18. A high precision video-electronic measuring system for use with solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, J.U.; Schopper, E.; Staudte, R.

    1976-01-01

    A video-electronic image analyzing system Quantimet 720 has been modified to meet the requirements of the measurement of tracks of nuclear particles in solid state track detectors with resulting improvement of precision, speed, and the elimination of subjective influences. A microscope equipped with an automatic XY stage projects the image onto the cathode of a vidicon-amplifier. Within the TV-picture generated, characterized by the coordinate XY in the specimen, we determine coordinates xy of events by setting cross lines on the screen which correspond to a digital accuracy of 0.1 μm at the position of the object. Automatic movement in Z-direction can be performed by stepping motor and measured electronically, or continously by setting electric voltage on a piezostrictive support of the objective. (orig.) [de

  19. Titanium dioxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowires for all solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Zeng, Yinxiang; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Chenghui; Yao, Chenzhong; Yang, Yangyi; Tong, Yexiang

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance.Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD pattern, FT-IR absorption spectrum and CV curves of TiO2@PPy NWs, and SEM images of the PPy. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03578f

  20. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.bisogni@pi.infn.it; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-02-11

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  1. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  2. Characterization of the polymer Durolon as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    The polymer Durolon has been characterized as a solid state nuclear track detector. In these detectors a track, resulting from the damages in its molecular structure, induced by a heavy charged particle, is the testimony of the passage of the particle through the polymer. In order to characterize the Durolon the track diameter, track production rate, light transmission through the polymer and the critical angle of incidence of the particle have been studied. The main objective of such studies was to provide the necessary subsidies to understand the information registered. The damages have been induced by alpha particles from the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li, by irradiating a boron screen in a thermal neutron field from an experimental facility installed in the beam-hole 08 of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The study of the parameters have been performed by using a digital system developed in the present work. Its use has provided a higher quality and quickness regarding data acquisition and data analysis as well as the opportunity to quantify several other parameters regarding the imaging formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors. The characteristics of the Durolon have been compared with the ones of two other detectors Makrofol-E and Makrofol-DE and have demonstrated its potentiality to use. (author)

  3. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  4. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  5. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Agrawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase. The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF. The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds. Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

  6. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  7. Fast neutron detection using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    CR-39 and Makrofol-E solid state nuclear track detectors were studied aiming their application to fast neutron detection. Optimum etching conditions of those two kinds of materials were determined the followings - the Makrofol-E detector is electrochemically etched in a PEW solution (15% KOH, 40% ethilic alcohol and 45% water) for 2 h., with an applied electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r/m/s/) and frequency of 2 kHz, at room temperature; - the CR-39 detector is chemically pre-etched during 1 h in a 20% (w/v) NaOH solution at 70 sup(0)C, followed by 13 h electrochemical etch using the same solution at room temperature and an electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r.m.s.) and frequency of 2 kHz.(E.G.)

  8. Fatty acids polymorphism and solid-state miscibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbabode, Gabin [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ggbabode@ulb.ac.be; Negrier, Philippe; Mondieig, Denise [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Moreno, Evelyn; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Angel [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-05

    The pentadecanoic acid-hexadecanoic acid (C{sub 15}H{sub 29}OOH-C{sub 16}H{sub 31}OOH) binary system is dealt with in this article. The polymorphism of 20 mixed materials has been investigated combining calorimetric measurements, isothermal and versus temperature X-ray powder diffraction and also FTIR spectroscopy. In particular, the cell parameters of the stable forms, temperatures and heats of phase changes for the two constituents and a proposal of phase diagram are given in this article. Three solid forms are created by mixing in addition with the four solid forms of the pure components. All these solid forms are stabilized on narrow domains of composition, implying a reduced solid-state miscibility of the pentadecanoic and hexadecanoic acids.

  9. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1994-10-01

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  11. Solid state laser driver for an ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of the main power amplifier of a multi-beamline, multi-megawatt solid state ICF reactor driver. Simultaneous achievement of useful beam quality and high average power is achieved by a proper choice of amplifier geometry. An amplifier beamline consists of a sequence of face-pumped rectangular slab gain elements, oriented at the Brewster angle relative to the beamline axis, and cooled on their large faces by helium gas that is flowing subsonically. The infrared amplifier output radiation is shifted to an appropriately short wavelength ( 10% (including all flow cooling input power) when the amplifiers are pumped by efficient high-power AlGaAs semiconductor laser diode arrays. 11 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Darrow, D.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube

  13. An all-solid-state lithium/polyaniline rechargeable cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhi; Peng, Xinsheng; Zhang, Borong; Wang, Baochen

    1992-07-01

    The performance of an all-solid-state cell having a lithium negative electrode, a modified polyethylene oxide (PEO)-epoxy resin (ER) electrolyte, and a polyaniline (PAn) positive electrode has been studied using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge cycling, and polarization curves at various temperatures. The redox reaction of the PAn electrode at the PAn/modified PEO-ER interface exhibits good reversibility. At 50-80 C, the Li/PEO-ER-LiClO4/PAn cell shows more than 40 charge/discharge cycles, 90 percent charge/discharge efficiency, and 54 W h kg discharge energy density (on PAn weight basis) at 50 micro-A between 2 and 4 V. The polarization performance of the battery improves steadily with increase in temperature.

  14. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z; Manchiraju, K [Southwire Co.

    2012-02-22

    This project is to develop and demonstrate the concept feasibility of a highly energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis process, friction stir extrusion (FSE) technology. Specifically, the project seeks to explore and demonstrate the feasibility to recycle metals, produce nano-particle dispersion strengthened bulk materials and/or nano-composite materials from powders, chips or other recyclable feedstock metals or scraps through mechanical alloying and thermo-mechanical processing in a single-step. In this study, we focused on metal recycling, producing nano-engineered wires and evaluating their potential use in future generation long-distance electric power delivery infrastructure. More comprehensive R&D on the technology fundamentals and system scale-up toward early-stage applications in two targeted “showcase” fields of use: nano engineered bulk materials and Al recycling will be considered and planned as part of Project Continuation Plan.

  15. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  16. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  17. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  18. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  19. Trends of studies in some aspects of solid state plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Of late, there is a discernible trend to study solid state plasmas. Such a study, by itself, constitutes a broad class of problems but those with dominantly utilitarian aspects have not hitherto been studied in abundance. The utility stems from the nature of media, namely, piezoelectric media or strictly speaking, piezoelectric semiconducting media, in which amplification of waves or otherwise has to be reckoned for wothwhile pursuits in regard to energy conversions. There are both theoretical and experimental dimensions to such studies. The present study restricts itself only to theoretical work. A chronological sequence of extent studies enables one to get at the right perspective. Basic equations along with formulations are set forth. Thermopiezosemiconducting media are also considered on the above lines. Salients and snags of erstwhile studies are pointed out. Possible directions of developments of such studies together with techniques to which they may become amenable are also indicated. (author)

  20. Gamma sterilization of cefotaxime sodium in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Aladawi, M. A.; Hammoudeh, A.; Albaroudi, H.

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the solid state of Cefotaxime sodium salt (C 1 8H 1 6N 8 Na 2 O 7 S 3 ) as a member of the third generation of cephalosporin. Solid Cefotaxime as a pharmaceutical dosage was exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 kGy in 60 Co package irradiator. Physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium have been investigated by using UV (Ultra Violet) and IR (Infra Red) spectroscopic, pH, solubility and DSC (Deferential Scanning Calorimetric) methods. The biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium was investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a strain of bacteria. The obtained results indicated that gamma irradiation have no effect on physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium, No significant differences were found between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in the biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium on E. Coli. (Author)

  1. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  2. Solid state low power pulsed NMR spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.S.; Parthasarathy, T.G.; Menon, M.P.S.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer system is described for relaxation time studies on solid and liquid samples. The spectrometer design is fully solid state and a special microcomputer interface is incorporated for automatic evaluation of the relaxation times. The prototype system has been designed to operate at 9 MHz, but the modular concept used in the construction permits operation at any frequency in the range 5-10 MHz. The system has a recovery time of 15 micro seconds at 9 MHz. The range of measurement for the spin-lattice relaxation time is 0.1 millisecond to 1000 seconds; for spin-spin relaxation time, the range is 14μ seconds to 100 milliseconds. (author)

  3. Optimized control strategy for crowbarless solid state modular power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    Solid state modular power supply with series connected IGBT based power modules have been employed as high voltage bias power supply of klystron amplifier. Auxiliary compensation of full wave inverter bridge with ZVS/ZCS operations of all IGBTs over entire operating range is incorporated. An optimized control strategy has been adopted for this power supply needing no output filter, making this scheme crowbarless and is presented in this paper. DSP based fully digital control with same duty cycle for all power modules, have been incorporated for regulating this power supply along with adequate protection features. Input to this power supply is taken directly from 11 kV line and the input system is intentionally made 24 pulsed to reduce the input harmonics, improve the input power factor significantly, there by requiring no line filters. Various steps have been taken to increase the efficiency of major subsystems, so as to improve the overall efficiency of this power supply significantly. (author)

  4. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors

  5. Construction of a Solid State Research Facility, Building 3150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct a new facility to house the Materials Synthesis Group (MSG) and the Semiconductor Physics Group (SPG) of the Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The location of the proposed action is Roane County, Tennessee. MSG is involved in the study of crystal growth and the preparation and characterization of advanced materials, such as high-temperature superconductors, while SPG is involved in semiconductor physics research. All MSG and a major pardon of SPG research activities are now conducted in Building 2000, a deteriorating structure constructed in the 1940. The physical deterioration of the roof; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; and the plumbing make this building inadequate for supporting research activities. The proposed project is needed to provide laboratory and office space for MSG and SPG and to ensure that research activities can continue without interruption due to deficiencies in the building and its associated utility systems

  6. Solid state track recorder measurements in the poolside critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fission rate measurements using solid state track recorders (SSTR) have been performed at the PCA. A schematic representation of a cross-section of the PCA is shown. Fission rates were measured in the pressure vessel simulator at the T/4, T/2 and 3T/4 positions and in the void box (VB). SSTR measurements were carried out with 232 Th, 235 U (bare and cadmium covered), 238 U and 237 Np fissionable deposits. Midplane only measurements were carried out for 235 U and 237 Np, while 5 axial locations at 1/4T and 1/2T and 3 axial locations at 3/4T and in the VB were sampled for 232 Th and 238 U. The HEDL SSTR fission rate measurements reported herein for both configurations together with NBS and CEN/SCK fission chamber measurements will be used to establish absolute and relative fission reaction rates, and ratios for the PCA pressure vessel Benchmark Facility

  7. Unravelling radiative energy transfer in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikov, Rustamzhon; Press, Daniel Aaron; Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of organic and inorganic luminescent materials (e.g., phosphors, quantum dots, etc.) are being used for lighting and new materials (e.g., graphene, perovskite, etc.) are currently under investigation. However, the understanding of radiative energy transfer is limited, even though it is critical to understand and improve the performance levels of solid-state lighting devices. In this study, we derived a matrix approach that includes absorption, reabsorption, inter-absorption and their iterative and combinatorial interactions for one and multiple types of fluorophores, which is simplified to an analytical matrix. This mathematical approach gives results that agree well with the measured spectral and efficiency characteristics of color-conversion light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it also provides a deep physical insight by uncovering the entire radiative interactions and their contribution to the output optical spectrum. The model is universal and applicable for all kinds of fluorophores.

  8. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate cultivation (SSC or solid state fermentation (SSF is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products. This process involves the fermentation of solid substrate medium with microorganism in the absence of free flowing water. Recent developments and concerted focus on SSF enabled it to evolve as a potential bio- technology as an alternative to thetraditional chemical synthesis. SSF is being successfully exploited for food production, fuels, enzymes, antibiotics, animal feeds and also for dye degradation. This paper discusses the various micro and macro level engineering problems associated with SSF and some possible solutions for its full commercial realization.

  9. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  10. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...... doubled, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Lasing in the wavelength region from 560 to 570 nm is observed from a laser with a side-length of 50 µm. In this proof of concept, the lasers are multimode with a mode wavelength separation of approximately 1.6 nm, as determined by the waveguide propagation constant......We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...

  11. Solid state modulator for klystron power supply XFEL TDS INJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Zybin, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.; Shemarykin, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    The transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS INJ for European X-ray Free Electron Laser includes power supply for the CPI VKS-8262HS klystron. It has been designed for pulse high-voltage, cathode heating, solenoid and klystron ion pump. The klystron power supply includes solid state modulator, pulse transformer, controlled power supply for cathode heating and commercial power supplies for solenoid and ion pump. Main parameters of the modulator are 110 kV of peak voltage, 72 A peak current, and pulse length up to 6 μs. The klystron power supply has been developed, designed, manufactured, tuned, tested and installed in the XFEL building. All designed parameters are satisfied.

  12. Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Koguchi, Y; Ashida, T; Tsuruta, T

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector is suitable for detecting heavy ions such as fission fragments, because it is insensitive to right ions such as alpha particles and protons. Detection efficiency of fission tracks is about 100%, which is unaffected under conditions below 240degC lasting for 1h or below 1 MGy of gamma-ray irradiation. Optimum etching condition for the DAP detector for detection of fission fragments is 2-4 h using 30% KOH aqueous solution at 90degC or 8-15 min using PEW-65 solution at 60degC. DAP detector is useful in detecting induced fission tracks for dating of geology or measuring intense heavy ions induced by ultra laser plasma. The fabrication of copolymers of DAP and CR-39 makes it possible to control the discrimination level for detection threshold of heavy ions. (author)

  13. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 2018 DOE Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-01-31

    The 2018 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio provides an overview of all SSL projects that have been funded by DOE since 2000. Projects that were active during 2017 are found in the main body of this report, and all historic projects can be found in the appendix. Within these sections, project profiles are sorted by technology type (i.e., LED or OLED) and then by performer name. A profile is provided on each project. Each profile includes a brief technical description, as well as information about project partners, funding, and the research period. This report is updated annually, although the research described in the Portfolio changes periodically as new projects are initiated and existing ones are concluded.

  15. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred

    2017-08-29

    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  16. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  17. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  18. Majorana Fermions in Particle Physics, Solid State and Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    This review is based on lectures given by M. J. Duff summarising the far reaching contributions of Ettore Majorana to fundamental physics, with special focus on Majorana fermions in all their guises. The theoretical discovery of the eponymous fcrmion in 1937 has since had profound implications for particlc physics, solid state and quantum computation. The breadth of these disciplines is testimony to Majorana's genius, which continues to permeate physics today. These lectures offer a whistle-stop tour through some limited subset of the key ideas. In addition to touching on these various applications, we will draw out some fascinating relations connecting the normed division algebras R, ℂ, H, O to spinors, trialities. K-theory and the classification of stable topological states of symmetry-protected gapped free-fermion systems.

  19. Annealing effects in solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Current analyses of the annealing process in Solid State Track Recorders (SSTR) reveal fundamental misconceptions. The use of the Arrhenius equation to describe the decrease in track density resulting from annealing is shown to be incorrect. To overcome these deficiencies, generalized reaction rate theory is used to describe the annealing process in SSTR. Results of annealing experiments are used to guide this theoretical formulation. Within this framework, the concept of energy per etchable defect for SSTR is introduced. A general correlation between sensitivity and annealing susceptibility in SSTR is deduced. In terms of this general theory, the apparent correlation between fission track size and fission track density observed under annealing is readily explained. Based on this theoretical treatment of annealing phenomena, qualitative explanations are advanced for current enigmas in SSTR cosmic ray work

  20. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  1. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  2. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furenlid, L.R.; Beren, J.; Kraner, H.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Stephani, D.; Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Cramer, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500 000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since X-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 elements Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10 x 10 matrix of 4 mm x 4 mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultrahigh purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A/D converter, and histogramming memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entrie instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection. (orig.)

  3. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Manchiraju

    2012-03-27

    Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

  4. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Geographic Area, Sex and Eligibility, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Geographic Area, Sex and Eligibility (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI...

  5. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients in each State by Sex and Age (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI Report of...

  6. Influence of different boundary conditions on analysis of SSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiachun

    2005-01-01

    In the discussions of structural response to earthquakes, it has been assumed that the foundation medium is very stiff and that the seismic motions applied at the structure support points are the same as the free-field earthquake motions at those locations; in other words, the effects of soil structure interaction (SSI) have been neglected. However, its effects can be significant when the structure supported on a soft soil. Structures on the ground are affected by ground motion when there is seismic loading. The inability of the foundation to resist to deformation of soil would cause huge damages on the structures. The different codes and boundary conditions affect on analysis results of SSI. A comparison of the reactor buildings response as predicted by CLASSI and FLUSH shows substantial differences. To absorb, rather than reflect, the outwardly radiated energy, transmitting boundary conditions and soil structure interface should be taken into consideration in analysis of SSI. The paper discusses influence of several different boundary conditions on analysis of SSI. (author)

  7. ssi plaat saab 30aastaseks / Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. dets. 2004, lk. 4. Aasta aega Šveitsi investeerimisfirmale Sorbes AG kuulunud Püssi Repo Vabrikud tähistab puitlaastvabrikute kombinaadi 30. sünnipäeva. Praegu toodetakse 170 000 m3 puitlaastplaati aastas

  8. Parallel β-Sheet Structure of Alanine Tetrapeptide in the Solid State As Studied by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Horiguchi, Kumiko; Aoki, Akihiro; Tasei, Yugo; Naito, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The structural analysis of alanine oligopeptides is important for understanding the crystalline region in silks from spiders and wild silkworms and also the mechanism of cellular toxicity of human diseases arising from expansion in polyalanine sequences. The atomic-level structures of alanine tripeptide and tetrapeptide with antiparallel β-sheet structures (AP-Ala3 and AP-Ala4, respectively) together with alanine tripeptide with parallel β-sheet structures (P-Ala3) have been determined, but alanine tetrapeptide with a parallel β-sheet structure (P-Ala4) has not been reported yet. In this article, first, we established the preparation protocol of P-Ala4 from more stable AP-Ala4. Second, complete assignments of the (13)C, (15)N, and (1)H solid-state NMR spectra were performed with (13)C- and (15)N-labeled Ala4 samples using several solid-state NMR techniques. Then, the structural constraints were obtained, for example, the amide proton peaks of P-Ala4 in the (1)H double-quantum magic-angle spinning NMR spectrum were heavily overlapped and observed at about 7.4 ppm, which was a much higher field than that of 8.7-9.1 ppm observed for AP-Ala4, indicating that the intermolecular hydrogen-bond lengths across strands (N-H···O═C) were considerably longer for P-Ala4, that is, 2.21-2.34 Å, than those reported for AP-Ala4, that is, 1.8-1.9 Å. The structural model was proposed for P-Ala4 by NMR results and MD calculations.

  9. 20 CFR 416.266 - Continuation of SSI status for Medicaid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuation of SSI status for Medicaid 416... Disabling Impairment § 416.266 Continuation of SSI status for Medicaid If we stop your benefits because of... to be considered an SSI recipient for purposes of eligibility for Medicaid during the time it takes...

  10. Hyper- and hyporesponsive mutant forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ssy1 amino acid sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter; Gaber, Richard F.; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae integral membrane protein Ssy1p functions with Ssy5p and Ptr3p to sense extracellular amino acids. Signal transduction leads to processing and nuclear localization of Stp1p and Stp2p, transcriptional activators of many amino acid transporter genes. Ssy1p is structural...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1816 - Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI. 416.1816 Section 416.1816 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1816 Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI. When you apply for SSI benefits...

  12. MnO2/MCMB electrocatalyst for all solid-state alkaline zinc-air cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Zhang, X.G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured MnO 2 /mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) composite has been prepared successfully for use in zinc-air cell as electrocatalyst for oxygen reaction. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the MnO 2 nanorods were formed and covered on the surface of MCMB in bird's nest morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that the MnO 2 has the hollandite structure with a composition approximating KMn 8 O 16 . By the cathodic polarization curve tests, the nanostructured material demonstrated excellent electrocatalytic activity as a kind of oxygen electrode electrocatalyst compared with electrolytic MnO 2 . An all solid-state zinc-air cell has been fabricated with this material as electrocatalyst for oxygen electrode and potassium salt of cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) as an alkaline polymer gel electrolyte. The cell has good discharge characteristics at room temperature

  13. A Simple Approach for Enhancing the Output Performance of Solar-Pumped Solid-State Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple truncated fused silica elliptical cavity is proposed to enhance the output performance of solar-pumped solid-state lasers. The imaging property of the truncated elliptical cavity ensures an enhanced absorption distribution within an Nd:YAG rod. Optimum pumping parameters are found through ZEMAX nonsequential ray-tracing and LASCAD laser cavity analyses. Compared with the output laser performance of a 3D-compound parabolic concentrator-2D-compound parabolic concentrator (3D-CPC-2D-CPC cavity, the truncated cavity provides 11% more multimode and 72.7% more TEM00 laser powers. A laser beam of high beam quality can be produced efficiently. The standard tracking error for multimode laser power is also reduced to only 4.0% by the truncated cavity.

  14. Tunability of the circadian action of tetrachromatic solid-state light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.

    2015-01-01

    An approach to the optimization of the spectral power distribution of solid-state light sources with the tunable non-image forming photobiological effect on the human circadian rhythm is proposed. For tetrachromatic clusters of model narrow-band (direct-emission) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the limiting tunability of the circadian action factor (CAF), which is the ratio of the circadian efficacy to luminous efficacy of radiation, was established as a function of constraining color fidelity and luminous efficacy of radiation. For constant correlated color temperatures (CCTs), the CAF of the LED clusters can be tuned above and below that of the corresponding blackbody radiators, whereas for variable CCT, the clusters can have circadian tunability covering that of a temperature-tunable blackbody radiator

  15. Tunability of the circadian action of tetrachromatic solid-state light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žukauskas, A., E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.lt [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R. [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Didlaukio g. 47, Vilnius LT-08303 (Lithuania)

    2015-01-26

    An approach to the optimization of the spectral power distribution of solid-state light sources with the tunable non-image forming photobiological effect on the human circadian rhythm is proposed. For tetrachromatic clusters of model narrow-band (direct-emission) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the limiting tunability of the circadian action factor (CAF), which is the ratio of the circadian efficacy to luminous efficacy of radiation, was established as a function of constraining color fidelity and luminous efficacy of radiation. For constant correlated color temperatures (CCTs), the CAF of the LED clusters can be tuned above and below that of the corresponding blackbody radiators, whereas for variable CCT, the clusters can have circadian tunability covering that of a temperature-tunable blackbody radiator.

  16. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  17. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf texture development were studied using both [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystals templates. By using a PO 2 of 1x10-11 atm during high temperature heat treatment, matrix coarsening was limited while enabling single crystal boundary motion up to 0.35 mm during growth between 1250°C and 1300°C with growth rates ˜ 3--4 microm/h for both single crystal orientations. By

  18. K. S. Krishnan Memorial Lecture: The role of crystallography in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinier, A [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1977-06-01

    The role of crystallography in solving problems in solid state physics, is explained. A few domains in solid state physics such as detection of localized defects, structure of metallic solid solutions, mechanism of phase transitions and the intermediate states between crystalline and amorphous states, have been investigated successfully by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The studies have helped a deeper understanding of solid state phenomena. Structures of CuBa, AlZn, ..beta..-alumina etc. are discussed.

  19. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  20. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials

  1. An extrapolation scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shift calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Conventional quantum chemical and solid-state physical approaches include several problems to accurately calculate solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties. We propose a reliable computational scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shifts using an extrapolation scheme that retains the advantages of these approaches but reduces their disadvantages. Our scheme can satisfactorily yield solid-state NMR magnetic shielding constants. The estimated values have only a small dependence on the low-level density functional theory calculation with the extrapolation scheme. Thus, our approach is efficient because the rough calculation can be performed in the extrapolation scheme.

  2. Solid-state-drives (SSDs) modeling simulation tools & strategies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces simulation tools and strategies for complex systems of solid-state-drives (SSDs) which consist of a flash multi-core microcontroller plus NAND flash memories. It provides a broad overview of the most popular simulation tools, with special focus on open source solutions. VSSIM, NANDFlashSim and DiskSim are benchmarked against performances of real SSDs under different traffic workloads. PROs and CONs of each simulator are analyzed, and it is clearly indicated which kind of answers each of them can give and at a what price. It is explained, that speed and precision do not go hand in hand, and it is important to understand when to simulate what, and with which tool. Being able to simulate SSD’s performances is mandatory to meet time-to-market, together with product cost and quality. Over the last few years the authors developed an advanced simulator named “SSDExplorer” which has been used to evaluate multiple phenomena with great accuracy, from QoS (Quality Of Service) to Read Retry, fr...

  3. Coupling DNA nano-breadboards to solid state conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liqian; Morales, Piero; Dalmastri, Claudia; Rapone, Bruno; Gothelf, Kurt; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Rettere, Scott

    2015-01-01

    DNA is not only a most extraordinary information storage medium: the programmable pairing of DNA single strands into precisely engineered, connecting double helices make it an extremely appealing material for assemblage of nanoscale architectures. This is the basis of DNA nanotechnology, and designing almost any structure made of DNA at the nanometer scale, decorating it with a variety of functional molecules, and accomplishing it by virtually inexpensive self-assembly, is already a reality in many research laboratories in the world. But can we extend the range of applications of this technology by coupling DNA grafted molecular electronic nano circuitry to solid state devices, and interface molecular smart functions to our senses? This challenging research is addressed by a collaborative research among ENEA, the Universities of Roma 'Tor Vergata' and 'Aarhus', and the CNMS of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first results obtained by our consortium pave the way to the technological ability to interface and use completely self-assembled, DNA-based electronic nano-breadboards, endowed with ultra-high-density functional organic components [it

  4. Large aperture components for solid state laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality, resistance to damage, and overall performance of the several major components--amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters--in each amplifier train. Component development centers about achieving (1) highest functional material figure of merit, (2) best optical quality, and (3) maximum resistance to optical damage. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Shiva comprises twenty amplifiers, each of 20 cm output clear aperture. Terawatt beams from these amplifiers are focused through two opposed, nested clusters of f/6 lenses onto such targets. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 35 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  5. Solid state solubility of copper oxides in hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykin, Mikhail A.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Trusov, Lev A.; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Jansen, Martin; Kazin, Pavel E.

    2018-06-01

    Samples containing copper oxide doped hydroxyapatite with the composition Ca10(PO4)6(CuxOH1-x-δ)2, x = 0.054 - 0.582, in the mixture with CuO/Cu2O were prepared by a solid-state high-temperature treatment at varying annealing temperatures and at different partial water vapor and oxygen pressures. The crystal structures of the apatite compounds were refined using powder X-ray diffraction patterns and the content of copper ions x in the apatite was determined. Copper ions enter exclusively into the apatite trigonal channels formally substituting protons of OH-groups and the hexagonal cell parameters grow approximately linearly with x, the channel volume mostly expanding while the remaining volume of the crystal lattice changing only slightly. The equilibrium copper content in the apatite increases drastically, by almost a factor of 10 with the annealing temperature rising from 800° to 1200°C. The reduction of the water partial pressure leads to a further increase of x, while the dependence of x on the oxygen partial pressure exhibits a maximum. The observed relations are consistent with the proposed chemical reactions implying the copper introduction is followed by the release of a considerable quantity of gaseous products - water and oxygen. The analysis of interatomic distances suggests that the maximum content of copper ions in the channel cannot exceed 2/3.

  6. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  7. Thermal degradation of polyoxymethylene produced by solid-state polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, A.W.N.; Groves, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal degradation of polyoxymethylene produced by the solid-state polymerization of trioxane crystals was studied. Changes in small-angle and wide-angle x-ray patterns, weight loss, and density were measured in specimens heated in air at 175, 185, and 195 0 C. The polyoxymethylene contained materials in two different crystallographic orientations which behaved differently. Material in the so-called ''twin'' orientation melted preferentially at 185 and 195 0 C, and at 185 0 C resolidified on cooling in parallel to the main orientation, in a lamellar structure. At 195 0 C, randomly oriented material was produced on resolidification. At 175 0 C, there was no evidence of melting or the formation of a lamellar structure, but the twin material was preferentially degraded so that only material in the main orientation remained after a time of 1500 min. The more rapid loss by degradation of the twin material was attributed to its having a lower molecular weight than the material in the main orientation

  8. Solid-state personal dosimeter using dose conversion algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Lee, Wanno; Cho, Gyuseong; Chang, S.Y.; Rho, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state personal dosimeters using semiconductor detectors have been widely used because of their simplicity and real time operation. In this paper, a personal dosimeter based on a silicon PIN photodiode has been optimally designed by the Monte Carlo method and also developed. For performance test, the developed dosimeter was irradiated within the energy range between 50 keV and 1.25 MeV, the exposure dose rate between 3 mR/h and 25 R/h. The thickness of 0.2 mm Cu and 1.0 mm Al was selected as an optimal filter by simulation results. For minimizing the non-linear sensitivity on energy, dose conversion algorithm was presented, which was able to consider pulse number as well as pulse amplitude related to absorbed energies. The sensitivities of dosimeters developed by the proposed algorithm and the conventional method were compared and analyzed in detail. When dose conversion algorithm was used, the linearity of sensitivity was better about 38%. This dosimeter will be used for above 65 keV within the relative response of ±10% to 137 Cs

  9. Criticality monitoring with digital systems and solid state neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoite, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    A commercially available system for criticality monitoring combines the well established technology of digital radiation monitoring with state-of-the art detector systems capable of detecting criticality excursions of varying length and intensity with a high degree of confidence. The field microcomputer servicing the detector clusters contains hardware and software to acquire detector information in both the digital count rate and bit sensing modes supported by the criticality detectors. In both cases special criticality logic in the field microcomputer is used to determine the validity of the criticality event. The solid-state neutron detector consists of a 6 LiF wafer coupled to a diffused-junction charged particle detector. Alpha particles resulting from (n,α) interactions within the lithium wafer produce a pulsed signal corresponding to neutron intensity. Special detector circuitry causes the setting of a criticality bit recognizable by the microcomputer should neutron field intensities either exceed a hardware selectable frequency or saturate the detector resulting in a high current condition. These two modes of criticality sensing, in combination with the standard method of comparing an operator selectable alarm setpoint with the detector count rate, results in a criticality system capable of effective operation under the most demanding criticality monitoring conditions

  10. Solid-state 13C NMR characterization of polyanilines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.

    1988-01-01

    13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements are reported for the leucoemeraldine base, emeraldine base, and emeraldine hydrochloride forms of polyaniline in order to characterize the structures of these three distinct polymers. Chemical shift assignments are facilitated by use of the cross-depolarization technique to distinguish carbons with and without directly bonded hydrogens. Comparison of the spectra of emeraldine base with those of leucoemeraldine base and air-oxidized leucoemeraldine (which partially converts to emeraldine base) establishes that emeraldine base is essentially an alternating copolymer of reduced 1A (-(C 6 H 4 )N(H)(C 6 H 4 )N(H)-) and oxidized 2A (-(C 6 H 4 )N double-bond(C 6 H 4 )double-bond N-) repeat units. The 8-12 ppm spectral line widths measured for both emeraldine base and leucoemeraldine base are attributed to local fluctuations in conformational and configurational geometries, a distribution in chain packing, and compositional defects. 13 C spin-echo measurements establish that the 60 ppM wide line from the conducting emeraldine hydrochloride is inhomogeneously broadened. It is postulated that this line width is due to local variations in charge density along the polymer backbone arising from polymer structural heterogeneity. 47 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Solid state NMR of spin-1/2 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of nuclear magnetic resonance by Bloch et al. and Purcell and co-workers in 1946 has led to the development of one of the most powerful spectroscopic techniques known today. The reason is that, besides the applied external magnetic field, a nuclear spin also experiences extra local magnetic fields, which are due to surrounding electron clouds (the chemical shift) and other spins. These local fields differ for nuclei located at chemically different positions in a molecule. The result is that an NMR spectrum often consists of several lines, which can be considered to be a fingerprint of the material under investigation an can assist the clarifying its molecular structure. NMR has been especially successful in liquids and liquid like materials, where fast molecular tumblings average out the anisotropies in the local fields, resulting in well-resolved NMR spectra. This paper reports that initially the development of solid-state NMR was less dramatic. Originally, for reasons of sensitivity, attention was focused mainly on 1 H NMR. The result is that the NMR spectrum usually consists of single, broad, featureless line, which, except for special cases such as more or less isolated spin pairs or methyl groups, does not provide much information

  12. Influence of tracks densities in solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes O, S.; Hadler N.; Lunes, P.; Saenz T, C.

    1996-01-01

    When Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) is employed to measure nuclear tracks produced mainly by fission fragments and alpha particles, it is considered that the tracks observation work is performed under an efficiency, ε 0 , which is independent of the track density (number of tracks/area unit). There are not published results or experimental data supporting such an assumption. In this work the dependence of ε 0 with track density is studied basing on experimental data. To perform this, pieces of CR-39 cut from a sole 'mother sheet' were coupled to thin uranium films for different exposition times and the resulting ratios between track density and exposition time were compared. Our results indicate that ε 0 is constant for track densities between 10 3 and 10 5 cm -2 . At our etching conditions track overlapping makes impossible the counting for densities around 1.7 x 10 5 cm -2 . For track densities less than 10 3 cm -2 , ε 0 , was not observed to be constant. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. Monitoring tetracycline through a solid-state nanopore sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuechuan; Chen, Yanling; Fu, Yongqi; Ying, Cuifeng; Feng, Yanxiao; Huang, Qimeng; Wang, Chao; Pei, De-Sheng; Wang, Deqiang

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics as emerging environmental contaminants, are widely used in both human and veterinary medicines. A solid-state nanopore sensing method is reported in this article to detect Tetracycline, which is based on Tet-off and Tet-on systems. rtTA (reverse tetracycline-controlled trans-activator) and TRE (Tetracycline Responsive Element) could bind each other under the action of Tetracycline to form one complex. When the complex passes through nanopores with 8 ~ 9 nanometers in diameter, we could detect the concentrations of Tet from 2 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. According to the Logistic model, we could define three growth zones of Tetracycline for rtTA and TRE. The slow growth zone is 0-39.5 ng/mL. The rapid growth zone is 39.5-529.7 ng/mL. The saturated zone is > 529.7 ng/mL. Compared to the previous methods, the nanopore sensor could detect and quantify these different kinds of molecule at the single-molecule level.

  14. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels

  15. High-Power, Solid-State, Deep Ultraviolet Laser Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Xuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, deep ultraviolet (DUV lasers at the wavelength of fourth harmonics of 1 μm (266 nm/258 nm and at the wavelength of 193 nm are widely utilized in science and industry. We review the generation of these DUV lasers by nonlinear frequency conversion processes using solid-state/fiber lasers as the fundamental frequency. A DUV laser at 258 nm by fourth harmonics generation (FHG could achieve an average power of 10 W with a beam quality of M2 < 1.5. Moreover, 1 W of average power at 193 nm was obtained by sum-frequency generation (SFG. A new concept of 193-nm DUV laser generation by use of the diamond Raman laser is also introduced. A proof-of-principle experiment of the diamond Raman laser is reported with the conversion efficiency of 23% from the pump to the second Stokes wavelength, which implies the potential to generate a higher power 193 nm DUV laser in the future.

  16. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarobol, Pylin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Argibay, Nicolas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diantonio, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  17. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  18. Nanogap Electrodes towards Solid State Single-Molecule Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ajuan; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2015-12-01

    With the establishment of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based integrated circuit technology, it has become more difficult to follow Moore's law to further downscale the size of electronic components. Devices based on various nanostructures were constructed to continue the trend in the minimization of electronics, and molecular devices are among the most promising candidates. Compared with other candidates, molecular devices show unique superiorities, and intensive studies on molecular devices have been carried out both experimentally and theoretically at the present time. Compared to two-terminal molecular devices, three-terminal devices, namely single-molecule transistors, show unique advantages both in fundamental research and application and are considered to be an essential part of integrated circuits based on molecular devices. However, it is very difficult to construct them using the traditional microfabrication techniques directly, thus new fabrication strategies are developed. This review aims to provide an exclusive way of manufacturing solid state gated nanogap electrodes, the foundation of constructing transistors of single or a few molecules. Such single-molecule transistors have the potential to be used to build integrated circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Characterisation and Radiation Modification of Carrageenan in the Solid State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulrez, S.; Al-Assaf, S.; Phillips, G.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the modification of kappa-carrageenan in the solid state using gamma radiation (in the dose range of 1-25kGy) in the presence of unsaturated alkyne gas. The results showed maximum production of hydrogel at 5kGy with nearly 80% of starting material being converted to hydrogel form in the absence of a gellin agent. Higher irradiation doses at 25kGy resulted in reducing the hydrogel proportion to ~40% due to degradation. The molecular weight and distribution was determined by GPC-MALLS and the results showed a decrease in the mass recovery and molecular weight of the soluble fraction at 60C. The molecular weight results were in agreement with hydrogel data determined from the filtration method. There was an optimum increase in the viscosity, elasticity and mechanical strength at 5kGy which was followed by a decrease in the gel strength at higher doses (25kGy). Our study demonstrates the potential production of novel hydrogel based carrageenan obtained by irradiation in the absence of metal ions with possible new applications. A mechanism for the radiation induced cross-linking to produce superhelical aggregates in the absence of a gelling agent is proposed. (author)

  20. Solid-state photoelectrochemical H2 generation with gaseous reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwu, Kingsley O.; Galeckas, Augustinas; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.; Norby, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Photocurrent and H 2 production were demonstrated in an all solid-state photoelectrochemical cell employing gaseous methanol and water vapour at the photoanode. Open circuit photovoltage of around −0.4 V and short circuit photocurrent of up to 250 μA/cm 2 were obtained. At positive bias, photocurrent generation was limited by the irradiance, i.e., the amount of photogenerated charge carriers at the anode. Time constants and impedance spectra showed an electrochemical capacitance of the cell of about 15 μF/cm 2 in the dark, which increased with increasing irradiance. With only water vapour at the anode, the short circuit photocurrent was about 6% of the value with gaseous methanol and water vapour. The photoanode and electrocatalyst on carbon paper support were affixed to the proton conducting membrane using Nafion ® as adhesive, an approach that yielded photocurrents up to 15 times better than that of a cell assembled by hot-pressing, in spite of the overall cell resistance of the latter being up to five times less than that of the former. This is attributed, at least partially, to reactants being more readily available at the photoanode of the better performing cell

  1. Design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narro, R.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.

    2009-01-01

    Methods and configurations for the design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators, operating in free running, are presented. For fundamental mode high power resonators, a method is proposed for the design of a resonator with joined stability zones. In the case of multimode resonators, two configurations are introduced for maximizing the laser overall efficiency due to the compensation of the astigmatism induced by the excitation. The first configuration consists in a triangular ring resonator. The results for this configuration are discussed theoretically, showing that it is possible to compensate the astigmatism of the thermal lens virtually in a 100%; however this is only possible for a specific pumping power. The second configuration proposes a dual-active medium resonator, rotated 90 degree one from the other around the optical axis, where each active medium acts as an astigmatic lens of the same dioptric power. The reliability of this configuration is corroborated experimentally using a Nd:YAG dual-active medium resonator. It is found that in the pumping power range where the astigmatism compensation is possible, the overall efficiency is constant, even when increasing the excitation power with the consequent increase of the thermal lens dioptric power. (Author)

  2. New solid state opening switches for repetitive pulsed power technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, S K; Mesyats, G A; Rukin, S N; Slovikovskii, B G; Turov, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Electrophysics

    1997-12-31

    In 1991 the authors discovered a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) effect that occurs in p{sup +}-p-n-n{sup +} silicon structures at a current density of up to 60 kA/cm{sup 2}. This effect was used to develop high-power semiconductor opening switches in intermediate inductive storage circuits. The breaking power of the opening switches was as high as 5 GW, the interrupted current being up to 45 kA, reverse voltage up to 1 MV and the current interruption time between 10 and 60 ns. The opening switches were assembled from quantity-produced Russian-made rectifying diodes type SDL with hard recovery characteristic. On the basis of experimental and theoretical investigations of the SOS effect, new SOS diodes were designed and manufactured by the Electrophysical Institute. The paper gives basic parameters of the SOS diodes. The new diodes offer higher values of interrupted current and shorter times of current interruption together with a considerable increase in the energy switching efficiency. The new SOS diodes were used to develop repetitive all-solid-state pulsed generators with an output voltage of up to 250 kV, pulse repetition rate up to 5 kHz, and pulse duration between 10 and 30 ns. (author). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 4 refs.

  3. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  4. Optical readout method for solid-state dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Stahl, K.A.; Miller, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The readout of solid-state dosemeters is usually accomplished by heating to produce thermoluminescence. This technique has several disadvantages including stressing the dosemeter crystals, melting Teflon enclosures, and destroying the thin dosemeters designed for beta particle measurements. An optical readout method is being developed to avoid these difficulties. Standard dosemeters were irradiated to a dose of approximately 0.02 Sv with 137 Cs gamma rays. The dosemeters were then irradiated with light produced by a high-intensity xenon lamp. Various wavelength bands, from the ultraviolet through the visible and to the near-infrared, were used. The degree of trap emptying was found to be proportional to the total optical power incident. With the intensities used in the preliminary experiments, over 90% trap emptying was achieved. This new technique will prove useful for dosemeters that are encased in plastic for automatic processing. The details of this optical readout method, along with some possible applications in neutron and beta dosimetry are described. 7 refs., 3 figs

  5. Enhanced solid state emission of quinoline derivatives for fluorescent sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyong-Jun, E-mail: hkim@kongju.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) molecules are of utmost interest in the fields of organic light emitting diode, photo-patterning, chemosensor, proton transfer laser, and photostabilizer. Fine control of the functional substituents as well as the molecular structure of core ESIPT unit is primarily demanded for specific applications. Here, the photophysics of quinoline derivatives of 2-quinolin-2-yl-phenol and 2-(8-chloroquinolin-2-yl)phenol is explored. Straightening the twist between the hydroxyphenyl and the quinoline moieties with the aid of the hydrogen bonding promoted the excited energy to flow through a radiative decay pathway via proton transfer to the nitrogen. Furthermore, close molecular packing of J-aggregates and thus resulted vibration restriction in a dense matter opens an ESIPT corridor and is characterized to show enhanced emission. The mechanism is applied to the selective Cu{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 2+} cation detection and further immunofluorescence labeling using avidin–biotin protein specific binding is demonstrated with the aid of nano self-assembly technique. - Highlights: • New orange fluorescent hydroxyphenylquinoline derivative was synthesized. • Molecular structure planarization induced enhanced fluorescence with large Stokes' shift. • Selective solution phase cation detection and solid state bio-sensing were demonstrated successfully.

  6. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  7. Formability of aluminium sheets manufactured by solid state recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, A. S.; Nayak, K. C.; Date, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Conventional recycling practices for non-ferrous metallic scrap involves melting followed by purification. This practice is suitable for recycling when the large volume of scrap is available. Though such recycling reduces consumption of diminishing metallic resources, high energy requirement and material loss during melting and purification limit its applicability. In the present work, manufacturing of solid state recycled aluminium sheet by hot rolling is explored and its formability characterized. Aluminium chips were divided into smaller particles (1~2mm) by crushing. After stress relief annealing, chips were cold compacted into square slabs (75*75mm section) of different thicknesses. Another similar set of slabs was made by hot compaction. The compacted slabs were hot rolled over a number of passes at 400°C. Each slab was reduced to approximately 90% thickness to get the sheet thickness in the range of 0.6 to 1.5 mm. Microstructure revealed good interface bonding between the chip particles. Mechanical properties of the sheet from room temperature up to 200°C and at different strain rates were characterized by a number of tensile tests. Circular blanks from sheet were drawn into cylindrical cups and strain distribution was observed along different directions of rolling using circle grid analysis.

  8. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A [Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0601 (United States); Saunders, H D, E-mail: jytsao@sandia.go, E-mail: jrcreig@sandia.go, E-mail: mecoltr@sandia.go, E-mail: jsimmon@sandia.go, E-mail: hsaunders@decisionprocessesinc.co [Decision Processes Incorporated, 2308 Saddleback Drive, Danville, CA 94506 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  9. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  10. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A; Saunders, H D

    2010-01-01

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  11. Development of a solid state laser of Nd:YLF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Neto, R. do.

    1984-01-01

    The CW laser action was obtained at room temperature of a Nd:YLF crystal in an astigmatically compensated cavity, pumped by an argon laser. This laser was completely projected, constructed and characterized in our laboratories, thus having a high degree of nationalization. It initiates a broader project on lasers development that will have several applications like nuclear fusion, industry, medicine, telemetry, etc.... Throught the study of the optical properties of the Nd:YLF crystal, laser operation was predicted using a small volume gain medium on the mentioned cavity, pumped by an Ar 514,5 nm laser line. To obtain the laser action at polarizations σ (1,053 μm) and π (1,047 μm) an active medium was prepared which was a cristalline plate with a convenient crystalographic orientation. The laser characterization is in reasonable agreement with the initial predictions. For a 3.5% output mirror transmission, the oscillation threshold is about 0.15 W incident on the crystal, depending upon the sample used. For 1 W of incident pump light, the output power is estimated to be 12 mW, which corresponds to almost 1.5% slope efficiency. The versatile arrangement is applicable to almost all optically pumped solid state laser materials. (Author) [pt

  12. Report of the Solid State Physics Division (1991-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out in the Solid State Physics Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) covering the period from 1991-1992. The activities are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under headings: Research Activities, Instrumentation and Software Development. The main research activity of the Division is centered around the utilisation of the neutron beams at the Dhruva and Cirus reactors. A number of research proposals from the universities, funded by the Inter University Consortium come under the category of powder diffraction studies. Another area of research where there is a good demand from universities is in the field of small angle neutron scattering. In addition to the neutron beam research, a number of other investigations pertaining to Raman scattering, liquid crystals, model membranes, magnetism, protein crystallography etc. have contributed significantly to the research programme. The fully indigenous guide laboratory is expected to become operational soon. A list of published papers, internal reports and submitted theses is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  13. Heat-Assisted Multiferroic Solid-State Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepadatu, Serban; Vopson, Melvin M

    2017-08-25

    A heat-assisted multiferroic solid-state memory design is proposed and analysed, based on a PbNbZrSnTiO₃ antiferroelectric layer and Ni 81 Fe 19 magnetic free layer. Information is stored as magnetisation direction in the free layer of a magnetic tunnel junction element. The bit writing process is contactless and relies on triggering thermally activated magnetisation switching of the free layer towards a strain-induced anisotropy easy axis. A stress is generated using the antiferroelectric layer by voltage-induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase change, and this is transmitted to the magnetic free layer by strain-mediated coupling. The thermally activated strain-induced magnetisation switching is analysed here using a three-dimensional, temperature-dependent magnetisation dynamics model, based on simultaneous evaluation of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation and heat flow equation, together with stochastic thermal fields and magnetoelastic contributions. The magnetisation switching probability is calculated as a function of stress magnitude and maximum heat pulse temperature. An operating region is identified, where magnetisation switching always occurs, with stress values ranging from 80 to 180 MPa, and maximum temperatures normalised to the Curie temperature ranging from 0.65 to 0.99.

  14. Compact, diode-pumped, solid-state lasers for next generation defence and security sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; McRae, I.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.

    2015-06-01

    Low-cost semiconductor laser diode pump sources have made a dramatic impact in sectors such as advanced manufacturing. They are now disrupting other sectors, such as defence and security (D&S), where Thales UK is a manufacturer of sensor systems for application on land, sea, air and man portable. In this talk, we will first give an overview of the market trends and challenges in the D&S sector. Then we will illustrate how low cost pump diodes are enabling new directions in D&S sensors, by describing two diode pumped, solid- state laser products currently under development at Thales UK. The first is a new generation of Laser Target Designators (LTD) that are used to identify targets for the secure guiding of munitions. Current systems are bulky, expensive and require large battery packs to operate. The advent of low cost diode technology, merged with our novel solid-state laser design, has created a designator that will be the smallest, lowest cost, STANAG compatible laser designator on the market. The LTD delivers greater that 50mJ per pulse up to 20Hz, and has compact dimensions of 125×70×55mm. Secondly, we describe an ultra-compact, eye-safe, solid-state laser rangefinder (LRF) with reduced size, weight and power consumption compared to existing products. The LRF measures 100×55×34mm, weighs 200g, and can range to greater than 10km with a single laser shot and at a reprate of 1Hz. This also leverages off advances in laser pump diodes, but also utilises low cost, high reliability, packaging technology commonly found in the telecoms sector. As is common in the D&S sector, the products are designed to work in extreme environments, such as wide temperature range (-40 to +71°C) and high levels of shock and vibration. These disruptive products enable next- generation laser sensors such as rangefinders, target designators and active illuminated imagers.

  15. A Persian-version of the stuttering severity instrument-version four (SSI-4): How the new additions to SSI-4 complement its stuttering severity score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Neda; Shafie, Bijan; Karimi, Hamid; Mazaheri, Masood

    The fourth version of the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-4) has been available since 2009. It has some modifications and new features which make it more appropriate at least for clinical practice, although further documentation is needed. The objective of the current research was to translate SSI-4 into Persian language and to discuss its relative and absolute reliability as well as its criterion validity for Persian adults who stutter (PWS). We also aimed to study how the new subjective self-reports of the SSI-4 complement the stuttering severity score obtained from the SSI-3 or the SSI-4. The cross-cultural guideline recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment project was used to translate the SSI-4 into Persian language. Thirty five PWS from ages 17 to 42 were recruited and 10 speech and language pathologists assessed their stuttering severity using either the SSI-4 or stuttering severity ratings (SR) to test validity and reliability of the Persian translated version. A very high inter-judge relative reliability along with a poor absolute inter-judge reliability was found for the SSI-4 scores. The results were more promising for the intra-judge absolute reliability. Test-retest reliability of the complementary questions to the SSI-4 was also found acceptable. However, no strong relationship was found between the SSI-4 scores and its complementary questions. The Persian version of the SSI-4 can be used reliably by trained SLPs for research and clinical purposes, but not to document small changes in stuttering severity. We argue that the response of participants to the complementary self-report questions should also be considered in calculating their stuttering severity score. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  17. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten-thousand hour LM

  18. SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1999-04-01

    SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  19. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-01-01

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths (λ=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range (λ=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution

  20. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Manchado, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T 1/2 for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6x10 9 years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6x10 9 years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant k rac .