WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid-state electro-cumulation effect

  1. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  2. Annealing effects in solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Current analyses of the annealing process in Solid State Track Recorders (SSTR) reveal fundamental misconceptions. The use of the Arrhenius equation to describe the decrease in track density resulting from annealing is shown to be incorrect. To overcome these deficiencies, generalized reaction rate theory is used to describe the annealing process in SSTR. Results of annealing experiments are used to guide this theoretical formulation. Within this framework, the concept of energy per etchable defect for SSTR is introduced. A general correlation between sensitivity and annealing susceptibility in SSTR is deduced. In terms of this general theory, the apparent correlation between fission track size and fission track density observed under annealing is readily explained. Based on this theoretical treatment of annealing phenomena, qualitative explanations are advanced for current enigmas in SSTR cosmic ray work

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H.; Koprowski, M.; Zegota, A. [Technical Univ., Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry

    1995-02-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alterations was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease. (author).

  4. Pressure Effects on Solid State Phase Transformation of Aluminium Bronze in Cooling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Yan, Wang; Jian-Hua, Liu; Gui-Rong, Peng; Yan, Chen; Yu-Wen, Liu; Fei, Li; Wen-Kui, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of high pressure (6 GPa) on the solid state phase transformation kinetic parameters of aluminum bronze during the cooling process are investigated, based on the measurement and calculation of its solid state phase transformation temperature, duration and activation energy and the observation of its microstructures. The results show that high pressure treatment can reduce the solid phase transformation temperature and activation energy in the cooling process and can shorten the phase transformation duration, which is favorable when forming fine-grained aluminum bronze

  5. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  6. The effect of transverse multi-mode oscillation in passively modelocked solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, A.; Reali, G. C.; Gabetta, G.

    1992-03-01

    We demonstrate that the pulses from a passively mode-locked flashlamp pumped solid-state laser can be considerably shorter using an antiresonant-ring mirror than using a linear cavity with a standard contacted dye-cell mirror, and we suggest that transverse-mode-filtering effects in the antiresonant ring play an important role in explaining this difference.

  7. High-energy shadowing effect and its application to atomic and solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Shima, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Toyoyuki; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Ion-beam shadowing effects for projectiles in the MeV/u energy range have been studied with high-energy (keV) secondary electrons emitted from the surface of a target crystal. This article reviews and discusses applications of the high-energy shadowing effect to atomic and solid state physics, as well as physical and technical aspects of the electron spectroscopy under channeling incidence conditions. (orig.)

  8. The effect of gas double-dynamic on mass distribution in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2014-05-10

    The mass distribution regularity in substrate of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has rarely been reported due to the heterogeneity of solid medium and the lack of suitable instrument and method, which limited the comprehensive analysis and enhancement of the SSF performance. In this work, the distributions of water, biomass, and fermentation product in different medium depths of SSF were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the developed models. Based on the mass distribution regularity, the effects of gas double-dynamic on heat transfer, microbial growth and metabolism, and product distribution gradient were systematically investigated. Results indicated that the maximum temperature of substrate and the maximum carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) were 39.5°C and 2.48mg/(hg) under static aeration solid-state fermentation (SASSF) and 33.9°C and 5.38mg/(hg) under gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSSF), respectively, with the environmental temperature for fermentation of 30±1°C. The fermentation production (cellulase activity) ratios of the upper, middle, and lower levels were 1:0.90:0.78 at seventh day under SASSF and 1:0.95:0.89 at fifth day under GDSSF. Therefore, combined with NIRS analysis, gas double-dynamic could effectively strengthen the solid-state fermentation performance due to the enhancement of heat transfer, the stimulation of microbial metabolism and the increase of the homogeneity of fermentation products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation of Cu-Al alloy in cooling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Liao, Bo; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Shuqing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Ruijun

    2012-07-01

    The solid-state phase transformation temperature and duration of deep cryogenic treated and untreated Cu-Al alloys in cooling process were measured by differential scanning calorimetry measurement. The solid-state phase transformation activation energy and Avrami exponent were calculated according to these measurements. The effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation were investigated based on the measurement and calculation as well as the observation of alloy's microstructure. The results show that deep cryogenic treatment can increase the solid-phase transformation activation energy and shorten the phase transformation duration, which is helpful to the formation of fine grains in Cu-Al alloy.

  10. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  11. Solid State Self-Healing System: Effects of Using Immiscible Healing Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Nabilah Muhamad; Mohd Suzeren Mohd Jamil

    2015-01-01

    The solid state self-healing system was obtained by employs a thermosetting epoxy resin, into which a thermoplastic is dissolved. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using immiscible healing agents, which are polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl alcohol, on solid state self-healing system. Healing was achieved by heating the fractured resins to a specific temperature; above their glass transition temperature (Tg) which obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in order for thermal expansion to occur. The thermal properties and bonding formed in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Izod impact test was performed in preliminary work. Further work then has been done using compact tension test to demonstrate details self-healing capability of the different specimens. Under compact tension test, it was found that healable resin with PVC has highest healing efficiency followed PVA with 7.4 % and 3 % of average percentage healing efficiencies respectively. These results are due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/ network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. Morphological studies using microscope optic prove the fracture-healing process and morphological properties of the resins. (author)

  12. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  13. Effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell on its dye adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayang; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Hongyan; Hu, Changwei; Raymer, Paul; Huang, Qingguo

    2018-02-01

    The effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell to produce beneficial laccase and on its dye adsorption performance was evaluated. The resulting residues from solid fermentation were tested as sorbents (designated as SFs) in comparison to the raw peanut shell (RPS) for their ability to remove crystal violet from water. The fermentation process reduced the adsorption capacity (q m ) of SF by about 50%, and changed the sorptive behavior when compared to the RPS. The Langmuir model was more suitable for fitting adsorption by SFs. q m was positively correlated with the surface area of peanut shell, but negatively correlated with acid detergent lignin content. For all the sorbents tested, the process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the adsorption followed both the pseudo 1st and 2nd order kinetic model and the film diffusion model. Dye adsorption efficiency was greater when SFs dispersed solution than when placed in filter packets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coupling of the electrocaloric and electromechanical effects for solid-state refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradeško, A.; Juričić, Äń.; Santo Zarnik, M.; Malič, B.; Kutnjak, Z.; Rojac, T.

    2016-10-01

    Electrocaloric (EC) materials have shown the potential to replace some of the technologies in current commercial refrigeration systems. The key problem when fabricating an efficient EC refrigerator is the small adiabatic temperature change that current bulk materials can achieve. Therefore, such a solid-state EC refrigerator should be engineered to enhance the EC temperature change by rectifying the induced EC heat flow. Here, we present a numerical study of a device that couples the EC and electromechanical (EM) effects in a single active material. The device consists of several elements made from a functional material with coupled EC and EM properties, allowing the elements to bend and change their temperature with the application of an electric field. The periodic excitation of these elements results in a temperature span across the device. By assuming heat exchange with the environment and a low thermal contact resistivity between the elements, we show that a device with 15 elements and an EC effect of 1.2 K achieves a temperature span between the hot and cold sides of the device equal to 12.6 K. Since the temperature span can be controlled by the number of elements in the device, the results suggest that in combination with the so-called "giant" EC effect (ΔTEC ≥ 10 K), a very large temperature span would be possible. The results of this work should motivate the development of efficient EC refrigeration systems based on a coupling of the EC and EM effects.

  15. Effects of enzyme complex SSF (solid state fermentation in pellet diets for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Souza Moura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of enzyme complex SSF (solid state fermentation on growth performance and the availability of sucrose and monosaccharides in the chyme of Nile were involved. The study included 360 fish (70g±4.43 in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm of SSF arranged in six replicates, with 10 fish per replicate. Every 15 days, one tilapia of each experimental unit was sacrificed for analyses of carbohydrate in the chyme. On day 60 of the experiment, the performance parameters were measured. There was a linear effect according to treatment for final weight and weight gain. For the other performance parameters, there were no differences. There was quadratic effect for sucrose and glucose in function of the treatment, whereas the fructose levels increased linearly. The addition of 150 ppm of the enzyme complex SSF in the feed improves the performance of Nile tilapia and increases the availability of sucrose and monosaccharides in the chyme.

  16. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  17. Effects of Extract from Solid-State Fermented Cordyceps sinensis on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Kan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease in the world, and a wide range of drugs, including Chinese herbs, have been evaluated for the treatment of associated metabolic disorders. This study investigated the potential hypoglycemic and renoprotective effects of an extract from the solid-state fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We employed the KK/HIJ diabetic mouse model, in which the mice were provided with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce hyperglycemia, followed by the administration of CS or rosiglitazone for 4 consecutive weeks. Several parameters were evaluated, including changes in body weight, plasma lipid profiles, oral glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and plasma insulin concentrations. Our results show that the CS extract significantly elevated HDL/LDL ratios at 4 weeks and decreased body weight gain at 8 weeks. Interestingly, CS treatment did not lead to obvious improvements in hyperglycemia or resistance to insulin, while in vitro MTT assays indicated that CS protects pancreatic beta cells against the toxic effects of STZ. CS also enhanced renal NKA activity and reduced the accumulation of mesangial matrix and collagen deposition. In conclusion, CS extract can potentially preserve β-cell function and offer renoprotection, which may afford a promising therapy for DM.

  18. Determination of X-ray photoelectric absorption of Ge and Si avoiding solid-state effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar-Rodrigues, J.; Cusatis, C.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray linear attenuation coefficients of germanium and silicon were measured with precision between 0.1% and 0.3% for six characteristic wavelengths: copper, molybdenum and silver K lines. The linear photoelectric absorption coefficients were determined from the values of the measured attenuation coefficients by subtracting the calculated Compton and thermal diffuse scattering involved. It is shown that in order to compare calculated values of X-ray absorption coefficients based on the isolated atom assumption with experimental results obtained from solid samples it is necessary to take into consideration the solid-state effects. Before the measurements the sample's angular positions were scanned to search for Bragg scattering and the measurements of the transmitted intensities were done far from these angular positions. The measurements were performed in three samples of each element with different thickness and in different angular positions for each sample in order to check the consistency of the measured attenuation coefficients. Several instrumental and experimental details were considered in order to achieve the final asserted precision

  19. Solid-state drawing of β-nucleated polypropylene : effect of additives on drawability and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, B.J.; Jobse, P.; Hermida Merino, D.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Goossens, J.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Isotactic polypropylene can crystallize in different crystal modifications. In this paper, the effect of sepiolite (1D) and carbon black (3D) fillers on the solid-state drawability of i-PP is discussed. The cross-hatched structure of thermodynamically most stable a-crystal phase in isotactic i-PP

  20. Modelling of simultaneous effect of moisture and temperature on A. niger growth in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi-Esfahani, Z.; Shojaosadati, S.A.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a two factorial design of experiments was applied to study the simultaneous effect of temperature and moisture on A. niger growth in the solid-state fermentation (SSF). The increase of water content to more than 55% at the temperatures 35 and 40degreesC decreases microorganism

  1. Effect of glucosamine HCl on dissolution and solid state behaviours of piroxicam upon milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Edwards, Alison A; Douroumis, Dionysis; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Nayebi, Alireza Mohajjel; Reyhani-Rad, Siamak; Mahmoudi, Javad; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is characterised by low solubility and high permeability. In order to improve the drug dissolution rate, the co-grinding method was used as an approach to prepare piroxicam co-ground in the carriers such as glucosamine hydrochloride. As, this amino sugar (glucosamine HCl) has been shown to decrease pain and improve mobility in osteoarthritis in joints, therefore, the incorporation of glucosamine in piroxicam formulations would be expected to offer additional benefits to patients. The effect of the order of grinding on the dissolution of piroxicam was also investigated. Co-ground drug and glucosamine were prepared in different ratios using a ball mill. The samples were then subjected to different grinding times. In order to investigate the effect of the grinding process on the dissolution behaviour of piroxicam, the drug was ground separately in the absence of glucosamine. Mixtures of ground piroxicam and unground D-glucosamine HCl were prepared. Physical mixtures of piroxicam and glucosamine were also prepared for comparison. The properties of prepared co-ground systems and physical mixtures were studied using a dissolution tester, FTIR, SEM, XRPD and DSC. These results showed that the presence of glucosamine HCl can increase dissolution rate of piroxicam compared to pure piroxicam. Generally, all dissolution profiles showed the fastest dissolution rate when ground piroxicam was mixed with unground glucosamine. This was closely followed by the co-grinding of piroxicam with glucosamine where lower grinding times showed the fastest dissolution. The solid state studies showed that the grinding of piroxicam for longer times had no effect on polymorphic form of piroxicam, whereas mixtures of piroxicam-glucosamine ground for longer times (60 min) converted piroxicam polymorph II to polymorph I. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices.

  3. The effect of interfaces on solid-state reactions between oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.T.; Carter, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    A thin-film geometry has been used to study fundamental solid-state reaction processes occurring at interfaces in two spinel-forming oxide systems. In the first system, NiO/Al 2 O 3 , epitactic NiO films were deposited on various orientations of single-crystal α-Al 2 O 3 . In this case, the reaction kinetics were studied and correlated with the interfacial structure (or substrate orientation). In the second, In 2 O 3 /MgO, solid-state reactions were studied under the influence of an electric field. The electric field provides a driving force for mass transport that affects both the reaction process and the morphological stability of an interface

  4. Effect of Grinding on the Solid-State Stability and Particle Dissolution of Acyclovir Polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Federico; Gigliobianco, Maria Rosa; Vargas Peregrina, Dolores; Censi, Roberta; Di Martino, Piera

    2017-10-01

    The present work investigated the solid state change of 4 acyclovir polymorphs when ground at room temperature (Method A) and under cryo-grinding in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B). Modifications in particle size and shape (evaluated by scanning electron microscopy) and in the water content (evaluated by thermal analysis) were related to transitions at the solid state, as confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometry. Anhydrous Form I was stable under grinding by both Methods A and B. The anhydrous Form II was stable during grinding under Method A, whereas it was progressively converted to the hydrate Form V during grinding under Method B. The hydrate Form V was stable under Method A, whereas it was converted to the anhydrous Form I after 15 min and then to the hydrate Form VI after 45 min of grinding. The hydrate Form VI proved to be stable under grinding by both Methods A and B. Thus, Form I and VI were the only forms that yielded a sizeable decrease in particle size under grinding, with a consequent increase in particle dissolution rate, while maintaining solid state physicochemical stability. Form I treated under Method B grinding gave the best dissolution rate. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  6. Optimization of solid state fermentation of sugar cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Delgado, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba)); Espinosa, M.E. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    The protein enrichment of sugar cane by solid state fermentation employing Aspergillus niger was optimized in a packed bed column using a two Factor Central Composit Design {alpha} = 2, considering as independent factors the particle diameter corresponding to different times of grinding for a sample and the air flow rate. It was significative for the air flow rate (optimum 4.34 VKgM) and the particle diameter (optimum 0.136 cm). The average particle size distribution, shape factor, specific surface, volume-surface mean diameter, number of particles, real and apparent density and holloweness for the different times of grinding were determined, in order to characterize the samples. (orig.).

  7. Effects of sample preparation conditions on biomolecular solid-state NMR lineshapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakeman, David L.; Mitchell, Dan J.; Shuttleworth, Wendy A.; Evans, Jeremy N.S. [Washington State University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States)

    1998-10-15

    Sample preparation conditions with the 46 kDa enzyme complex of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and glyphosate (GLP) have been examined in an attempt to reduce linewidths in solid-state NMR spectra. The linewidths of {sup 13}P resonances associated with enzyme bound S3P and GLP in the lyophilized ternary complex have been reduced to 150 {+-} 12 Hz and 125 {+-} 7 Hz respectively, by a variety of methods involving additives and freezing techniques.

  8. Effects of gas periodic stimulation on key enzyme activity in gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-03-05

    The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme activity under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase activity, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase activity and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that gas periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase activity during gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase activity would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Solid-State Synthesis and Effect of Temperature on Optical Properties of CuO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.C.Vidyasagar; Y.Arthoba Naik; T.G.Venkatesha; R.Viswanatha

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of band energies through size control offers new ways to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The P-type semiconductor of copper oxide is an important functional material used for photovoltaic cells. Cu O is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbance and a low thermal emittance. The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconducting Cu O nanoparticles via one-step, solid-state reaction in the presence of Polyethylene glycol400 as size controlling agent for the preparation of Cu O nanoparticles at different temperatures. Solid-state mechanochemical processing, which is not only a physical size reduction process in conventional milling but also a chemical reaction, is mechanically activated at the nanoscale during grinding. The present method is a simple and efficient method of preparing nanoparticles with high yield at low cost. The structural and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. Optical properties and band gap of Cu O nanoparticles were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results showed that the band gap energy decreased with increase of annealing temperature, which can be attributed to the improvement in grain size of the samples.

  10. Long-lived and largely red-shifted photoluminescence of solid-state rhodamine dyes: Molecular exciton coupling and structural effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu; Zhang, Ya-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The optical absorption and fluorescence properties of five rhodamine dyes in solid-state are measured and show large difference from that in their gas phase or liquid solvents. All solid-state rhodamine dyes strongly absorb all light in UV and visible region, but emit only red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm, >100 nm red-shifted from that in solution). Further more, the absorption maxima of a solid-state rhodamine show a large red-shifted band (~100 nm) and blue-shifted peak (~125 nm) compared to that in solutions, indicating a strong molecular exciton coupling between molecules. All solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield (Φ f ). In particular, solid-state Rhodamine B butyl ester and sulfonyl Rhodamine B showed a much longer emission lifetime (τ f ) than that of the corresponding molecular rhodamine, i.e. 4.12 and 4.14 ns in solid state compared to 1.61 and 2.47 ns in solution. The chemical structure of a rhodamine molecule showed dramatic effect on Φ f and τ f values for solid state rhodamine. The larger substituent in the benzene moiety favors higher Φ f and τ f values of rhodamine solids. These effects can be elucidated by the relation between structure-molecular distance and molecular exciton couplings. - Highlights: • Optical properties of solid rhodamines show large difference from that in solutions. • Solid-state rhodamine dyes emit red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm). • Solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield. • Solid-state rhodamines have much longer fluorescence lifetimes than that in solutions

  11. Long-lived and largely red-shifted photoluminescence of solid-state rhodamine dyes: Molecular exciton coupling and structural effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu, E-mail: zhangxianfu@tsinghua.org.cn [Institute of Applied Photochemistry & Center of Analysis and Measurements, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China); MPC Technologies, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 3H4 (Canada); Zhang, Ya-Kui [Institute of Applied Photochemistry & Center of Analysis and Measurements, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-10-15

    The optical absorption and fluorescence properties of five rhodamine dyes in solid-state are measured and show large difference from that in their gas phase or liquid solvents. All solid-state rhodamine dyes strongly absorb all light in UV and visible region, but emit only red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm, >100 nm red-shifted from that in solution). Further more, the absorption maxima of a solid-state rhodamine show a large red-shifted band (~100 nm) and blue-shifted peak (~125 nm) compared to that in solutions, indicating a strong molecular exciton coupling between molecules. All solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield (Φ{sub f}). In particular, solid-state Rhodamine B butyl ester and sulfonyl Rhodamine B showed a much longer emission lifetime (τ{sub f}) than that of the corresponding molecular rhodamine, i.e. 4.12 and 4.14 ns in solid state compared to 1.61 and 2.47 ns in solution. The chemical structure of a rhodamine molecule showed dramatic effect on Φ{sub f} and τ{sub f} values for solid state rhodamine. The larger substituent in the benzene moiety favors higher Φ{sub f} and τ{sub f} values of rhodamine solids. These effects can be elucidated by the relation between structure-molecular distance and molecular exciton couplings. - Highlights: • Optical properties of solid rhodamines show large difference from that in solutions. • Solid-state rhodamine dyes emit red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm). • Solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield. • Solid-state rhodamines have much longer fluorescence lifetimes than that in solutions.

  12. Effect of Periodic Water Addition on Citric Acid Production in Solid State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utpat, Shraddha S.; Kinnige, Pallavi T.; Dhamole, Pradip B.

    2013-09-01

    Water addition is one of the methods used to control the moisture loss in solid state fermentation (SSF). However, none of the studies report the timing of water addition and amount of water to be added in SSF. Therefore, this work was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the performance of periodic water addition on citric acid production in SSF. Experiments were conducted at different moistures (50-80 %) and temperatures (30-40 °C) to simulate the conditions in a fermenter. Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger (ATCC 9029) using sugarcane baggase was chosen as a model system. Based on the moisture profile, citric acid and sugar data, a strategy was designed for periodic addition of water. Water addition at 48, 96, 144 and 192 h enhanced the citric acid production by 62 % whereas water addition at 72, 120, and 168 h increased the citric acid production by just 17 %.

  13. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  14. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  15. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  16. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  17. Solid-state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayers: The effect of alloying on morphology evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, A.; Wang, D.; Kups, Th.; Schaaf, P.

    2014-01-01

    The solid-state dewetting of thin Au/Ni bilayers deposited onto SiO 2 /Si substrates is investigated. A rapid thermal treatment is used to induce the dewetting process by an increase in temperature. The evolution of the (111) peaks of X-ray diffraction reveals a characteristic change due to mixing of Au and Ni. At low temperature, the Au-Ni thin film is found to break up at the phase boundaries and growing voids are shown to be surrounded by a Ni-rich phase. Branch-like void growth is observed. Upon annealing at increasing temperatures, Au-Ni solid solutions are formed well above the bulk equilibrium solubility of Au and Ni. It is found that this metastable phase formation makes the Au-Ni thin film less vulnerable to rupturing. Moreover, growth mode of still evolving voids changes into a more regular, faceted one due to alloying. Finally, it is shown that annealing above the miscibility gap forms supersaturated, well-oriented Au-Ni solid solution agglomerates via dewetting.

  18. Solid-state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayers: The effect of alloying on morphology evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, A.; Wang, D., E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Kups, Th.; Schaaf, P. [Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electronics and Electrical Engineering, TU Ilmenau, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany)

    2014-07-28

    The solid-state dewetting of thin Au/Ni bilayers deposited onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates is investigated. A rapid thermal treatment is used to induce the dewetting process by an increase in temperature. The evolution of the (111) peaks of X-ray diffraction reveals a characteristic change due to mixing of Au and Ni. At low temperature, the Au-Ni thin film is found to break up at the phase boundaries and growing voids are shown to be surrounded by a Ni-rich phase. Branch-like void growth is observed. Upon annealing at increasing temperatures, Au-Ni solid solutions are formed well above the bulk equilibrium solubility of Au and Ni. It is found that this metastable phase formation makes the Au-Ni thin film less vulnerable to rupturing. Moreover, growth mode of still evolving voids changes into a more regular, faceted one due to alloying. Finally, it is shown that annealing above the miscibility gap forms supersaturated, well-oriented Au-Ni solid solution agglomerates via dewetting.

  19. Effect of submerged and solid-state fermentation on pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Zhiqiang; Dai, Bing; Zhang, Wenxue; Yuan, Yongjun

    2013-09-01

    Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.

  20. Effects of surfactants on microwave-assisted solid-state intercalation of poly(carbazole) in Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Ufana; Ashraf, S. M.; Khan, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    The present preliminary investigation reports, for the first time, the effects of typical cationic and anionic surfactants on the microwave-assisted solid-state intercalation and polymerization of carbazole (Cz) in the basal spacings of Bentonite. The intercalation of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPCl), a cationic surfactant, and naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA), an anionic surfactant, in Bentonite was carried out at two loadings—25 and 50 wt%—using microwave irradiation. The in situ polymerization of Cz was successfully carried out into the surfactant-modified galleries of Bentonite. This was confirmed by Gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The intercalation of poly(carbazole) (PCz) was confirmed by FT-IR, UV–Visible, and XRD analyses. Although polymerization was carried out in the solid-state, the UV–Visible spectra revealed the doped state of PCz and the presence of a charge carrier tail. The XRD studies showed that the increase in the height of the galleries was higher in case of Bentonite/CPCl/PCz nanocomposites as compared to Bentonite/NSA/PCz nanocomposites. It also revealed different orientations of the two surfactants in the galleries of the clay. The average particle size of Bentonite/CPCl/PCz (1:0.25:0.25) and (1:0.5:0.5) nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 25–35 and 50–60 nm, respectively. The Bentonite/NSA/PCz (1:0.25:0.25) and (1:0.5:0.5) nanocomposites showed the average particle size in the range of 20–30 nm and 40–50 nm, respectively. The results revealed that both cationic and anionic surfactants strongly influenced the morphology of Bentonite/PCz nanocomposites. The difference in the mechanisms of solid-state intercalation of PCz in the presence of these surfactants has been proposed.

  1. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  2. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar; Brennan, Thomas P.; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Ding, I-Kang; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2011-02-22

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. The effect of using solid-state fermented peeled and unpeeled cassava root tubers and limiting amino acid supplementation on metabolisable energy for meat-type cockerels

    OpenAIRE

    Oso, A.O.; Li, L; Zhang, B.; Liu, H.; Li, F; Osho, S.O.; Olayemi, W.A.; Pirgozliev, V.

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary in-vitro solid-state fermentation of peeled (PCRM) and unpeeled cassava root tuber meal (UCRM) using Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, was conducted, followed by a force-feeding experiment to investigate the effects of a diet of solid state fermented peeled (PCRM) and unpeeled (UPCRM) cassava root, supplemented with limiting amino acid, on metabolizable energy (ME) for meat-type cockerels. Forty eight, 84 d-old meat-type cockerels (Ross 308) were assigned to 8 treatments consisting...

  5. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  6. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  7. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  8. Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing on the Surface Roughness of Solid State Recycled Aluminum Alloy 6061 Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state recycling through hot extrusion is a promising technique to recycle machining chips without remelting. Furthermore, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP technique coupled with the extruded recycled billet is introduced to enhance the mechanical properties of recycled samples. In this paper, the surface roughness of solid state recycled aluminum alloy 6061 turning chips was investigated. Aluminum chips were cold compacted and hot extruded under an extrusion ratio (ER of 5.2 at an extrusion temperature (ET of 425°C. In order to improve the properties of the extruded samples, they were subjected to ECAP up to three passes at room temperature using an ECAP die with a channel die angle (Φ of 90°. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz of the processed recycled billets machined by turning was investigated. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the surface roughness of the machined specimens for four materials conditions, namely, extruded billet and postextrusion ECAP processed billets to one, two, and three passes. Quadratic models were developed to relate the machining parameters to surface roughness, and a multiobjective optimization scheme was conducted to maximize material removal rate while maintaining the roughness below a preset practical value.

  9. Enhanced solid-state order and field-effect hole mobility through control of nanoscale polymer aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.

    2013-12-26

    Efficient charge carrier transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) often requires thin films that display long-range order and close π-π packing that is oriented in-plane with the substrate. Although some polymers have achieved high field-effect mobility with such solid-state properties, there are currently few general strategies for controlling the orientation of π-stacking within polymer films. In order to probe structural effects on polymer-packing alignment, furan-containing diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) polymers with similar optoelectronic properties were synthesized with either linear hexadecyl or branched 2-butyloctyl side chains. Differences in polymer solubility were observed and attributed to variation in side-chain shape and polymer backbone curvature. Averaged field-effect hole mobilities of the polymers range from 0.19 to 1.82 cm2/V·s, where PDPP3F-C16 is the least soluble polymer and provides the highest maximum mobility of 2.25 cm2/V·s. Analysis of the films by AFM and GIXD reveal that less soluble polymers with linear side chains exhibit larger crystalline domains, pack considerably more closely, and align with a greater preference for in-plane π-π packing. Characterization of the polymer solutions prior to spin-coating shows a correlation between early onset nanoscale aggregation and the formation of films with highly oriented in-plane π-stacking. This effect is further observed when nonsolvent is added to PDPP3F-BO solutions to induce aggregation, which results in films with increased nanostructural order, in-plane π-π orientation, and field-effect hole mobilities. Since nearly all π-conjugated materials may be coaxed to aggregate, this strategy for enhancing solid-state properties and OFET performance has applicability to a wide variety of organic electronic materials. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Enhanced solid-state order and field-effect hole mobility through control of nanoscale polymer aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.; Lee, Olivia P.; Niskala, Jeremy R.; Yiu, Alan T.; Tassone, Christopher J.; Schmidt, Kristin; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Onishi, Seita S.; Toney, Michael F.; Zettl, Alex K.; Frechet, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Efficient charge carrier transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) often requires thin films that display long-range order and close π-π packing that is oriented in-plane with the substrate. Although some polymers have achieved high field-effect mobility with such solid-state properties, there are currently few general strategies for controlling the orientation of π-stacking within polymer films. In order to probe structural effects on polymer-packing alignment, furan-containing diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) polymers with similar optoelectronic properties were synthesized with either linear hexadecyl or branched 2-butyloctyl side chains. Differences in polymer solubility were observed and attributed to variation in side-chain shape and polymer backbone curvature. Averaged field-effect hole mobilities of the polymers range from 0.19 to 1.82 cm2/V·s, where PDPP3F-C16 is the least soluble polymer and provides the highest maximum mobility of 2.25 cm2/V·s. Analysis of the films by AFM and GIXD reveal that less soluble polymers with linear side chains exhibit larger crystalline domains, pack considerably more closely, and align with a greater preference for in-plane π-π packing. Characterization of the polymer solutions prior to spin-coating shows a correlation between early onset nanoscale aggregation and the formation of films with highly oriented in-plane π-stacking. This effect is further observed when nonsolvent is added to PDPP3F-BO solutions to induce aggregation, which results in films with increased nanostructural order, in-plane π-π orientation, and field-effect hole mobilities. Since nearly all π-conjugated materials may be coaxed to aggregate, this strategy for enhancing solid-state properties and OFET performance has applicability to a wide variety of organic electronic materials. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  12. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  13. New solid-state effects used in neutron detection and dosimetry. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Hahn, G.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of radiation effects on solids and their usability for personnel neutron dosimetry. Part 1 covers mechanical effects on the crystal lattice of solids (dislocations in copper foils and changes in the bulk modulus, unclear effects in quartz connected with changes in the oscillation frequency), thermal effects of metals embedded in type I superconductors (superheated colloid detectors) or other materials (superheated drop detectors)

  14. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Grä tzel, Carole; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Rossier-Iten, Nathalie; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grä tzel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents

  15. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  16. Polarization reversal of proton spins in solid-state targets by superradiance effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichertz, L.A.

    1991-02-01

    Scattering experiments with polarized targets are prepared at the Bonn accelerator ELSA. The new Bonn frozen spin target (BOFROST) developed for real photon experiments at the PHOENICS detector has been tested in the laboratory. Proton polarization values of -99% and +94% in ammonia, -96% and +90% in butanol have been achieved at a magnetic field of 3.5 Tesla. At a temperature of 70 mK and a magnetic field of 0.35 Tesla a very fast spontaneous polarization reversal has been observed. This effect occured at negative polarization only and has been identified as a self-induced superradiance effect in the proton spin system. This work describes the polarization and relaxation measurements at BOFROST and detailed experiments concerning the superradiance effect. (orig.) [de

  17. Modeling of soft impingement effect during solid-state partitioning phase transformations in binary alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2010-01-01

    The soft impingement effect at the later stage of partitioning phase transformations has been modeled both for the diffusion-controlled growth model and for the mixed-mode model. Instead of the linear and exponential approximations for the concentration gradient in front of the interface used in the

  18. Solid state effects on the electronic structure of H2OEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, M; Umari, P; Di Santo, G; Caputo, M; Panighel, M; Goldoni, A; Kumar, M; Pedio, M

    2014-12-28

    We present the results of a joint experimental and theoretical investigation concerning the effect of crystal packing on the electronic properties of the H2OEP molecule. Thin films, deposited in ultra high vacuum on metal surfaces, are investigated by combining valence band photoemission, inverse photoemission, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The spectra of the films are compared, when possible, with those measured in the gas phase. Once many-body effects are included in the calculations through the GW method, the electronic structure of H2OEP in the film and gas phase are accurately reproduced for both valence and conduction states. Upon going from an isolated molecule to the film phase, the electronic gap shrinks significantly and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and LUMO + 1 degeneracy is removed. The calculations show that the reduction of the transport gap in the film is entirely addressable to the enhancement of the electronic screening.

  19. Alloying effects on superionic conductivity in lithium indium halides for all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevgolis, Alysia; Wood, Brandon C.; Mehmedović, Zerina; Hall, Alex T.; Alves, Thomaz C.; Adelstein, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    Alloying of anions is a promising engineering strategy for tuning ionic conductivity in halide-based inorganic solid electrolytes. We explain the alloying effects in Li3InBr6-xClx, in terms of strain, chemistry, and microstructure, using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure analysis. We find that strain and bond chemistry can be tuned through alloying and affect the activation energy and maximum diffusivity coefficient. The similar conductivities of the x = 3 and x = 6 compositions can be understood by assuming that the alloy separates into Br-rich and Cl-rich regions. Phase-separation increases diffusivity at the interface and in the expanded Cl-region, suggesting microstructure effects are critical. Similarities with other halide superionic conductors are highlighted.

  20. Effect of precursors on the solid-state synthesis of semiconducting PbS nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kasabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we report facile and economical in-situ preparation of lead sulphide (PbS nanorods and nanocubes within the Polyphenylene sulphide (PPS matrix. PPS plays a dual role in the synthesis of the resultant nanostructures as - (i a chalcogen source and (ii a stabilizing matrix. We studied the effect of change of lead precursor from lead nitrate to acetate on the morphological properties of the resultant nanostructures. The effect of molar ratios of the reactants (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15 and 1:20 on the morphology of the products was also studied. The resultant nanocomposites were characterized by various physico-chemical techniques like X-ray Diffractometry (XRD, SEM equipped with EDAX, TEM and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The prima-facie observations suggest effective formation and subsequent entrapment of lead sulphide nanorods and nanocubes, respectively, when lead acetate and lead nitrate precursors were used. Additionally, simultaneous occurrence of nanocrystalline cubic lead as an impurity phase is noticed in case of heated admixtures for both the precursors.

  1. Improving the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of Illigera henryi by solid-state fermentation with Clonostachys rogersoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Jiao; Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Mei, Rui-Feng; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2017-11-01

    Illigera henryi, an endemic traditional Chinese medicine, contains abundant aporphine alkaloids that possess various bioactivities. In the present study, tubers of I. henryi were fermented by several fungi, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of non-fermented and fermented I. henryi were measured. The results showed that the fermentation of I. henryi with Clonostachys rogersoniana 828H2 is effective for improving the AChE inhibitory activity. A key biotransformation was found during the C. rogersoniana fermentation for clarifying the improvement of the AChE inhibitory activity of I. henryi: (S)-actinodaphnine (1) was converted to a new 4-hydroxyaporphine alkaloid (4R,6aS)-4-hydroxyactinodaphnine (2) that possessed a stronger AChE inhibitory activity, with an IC 50 value of 17.66±0.06 μM. This paper is the first to report that the pure strain fermentation processing of I. henryi and indicated C. rogersoniana fermentation might be a potential processing method for I. henryi. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of ionizing radiation on Plantago ovata (Ispaghula husk) in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assaf, S.; Parsons, B.J.; Phillips, G.O.

    2005-01-01

    Herbal medicine derived from natural raw materials is widely used in pharmaceutical preparations. Our study concerns the radiation decontamination of ispaghula husk (IH). Due to the high polysaccharide content of IH, it gels over wide range of concentrations. During the course of IH intake by patients, it experiences different degradation conditions such as acidic, alkaline and colonic microflora. Our study was designed to mimic this behaviour by carrying out controlled degradation steps using ionizing radiation and to study the effects on the molecular weight distribution in different solvents. Gel permeation chromatography coupled on line to a multi angle laser light detector (GPC-MALLS) was used in this study. We have shown that the water-soluble extract of the IH was increased from 21% to 47% with increasing degradation of the molecular structure whereas the alkaline solubility increased from 60 to 80%). The weight average molecular weight of the soluble control polysaccharide was higher in the water extract (2.3x106) than the material extracted in alkali (1.6x106), but following degradation as a results of irradiation, the material extracted into the two systems showed similar molecular weight profiles (author)

  3. Effective dispersion and crosslinking in PVA/cellulose fiber biocomposites via solid-state mechanochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang; He, Xu; Zhao, Jiangqi; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2015-01-01

    A mechanochemical approach to improve the dispersion and the degree of crosslinking between cellulose fiber and polymer matrix is presented herein to create high performance poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/cellulose biocomposites in a solvent-free and catalyst-free system. During a pan-milling process, the hydrogen bonds in both cellulose and PVA were effectively broken up, and the released hydroxyl groups could react with succinic anhydride (SA) to form covalent bonds between the two components. This stress-induced chemical reaction was verified by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reaction kinetics was discussed according to the conversion rate of SA during the pan-milling process. Soxhlet extraction with hot water showed that the crosslinked PVA/cellulose retained more PVA in the composites due to the homogeneous and heterogeneous crosslinking. Scanning electron microscope images indicated the dispersion and interfacial interactions between PVA and cellulose were largely improved. The resulting composites exhibited remarkably enhanced mechanical properties. The tensile strength increased from 8.8 MPa (without mechanochemical treatment) to 18.2 MPa, and elongation at break increased from 76.8 to 361.7% after the treatment. Their thermal stability was also significantly improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the solid state full length rod control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopsky, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Full Length Rod Control System (FLRCS) controls the power to the rod drive mechanisms for rod movement in response to signals received from the Reactor Control System or from signals generated through Reactor Operator action. Rod movement is used to control reactivity of the reactor during plant operation. The Full Length Rod Control System is designed to perform its reactivity control function in conjunction with the Reactor Control and Protection System, to maintain the reactor core within design safety limits. By the use of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the FLRCS will perform its reactivity control functions considering the loss of single active components. That is, sufficient fault limiting control circuits are provided which blocks control rod movement and/or indicates presence of a fault condition at the Control Board. Reactor operator action or automatic reactor trip will thus mitigate the consequences of potential failure of the FLRCS. The analysis also qualitatively demonstrates the reliability of the FLRCS to perform its intended function

  5. Solid state properties of oligomers containing dithienothiophene or fluorene residues suitable for field effect transistor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porzio, William; Destri, Silvia; Giovanella, Umberto; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Marin, Luminita; Iosip, Mariana Dana; Campione, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    A series of three thiophene based oligomers has been extensively characterized. The chemical design has been addressed to obtain ionization potential (IP) and electronic affinity (EA) values matching the work function of commonly used electrode materials. Such IP and EA values were tested by cyclovoltammetry. In order to tune electron-donation and drawing strength the sequence of the molecule subunits in the oligomer has been varied. The thermal properties with particular reference to their stability during preparation and operation were checked by using differential scanning calorimetry, polarised light microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Prototypes of thin film field effect transistor, based on this series of oligomers have been electrically and structurally characterized. The long axes of the molecules are oriented nearly perpendicular to the gate insulator, in agreement with both highly sensitive X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. From powder diffraction data the structure of oligomer I was solved. A general relation is envisaged between charge mobility and packing closeness in the series. For the most promising molecule a study of mobility/temperature behaviour was performed yielding interesting results

  6. Solid-state effects on thermal-neutron cross sections and on low-energy resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.A.; Mook, H.A.; Hill, N.W.; Shahal, O.

    1982-01-01

    The neutron total cross sections of several single crystals (Si, Cu, sapphire), several polycrystalline samples (Cu, Fe, Be, C, Bi, Ta), and a fine-powder copper sample have been measured from 0.002 to 5 eV. The Cu powder and polycrystalline Fe, Be and C data exhibit the expected abrupt changes in cross section. The cross section of the single crystal of Si is smooth with only small broad fluctuations. The data on two single Cu crystals, the sapphire crystal, cast Bi, and rolled samples of Ta and Cu have many narrow peaks approx. 10 -3 eV wide. High resolution (0.3%) transmission measurements were made on the 1.057-eV resonance in 240 Pu and the 0.433-eV resonance in 180 Ta, both at room and low temperatures to study the effects of crystal binding. Although the changes in Doppler broadening with temperature were apparent, no asymmetries due to a recoilless contribution were observed

  7. Effects of QD surface coverage in solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.; Brennan, Thomas P.; Trejo, Orlando; Xu, John; Prinz, Fritz B.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2013-01-01

    Lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ on nanoporous TiO 2 by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and by atomic layer deposition (ALD), to fabricate solid-state quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). With the ultimate goal of increasing QD surface coverage, this work compares the impact of these two synthetic routes on the light absorption and electrical properties of devices. A higher current density was observed in the SILAR-grown QD devices under reverse bias, as compared to ALD-grown QD devices, attributed to injection problems of the lower-band-gap QDs present in the SILAR-grown QD device. To understand the effects of QD surface coverage on device performance, particularly interfacial recombination, electron lifetimes were measured for varying QD deposition cycles. Electron lifetimes were found to decrease with increasing SILAR cycles, indicating that the expected decrease in recombination between electrons in the TiO2 and holes in the hole-transport material, due to increased QD surface coverage, is not the dominant effect of increased deposition cycles. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Effects of QD surface coverage in solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2013-06-01

    Lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) were grown in situ on nanoporous TiO 2 by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and by atomic layer deposition (ALD), to fabricate solid-state quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). With the ultimate goal of increasing QD surface coverage, this work compares the impact of these two synthetic routes on the light absorption and electrical properties of devices. A higher current density was observed in the SILAR-grown QD devices under reverse bias, as compared to ALD-grown QD devices, attributed to injection problems of the lower-band-gap QDs present in the SILAR-grown QD device. To understand the effects of QD surface coverage on device performance, particularly interfacial recombination, electron lifetimes were measured for varying QD deposition cycles. Electron lifetimes were found to decrease with increasing SILAR cycles, indicating that the expected decrease in recombination between electrons in the TiO2 and holes in the hole-transport material, due to increased QD surface coverage, is not the dominant effect of increased deposition cycles. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Dynamic effect of total solid content, low substrate/inoculum ratio and particle size on solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Escudié, R; Bernet, N; Delgenes, J-P; Steyer, J-P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Among all the process parameters of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), total solid content (TS), inoculation (S/X ratio) and size of the organic solid particles can be optimized to improve methane yield and process stability. To evaluate the effects of each parameter and their interactions on methane production, a three level Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented in SS-AD batch tests degrading wheat straw by adjusting: TS content from 15% to 25%, S/X ratio (in volatile solids) between 28 and 47 and particle size with a mean diameter ranging from 0.1 to 1.4mm. A dynamic analysis of the methane production indicates that the S/X ratio has only an effect during the start-up phase of the SS-AD. During the growing phase, TS content becomes the main parameter governing the methane production and its strong interaction with the particle size suggests the important role of water compartmentation on SS-AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushal Brijwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics—crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  11. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Khushal; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics-crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU)/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  12. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  13. Semi-solid state fermentation of bagasse for hydrogen production; the cost-effective approach in Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-solid state fermentation route of hydrogen production from agro-waste sugar cane bagasse was tried using the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas (BHU strain-1) and the non-photosynthetic Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC2822. The process seems an alternative to submerged fermentation that requires high volumes of nutrient broth. Bagasse (10 g) pre-hydrolyzed with NaOH (2%, w/v) was coated with Ca-alginate (1.5%, v/v) containing Rhodopseudomonas and E. aerogenes in the co-immobilized state (300 μg bacterial biomass ml -1 ). The fermenting medium was just 150 ml to sustain the moistened bagasse in a 0.5 L fermenter kept in light. A parallel set of free bacterial cells served as control. Hydrogen production by the immobilized sets reached 30 L within 60 h with the average rate of 0.177 L H 2 h -1 . For free cells, the values for hydrogen output (20 L) or the rate 0.1125 L H 2 h -1 were approximately 1.5-fold low. It is proposed that semi-solid fermentation route of hydrogen production from bagasse will be a cost-effective technology in countries generating this agro-waste. (authors)

  14. Surface Design in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Effects of Zwitterionic Co-adsorbents on Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-07-10

    In solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) charge recombination at the dye-hole transporting material interface plays a critical role in the cell efficiency. For the first time we report on the influence of dipolar coadsorbents on the photovoltaic performance of sensitized hetero-junction solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of two zwitterionic butyric acid derivatives differing only in the polar moiety attached to their common 4 carbon-chain acid, i.e., 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GBA) and 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). These two molecules were implemented as coadsorbents in conjunction with Z907Na dye on the SSDSC. It was found that a Z907Na/GBA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density ( Jsc) as compared to using Z907Na dye alone. The Z907Na/ABA dye/co-adsorbent combination increases the Jsc. Impedance and transient photovoltage investigations elucidate the cause of these remarkable observations. ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Semi-solid state fermentation of bagasse for hydrogen production; the cost-effective approach in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P. [Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, (India)

    2006-07-01

    Semi-solid state fermentation route of hydrogen production from agro-waste sugar cane bagasse was tried using the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas (BHU strain-1) and the non-photosynthetic Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC2822. The process seems an alternative to submerged fermentation that requires high volumes of nutrient broth. Bagasse (10 g) pre-hydrolyzed with NaOH (2%, w/v) was coated with Ca-alginate (1.5%, v/v) containing Rhodopseudomonas and E. aerogenes in the co-immobilized state (300 {mu}g bacterial biomass ml{sup -1}). The fermenting medium was just 150 ml to sustain the moistened bagasse in a 0.5 L fermenter kept in light. A parallel set of free bacterial cells served as control. Hydrogen production by the immobilized sets reached 30 L within 60 h with the average rate of 0.177 L H{sub 2} h{sup -1}. For free cells, the values for hydrogen output (20 L) or the rate 0.1125 L H{sub 2} h{sup -1} were approximately 1.5-fold low. It is proposed that semi-solid fermentation route of hydrogen production from bagasse will be a cost-effective technology in countries generating this agro-waste. (authors)

  16. Solid state self-healing system: Effects of using PDGEBA, PVC and PVA as linear healing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Noor Nabilah; Jamil, Mohd. Suzeren Md.; Abdullah, Shahrum

    2014-09-01

    The solid state self-healing system was obtained by employing a thermosetting epoxy resin, into which a thermoplastic is dissolved. In this study, the effect of healing efficiency was investigated by using different thermoplastic polymers which are poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin), polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl alcohol as healing agents. Healing was achieved by heating the fractured resins to a specific temperature i.e. above their glass transition temperature (Tg) which obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to mobilize the polymeric chains of the healing agent. The curing reaction in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Izod impact test was been performed to demonstrate self-healing of the different specimens. Under test, it was found that healable resin with PDGEBA has highest healing efficiency followed by PVC and PVA, with 63%, 35% and 18% of average percentage healing efficiencies respectively. These results are due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. Morphological studies prove the fracture-healing process and morphological properties of the resins.

  17. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melas-Kyriazi, John

    2011-04-05

    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9\\'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melas-Kyriazi, John; Ding, I-Kang; Marchioro, Arianna; Punzi, Angela; Hardin, Brian E.; Burkhard, George F.; Té treault, Nicolas; Grä tzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the effect of hole transport material (HTM) pore filling on the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) and the specific mechanisms involved is reported. It is demonstrated that the efficiency and photovoltaic characteristics of ss-DSCs improve with the pore filling fraction (PFF) of the HTM, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)9,9'-spirobifluorene(spiro-OMeTAD). The mechanisms through which the improvement of photovoltaic characteristics takes place were studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. It is shown that as the spiro-OMeTAD PFF is increased from 26% to 65%, there is a higher hole injection efficiency from dye cations to spiro-OMeTAD because more dye molecules are covered with spiro-OMeTAD, an order-of-magnitude slower recombination rate because holes can diffuse further away from the dye/HTM interface, and a 50% higher ambipolar diffusion coefficient due to an improved percolation network. Device simulations predict that if 100% PFF could be achieved for thicker devices, the efficiency of ss-DSCs using a conventional rutheniumdye would increase by 25% beyond its current value. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  20. The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a sawdust-bedded pack barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a Korean sawdust-bedded pack barn was determined using laboratory-scale digesters operated at three moisture levels (70, 76, and 83% on a wet basis) at 37 C for 85 days. Results showed that digesters containing m...

  1. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  2. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  3. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  4. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  5. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  6. Solid state solvation effect and reduced amplified spontaneous emission threshold value of glass forming DCM derivative in PMMA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vembris, Aivars, E-mail: aivars.vembris@cfi.lu.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV 1063 (Latvia); Zarins, Elmars; Kokars, Valdis [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, 14/24 Azenes Street, Riga LV 1048 (Latvia)

    2015-02-15

    Molecule crystallization is one of the limitations for obtaining high-gain organic laser systems. One of the examples is well known red laser dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). The lowest threshold value of amplified spontaneous emission was achieved by doping 2 wt% of DCM molecule in tris-(8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) matrix. Further increase of the DCM dye concentration makes the system less efficient as its threshold value increases. It is due to large intermolecular interaction, which induces photoluminescence quenching. Compounds with reduced intermolecular interaction could be prospective in organic laser systems due to higher possible doping. In this work photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of modified DCM molecule in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix were investigated. Bulky trityloxyethyl groups were attached to the donor part of DCM. These groups increase intermolecular distance wherewith reduce photoluminescence quenching. More than one order of magnitude lower excitation threshold energy of the amplified spontaneous emission was achieved in doped polymer films with investigated compound in comparison to doped polymer with DCM. It means that the investigated compound is more perspective as a laser material compared to the previously studied. In addition, amplified spontaneous emission maximum could be tuned within 15 nm by changing concentration from 0.1 wt% to 10 wt% DWK-1 in PMMA matrix due to solid state solvation effect. - Highlights: • Bulky groups attached to DCM dye reduce photoluminescence quenching. • Amplified spontaneous emission is in red spectral region. • Amplified spontaneous emission spectra were tuned by 15 nm. • Amplified spontaneous emission threshold value was reduced by one order of magnitude.

  7. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  8. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  9. Thermal solid-state Z/E isomerization of 2-alkylidene-4-oxothiazolidines: effects of non-covalent interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZDRAVKO DŽAMBASKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Configurational isomerization of stereo-defined 5-substituted and unsubstituted 2-alkylidene-4-oxothiazolidines (1 in the solid state, giving the Z/E mixtures in various ratios, was investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray powder crystallography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The Z/E composition can be rationalized in terms of non-covalent interactions, involving intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding and directional non-bonded 1,5-type S×××O interactions. X-Ray powder crystallography, using selected crystalline (Z-4-oxothiazolidine substrates, revealed transformation to the amorphous state during the irreversible Z®E process. A correlation between previous results on the Z/E isomerization in solution and now in the solid state was established.

  10. Structural Investigations of Portland Cement Components, Hydration, and Effects of Admixtures by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen Bengaard; Andersen, Morten D.; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    for the C-S-H phase formed during hydration. It will be demonstrated that Al3+ and flouride guest-ions in the anhydrous and hydrated calcium silicates can be studied in detail by 27Al and 19F MAS NMR, thereby providing information on the local structure and the mechanisms for incorporation of these ions......Solid-state, magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy represents a valuable tool for structural investigations on the nanoscale of the most important phases in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements and of various admixtures. This is primarily due to the fact that the method reflects the first......- and second-coordination spheres of the spin nucleus under investigation while it is less sensitive to long-range order. Thus, crystalline as well as amorphous phases can be detected in a quantitative manner by solid-state NMR. In particular the structure of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase have...

  11. Effect of argon implantation on solid-state dewetting: control of size and surface density of silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadori, Y; Borowik, Ł; Chevalier, N; Barbé, J-C

    2017-01-27

    Thermally induced solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin films on insulators is a process of prime interest, since it is capable of easily forming nanocrystals. If no particular treatment is performed to the film prior to the solid-state dewetting, it is already known that the size, the shape and the density of nanocrystals is governed by the initial film thickness. In this paper, we report a novel approach to control the size and the surface density of silicon nanocrystals based on an argon-implantation preliminary surface treatment. Using 7.5 nm thin layers of silicon, we show that increasing the implantation dose tends to form smaller silicon nanocrystals with diameter and height lower than 50 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Concomitantly, the surface density is increased by a factor greater than 20, going from 5 μm -2 to values over 100 μm -2 .

  12. Effect of cultural conditions on antrodin C production by basidiomycete Antrodia camphorata in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongjun; Wang, Yuanlong; Zhang, Bobo; Xu, Ganrong; Ai, Lianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a medicinal fungus and antrodin C is one of the main bioactive components of A. camphorata in the submerged fermentation (SmF). To optimize the culture conditions, the factors influencing the production of antrodin C by A. camphorata under solid-state fermentation (SSF) were investigated in this study. Different solid substrates and external nitrogen sources were tested for their efficiency in producing antrodin C. The response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the influence of several variables, namely, the concentrations of soybean meal, initial moisture content, and inoculum density on antrodin C production in solid-state fermentation. The experimental results show that the optimum fermentation medium for antrodin C production by A. camphorata was composed of 0.578 g soybean meal, 0.05 g Na2 HPO4 , 0.05 g MgSO4 for 100 g rice, with 51.83% initial moisture content, 22 day culture time, 28 °C culture temperature, and 35.54% inoculum density. At optimized conditions, 6,617.36 ± 92.71 mg kg(-1) yield of antrodin C was achieved. Solid-state fermentation is one good cultural method to improve the production of antrodin C by A. camphorata. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  14. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  15. Determination of the effects of initial glucose on the production of ?-amylase from Penicillium sp. under solid-state and submerged fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ertan (?nceo?lu), Figen; Balkan, Bilal; Yark?n, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of catabolite repression of initial glucose on the synthesis of ?-amylase from Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium griseofulvum were investigated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) systems. The results obtained from either fermentation were compared with each other. In the SmF system, initial glucose concentration above 10?mg/mL completely repressed the production of ?-amylase from P. chrysogenum and P. griseofulvum. However, the repression i...

  16. A Model of the Effect of the Microbial Biomass on the Isotherm of the Fermenting Solids in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Celuppi Marques

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare isotherms for soybeans and soybeans fermented with Rhizopus oryzae, showing that in solid-state fermentation the biomass affects the isotherm of the fermenting solids. Equations are developed to calculate, for a given overall water content of the fermenting solids, the water contents of the biomass and residual substrate, as well as the water activity. A case study, undertaken using a mathematical model of a well-mixed bioreactor, shows that if water additions are made on the basis of the assumption that fermenting solids have the same isotherm as the substrate itself, poor growth can result since the added water does not maintain the water activity at levels favorable for growth. We conclude that the effect of the microbial biomass on the isotherm of the fermenting solids must be taken into account in mathematical models of solid-state fermentation bioreactors.

  17. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  18. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  19. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  20. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  1. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  2. Effect of annealing ambient on anisotropic retraction of film edges during solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye Hyun; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Ma, Wen [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    During solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films, film edges retract at a rate that is strongly dependent on their crystallographic orientations. Edges with kinetically stable in-plane orientations remain straight as they retract, while those with other in-plane orientations develop in-plane facets as they retract. Kinetically stable edges have retraction rates that are lower than edges with other orientations and thus determine the shape of the natural holes that form during solid-state dewetting. In this paper, measurements of the retraction rates of kinetically stable edges for single crystal (110) and (100) Ni films on MgO are presented. Relative retraction rates of kinetically stable edges with different crystallographic orientations are observed to change under different annealing conditions, and this accordingly changes the initial shapes of growing holes. The surfaces of (110) and (100) films were also characterized using low energy electron diffraction, and different surface reconstructions were observed under different ambient conditions. The observed surface structures were found to correlate with the observed changes in the relative retraction rates of the kinetically stable edges.

  3. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  4. Solid-State Synthesis and Effect of Temp erature on Optical Prop erties of CuO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. C. Vidyasagar; Y. Arthoba Naik∗; T. G. Venkatesha; R. Viswanatha

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of band energies through size control offers new ways to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The P-type semiconductor of copper oxide is an important functional material used for photovoltaic cells. CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbance and a low thermal emittance. The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconducting CuO nanoparticles via one-step, solid-state reaction in the presence of Polyethylene glycol 400 as size controlling agent for the preparation of CuO nanoparticles at different temperatures. Solid-state mechanochemical processing, which is not only a physical size reduction process in conventional milling but also a chemical reaction, is mechanically activated at the nanoscale during grinding. The present method is a simple and efficient method of preparing nanoparticles with high yield at low cost. The structural and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. Optical properties and band gap of CuO nanoparticles were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results showed that the band gap energy decreased with increase of annealing temperature, which can be attributed to the improvement in grain size of the samples.

  5. In situ electron holography of electric potentials inside a solid-state electrolyte: Effect of electric-field leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Yuka; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sato, Takeshi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Murata, Hidekazu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryuji; Fisher, Craig A.J. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Hirayama, Tsukasa, E-mail: t-hirayama@jfcc.or.jp [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    In situ electron holography is used to observe changes of electric-potential distributions in an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid-state electrolyte when different voltages are applied. 2D phase images are simulated by integrating the 3D potential distribution along the electron trajectory through a thin Cu/LiPON/Cu region. Good agreement between experimental and simulated phase distributions is obtained when the influence of the external electric field is taken into account using the 3D boundary-charge method. Based on the precise potential changes, the lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON layer and electric double layers (EDLs) are inferred. The gradients of the phase drops at the interfaces in relation to EDL widths are discussed. - Highlights: • Solid-state electrolyte LiPON has been observed by in situ electron holography. • Observed phase distributions are compared with those simulated numerically. • 3D electric fields around the specimen are taken into account in the simulation. • Electric-potential distributions inside LiPON have been obtained. • The lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON are inferred.

  6. Effect of molecular weight on radiation chemical degradation yield of chain scission of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid state and in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Mahlous, Mohamed; Benamer, Samah; Nacer Khodja, Assia; Larbi Youcef, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan A 1 , A 2 and A 3 with molecular weight of 471, 207 and 100 kDa respectively, produced from squid pen chitin was degraded by gamma rays in the solid state and in aqueous solution with various doses in air at ambient temperature. Effect of molecular weight on radiation chemical degradation yield of chain scission and degradation rate constants of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid state and in aqueous solution was investigated. The radiation chemical degradation yield G (s) and degradation rate values were calculated. The molecular weight changes were monitored by capillary viscometry method and the chemical structure changes were followed by UV analysis. The results showed that, the degradation of chitosan was faster in solution, than in solid state. The values of G (s) in solid state and in aqueous solution were respectively 1.1×10 −8 mol/J and 0.074×10 −7 mol/J for A 1 , 4.42×10 −8 mol/J and 0.28×10 −7 mol/J for A 2 and 6.08×10 −8 mol/J and 0.38×10 −7 mol/J for A 3 . Degradation rate constants values ranged from 0.41×10 −5 to 2.1×10 −5 kGy −1 in solid state, whereas in solution they ranged from 13×10 −5 to 68×10 −5 kGy −1 . The chitosan A 3 was more sensitive to radiolysis than A 1 and A 2 . The chain scission yield, G (s) and degradation rate constants seems to be greatly influenced by the initial molecular weight of the chitosan. Structural changes in irradiated chitosan are revealed by the apparition of absorption peaks at 261 and 295 nm, which could be attributed to the formation of carbonyl groups. In both conditions the peak intensity was higher in chitosan A 3 than in A 1 and A 2 , the oxidative products decreased with increasing molecular weight of chitosan. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of MW on G (s) value of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid and aqueous state. ► Chitosan with low molecular weight was more sensitive to radiolysis than high molecular weight. ► G (s) value and degradation rate

  7. Effect of chip size on mechanical property and microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy prepared by solid state recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Maoliang; Ji Zesheng; Chen Xiaoyu; Zhang Zhenkao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, different kinds of AZ91D magnesium alloy chips were prepared by solid state recycling. Mechanical properties and microstructures of the recycled specimens were investigated. Various microstructural analyses were performed using the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and oxygen-nitrogen analysis. Microstructural observations revealed that all the recycled specimens consisted of fine grains due to dynamic recrystallization. The oxide precipitate content is closely related to the recycled chip size. Accumulated oxygen concentration linearly increases with the total surface area of the machined chips in the recycled specimens. Ambient oxide in the recycled specimen contributes to a higher ultimate tensile strength and a higher elongation to failure; however, excessive oxide in the recycled specimen may adversely affect the elongation to failure

  8. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  9. Investigation of the Effect of Small Hardening Spots Created on the Sample Surface by Laser Complex with Solid-State Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozdrina, O.; Zykov, I.; Melnikov, A.; Tsipilev, V.; Turanov, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation of the effect of small hardening spots (about 1 mm) created on the surface of a sample by laser complex with solid-state laser. The melted area of the steel sample is not exceed 5%. Steel microhardness change in the region subjected to laser treatment is studied. Also there is a graph of the deformation of samples dependence on the tension. As a result, the yield plateau and plastic properties changes were detected. The flow line was tracked in the series of speckle photographs. As a result we can see how mm surface inhomogeneity can influence on the deformation and strength properties of steel.

  10. Determination of the effects of initial glucose on the production of α-amylase from Penicillium sp. under solid-state and submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan İnceoğlu, Figen; Balkan, Bilal; Yarkın, Zehra

    2014-01-02

    The effects of catabolite repression of initial glucose on the synthesis of α-amylase from Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium griseofulvum were investigated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) systems. The results obtained from either fermentation were compared with each other. In the SmF system, initial glucose concentration above 10 mg/mL completely repressed the production of α-amylase from P. chrysogenum and P . griseofulvum . However, the repression in the SSF system was not complete, even when the glucose level was raised to 160 mg/g.

  11. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  12. Effect of the shape and size of dosimeters on the response of solid state/EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Fabisiak, Slawomir; Lagunov, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the shape and size of dosimeters used in solid state-EPR (SS/EPR) dosimetry on their response is reported. It is shown that for commonly used cylindrical (rod) shaped dosimeters of equal height, prepared of low (ε=<3) dielectric constant materials, linearity between their volume and the EPR response is observed when their diameter varies between 3 and 5mm. Further increase of the dosimeter's diameter is not recommended since the increased penetration of the dosimeter material into the electric component of the microwave field in the EPR cavity increases the dielectric losses and decreases the EPR response. In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the SS/EPR dosimetry we have prepared and tested new, flat-shaped, dosimeters of low (ε∼2) dielectric constant materials which were found to exhibit: (i) linear EPR response within 1-5mm thickness; (ii) higher sensitivity than cylindrical dosimeters at equal sample volume; (iii) increased by ca. 270% EPR sensitivity at 5mm thickness compared to the cylindrical dosimeters with the same diameter (ca. 1.7 times increased sample volume). Using flat shape dosimeters of suitable size provides 2.7 times higher EPR sensitivity of single estimation

  13. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(ethylene furanoate Biobased Polyester, I: Effect of Catalyst Type on Molecular Weight Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejib Kasmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the synthesis of poly(ethylene furanoate (PEF, catalyzed by three different catalysts, namely, titanium (IV isopropoxide (TIS, tetrabutyltitanate (TBT, and dibutyltin (IV oxide (DBTO, via the two-stage melt polycondensation method. Solid-state polymerization (SSP was conducted at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. The resultant polymers were analyzed according to their intrinsic viscosity (IV, end groups (–COOH, and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry. DSC results showed that the post polymerization process was favorable to enhance the melting point of the prepared PEF samples. As was expected, the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF increased with the SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-groups was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polymers IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl content of PEF during the SSP. From both the experimental measurements and the theoretical simulation results it was proved that the presence of the TIS catalyst resulted in higher transesterification kinetic rate constants and higher reaction rates. The activation energies were not much affected by the presence of different catalysts. Finally, using DBTO as a catalyst, the polyesters produced have higher crystallinity, and as a consequence, higher number of inactive carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  14. Solid state NMR of isotope labelled murine fur: a powerful tool to study atomic level keratin structure and treatment effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Wai Ching Veronica; Narkevicius, Aurimas; Chow, Wing Ying; Reid, David G.; Rajan, Rakesh [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Brooks, Roger A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Addenbrooke’s Hospital (United Kingdom); Green, Maggie [University of Cambridge, Central Biomedical Resources, School of Clinical Medicine (United Kingdom); Duer, Melinda J., E-mail: mjd13@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    We have prepared mouse fur extensively {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labelled in all amino acid types enabling application of 2D solid state NMR techniques which establish covalent and spatial proximities within, and in favorable cases between, residues. {sup 13}C double quantum–single quantum correlation and proton driven spin diffusion techniques are particularly useful for resolving certain amino acid types. Unlike 1D experiments on isotopically normal material, the 2D methods allow the chemical shifts of entire spin systems of numerous residue types to be determined, particularly those with one or more distinctively shifted atoms such as Gly, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Phe, Val, Leu, Ile and Pro. Also the partial resolution of the amide signals into two signal envelopes comprising of α-helical, and β-sheet/random coil components, enables resolution of otherwise overlapped α-carbon signals into two distinct cross peak families corresponding to these respective secondary structural regions. The increase in resolution conferred by extensive labelling offers new opportunities to study the chemical fate and structural environments of specific atom and amino acid types under the influence of commercial processes, and therapeutic or cosmetic treatments.

  15. Solid-state diffusion as an efficient doping method for silicon nanowires and nanowire field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moselund, K E; Ghoneim, H; Schmid, H; Bjoerk, M T; Loertscher, E; Karg, S; Signorello, G; Webb, D; Tschudy, M; Beyeler, R; Riel, H

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate doping by solid-state diffusion from a doped oxide layer, obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), as a means for selectively doping silicon nanowires (NWs). We demonstrate both n-type (phosphorous) and p-type (boron) doping up to concentrations of 10 20 cm -3 , and find that this doping mechanism is more efficient for NWs as opposed to planar substrates. We observe no diameter dependence in the range of 25 to 80 nm, which signifies that the NWs are uniformly doped. The drive-in temperature (800-950 deg. C) can be used to adjust the actual doping concentration in the range 2 x 10 18 to 10 20 cm -3 . Furthermore, we have fabricated NMOS and PMOS devices to show the versatility of this approach and the possibility of achieving segmented doping of NWs. The devices show high I on /I off ratios of around 10 7 and, especially for the PMOS, good saturation behavior and low hysteresis.

  16. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single Event Effect(SEE)Performance on Orbview-2 and Xray Timing Explorer(XTE)Solid State Recorders (SSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poivey, Christian; Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Ken A.; Gee, George; Safren, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Single Event Effect (SEE) in-flight data on Solid State Recorders (SSR) that have been collected over a long period of time for two NASA spacecraft: Orbview-2 and XTE. SEE flight data on solid-state memories give an opportunity to study the behavior in space of SEE sensitive commercial devices. The actual Single Event Upset (SEU) rates can be compared with the calculated rates based on environment models and ground test data. The SEE mitigation schemes can also be evaluated in actual implementation. A significant amount of data has already been published concerning observed SEE effects on memories in space. However, most of the data presented cover either a short period of time or a small number of devices. The data presented here has been collected on a large number of devices during several years. This allows statistically significant information about the effect of space weather fluctuations on SEU rates, and the effectiveness of SEE countermeasures used to be analyzed. Only Orbview-2 data is presented in this summary. XTE data will be included in the final paper.

  17. Nano-sized Li4Ti5O12 anode material with excellent performance prepared by solid state reaction: The effect of precursor size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiangru; Hu, Hao; Huang, Sheng; Yu, Gaige; Gao, Lin; Liu, Haowen; Yu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 has been prepared through solid state reaction by using axiolitic TiO 2 as precursor. • The prepared nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode material shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The utilization of precursor with special morphology and size is one of the useful ways to prepare more active electrode materials. - Abstract: Spinel nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode material of secondary lithium-ion battery has been successfully prepared by solid state reaction using axiolitic TiO 2 assembled by 10–20 nm nanoparticles and Li 2 CO 3 as precursors. The synthesis condition, grain size effect and corresponding electrochemical performance of the special Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 have been studied in comparison with those of the normal Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 originated from commercial TiO 2 . We also propose the mechanism that using the nano-scaled TiO 2 with special structure and unexcess Li 2 CO 3 as precursors can synthesize pure phase nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 at 800 °C through solid state reaction. The prepared nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode material for Li-ion batteries shows excellent capacity performance with rate capacity of 174.2, 164.0, 157.4, 146.4 and 129.6 mA h g −1 at 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 C, respectively, and capacity retention of 95.1% after 100 cycles at 1 C. In addition, the specific capacity fade for the cell with the different Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 active materials resulted from the increase of internal resistance after 100 cycles is compared

  18. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  19. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  20. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  1. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  2. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  4. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  5. Solid State Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-15

    The chemistry of the conventional CVD of W films may be summarized by the overall reaction, WF 6 + 3 H2 - W + 6 HF (2-I) The activation energy for the...3 GATE VOLTAGE M Psum 3-1. Subdwedi obMaauls of n- &Md p-donnal SOIINOITs beforw de atar -vmdlmion. 30 - , ’_ 1 - - - - - -. .I Another effect of

  6. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  7. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  8. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  9. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  10. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  11. A Cost-Effective Solid-State Approach to Synthesize g-C3N4 Coated TiO2 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and cost-effective solid-state method by thermal treatment of the mixture of urea and commercial TiO2. Because the C3N4 was dispersed and coated on the TiO2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites showed enhanced absorption and photocatalytic properties in visible light region. The as-prepared g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites under 450°C exhibited efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of aqueous MB due to the increased visible light absorption and enhanced MB adsorption. The g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites would have wide applications in both environmental remediation and solar energy conversion.

  12. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  13. Effect of synthesis route on the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3: A comparative study between solid state and sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, Pittala; Srinath, S.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO 3 (BFO) powder was prepared through optimized solid state (SS) and sol–gel (SG) reaction methods. The effect of preparation routes on the crystal purity and multiferroic properties of the BFO was investigated. Sol–gel synthesis results almost a single-phase material at relatively lower temperatures while the solid-state method results into BFO with a small amount of Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 secondary phase. The grain size of SG processed sample reduces to half the size of the one that is prepared by SS. Elemental analysis shows a stoichiometric Bi:Fe content for SG samples by restricting the Bi loss. In comparison with the SS samples, dielectric constant of SG samples exhibit higher values with Maxwell–Wagner type dielectric dispersion. A cusp at 50 K was seen in M–T curves for SS samples, for which no frequency dependence was observed in a.c susceptibility measurements ruling out the earlier predictions of spin glass nature in this system. M−H loops show a typical antiferromagnetic nature at 300 K while a weak ferromagnetic behavior is found at 10 K. A slight increase in H C and M r was observed for SG samples over SS. The improved properties of SG processed BFO makes it more promising for applications. - Highlights: • Optimized conditions to attain the BiFeO 3 with minimized impurities are reported. • The influence of the impurities on the dielectric, magnetic properties is reported. • Maxwell–Wagner relaxation is found for BiFeO 3 prepared by sol–gel technique. • a.c. susceptibility measurements ruled out the possibility of spin glass nature. • The anomalous behavior of H C with the temperature is reported

  14. Effect of bulky substituents on thiopyrylium polymethine aggregation in the solid state: A theoretical evaluation of the implications for all-optical switching applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Risko, Chad; Marder, Seth R.; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    and limit their utility. Here, we examine the impact of a series of bulky substituents on the solid-state molecular packing of thiopyrylium polymethines by using a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum

  15. Skin effects, ion acoustic turbulence and anomalous transport in a non-isothermal solid-state plasma, produced by a power femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.B.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the experiments, wherein the absorption of the laser intensive radiation with duration of 400 fs in aluminium target was studied, are explained. It is shown that electro-conductivity of the nonisothermal solid-state aluminium plasma was determined in these experiments by the ion-acoustic oscillations (ion-acoustic turbulence). Possible ways of theoretical description of the ion-acoustic turbulence and interaction of the nonisothermal solid-state plasma with powerful ultrashort laser radiation are discussed [ru

  16. Determination of the Tautomeric Equilibria of Pyridoyl Benzoyl -Diketones in the Liquid and Solid State through the use of Deuterium Isotope Effects on 1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shifts and Spin Coupling Constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Borisov, Eugeny V.; Lindon, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The tautomeric equilibria for 2-pyridoyl-, 3-pyridoyl-, and 4-pyridoyl-benzoyl methane have been investigated using deuterium isotope effects on 1H and 13C chemical shifts both in the liquid and the solid state. Equilibria are established both in the liquid and the solid state. In addition......, in the solution state the 2-bond and 3-bond J(1H–13C) coupling constants have been used to confirm the equilibrium positions. The isotope effects due to deuteriation at the OH position are shown to be superior to chemical shift in determination of equilibrium positions of these almost symmetrical -pyridoyl......-benzoyl methanes. The assignments of the NMR spectra are supported by calculations of the chemical shifts at the DFT level. The equilibrium positions are shown to be different in the liquid and the solid state. In the liquid state the 4-pyridoyl derivative is at the B-form (C-1 is OH), whereas the 2-and 3-pyridoyl...

  17. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  18. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  19. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  20. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  1. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  2. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  3. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  4. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  5. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  6. Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

    2012-05-01

    Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the Performance of Gold-Nanoparticle-Doped Solid-State Dye Laser Using Thermal Conversion Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, N. T. M.; Lien, N. T. H.; Hoang, N. D.; Hoa, D. Q.

    2018-04-01

    Energy transfer between spherical gold nanoparticles with size of more than 15 nm and molecules of organic dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4 H-pyran (DCM) has been studied. Such radiative energy transfer led to high local temperature, giving rise to a bleaching effect that resulted in rapid degradation of the laser medium. Gold nanoparticles were dispersed at concentrations from 5 × 109 particles/mL to 5 × 1010 particles/mL in DCM polymethylmethacrylate polymer using a radical polymerization process with 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as initiator. Using the fast thermoelectric cooling method, the laser medium stability was significantly improved. The output stability of a distributed feedback dye laser pumped by second-harmonic generation from a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was investigated. Moreover, bidirectional energy transfer between gold nanoparticles and dye molecules was observed.

  8. Effect of some variable in cellulase production by Aspergillus niger ITBCC L74 using solid state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, B.; Maftukhah, S.; Listyaningrum, E.; Faradhiba, F.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulase is a very important enzyme for ethanol production, food, papper, etc, from lignocellulose and others. Rice straw and corn cob are the largest agricultural waste in Indonesia, while the water hyacinth weed is a plant that has not been used optimally. The content of cellulose is high enough on rice straw, water hyacinth and corn corb so it can be used as a substrate in the production of cellulase to increase the economic value of the rice straw, hyacinth, and corncob. As for the purpose of this study is to use the rice straw, water hyacinth, and corn cob as substrates of cellulase enzyme, determine the effect type of substrates, moisture content and fermentation time in production of cellulase enzyme and also determining the optimum conditions for production of cellulase enzymes. The method is solid fermentation system and using fungi Aspergillus niger ITBCC L74 as inoculum. The variable used were fermentation time is 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, moisture content is 50, 60, 70, and 80%, as well as the type of substrate is rice straw, water hyacinth, and corn cob. The results showed that the highest protein content in the crude enzyme of the rice straw, water hyacinth and corncobs @ is 0.0153 mg/ml, 0.0194 mg/ml and 0. 0146 mg/ml, respectively. The optimum enzyme activity were for the rice straw, water hyacinth and corn cobs @ 2.569 U/ml, 1.606 U/ml and 1.302 U/ml, respectively. The optimum moisture content were obtain for rice straw, water hyacinth and corn cob respectively 80%, 70% and 60%. And the optimum fermentation time for rice straw, corn cob, and water hyacinth is on the sixth day. In this study showed the highest enzyme activity on the type of rice straw substrate with a water content of 80% and fermentation time 6 day.

  9. Synthesis, Structure, Characterization, and Decomposition of Nickel Dithiocarbamates: Effect of Precursor Structure and Processing Conditions on Solid-State Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Duffy, Norman V.; Hoops, Michael D.; Gorse, Elizabeth; Fanwick, Philip E.; Masnovi, John; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Dominey, Raymond N.

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal X-ray structures of four nickel dithiocarbamate complexes, the homoleptic mixed-organic bis-dithiocarbamates Ni[S2CN(isopropyl)(benzyl)]2, Ni[S2CN(ethyl)(n-butyl)]2, and Ni[S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)]2, as well as the heteroleptic mixed-ligand complex NiCl[P(phenyl)3][(S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)], were determined. Synthetic, spectroscopic, structural, thermal, and sulfide materials studies are discussed in light of prior literature. The spectroscopic results are routine. A slightly distorted square-planar nickel coordination environment was observed for all four complexes. The organic residues adopt conformations to minimize steric interactions. Steric effects also may determine puckering, if any, about the nickel and nitrogen atoms, both of which are planar or nearly so. A trans-influence affects the Ni-S bond distances. Nitrogen atoms interact with the CS2 carbons with a bond order of about 1.5, and the other substituents on nitrogen display transoid conformations. There are no strong intermolecular interactions, consistent with prior observations of the volatility of nickel dithiocarbamate complexes. Thermogravimetric analysis of the homoleptic species under inert atmosphere is consistent with production of 1:1 nickel sulfide phases. Thermolysis of nickel dithiocarbamates under flowing nitrogen produced hexagonal or -NiS as the major phase; thermolysis under flowing forming gas produced millerite (-NiS) at 300 C, godlevskite (Ni9S8) at 325 and 350 C, and heazlewoodite (Ni3S2) at 400 and 450 C. Failure to exclude oxygen results in production of nickel oxide. Nickel sulfide phases produced seem to be primarily influenced by processing conditions, in agreement with prior literature. Nickel dithiocarbamate complexes demonstrate significant promise to serve as single-source precursors to nickel sulfides, a quite interesting family of materials with numerous potential applications.

  10. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  11. Effect of nano Co reinforcements on the structure of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder in liquid and after reflow solid states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakymovych, Andriy, E-mail: yakymovych@univie.ac.at [Department of Inorganic Chemistry – Functional Materials, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Metal Physics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyrylo i Mephodiy Str. 8, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Mudry, Stepan; Shtablavyi, Ihor [Department of Metal Physics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyrylo i Mephodiy Str. 8, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Ipser, Herbert [Department of Inorganic Chemistry – Functional Materials, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-09-15

    Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloys are commonly recognized as lead-free solders employed in the electronics industry. However, some disadvantages in mechanical properties and their higher melting temperatures compared to Pb-Sn solders prompt new research relating to reinforcement of existing SAC solders. One of the ways to reinforce these solder materials is the formation of composites with nanoparticles as filler materials. Accordingly, this study presents structural features of nanocomposite (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu){sub 100−x}(nanoCo){sub x} solders with up to 0.8 wt% nano Co. The effect of nano-sized Co particles was investigated by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) in both liquid and solid states, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental data of DTA are compared with available literature data for bulk Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy to check the capability of minor nano-inclusions to decrease the melting temperature of the SAC solder. The combination of structural data in liquid and solid states provides important information about the structural transformations of liquid Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloys caused by minor Co additions and the phase formation during crystallization. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy has shown the mutual substitution of Co and Cu atoms in the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 3} phases, respectively. - Highlights: • Differential thermal analysis of nanocomposite (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu){sub 100−x}(nanoCo){sub x} alloys. • Structural transformations of liquid Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder by minor Co additions. • Structure data of the solid quaternary (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu){sub 100−x}(Co){sub x} alloys. • Substitution of Co and Cu atoms in the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 3} phases.

  12. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: beme@ethz.ch, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Agarwal, Vipin [Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsinghi, Hyderabad 500 075 (India)

    2016-09-07

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  13. Study of gamma irradiation effects on the etching and optical properties of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector and its application to uranium assay in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amol Mhatre; Kalsi, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 2.5-43.0 Mrad on the etching and optical characteristics of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have been studied by using etching and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. From the measured bulk etch rates at different temperatures, the activation energies for bulk etching at different doses have also been determined. It is seen that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. The optical band gaps of the unirradiated and the gamma -irradiated detectors determined from the UV-Visible spectra were found to decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation. The present studies can be used for the estimation of gamma dose in the range of 2.5-43.0 Mrad and can also be used for estimating track registration efficiency in the presence of gamma dose. The CR-39 detector has also been applied for the assay of uranium in some soil samples of Jammu city. (author)

  14. Effect of distribution, interface property and density of hydrogel-embedded vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on the properties of a flexible solid state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Xietao; Zhu, Yihao; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we fabricate a robust flexible solid-state supercapacitor (FSC) device by embedding a conductive poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel into aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. We carefully investigate the effect of distribution, interface properties and densification of CNTs in the gel matrix on the electrochemical properties of an FSC. The total electrochemical capacitance of the device is measured to be 227 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.02 mWh cm‑3, which is dramatically enhanced compared with a similar device composed of non-parallel CNTs. Additionally, controllable in situ electrochemical oxidation greatly improved the compatibility between the hydrophobic CNTs and the hydrophilic hydrogel, which decreased the resistance of the device and introduced extra pseudocapacitance. After such oxidation treatment the energy storage ability further doubled to 430 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.04 mWh cm‑3 . The FSCs based on densified CNT arrays exhibited a much higher volumetric capacitance of 1140 mF cm‑3 and a larger energy density of 0.1 mWh cm‑3, with a large power density of 14 mW cm‑3. All devices show excellent stability of capacitance after at least 10 000 charge–discharge cycles with a loss of less than 2%. These easy-to-assemble hybrid arrays thus potentially provide a new method for manufacturing wearable devices and implantable medical devices.

  15. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-07

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  16. Effects of crown ethers in nanocomposite silica-gel electrolytes on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh

    2010-04-01

    The effects of crown ethers (CEs) on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been investigated. Nanocomposite silica was used to form gel matrices in the electrolytes, which contained lithium iodide (LiI) and iodine (I2) in 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN) solvent. Three types of CEs, 12-crown-4 (12-C-4), 15-crown-5 (15-C-5), and 18-crown-6 (18-C-6) were used as additives to the gel electrolytes. DSSCs containing CEs showed enhancements in solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies (η), with reference to the one without them. The crown ether, 15-C-5, with a size of cavity matching with the size of Li+ in the electrolyte rendered for its DSSC the best performance with an η of 3.60%, under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, as compared to 2.44% for the cell without any CE. Enhancements in the photovoltaic parameters of the cells with the CEs were explained based on the binding abilities of the CEs with lithium ions (Li+) in the electrolyte. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectra were used to substantiate the explanations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  18. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  19. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  20. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  1. Effect of bioaugmented inoculation on microbiota dynamics during solid-state fermentation of Daqu starter using autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Wickerhamomyces and Saccharomycopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Lin, Weifeng; Liu, Xiong; Wang, Xiaowen; Gan, Xing; Luo, Lixin; Lin, Wei-Tie

    2017-02-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor and vinegar production, is still manufactured through a traditional spontaneous solid-state fermentation process with no selected microorganisms are intentionally inoculated. The aim of this work was to analyze the microbiota dynamics during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu using a traditional and bioaugmented inoculation with autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Saccharomycopsis and Wickerhamomyces at an industrial scale. Highly similar dynamics of physicochemical parameters, enzymatic activities and microbial communities were observed during the traditional and bioaugmented solid-state fermentation processes. Both in the two cases, groups of Streptophyta, Rickettsiales and Xanthomonadales only dominated the first two days, but Bacillales and Eurotiales became predominant members after 2 and 10 days fermentation, respectively. Phylotypes of Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Saccharomycetales and Mucorales dominated the whole fermentation process. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in microbial structure was observed between the traditional and bioaugmented fermentation processes. However, slightly higher microbial richness was found during the bioaugmented fermentation process after 10 days fermentation. Our results reinforced the microbiota dynamic stability during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu, and might aid in controlling the traditional Daqu manufacturing process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the addition of sugar cane bagasse fibers in the composite with the copolymer vinyl ethylene-acetate (EVA) by solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; D'Almeida, Jose Roberto Moraes; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno

    1997-01-01

    Natural fibers composites obtained form sugar cane bagasse and ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer were prepared with different compositions and analysed by solid state Carbon-13 NMR aiming the observation of molecular mobility, compatibility, and chemical structure of the different obtained composites. One objective of this work was to enable the future commercial application of these materials

  3. Effect of low oxygen concentrations on growth and alpha-amylase production of Aspergillus oryzae in model solid-state fermentation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Sie, S.; Weber, F.J.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in the fungal mat is a major concern in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Oxygen supply into the mycelial layers is hampered by diffusion limitation. For aerobic fungi, like Aspergillus oryzae, this oxygen depletion can be a severely limiting factor for growth and metabolite

  4. The solid-state fermentation of Artemisia capillaris leaves with Ganoderma lucidum enhances the anti-inflammatory effects in a model of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Seul; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Sang-Han

    2017-05-01

    Artemisia capillaris, which belongs to the Asteraceae family and the genus Artemisia, has been reported to exert inhibitory effects on diabetes, cancer and inflammation. In this study, in order to enhance the bioactivity potential of the leaves of Artemisia by Ganoderma lucidum mycelium, we prepared aqueous samples of Artemisia capillaris (Ac) leaves, Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) and aqueous fractions produced by the solid fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum on Artemisia capillaris leaves (afAc/Gl). Thereafter, we evaluated whether these samples have potential to attenuate inflammation-related symptoms in an amimal model of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis. We found that afAc/Gl exhibited enhanced anti-inflamamatory activity following the solid fermentation process when compared with Ac or Gl on ear thickness, ear epidermal thickness and eosinophil infiltration in the skin tissues. The expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs) was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that afAc/Gl decreased endothelial NOS and inducible NOS expression compared with the DNFB group, while neuronal NOS expression was not altered. By comparing NO production, we found that as opposed to Ac, afAc/Gl has potential to inhibit atopic dermatitis-related symptoms during the inflammatory event. As regards matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns, afAc/Gl exerted potent inhibitory activity on the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, -9, -12, -14 and -19. Taken together, these results suggest that the solid state fermentation of Ac by Gl is an effective strategy to obtaining useful ingredients which are converted into valuable compounds during an atopic inflammatory insult.

  5. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux on growth NLBCO superconductor by solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suharta, W. G., E-mail: wgsuharta@gmail.com; Wendri, N.; Ratini, N.; Suarbawa, K. N. [Departement of Physics Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Udayana University Bali Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    The synthesis of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux substituted NLBCO superconductor NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂} has been done using solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods in order to obtain homogeneous crystals and single phase. From DTA/TGA characteritations showed the synthesis process by wet-mixing requires a lower temperature than the solid state reaction in growing the superconductor NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂}. Therefore, in this research NdBa{sub 1.75}La{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-∂} sample calcinated at 650°C for wet-mixing method and 820°C for solid state reaction methods. The all samples was sintered at 950°C for ten hours. Crystallinity of the sample was confirmed using X-ray techniques and generally obtained sharp peaks that indicates the sample already well crystallized. Search match analyses for diffraction data gave weight fractions of impurity phase of the solid state reaction method higher than wet-mixing method. In this research showed decreasing the price of the lattice parameter about 1% with the addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux for the both synthesis process and 2% of wet mixing process for all samples. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the distribution of crystal zise for wet-mixing method more homogeneous than solid state reaction method, with he grain size of samples is around 150–250 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed the paramagnetic properties for all samples.

  6. The effect of B_2O_3 flux on growth NLBCO superconductor by solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharta, W. G.; Wendri, N.; Ratini, N.; Suarbawa, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of B_2O_3 flux substituted NLBCO superconductor NdBa_1_._7_5La_0_._2_5Cu_3O_7_-_∂ has been done using solid state reaction and wet-mixing methods in order to obtain homogeneous crystals and single phase. From DTA/TGA characteritations showed the synthesis process by wet-mixing requires a lower temperature than the solid state reaction in growing the superconductor NdBa_1_._7_5La_0_._2_5Cu_3O_7_-_∂. Therefore, in this research NdBa_1_._7_5La_0_._2_5Cu_3O_7_-_∂ sample calcinated at 650°C for wet-mixing method and 820°C for solid state reaction methods. The all samples was sintered at 950°C for ten hours. Crystallinity of the sample was confirmed using X-ray techniques and generally obtained sharp peaks that indicates the sample already well crystallized. Search match analyses for diffraction data gave weight fractions of impurity phase of the solid state reaction method higher than wet-mixing method. In this research showed decreasing the price of the lattice parameter about 1% with the addition of B_2O_3 flux for the both synthesis process and 2% of wet mixing process for all samples. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the distribution of crystal zise for wet-mixing method more homogeneous than solid state reaction method, with he grain size of samples is around 150–250 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed the paramagnetic properties for all samples.

  7. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  8. Effect of Al 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition in Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2013-03-21

    Despite the promise of quantum dots (QDs) as a light-absorbing material to replace the dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) efficiencies remain low, due in part to high rates of recombination. In this article, we demonstrate that ultrathin recombination barrier layers of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition can improve the performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole transport material. We explored depositing the Al2O3 barrier layers either before or after the QDs, resulting in TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO 2/QD/Al2O3 configurations. The effects of barrier layer configuration and thickness were tracked through current-voltage measurements of device performance and transient photovoltage measurements of electron lifetimes. The Al2O3 layers were found to suppress dark current and increase electron lifetimes with increasing Al 2O3 thickness in both configurations. For thin barrier layers, gains in open-circuit voltage and concomitant increases in efficiency were observed, although at greater thicknesses, losses in photocurrent caused net decreases in efficiency. A close comparison of the electron lifetimes in TiO2 in the TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO2/QD/Al2O3 configurations suggests that electron transfer from TiO2 to spiro-OMeTAD is a major source of recombination in ss-QDSSCs, though recombination of TiO2 electrons with oxidized QDs can also limit electron lifetimes, particularly if the regeneration of oxidized QDs is hindered by a too-thick coating of the barrier layer. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Solid-State Organization and Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors of Benzothiadiazole-Cyclopentadithiophene Copolymer with Long Branched Alkyl Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baumgarten

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state organization of a benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene copolymer with long, branched decyl-tetradecyl side chains (CDT-BTZ-C14,10 is investigated. The C14,10 substituents are sterically demanding and increase the π-stacking distance to 0.40 nm from 0.37 nm for the same polymer with linear hexadecyls (C16. Despite the bulkiness, the C14,10 side chains tend to crystallize, leading to a small chain-to-chain distance between lamellae stacks and to a crystal-like microstructure in the thin film. Interestingly, field-effect transistors based on solution processed layers of CDT-BTZ-C14,10 show ambipolar behavior in contrast to CDT-BTZ-C16 with linear side chains, for which hole transport was previously observed. Due to the increased π-stacking distance, the mobilities are only 6 × 10−4 cm²/Vs for electrons and 6 × 10−5 cm²/Vs for holes, while CDT-BTZ-C16 leads to values up to 5.5 cm²/Vs. The ambipolarity is attributed to a lateral shift between stacked backbones provoked by the bulky C14,10 side chains. This reorganization is supposed to change the transfer integrals between the C16 and C14,10 substituted polymers. This work shows that the electronic behavior in devices of one single conjugated polymer (in this case CDT-BTZ can be controlled by the right choice of the substituents to place the backbones in the desired packing.

  10. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  11. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  12. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  13. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  14. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  15. Effect of bulky substituents on thiopyrylium polymethine aggregation in the solid state: A theoretical evaluation of the implications for all-optical switching applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2014-11-25

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions display many of the optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in thin films, aggregation and polymethine-counterion interactions can substantially modify their properties and limit their utility. Here, we examine the impact of a series of bulky substituents on the solid-state molecular packing of thiopyrylium polymethines by using a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations. Importantly, it is found that the positions of the substituents near the center and/or ends of the dye determine the extent to which aggregation is reduced; in particular, substituents near the polymethine center primarily modify the type of aggregation that is observed, while substituents near the polymethine ends reduce aggregation and aid in maintaining solution-like properties in the solid state. Our theoretical study elucidates relationships between molecular structure and bulk optical properties and provides design guidelines for all-optical switching materials.

  16. The effect of the purity and of the materials used for adapters on the purification of yttrium by solid state electrotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoforova, T.V.; Volkov, V.T.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of tantalum, molybdenum and zirconium adapters on the efficiency of the solid state electrotransport process is investigated with a view to increasing the quality and purity of yttrium. The degree and direction of metallic impurity electromigration in the given metals were studied. The impurities in question were shown to move in different directions depending on the type of adapter. Recommendations for the application of adapters according to their purity are given. The application of high purity tantalum as anode and cathode adapters in three-stage solid state electrotransport enabled us to obtain yttrium single crystals with a ratio of resistance at room temperature to that at helium temperatures of 1200. (orig.)

  17. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  18. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  19. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  20. An All-Solid-State pH Sensor Employing Fluorine-Terminated Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond as a pH-Insensitive Solution-Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2017-05-05

    A fluorine-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond surface is successfully employed as a pH-insensitive SGFET (solution-gate field-effect transistor) for an all-solid-state pH sensor. The fluorinated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) channel possesses a pH-insensitivity of less than 3mV/pH compared with a pH-sensitive oxygenated channel. With differential FET (field-effect transistor) sensing, a sensitivity of 27 mv/pH was obtained in the pH range of 2-10; therefore, it demonstrated excellent performance for an all-solid-state pH sensor with a pH-sensitive oxygen-terminated polycrystalline BDD SGFET and a platinum quasi-reference electrode, respectively.

  1. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  2. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m 2 g −1 ) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g −1 , ∼39 Wh kg −1 and ∼19 kW kg −1 , respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10 4 charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better performance over LiTFSI-based gel.

  3. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A., E-mail: sahashmi@physics.du.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g{sup −1}, ∼39 Wh kg{sup −1} and ∼19 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10{sup 4} charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better

  4. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 5-chlorocytosine: Solid state simulation and tautomerism. Effect of the chlorine substitution in the Watson-Crick base pair 5-chlorodeoxycytidine-deoxyguanosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolea Palafox, M.; Rastogi, V. K.; Singh, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    The laser Raman and IR spectra of 5-chlorocytosine have been recorded and accurately assigned in the solid state using Density functional calculations (DFT) together with the linear scaling equation procedure (LSE) and the solid state simulation of the crystal unit cell through a tetramer form. These results remarkably improve those reported previously by other authors. Several new scaling equations were proposed to be used in related molecules. The six main tautomers of the biomolecule 5-chlorocytosine were determined and optimized at the MP2 and CCSD levels, using different basis sets. The relative stabilities were compared with those obtained in cytosine and their 5-halo derivatives. Several relationships between energies, geometric parameters and NBO atomic charges were established. The effect of the chlorine substitution in the fifth position was evaluated through the stability of the Watson-Crick (WC) base pair of 5-chlorodeoxycytidine with deoxyguanosine, and through their vibrational spectra.

  5. Estimation of track registration efficiency in solution medium and study of gamma irradiation effects on the bulk-etch rate and the activation energy for bulk etching of CR-39 (DOP) Solid State Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The fission track registration efficiency of diethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate (dioctyl phthalate doped) (CR-39 (DOP)) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) in solution medium (K wet ) has been experimentally determined and is found to be (9.7 ± 0.5).10 -4 cm. This is in good agreement with the values of other SSNTDs. The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 50.0-220.0 kGy on the bulk etch rate, V b and the activation energy for bulk etching, E of this solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have also been studied. It is observed that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation

  6. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  7. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  8. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  9. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  10. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  11. Radiation-chemical aspects of solid state hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.; Collins, K.E.; Collins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of nuclear hot atom chemical (NHAC) processes occurring in solids is seriously limited by the lack of adequate methods for directly studying the chemical species containing hot atoms. In the present review the effects of ionizing radiation on parent and non-parent yields from solid state targets is surveyed and qualitative interpretations are given. After a few general remarks of the relationship of radiation chemistry to solid state NHAC, a detailed description of the radiation effects is given (radiation annealing, neutron activation, changes in separable yield). (Auth.)

  12. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  13. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  14. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  15. Effect of neutron irradiation on etching, optical and structural properties of microscopic glass slide used as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Kaur Sandhu, Amanpreet; Prasher, Sangeeta; Prakash Pandey, Om

    2007-01-01

    Microscopic glass slides are soda-lime glasses which are readily available and are easy to manufacture with low production cost. The application of these glasses as nuclear track detector will help us to make use of these glasses as solid-state nuclear track detector. The present paper describes the variation in the etching, optical and structural properties of the soda-lime microscopic glass slides due to neutron irradiation of different fluences. The color transformation and an increase in the optical absorption with neutron irradiation are observed. Both the bulk and track etch rates are found to increase with neutron fluence, thus showing a similar dependence on neutron fluence, but the sensitivity remains almost constant

  16. Evaluation of the effect of process variables on the fatty acid profile of single cell oil produced by Mortierella using solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Seyedeh Zeinab; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Nikoopour, Houshang; Bakhoda, Hossein

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews some of the aspects of single cell oil (SCO) production using solid-state fermentation (SSF) by fungi of the genus Mortierella. This article provides an overview of the advantages of SSF for SCO formation by the aforementioned fungus and demonstrates that the content of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) depend on the type of fermentation media and culture conditions. Process variables that influence lipid accumulation by Mortierella spp. and the profile of the fatty acids are discussed, including incubation temperature, time, aeration, growth phase of the mycelium, particle size of the substrate, carbon to nitrogen ratio, initial moisture content and pH as well as supplementation of the substrate with nitrogen and oil. Finally, the article highlights future research trends for the scaled-up production of PUFAs in SSF.

  17. Zr doping effect with low-cost solid-state reaction method to synthesize submicron Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Inseok; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    To improve the electrochemical properties, fine Zr-doping Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries with a uniform particle size distribution were synthesized by a modified solid-state reaction using fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors with a Li:Ti molar ratio of 4:5. The use of fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors prevented the formation of ZrO2 at 0.1 mol Zr-doping. XRD analysis revealed that the substitution of Zr for Ti leads to the increase of lattice parameters, allowing improved Li diffusion. The discharge capacity retention increased slightly with Zr-doping and the 0.1 mol Zr-doped Li4Ti5O12 electrode achieved 99% retention of discharge capacity.

  18. Solid state conformations and antidopaminergic effects of remoxipride hydrochloride and a closely related salicylamide, FLA 797, in relation to dopamine receptor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, T; Rämsby, S; de Paulis, T; Stensland, B; Csöregh, I; Wägner, A

    1986-10-01

    The X-ray structures of two new 2,6-disubstituted benzamides, i.e., remoxipride hydrochloride monohydrate [-)-(S)-3-bromo-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenza mide hydrochloride monohydrate) and FLA 797 [-)-(S)-3-bromo-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-methoxysalicylamide ), have been determined as well as the distribution coefficients. The difference in dopamine receptor blocking activity is discussed in terms of lipophilicity and solid state conformations of the two benzamides. The major difference between the solid state conformations lies in the orientation of the carboxamide moiety. In remoxipride the carbonyl group is oriented almost perpendicularly to the benzene ring, thus preventing the formation of a hydrogen-bonded pseudo-ring between the amide hydrogen and the methoxy group found in other types of o-methoxybenzamides. In FLA 797, however, this pseudo-ring is present in the planar conformation of the salicylamide moiety. This conformation is further stabilized by a hydrogen bond between the phenol group and the carbonyl oxygen. The side chain in remoxipride adopts an extended conformation in contrast to FLA 797, where the side chain has a folded conformation. The crystal structures are related to current topographic dopamine receptor models developed from more rigid antidopaminergic compounds. Based on these comparisons, it is suggested that benzamides having an N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinylmethyl side chain interact with the receptor in the folded conformation. The binding affinity is thought to be further increased by the planar conformation of the salicylamide moiety present in FLA 797, which permits an efficient pi-pi stacking interaction.

  19. Effect of nanofiller’s size and shape on the solid state microstructure and thermal properties of poly(butylene succinate) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios G.; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Pavlidou, Eleni; Deliyanni, Eleni A.; Papageorgiou, George Z.; Terzopoulou, Zoi; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure and thermal properties of PBSu-based nanocomposites were studied. • Ag and SiO 2 were dispersed more uniformly, compared to GO and MWCNTs. • PBSu/Ag nanocomposites exhibited higher nucleation activity and faster rates. • The order of nucleation efficiency of the fillers was GO < MWCNTs < SiO 2 < Ag. • The activation energy of nanocomposite samples was lower than that of PBSu. - Abstract: We report a study of the solid state microstructure and crystallization kinetics of poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu) reinforced with nanofillers of different shapes, sizes and geometries such as silver, silica (SiO 2 ), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO). The solid state structure of neat polymer and nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the nanocomposite samples exhibited enhanced crystallinity and nucleation density, along with smaller spherulite size. Additionally, the spherical nanofillers were dispersed more uniformly in the polymeric matrix, than the other two filler types. The crystallization kinetics under both isothermal and dynamic conditions were also studied and as was expected, the nanocomposite samples, crystallize at higher rates due to the increased number of nucleation sites, as was calculated with Avrami, Dobreva and Friedman’s methods. From the crystallization study it was found that the nanocomposite filled with Ag nanoparticles exhibited the highest rates from all other fillers followed from SiO 2 and MWCNTs while GO showed the lowest rates

  20. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  1. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials

  2. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  3. Atomic and solid state physics with the 14UD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.S.

    1975-02-01

    The use of energetic heavy ions in atomic and solid state physics is discussed. Topics that are discussed include: 1) Properties of excited ions, 2) radiation damage studies by channeling, 3) energy loss of ions and range measurements, 4) oscillating effects in channeling, 5) x-ray production in solids, 6) coherence effects in channeling and 7) formation of united atoms. (author)

  4. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  5. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  6. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  7. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  8. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  9. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker et .... Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin yield by Aspergillus ...

  10. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the me...... of a DCM-FA-rich phase in the forming microsphere....

  11. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off [de

  12. Nanoscale formation of new solid-state compounds by topochemical effects: The interfacial reactions ZnO with Al2O3 as a model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Sonia; Ghigna, Paolo; Spinolo, Giorgio; Quartarone, Eliana; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; D'Acapito, Francesco; Migliori, Andrea; Calestani, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of thin layers (ca. 10 nm thick) of ZnO deposited onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals has been investigated by means of atomic force microscopy inspections and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn-K edge. The (0001) ZnO -parallel (112-bar0) sapphire interface yields the ZnAl 2 O 4 spinel and a quite stable film morphology. Instead, the (112-bar0) ZnO -parallel (11-bar02) sapphire and (0001) ZnO -parallel (0001) sapphire interfaces give origin to a new compound (or, possibly, even two new compounds), whose chemical nature is most likely that of a ZnO/Al 2 O 3 phase, with still unknown composition and crystal structure. In addition, in the last two cases, films collapse into prismatic twins of ca. 1 μm in dimension. These experimental findings demonstrate that in a solid-state reaction, the topotactical relationships between the reacting solids are of crucial importance not only in determining the kinetic and mechanisms of the process in its early stages, but even the chemical nature of the product. - Graphical abstract: EXAFS Fourier transforms and morphology of different reactive interfaces between ZnO and Al 2 O 3 .

  13. Effects of cooking on the cell walls (dietary fiber) of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) studied by polysaccharide linkage analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Sims, Ian M; Newman, Roger H; Melton, Laurence D

    2011-07-13

    Cell wall polysaccharides of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated before and after thermal processing. Linkage analysis of polysaccharides was done by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The linkage analysis showed the cell wall polysaccharide compositions of raw and cooked squash were similar. The total pectic polysaccharides (galacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan, arabinan, and arabinogalactan) contents of the cell walls of both raw and cooked squash were 39 mol %. The amounts of pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucan in the cell walls of squash showed little alteration on heating. The cellulose content of the raw and cooked cell walls was relatively high at 47 mol %, whereas the xyloglucan content was low at 4 mol %. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques were used to examine the molecular motion of the polysaccharides in the cell walls. The mobility of highly flexible galactan depends on the water content of the sample, but no difference was seen between raw and cooked samples. Likewise, the mobility of semimobile pectic polysaccharides was apparently unaltered by cooking. No change was detected in the rigid cellulose microfibrils on cooking.

  14. Investigating the effect of moisture protection on solid-state stability and dissolution of fenofibrate and ketoconazole solid dispersions using PXRD, HSDSC and Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Parijat; Lau, Grace; Ng, Wai Kiong; Widjaja, Effendi; Schreyer, Martin; Hanefeld, Andrea; Fischbach, Matthias; Saal, Christoph; Maio, Mario; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-09-01

    Enhanced dissolution of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in amorphous solid dispersions often diminishes during storage due to moisture-induced re-crystallization. This study aims to investigate the influence of moisture protection on solid-state stability and dissolution profiles of melt-extruded fenofibrate (FF) and ketoconazole (KC) solid dispersions. Samples were kept in open, closed and Activ-vials(®) to control the moisture uptake under accelerated conditions. During 13-week storage, changes in API crystallinity were quantified using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) (Rietveld analysis) and high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (HSDSC) and compared with any change in dissolution profiles. Trace crystallinity was observed by Raman microscopy, which otherwise was undetected by PXRD and HSDSC. Results showed that while moisture protection was ineffective in preventing the re-crystallization of amorphous FF, KC remained X-ray amorphous despite 5% moisture uptake. Regardless of the degree of crystallinity increase in FF, the enhanced dissolution properties were similarly diminished. Moisture uptake above 10% in KC samples also led to re-crystallization and significant decrease in dissolution rates. In conclusion, eliminating moisture sorption may not be sufficient in ensuring the stability of solid dispersions. Analytical quantification of API crystallinity is crucial in detecting subtle increase in crystallinity that can diminish the enhanced dissolution properties of solid dispersions.

  15. Effect of Substrate and Culture Conditions on the Production of Amylase and Pullulanase by Thermophilic Clostridium thermosulforegenes SVM17 in Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seenayya, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The endo acting enzyme with dual specificity towards α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic linkages are named as amylopullulanase. The production of extracellular thermostable amylopullulanase by Clostridium thermosulfurogenes SVM17 was investigated in solid state fermentation (SSF. Coarse type wheat bran was found to be the best substrate among ten easily available complex organic substrates evaluated. The production of enzyme reached a peak in 72 h. A high level of enzyme was produced in wheat bran moistened with PYE medium with a moisture content of 73 %. The optimum temperature and pH for amylopullulanase production was 60 °C and 7.5, respectively. An inoculum size of 20 % resulted in maximum production of amylopullulanase. Under the optimum conditions the strain showed a maximum of 17,227 and 21,526 U of amylase and pullulanase activity, respectively per kilogram of bacterial bran (BB. The enzyme production was high in SSF than that in SmF. The use of SSF for the production of thermostable amylopullulanase by C. thermosulfurogenes SVM17 could, therefore led to reduction in the overall cost of enzyme production.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation and environmental factors on the production of extracellular cellulase enzyme by trichoderma Spp. using banana waste under solid state bio processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafey, H.M.; Matar, Z.A.I.; Ghanem, S.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal strains were isolated from degraded banana waste including leaves, pseudo stems and skins. Many isolated strains showed cellulolytic activities using the plate screening medium. The hyper cellulolytic isolates were selected on the basis of the diameter of the hydrolysis zone surrounding the colonies and identified to the genus level. The identified strains were found to belong to one of the genera Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Pleurotus or Penicillium. The strain with the larger diameter of the hydrolysis zone was found to belong to the genus Trichoderma. It was further identified to be Trichoderma harzianum, which was selected to be studied. Banana waste including leaves and pseudo stems were inoculated by the selected fungus and the production of the carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and filter paper cellulase (FPCase) was followed during changes of the growth conditions under solid state fermentation. It was found that the two enzymes shared the same incubation temperature (25 degree C) and incubation period (18 days) for the maximum enzyme production. The gamma radiation dose of 1.5 KGy increased the production of CMCase produced on leaves by 4.0% and on pseudo stems by 5.6% and the production of FPCase produced on leaves by 2.4% and on pseudo stems by 2.3%. The results also suggest that FPCase and CMCase enzymes produced on leaves were higher than those produced from pseudo stems and the level of CMCase enzyme produced was higher than that of FPCase

  17. Effect of charge compensator ions (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) on Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+ phosphors by solid-state reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The Sr 2 MgSi 2 O 7 :Dy 3+ and Sr 2 MgSi 2 O 7 :Dy 3+ , R + (R + = Li + , Na + and K + ) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. The crystal structures of sintered phosphors were an akermanite-type structure which belongs to the tetragonal crystallography. The prepared phosphors were excited at 350 nm, and their corresponding emission spectrum were recorded at blue (482 nm) and yellow (575 nm) region due to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions, respectively, of Dy 3+ ions. Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates have been calculated for each sample and its value exhibited that overall emission is near white light. The possible mechanisms of discussed white light emitting phosphors were also investigated. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, color purity, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) were calculated. Values of color purity, CCT and CRI were found well within the defined acceptable range. With incorporating (R + = Li + , Na + and K + ) as charge compensator ions, the emission intensity of Sr 2 MgSi 2 O 7 :Dy 3+ can be obviously enhanced. The results indicate that prepared phosphors may be a potential application in display devices. (orig.)

  18. Effect of charge compensator ions (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) on Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+ phosphors by solid-state reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad

    2016-09-01

    The Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+ and Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+, R+ (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. The crystal structures of sintered phosphors were an akermanite-type structure which belongs to the tetragonal crystallography. The prepared phosphors were excited at 350 nm, and their corresponding emission spectrum were recorded at blue (482 nm) and yellow (575 nm) region due to the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions, respectively, of Dy3+ ions. Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates have been calculated for each sample and its value exhibited that overall emission is near white light. The possible mechanisms of discussed white light emitting phosphors were also investigated. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, color purity, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) were calculated. Values of color purity, CCT and CRI were found well within the defined acceptable range. With incorporating (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) as charge compensator ions, the emission intensity of Sr2MgSi2O7:Dy3+ can be obviously enhanced. The results indicate that prepared phosphors may be a potential application in display devices.

  19. Effect of Zr addition on structure and electrical properties of SmFeO3 prepared by solid state reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. Abdalla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Series of Sm1-xFe1-3xZr3xO3 (SFZO, where x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.033, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15, was synthesised by the solid state reaction method and sintered at 1500 °C in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to investigate the structure of the materials. The XRD results indicated that the pure SmFeO3 and Sm0.99Fe0.97Zr0.03O3 samples are single phase materials with an orthorhombic symmetry and Pbnm space group. The increase of Zr content (x ≥ 0.02 causes a phase change from single to two-phase system with orthorhombic (Pbnm and fluorite symmetry (Fm3m. The microstructural analyses showed that the Zr4+ doping resulted in an increase of porosity in the sintered SFZO compared to SmFeO3 sample. The direct current (DC electrical conductivity at 850 °C in air was found to be 0.045 S/cm and 0.007 S/cm for Sm0.99Fe0.97Zr0.03O3 and SmFeO3, respectively, showing a significant enhancement compared to the pure SmFeO3.

  20. Solid-state drawing of post-consumer isotactic poly(propylene): Effect of melt filtration and carbon black on structural and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijsterburg, B J; Jobse, P S; Spoelstra, A B; Goossens, J G P

    2016-08-01

    Post-consumer plastic waste obtained via mechanical recycling is usually applied in thick-walled products, because of the low mechanical strength due to the presence of contaminants. In fact, sorted post-consumer isotactic poly(propylene) (i-PP) can be considered as a blend of 95% i-PP and 5% poly(ethylene), with traces of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). By applying a treatment such as solid-state drawing (SSD) after melt extrusion, the polymer chains can be oriented in one direction, thereby improving the stiffness and tensile strength. In this research, molecular processes such as crystal break-up and chain orientation of these complex blends were monitored as a function of draw ratio. The melt filter mesh size - used to exclude rigid PET particles - and the addition of carbon black (CB) - often added for coloration in the recycling industry - were varied to investigate their influence on the SSD process. This research shows that despite the blend complexity, the molecular processes during SSD compare to virgin i-PP and that similar draw ratios can be obtained (λmax=20), albeit at reduced stiffness and strength as a result of the foreign polymers present in post-consumer i-PP. It is observed that the process stability improves with decreasing mesh size and that higher draw ratios can be obtained. The addition of carbon black, which resides in the dispersed PE phase, also stabilizes the SSD process. Compared to isotropic post-consumer i-PP, the stiffness can be improved by a factor 10 to over 11GPa, while the tensile strength can be improved by a factor 15-385MPa, which is approx. 70% of the maximum tensile strength achieved for virgin i-PP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  2. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  3. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  4. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  5. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  6. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  7. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  8. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  9. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  10. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  11. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  12. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  13. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  14. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  15. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  16. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  17. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  18. Advances in solid-state NMR of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foston, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Kongyin; Tang Baoyin; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Langping; Wang Songyan; Wu Hongchen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 μs waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  20. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  1. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  2. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  3. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  4. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  5. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  6. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  7. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  8. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  9. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  10. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  11. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  12. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  13. Solid-state dependent dissolution and oral bioavailability of piroxicam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Andres; Laidmäe, Ivo; Palo, Mirja; Meos, Andres; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Veski, Peep; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Kogermann, Karin

    2013-01-23

    The aim of this study was to gain understanding about the effects of different solid-state forms of a poorly water-soluble piroxicam on drug dissolution and oral bioavailability in rats. Three different solid-state forms of piroxicam were studied: anhydrate I (AH), monohydrate (MH), and amorphous form in solid dispersion (SD). In addition, the effect of a new polymeric excipient Soluplus® (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer) on oral bioavailability of piroxicam was investigated. Significant differences in the dissolution and oral bioavailability were found between the solid-state forms of piroxicam. Amorphous piroxicam in SD showed the fastest dissolution in vitro and a solid-state transformation to MH in the dissolution medium. Despite the presence of solid-state transformation, SD exhibited the highest rate and extent of oral absorption in rats. Oral bioavailability of other two solid-state forms decreased in the order AH and MH. The use of Soluplus® was found to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of piroxicam in rats. The present study shows the importance of solid-state form selection for oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of crystallinity on cell growth in semi-crystalline microcellular foams by solid-state process: modeling and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanpanah, Elham; Ghaffarian Anbaran, S. Reza

    2017-11-01

    This study establishes a model and simulation scheme to describe the effect of crystallinity as one of the most effective parameters on cell growth phenomena in a solid batch foaming process. The governing model of cell growth dynamics, based on the well-known ‘Cell model’, is attained in details. To include the effect of crystallinity in the model, the properties of the polymer/gas mixtures (i.e. solubility, diffusivity, surface tension and viscosity) are estimated by modifying relations to consider the effect of crystallinity. A finite element-finite difference (FEFD) method is employed to solve the highly nonlinear and coupled equations of cell growth dynamics. The proposed simulation is able to evaluate all properties of the system at the given process condition and uses them to calculate the cell size, pressure and gas concentration gradient with time. A high-density polyethylene/nitrogen (HDPE/N2) system is used herein as a case study. Comparing the simulation results with the others works and experimental results verify the accuracy of the simulation scheme. The cell growth is a complicated combination of several phenomena. This study attempted to reach a better understanding of cell growth trend, driving and retarding forces and the effect of crystallinity on them.

  15. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  17. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  18. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  19. Applications of solid state ionics for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G.

    1988-09-01

    An overview is presented of solid state battery systems, especially those based on inorganic materials such as AgI, CuI and LiI. Emphasis is focussed on the structural and other modifications that are required to produce room temperature, compacted powder electrolytes with enhanced conductivity. The implications for primary batteries of discharge-induced changes of the local structure surrounding the mobile species are considered with reference to cuprous electrolytes. The use of these materials for other applications is discussed.

  20. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  1. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300 0 C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO 4 :Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot-pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150 0 C prior to first use dosimeters

  2. Solid State Research, 1980:4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Fetterman G. A. Koepf* P. F. Goldsmith6 B.J. Clifton D. Buhl* N. R. Eriekson" D.D. Peck N. McAvoy* P. F. Tannenwald Accepted by Science St40... Fetterman 22 **** -^m^m-i^jm^ -«%, j». ■*** REFERENCES 1. Solid State Research Report, Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (1980:2), pp. 11-12. DTK? AD-A092724...17. M.G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, and J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2304(1979). - 18. W. A.M. Blumberg, U.R. Fetterman , D.D. Peck, and P.F

  3. Effects of carbon source and carbon content on electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C prepared by one-step solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xuebu [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610066 (China); Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Lin Ziji [China National Quality Supervision and Inspection Center for Alcoholic Beverage Products and Processed Food, Luzhou, Sichuan 646100 (China); Yang Kerun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Hua, Yongjian [China Aviation Lithium Battery Co. Ltd., Luoyang, Henan 471009 (China); Deng Zhenghua, E-mail: zhdeng@cioc.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > A simple route to prepare the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C by one-step solid-state reaction. > Carbon source and carbon content are two important factors on the electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C. > As-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C under optimized conditions shows excellent electrochemical performances. - Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were synthesized by one-step solid-state reaction method using four commonly used organic compounds or organic polymers as carbon source, i.e., polyacrylate acid (PAA), citric acid (CA), maleic acid (MA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The physical characteristics of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, particle size distribution and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry techniques. Their electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammograms, electrochemical impedance spectra, constant current charge-discharge and rate charge-discharge. These analyses indicated that the carbon source and carbon content have a great effect on the physical and electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. An ideal carbon source and appropriate carbon content effectively improved the electrical contact between the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles, which enhanced the discharge capacity and rate capability of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. PAA was the best carbon source for the synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. When the carbon content was 3.49 wt.% (LiOH.H{sub 2}O/PAA molar ratio of 1), as-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C showed the maximum discharge capacity. At 0.2 C, initial capacity of the optimized sample was 168.6 mAh g{sup -1} with capacity loss of 2.8% after 50 cycles. At 8 and 10 C, it showed discharge capacities of 143.5 and 132.7 mAh g{sup -1}, with capacity loss of 8.7 and 9.9% after 50 cycles

  4. Effect of Acetylene Black Content in Li4Ti5O12 Xerogel Solid-State Anode Materials on Half-Cell Li-ion Batteries Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, N. M.; Priyono, B.; Syahrial, A. Z.; Subhan, A.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of Acetylene Black (AB) additive contents in lithium titanate/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode on Li-ion Batteries performance is studied in this work. The LTO active material for Li-ion batteries anode was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method to form TiO2 xerogel continued by mixing process with LiOH in ball-mill and then sintered to obtain spinel LTO. The LTO powder is characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The spinel LTO and TiO2 rutile were detected by XRD diffractogram. The LTO powder is in the form of agglomerates structure. This powder then was mixed with PVDF binder (10%wt) and AB additives with various amount from 10%wt (LTO2 Ac-1), 12%wt (LTO2 Ac-2), and 15%wt (LTO2 Ac-3) of total weight solid content to form electrode sheet. Half-cell coin battery was made with lithium metal foil as a counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge discharge (CD) test used to examine the battery performance. The highest resistance value is obtained in LTO2 Ac-3 sample with 15%wt of AB. It might be caused by the formation of side reaction product on electrode surface at initial cycle due to high reactivity of LTO2 Ac-3 electrode. The highest initial capacity at CV test and CD test was obtained in LTO2 Ac-1 (10%wt AB) sample, due to the best proportion of active material content in the compound. While, in the charge-discharge test at high current rate, the best sample rate-capability performance belongs to LTO2 Ac-3 sample (15%wt AB), which still have 24.12 mAh/g of discharge capacity at 10 C with 71.34% capacity loss.

  5. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  7. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  8. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  9. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  10. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  11. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High conductive, long-term durable, anhydrous proton conductive solid-state electrolyte based on a metal-organic framework impregnated with binary ionic liquids: Synthesis, characteristic and effect of anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Han, Shu-Yan; Liu, Rui-Heng; Chen, Teng-Fei; Bi, Kai-Lun; Liang, Jian-Bo; Deng, Yu-Heng; Wan, Chong-Qing

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating ionic liquids (abbreviated as ILs) into porous metal-organic framework (MOF) to obtain ILs@MOF nanocomposites is documented as a feasible method to achieve new type of anhydrous proton conductor with high performance. We newly synthesized a series of ILs with different acid counter anions (R-SO3-) and their ILs@MOF hybrid materials, i.e. SA-EIMS@MIL-101, MSA-EIMS@MIL-101 and PTSA-EIMS@MIL-101 (SA = sulfate acid, MSA = methanesulfonate acid, PTSA = p-toluenesulfonate acid, EIMS = 1-(1-ethyl-3-imidazolium)propane-3-sulfonate). Such hybrid materials displayed as anhydrous proton conduction with long-term durability even heated at 150 °C open to air. σ value of SA-EIMS@MIL-101 is up to 1.89 × 10-3 S cm-1, being in the range of the most conductive MOF-based materials. MOF support exhibited favorable proton transport and long-term retention for ILs. Anion volumes of R-SO3- displayed significant effects on the proton conductivity of such hybrid ILs@MOF materials. The smaller the van der Waals volume of R-SO3- is, the higher the conductivity of ILs@MOF is. This work suggests that the combination of a variety of the incorporated ILs and a MOF framework would afford high proton transport and gives an idea to explore the safe, anhydrous, solid-state electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  13. The Effect of Acid Pre-Treatment using Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid in The Production of Biogas from Rice Husk during Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Syafrudin; Keumala, Cut Fadhila; Matin, Hasfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Pretreatment during biogas production aims to assist in degradation of lignin contained in the rice husk. In this study, pretreatment which is used are acid and biological pretreatment. Acid pretreatment was performed using acetic acid and nitric acid with a variety levels of 3% and 5%. While biological pretreatment as a control variable. Acid pretreatment was conducted by soaking the rice straw for 24 hours with acid variation. The study was conducted using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) with 21% TS. Biogas production was measured using water displacement method every two days for 60 days at room temperature conditions. The results showed that acid pretreatment gave an effect on the production of biogas yield. The yield of the biogas produced by pretreatment of acetic acid of 5% and 3% was 43.28 and 45.86 ml/gr.TS. While the results without pretreatment biogas yield was 29.51 ml/gr.TS. The results yield biogas produced by pretreatment using nitric acid of 5% and 3% was 12.14 ml/gr.TS and 21.85 ml/gr.TS. Results biogas yield with acetic acid pretreatment was better than the biogas yield results with nitric acid pretreatment.

  14. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  15. Solid state lasers: a major direction in quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the report is to analyze development of solid-state lasers (SSL) as one of the most important avenues of the quantum electronics. The obtained intensity of a laser radiation at the focus equal to 5x10 1 0 W/cm 2 (the field intensity equal to about 5x10 1 0 V/cm 2 ) is noted to enable to observe nonlinear quantum- electrodynamic effects. Besides, one managed to increase the SSL efficiency conventionally equal to maximum 3% up to 48-50%. Paper describes new types of SSLs, namely, the crystalline fiber lasers with the lateral gradient of the index of refraction [ru

  16. Solid state theory. An introduction. 2. rev. and ext. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields. (orig.)

  17. Quantum theory of the solid state part B

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed

  18. Arrowroot as a novel substrate for ethanol production by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-xiang; Tang, Qing-li; Zhu, Zuo-hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Feng [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Ethanol production from Canna edulis Ker was successfully carried out by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of C. edulis were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The effect of inert carrier (corncob and rice bran) on ethanol fermentation and the kinetics of solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was investigated. It was found that C. edulis was an alternative substrate for ethanol production, 10.1% (v/v) of ethanol concentration can attained when 40 g corncob and 10 g rice bran per 100 g C. edulis powder were added for ethanol fermentation. No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. There was no wastewater produced in the process of ethanol production from C. edulis with solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the ethanol yield of more than 0.28 tonne per one tonne feedstock was achieved. This is first report for ethanol production from C. edulis powder. (author)

  19. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  20. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  1. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  2. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  3. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  4. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  5. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  6. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  7. Kinetic study of solid-state processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Jiri; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for kinetic analysis of solid-state processes has been developed and the criteria capable of classifying different processes are explored. They provide a useful tool for the determination of the most suitable kinetic model. The method has been applied to the analysis of calorimetric data corresponding to the crystallization processes in amorphous ZrO 2 . It is found that the crystallization kinetics of amorphous powder sample exhibits a complex behavior under non-isothermal conditions. A two-parameter model provides a satisfactory description of the crystallization process for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. This enables better control of crystallization extent in fine ZrO 2 powders that is important for preparation of zirconia ceramics with defined properties. (author)

  8. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  9. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  10. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  11. Muon beams, used for studying the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The positive muon provides a remarkable spectroscopic probe of the solid state. Implanted in virtually any material, its spin polarisation may be monitored to define the sites it occupies in lattices or molecules and to report on local structure and dynamics. Wide ranging applications in solid state science are illustrated in this article by examples in magnetics, chemistry and quantum diffusion. Primarily, the muon is a sensitive microscopic magnetometer: this elementary particle has spin 1/2 and a magnetic moment about three times that of the proton. The frequencies of its resonance or precession signals provide a direct and accurate measurement of local magnetic or hyperfine fields. Its relaxation functions characterise the distribution in space or the fluctuation in time of these fields. The muon is rarely a passive probe, however, since it represents a defect carrying unit positive charge. In fact its interactions with the local environment are commonly the main focus of interest; studies of this most fundamental of defects have eliminated complacency in several areas. The interactions, chemical and elastic, are essentially identical with those of the proton, so that their study is invaluable in situations where hydrogen cannot be detected by conventional spectroscopies. Alternatively, when muon and proton behaviour may be compared, the comparison reveals a variety of kinetic and dynamic isotope effects: the muon has about one ninth the proton mass. This order of magnitude ratio greatly facilitates identification of specifically quantum effects, ie those including zero point energy or tunnelling. (author)

  12. UV sensitivity of various solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Zeljka; Ranogajec-Komor, Maria; Miljanic, Saveta

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The light sensitivity is an important characteristic of solid state passive dosimeters used in individual, clinical and environmental dosimetry. Light sensitivity stands for the response directly induced by visible or UV light in a fully annealed material. For the above mentioned applications a negligible light sensitivity is an advantage. However, high light sensitivity and linear response allows the use of detectors as UV dosimeters. For this purpose various TL detectors and the glass element of the RPL dosemeter type SC-1 were systematically investigated after exposure to UV light (254 and 366 nm) as a function of time. The following solid state detectors were investigated relative to TLD-100: Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,Cu,Si, Al 2 O 3 :C and the glass element of RPL dosimeter. UV irradiations were performed with Camag UV lamp at 254 nm and at 366 nm. The illumination times were 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Day light illumination was also carried out at room temperature over time period of several hours up to 2 weeks. The UV light response of each detector was compared to the response obtained after irradiation with 137 Cs. Al 2 O 3 :C, showed high light sensitivity; after 10 minutes illumination with 254 nm UV light the response was equivalent to 130 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation. The 254 nm UV response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200 A), as well as TLD-700H and Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P were proportional to the time of illumination. The responses after 10 min UV illumination were equivalent to 0.001 mGy, 0.01 mGy and 0.1 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation, respectively. The complete SC-1 RPL dosimeter is insensitive to light because the glass element is encapsulated in light protected holder throughout the automatic evaluation process following the annealing (irradiation, preheat, readout). The responses of the previously annealed glass element after 20 min illumination with 254 nm and 366 nm UV light were equivalent to 45μSv and 3 μSv of 137 Cs gamma

  13. Effect of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the electron transport and recombination kinetics in ionic gel electrolytes based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Tao, Li; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A series of novel IGEs based on 12-hydroxystearicacid as LMOG were prepared. •The QS-DSSCs exhibit excellent stability during the accelerated aging tests. •The influence of Im + alkyl chain length on the electron kinetic process is investigated. -- Abstract: A series of stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs) are prepared by the 12-hydroxystearicacid as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to gelate the ionic liquid with different alkyl chain lengths (3, 4, and 7). The influence of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations (Im + ) on the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination are investigated by Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). It is found that the ionic gel electrolytes (IGEs) with different alkyl chain lengths of Im + can influence the competitive adsorption effects of imidazolium cations (Im + ) and Li + , and further affect the charge diffusion, the electron recombination/transport processes, the shift of TiO 2 conduction band edge and surface states distribution. The IGE with longer alkyl chain length of Im + can prolong the electron recombination lifetime, promote the incidental photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and the short circuit photocurrent density (J sc ). An excellent QS-DSSC based on the IGE with the longer alkyl chain of Im + gives the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency. Moreover, all the QS-DSSCs based on IGEs exhibit excellent durability without losing their photovoltaic performances during the accelerated thermal and light–soaking test. These results are very important to the researches on the electrochemical mechanism and application of QS-DSSCs based on IGEs

  14. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Cássia Teixeira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC and submerged (SmC cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  15. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  16. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  17. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  18. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  19. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  20. Automatic measurement for solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Since in solid state track detectors, their tracks are measured with a microscope, observers are forced to do hard works that consume time and labour. This causes to obtain poor statistic accuracy or to produce personal error. Therefore, many researches have been done to aim at simplifying and automating track measurement. There are two categories in automating the measurement: simple counting of the number of tracks and the requirements to know geometrical elements such as the size of tracks or their coordinates as well as the number of tracks. The former is called automatic counting and the latter automatic analysis. The method to generally evaluate the number of tracks in automatic counting is the estimation of the total number of tracks in the total detector area or in a field of view of a microscope. It is suitable for counting when the track density is higher. The method to count tracks one by one includes the spark counting and the scanning microdensitometer. Automatic analysis includes video image analysis in which the high quality images obtained with a high resolution video camera are processed with a micro-computer, and the tracks are automatically recognized and measured by feature extraction. This method is described in detail. In many kinds of automatic measurements reported so far, frequently used ones are ''spark counting'' and ''video image analysis''. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  2. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  3. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  4. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  5. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  6. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  7. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  8. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  9. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  10. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  11. Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced

  12. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  13. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  14. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  15. Harwell's atomic, molecular and solid state computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.H.

    1976-02-01

    This document is intended to introduce the computational facilities available in the fields of atomic, molecular the solid state theory on the IBM370/165 at Harwell. The programs have all been implemented and thoroughly tested by the Theory of Solid State Materials Group. (author)

  16. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  17. Gamma sterilization of cefotaxime sodium in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Aladawi, M. A.; Hammoudeh, A.; Albaroudi, H.

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the solid state of Cefotaxime sodium salt (C 1 8H 1 6N 8 Na 2 O 7 S 3 ) as a member of the third generation of cephalosporin. Solid Cefotaxime as a pharmaceutical dosage was exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 kGy in 60 Co package irradiator. Physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium have been investigated by using UV (Ultra Violet) and IR (Infra Red) spectroscopic, pH, solubility and DSC (Deferential Scanning Calorimetric) methods. The biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium was investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a strain of bacteria. The obtained results indicated that gamma irradiation have no effect on physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium, No significant differences were found between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in the biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium on E. Coli. (Author)

  18. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  19. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  20. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  2. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of

  3. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  4. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  5. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  6. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  7. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  8. Preparation and characterization of bismuth ruthenate pyrochlore via solid state reaction and sol-gel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuree Sansernnivet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores, potential cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells(ITSOFCs, were prepared via solid-state and sol-gel method. Effects of the preparation routes and conditions on the phase and microstructures of the materials were investigated in this study using XRD and SEM. The study showed that the preparation method and the adding sequence of the starting meterials have a significant effect on the crystal phase and the particle size obtained. Sol-gel synthesis could yield a material with only pyrochlore structure, i.e. Bi2Ru2O7, while the solid state method yielded powder with a small amount of the secondary RuO2 phase. The sol-gel synthesis resulted in materialswith a finer particle size (~0.3-1.0 μm compared to powder synthesized via the solid state reaction method.

  9. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  10. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  11. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  12. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inactivation of a solid-state detergent protease by hydrogen peroxide vapor and humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biran, Suzan; Jensen, Anker Degn; Kiil, Søren

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study on solid-state stability of a detergent protease (Savinase®) is reported. The inactivation kinetics of technical grade enzyme powder was determined as a function of gas phase H2O2 concentration and humidity by employing a quick assay running over few hours instead of several...... weeks as typical in industry. The results indicated that enzymes adsorbed significant amounts of moisture and H2O2 during exposure. The amount of adsorbed H2O2 did not depend on humidity in the gas stream, which implied that water and H2O2 were not competing for the same adsorption sites. Inactivation...... of the solid-state enzyme was caused by the mutual effect of increasing hydration and H2O2 (g) concentration. No auto-proteolytic activity or covalently bound aggregate formation was detected. A simple mechanism for solid-state enzyme oxidation was proposed and the kinetic parameters in the resulting rate...

  14. Effects of calcination temperature on phase formation and particle size of Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} powder synthesized by solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonpattaratkit, Penphitcha, E-mail: p.amonpattaratkit@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Ananta, Supon, E-mail: suponananta@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-05-15

    The solid-state mixed oxide method via a rapid vibro-milling technique was explored for the preparation of single-phase Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} nanopowders. Phase formation of zinc niobate was investigated as a function of calcination temperature by using a combination of thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer (TG/DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Morphology, particle size and chemical composition of the powders were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) technique. The obtained results clearly revealed the influences of calcination temperature on phase formation and particle size of Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} nanopowder. - Highlights: ► Single phase Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} was firstly prepared by solid-state mixed oxide method via a rapid vibro-milling technique. ► The influences of calcination temperature on phase formation and particle size were investigated. ► Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} powders were characterized by TG–DTA, XRD, SEM and EDX.

  15. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise

  16. Photoemission from solids: the transition from solid-state to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As the photon energy is increased, photoemission from solids undergoes a slow transition from solid-state to atomic behavior. However, throughout the energy range hν = 10 to 1000 eV or higher both types of phenomena are present. Thus angle-resolved photoemission can only be understood quantitatively if each experimenter recognizes the presence of band-structure, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron asymmetry effects. The quest for this understanding will build some interesting bridges between solid-state and atomic physics and should also yield important new insights about the phenomena associated with photoemission

  17. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  18. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  19. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Solid State Ionics: Recent Advances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become an important research tool in Solid State Ionics. Some new developments are highlighted: new methods of automatic parameter extraction from impedance measurements are briefly discussed. The Kramers–Kronig data validation test presents another

  1. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  2. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  3. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  4. The distribution choice for the threshold of solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    Either normal distribution or Weibull distribution can be accepted as sample distribution of the threshold of solid state relay. By goodness-of-fit method, bootstrap method and Bayesian method, the Weibull distribution is chosen later. (authors)

  5. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  6. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  7. A Low Power, Solid State, Method of Oxygen Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of the work prior to the start of this project is the planar monolith - allowing for solid state oxygen production at pressures up to 300 psig....

  8. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  9. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  10. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  11. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  12. Proceedings of the DAE solid state physics symposium. V. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, is organized annually. The topics covered are phase transitions, soft condensed matter, nano-materials, experimental techniques, instrumentation and solid state devices, superconductivity, magnetism, electronic structure and phonons, semiconductor physics, transport properties, surface - interface and thin films, liquids, glasses and amorphous systems, etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  14. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  15. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  16. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  17. Modelling fungal solid-state fermentation: The role of inactivation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M. van; Knol, W.; Tramper, J.; Geelhoed, W.; Peeters, M.; Rinzema, A.

    1999-01-01

    The theoretical mathematical models described in this paper are used to evaluate the effects of fungal biomass inactivation kinetics on a non- isothermal tray solid-state fermentation (SSF). The inactivation kinetics, derived from previously reported experiments done under isothermal conditions and

  18. Partial purification and characterization of amylase enzyme under solid state fermentation from Monascus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi Tallapragada

    2017-06-01

    It can be concluded that the fungus M. sanguineus is a good source of amylase production under solid state fermentation. Application of amylase produced by M. sanguineus in detergent industry was also carried out and it was proven very effective in stain removal from the fabrics.

  19. Development of the plastic solid-dye cell for tunable solid-state dye lasers and study on its optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Do Kyeong; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Jung, E. C.; Kim, Hyun Su; Lim, Gwon

    2001-01-01

    we have fabricated solid-state dyes with PMMA and sol-gel materials. We developed single longitudianl mode solid-state dye laser with the linewidth of less than 500MHz. We have constructed a self-seeded laser and observed the increase of the output power because of self-seeding effect. We investigated the operating characteristics of the dualwave laser oscillator and DFDL with solid-state dyes. And we have constructed the 3-color solid-state dye laser oscillator and amplifier system and observed 3-color operation. We also improved the laser oscliiator with disk-type solid-state dye cell which can be translated and rotated with the help of the two stepping motors. With the help of computer control, we could constantly changed the illuminated area of the dye cell and, therefore, were able to achieve long time operation and to use almost the entire region of the solid-state dye cell.

  20. New solid state opening switches for repetitive pulsed power technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, S K; Mesyats, G A; Rukin, S N; Slovikovskii, B G; Turov, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Electrophysics

    1997-12-31

    In 1991 the authors discovered a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) effect that occurs in p{sup +}-p-n-n{sup +} silicon structures at a current density of up to 60 kA/cm{sup 2}. This effect was used to develop high-power semiconductor opening switches in intermediate inductive storage circuits. The breaking power of the opening switches was as high as 5 GW, the interrupted current being up to 45 kA, reverse voltage up to 1 MV and the current interruption time between 10 and 60 ns. The opening switches were assembled from quantity-produced Russian-made rectifying diodes type SDL with hard recovery characteristic. On the basis of experimental and theoretical investigations of the SOS effect, new SOS diodes were designed and manufactured by the Electrophysical Institute. The paper gives basic parameters of the SOS diodes. The new diodes offer higher values of interrupted current and shorter times of current interruption together with a considerable increase in the energy switching efficiency. The new SOS diodes were used to develop repetitive all-solid-state pulsed generators with an output voltage of up to 250 kV, pulse repetition rate up to 5 kHz, and pulse duration between 10 and 30 ns. (author). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  2. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  3. Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This text treats electronic transport in the regime where conventional textbook models are no longer applicable, including the effect of electronic phase coherence, energy quantization and single-electron charging. This second edition is completely updated and expanded, and now comprises new chapters on spin electronics and quantum information processing, transport in inhomogeneous magnetic fields, organic/molecular electronics, and applications of field effect transistors. The book also provides an overview of semiconductor processing technologies and experimental techniques. With a number of

  4. High speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yang, Ping; Chen, Shanqiu; Ma, Lifang; Xu, Bing

    2008-03-01

    A high speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser beam cleanup system has been built. This system consists of a core2 Industrial PC (IPC) using Linux and real-time Linux (RT-Linux) operation system (OS), a PCI image grabber, a D/A card. More often than not, the phase aberrations of the output beam from solid-state lasers vary fast with intracavity thermal effects and environmental influence. To compensate the phase aberrations of solid-state lasers successfully, a high speed real-time wavefront processing system is presented. Compared to former systems, this system can improve the speed efficiently. In the new system, the acquisition of image data, the output of control voltage data and the implementation of reconstructor control algorithm are treated as real-time tasks in kernel-space, the display of wavefront information and man-machine conversation are treated as non real-time tasks in user-space. The parallel processing of real-time tasks in Symmetric Multi Processors (SMP) mode is the main strategy of improving the speed. In this paper, the performance and efficiency of this wavefront processing system are analyzed. The opened-loop experimental results show that the sampling frequency of this system is up to 3300Hz, and this system can well deal with phase aberrations from solid-state lasers.

  5. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  6. Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, C T; Matthews, D H; Ashe, M; Jaramillo, P; McMichael, F C

    2010-01-01

    With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

  7. Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, C T; Matthews, D H; Ashe, M; Jaramillo, P; McMichael, F C, E-mail: cth@cmu.ed [Green Design Institute, Carnegie Mellon University (United States)

    2010-01-15

    With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

  8. Criticality monitoring with digital systems and solid state neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoite, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    A commercially available system for criticality monitoring combines the well established technology of digital radiation monitoring with state-of-the art detector systems capable of detecting criticality excursions of varying length and intensity with a high degree of confidence. The field microcomputer servicing the detector clusters contains hardware and software to acquire detector information in both the digital count rate and bit sensing modes supported by the criticality detectors. In both cases special criticality logic in the field microcomputer is used to determine the validity of the criticality event. The solid-state neutron detector consists of a 6 LiF wafer coupled to a diffused-junction charged particle detector. Alpha particles resulting from (n,α) interactions within the lithium wafer produce a pulsed signal corresponding to neutron intensity. Special detector circuitry causes the setting of a criticality bit recognizable by the microcomputer should neutron field intensities either exceed a hardware selectable frequency or saturate the detector resulting in a high current condition. These two modes of criticality sensing, in combination with the standard method of comparing an operator selectable alarm setpoint with the detector count rate, results in a criticality system capable of effective operation under the most demanding criticality monitoring conditions

  9. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels

  10. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  11. Solid-State Threshold Accelerometer Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-28

    adhered to another gold surface and *welded.’ Literature on surface wear and friction effects with various surface treatments often show that gold-on...LASTING 0.1 SECONDS.i i. -- S *.I CIC ~14. MATERIAL - ALUMINUM CROSSECTION - F/;%f 蕻 n, . t -. to1 77/ - CA6 /je /24 h,6qe 3/,/.o Z#0 1/c 0, &o

  12. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  13. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  15. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  16. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  17. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  18. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  19. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  20. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  1. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  2. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  3. Space-time complexity in solid state models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this Workshop on symmetry-breaking it is appropriate to include the evolving fields of nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems in which transitions to and between various degrees of ''complexity'' (including ''chaos'') occur in time or space or both. These notions naturally bring together phenomena of pattern formation and chaos and therefore have ramifications for a huge array of natural sciences - astrophysics, plasmas and lasers, hydrodynamics, field theory, materials and solid state theory, optics and electronics, biology, pattern recognition and evolution, etc. Our particular concerns here are with examples from solid state and condensed matter

  4. Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Akana, G.L.; Gower, E.J.; Hawkins, S.A.; Hickman, B.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Brooksby, C.A.; /NONE - BECHTEL NEVADA LAS VEGAS; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Nguyen, M.N.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  5. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-01-01

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems

  6. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-05-05

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  7. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  8. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  9. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  10. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  11. The search for solid state fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research puts severe demands on the laser driver. In recent years large, multibeam Nd:glass lasers have provided a flexible experimental tool for exploring fusion target physics because of their high powers, variable pulse length and shape, wavelength flexibility using harmonic generation, and adjustable that Nd:glass lasers can be scaled up to provide a single-phase, multi-megajoule, high-gain laboratory microfusion facility, and gas-cooled slab amplifiers with laser diode pump sources are viable candidates for an efficient, high repetition rate, megawatt driver for an ICF reactor. In both applications requirements for energy storage and energy extraction drastically limit the choice of lasing media. Nonlinear optical effects and optical damage are additional design constraints. New laser architectures applicable to ICF drivers and possible laser materials, both crystals and glasses, are surveyed. 20 refs., 2 figs

  12. Miniature solid-state gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, W.N.; Cross, L.E.; Steyert, W.A.

    1985-05-07

    A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described. 9 figs.

  13. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  14. Advanced Solid-state Lasers - to Ignition and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.; Bibeau, C.; Orth, C; Meier, W.R.; Payne, S.; Sutton, S.

    1998-01-01

    This brochure concentrates on the diode-pumped solid-state laser. Surrounding it on the cover are some of the primary technological developments that make it a candidate for the means by which inertial confinement fusion will create inertial fusion energy as an inexhaustible source of electric power

  15. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  16. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  17. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  18. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  19. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  20. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  1. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  2. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  3. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  4. Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.

  5. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker .... authors, a slowly utilizable carbon source is preferable for high lovastatin ...

  6. Bayesian Analysis for EMP Survival Probability of Solid State Relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    The principle to estimate the parameter p of binomial distribution by Bayesian method and the several non-informative prior are introduced. The survival probability of DC solid state relay under current injection at certain amplitude is obtained by this method. (authors)

  7. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  8. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  9. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  10. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  11. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  12. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  13. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  14. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  15. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  16. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  17. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  18. Microelectronics: Atoms diffusion in solid state. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Higuera, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamentals on which the technology for the diffusion of impurities in solid state is based, is presented. This technology is widely used to produce controlled and localized concentrations of atoms of the mentioned impurities in base solids in order to obtain those characteristics which may lead to the implementation of electronic, optoelectronic and electrooptic devices. (Author)

  19. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  20. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  1. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  2. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  3. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Getter Incorporation into Cast Stone and Solid State Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pearce, Carolyn I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is collecting relevant available data on waste forms for use as a supplemental immobilization technology, to provide the additional capacity needed to treat low-activity waste (LAW) in Hanford Site tanks and complete the tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost-effective manner. One candidate supplemental waste form, fabricated using a low-temperature process, is a cementitious grout called Cast Stone. Cast Stone has been under investigation for this application at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since initial screening tests in FY13. This report is the culmination of work to lower the diffusivities of Tc and I from Cast Stone using getters. Getters are compounds added to a system designed to selectively sequester a species of interest to provide increased stability to the species. The work contained within this report is related to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment. However, this work contains valuable information which may be used in performance assessment maintenance past FY17, and in future waste form development. This report on performance characterization of Tc and I getters in Cast Stone fabricated with simulated LAW covers several areas of interest and major findings to WRPS: investigating performance of potassium metal sulfide (KMS-2-SS) and tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) as Tc getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; investigating performance of silver exchanged zeolite (Ag-Z) and argentite (Arg) as I getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; utilizing sequential addition of Tc and I getters to overcome any deleterious interactions between the getters in solution; determining, for the first time, Tc distribution within the cured Cast Stone and its evolution during leaching; and performing solid state characterization of getters and Cast Stone samples to support leach test findings and develop a

  5. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    SiO[symbol]) ceramics via solid state sintering of Zr)[symbol] and SiO[symbol] and the effect of dopants on the zircon yield / U. Dhanayake, B. S. B. Karunaratne. Preparation and properties of vanadium doped ZnTe cermet thin films / M. S. Hossain, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Dynamical properties and electronic structure of lithium-ion conductor / M. Kobayashi ... [et al.]. Cuprous ion conducting Montmorillonite-Polypyrrole nanocomposites / D. M. M. Krishantha ... [et al.]. Frequency dependence of conductivity studies on a newly synthesized superionic solid solution/mixed system: [0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl] / R. K. Nagarch, R. Kumar. Diffuse X-ray and neutron scattering from Powder PbS / X. Lian ... [et al.]. Electron affinity and work function of Pyrolytic MnO[symbol] thin films prepared from Mn(C[symbol]H[symbol]O[symbol])[symbol].4H[symbol]) / A. K. M. Farid Ul Islam, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Crystal structure and heat capacity of Ba[symbol]Ca[symbol]Nb[symbol]O[symbol] / T. Shimoyama ... [et al.]. XPS and impedance investigations on amorphous vanadium oxide thin films / M. Kamalanathan ... [et al.]. Sintering and mixed electronic-ionic conducting properties of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]NiO[symbol] derived from a polyaminocarboxylate complex precursor / D.-P. Huang ... [et al.]. Preparation and characteristics of ball milled MgH[symbol] + M (M= Fe, VF[symbol] and FeF[symbol]) nanocomposites for hydrogen storage / N. W. B. Balasooriya, Ch. Poinsignon. Structural studies of oxysulfide glasses by X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation / R. Prasada Rao, M. Seshasayee, J. Dheepa. Synthesis, sintering and oxygen ionic conducting properties of Bi[symbol]V[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / F. Zhang ... [et al.]. Synthesis and transport characteristics of PbI[symbol]-Ag[symbol]O-Cr[symbol]O[symbol] superioninc system / S. A. Suthanthiraraj, V. Mathew. Electronic conductivity of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ga[symbol]Mg[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] electrolytes / K. Yamaji ... [et al.] -- pt. II. Electrode materials

  6. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  7. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten-thousand hour LM

  8. Solid-State Electrochromic Device Consisting of Amorphous WO3 and Various Thin Oxide Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Makoto; Shimizu, Isamu; Inoue, Eiichi

    1980-11-01

    A mixed oxide containing Cr2O3 was introduced into an amorphous WO3 solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) in order to improve its colour memory effect. The electrochromic characteristics were greatly affected by the chemical constituents of a dielectric layer on the a-WO3 layer. Particularly, long memory effect and low power dissipation were attained in a solid-state ECD consisting of a-WO3 and Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5(50 wt.%). Some electrochromic characteristics of the a-WO3/Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5 ECD and the role of V2O5 were investigated.

  9. Recoil chemistry and solid state exchange in cobalt complexes : a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshesh, V.

    1981-01-01

    During the last thirty years considerable work has been done on various aspects of recoil chemistry and solid state exchange in cobalt complexes. Several interesting features such as 'oxygen effect', 'water of hydration effect', 'dilution with isomorphous materials', etc., have been observed. These data led workers to reject the older hypothesis based on 'fragmentation' and 'recombination' and suggest models based on exciton or electron induced exchange. However some recent data show that perhaps both the processes viz., thermal annealing in n-irradiated systems and solid state exchange are not bulk processes. This has led the author to propose a new model. In this model greater emphasis is placed on dissociation reactions followed by recombination and/or exchange reactions. (author)

  10. Multivariate data analysis as a fast tool in evaluation of solid state phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Miroshnyk, Inna; Karjalainen, Milja

    2006-01-01

    of information generated can be overwhelming and the need for more effective data analysis tools is well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis, in particular principal component analysis (PCA), for fast analysis of solid state information. The data sets...... the molecular level interpretation of the structural changes related to the loss of water, as well as interpretation of the phenomena related to the crystallization. The critical temperatures or critical time points were identified easily using the principal component analysis. The variables (diffraction angles...... or wavenumbers) that changed could be identified by the careful interpretation of the loadings plots. The PCA approach provides an effective tool for fast screening of solid state information....

  11. Optimization of culture conditions for tannase production by Aspergillus sp. gm4 in solid state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Maia, Natália da Costa; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Universidade de São Paulo; Resende, Mário Lúcio Vilela de; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes; Universidade Federal de Lavras

    2015-01-01

    The production of tannase by Aspergillus sp. GM4 under solid-state fermentation (SSF)  was investigated using different vegetables leaves such as mango, jamun, coffee and agricultural residues such as coffee husks, rice husks and wheat bran. Among substrates used jamun leaves yielded high tannase production. The Plackett-Burman design was conducted to evaluate the effects of 12 independent variables on the production of tannase under SSF using jamun leaves as substrate. Among these variables,...

  12. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  13. Engineering the Membrane/Electrode Interface To Improve the Performance of Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-08-17

    This paper investigates the effect of adding a 450 nm layer based on porous TiO2 at the interface between a 4.5 μm carbon/TiO2 nanoparticle-based electrode and a polymer electrolyte membrane as a route to improve energy storage performance in solid-state supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterization showed that adding the interface layer reduced charge transfer resistance, promoted more efficient ion transfer across the interface, and significantly improved charge/discharge dynamics in a solid-state supercapacitor, resulting in an increased areal capacitance from 45.3 to 111.1 mF cm(-2) per electrode at 0.4 mA cm(-2).

  14. Solidification microstructures and solid-state parallels: Recent developments, future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Beckermann, C. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kurz, W. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: wilfried.kurz@epfl.ch; Napolitano, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Plapp, M. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Purdy, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4L7 (Canada); Rappaz, M. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Trivedi, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Rapid advances in atomistic and phase-field modeling techniques as well as new experiments have led to major progress in solidification science during the first years of this century. Here we review the most important findings in this technologically important area that impact our quantitative understanding of: (i) key anisotropic properties of the solid-liquid interface that govern solidification pattern evolution, including the solid-liquid interface free energy and the kinetic coefficient; (ii) dendritic solidification at small and large growth rates, with particular emphasis on orientation selection; (iii) regular and irregular eutectic and peritectic microstructures; (iv) effects of convection on microstructure formation; (v) solidification at a high volume fraction of solid and the related formation of pores and hot cracks; and (vi) solid-state transformations as far as they relate to solidification models and techniques. In light of this progress, critical issues that point to directions for future research in both solidification and solid-state transformations are identified.

  15. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  16. Thermophilic cellulase production by Taralomyces sp. in solid-state cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, N; Kurisu, H; Nagai, S

    1981-01-01

    The effects of substrate moisture content and culture temperature on the production of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and avicel hydrolyzing activity (avicelase) by Taralomyces sp. were studied in solid state cultivation using wheat bran. The moisture content of wheat bran was maintained at 40, 45, 50, 55 and 58/sup 0/C throughout the solid state cultures. The maximum avicelase formation was observed when the substrate moisture content and the culture temperature were maintained at 60% and 45/sup 0/C, respectively. The maximum CMCase formation was observed when the moisture content was maintained between 60 and 70% at 50/sup 0/C. Optimum reaction temperatures of CMCase and avicelase were 80 and 60/sup 0/C, respectively.

  17. Structural characterization of pure and doped calcium phosphate bioceramics prepared by simple solid state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Kabir, H.; Nigar, F.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium Phosphate based bioceramic materials, in pure and doped forms have been successfully synthesized from egg shells by using solid-state method for the first time. Considering the diverse role of zinc and fluoride in biological functions, these two ions were chosen to develop the substituted bioceramic materials. Structural characterizations of these developed bioceramics were performed by using FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDS techniques. The results revealed that the fluoride doped apatite was formed in single phase containing hydroxyapatite while pure and Zinc doped apatites contained -TCP with hydroxyapatite. Experimental results and the crystallographic parameters matched well with the literature values indicating that the present experimental protocol favoured the formation of the desired bioceramics. However, to synthesize the (Ca (PO)) based bioceramic materials, such a simple solid-state approach would obviously be very helpful, not only in making the process economically feasible, but also in creating an effective material recycling technology for waste-management. (author)

  18. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  19. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  20. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  1. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  2. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...

  3. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  4. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Robert; Odronitz, Florian; Hammesfahr, Bjorn; Hellkamp, Marcel; Kollmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  5. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  6. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng, E-mail: Xinsheng_Ling@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  7. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  8. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  9. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  10. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  11. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  12. Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations

  13. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  14. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  15. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  16. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  17. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acid s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  18. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  19. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  20. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-08-27

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ({approx}10 T) and at low temperature {approx}1 K .

  1. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (∼10 T) and at low temperature ∼1 K

  2. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  3. Solution and solid-state electrochemiluminescence of a fac-tris(2-phenylpyridyl)iridium(III)-cored dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Ellen F.; Burn, Paul L.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Hogan, Conor F.

    2013-01-01

    The solution phase and solid-state electrochemistry and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of an iridium(III) complex-cored dendrimeric analogue of Ir(ppy) 3 , (G1pIr), are reported. The solid-state electrochemistry and solid-state ECL of Ir(ppy) 3 itself is also described for the first time. In solution phase, the dendrimer displays greater immunity to oxygen quenching in photoluminescence (PL) experiments and exhibits greater ECL efficiency compared to the parent Ir(ppy) 3 core under the same conditions, despite a lower photoluminescence quantum yield. It is proposed that the dendrons which effectively shield the core from PL quenching interactions in the solid-state counteract the effects of parasitic side-reactions during the solution ECL experiments. Electroactive and ECL-active solid-state films of both Ir(ppy) 3 and G1pIr were produced by drop-coating on boron doped diamond electrodes. Films of Ir(ppy) 3 produced stable co-reactant ECL. However, films of G1pIr produced lower than expected ECL intensity. This was attributed to poorer charge transport and the lipophilicity of the film limiting the rate of interaction with the co-reactant required for formation of the excited state

  4. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  5. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  6. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  7. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  8. Experimental solid state NMR of gas hydrates : problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudrakovski, I.; Lu, H.; Ripmeester, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences; Kumar, R.; Susilo, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Luzi, M. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Solid State NMR is a suitable spectroscopic technique for hydrate research for several reasons, including its capability to distinguish between different structural types of hydrates, its quantitative nature and potential for both in-situ and time resolved experiments. This study illustrated the applications of solid state NMR for compositional and structural studies of clathrate hydrates, with particular emphasis on experimental techniques and potential ways to overcome technical difficulties. In order to use the method to its full capacity, some instrumental developments are needed to adapt it to the specific experimental requirements of hydrate studies, such as very low temperatures and high pressures. This presentation discussed the quantification of the Carbon-13 spectra with examples from natural and synthetic hydrates prepared from multi-component mixtures of hydrocarbons. The main approach used for the first two examples was Carbon-13 NMR with Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) at -100 degrees C. The detailed characterization of mixed hydrogen hydrates required low temperature hydrogen MAS. The quantification problems encountered during these experiments were also discussed. The purpose of these recent experimental developments was to prompt wider application of Solid State NMR in hydrate research. NMR proved to be a viable method for analyzing the composition and structure of multi-component mixed gas hydrates; characterizing natural gas hydrates; and, evaluating the formation conditions and properties of mixed hydrogen hydrates. The limitations of the method were highlighted and sensible choices of experimental conditions and techniques that ensure accurate results were discussed. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  9. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  11. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  12. Solid State Pathways towards Molecular Complexity in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Harold; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Bouwman, Jordy; Cuppen, Herma M.; Cuylle, Steven H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Fedoseev, Gleb; Fuchs, Guido W.; Ioppolo, Sergio; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lamberts, Thanja; Öberg, Karin I.; Romanzin, Claire; Tenenbaum, Emily; Zhen, Junfeng

    2011-12-01

    It has been a long standing problem in astrochemistry to explain how molecules can form in a highly dilute environment such as the interstellar medium. In the last decennium more and more evidence has been found that the observed mix of small and complex, stable and highly transient species in space is the cumulative result of gas phase and solid state reactions as well as gas-grain interactions. Solid state reactions on icy dust grains are specifically found to play an important role in the formation of the more complex ``organic'' compounds. In order to investigate the underlying physical and chemical processes detailed laboratory based experiments are needed that simulate surface reactions triggered by processes as different as thermal heating, photon (UV) irradiation and particle (atom, cosmic ray, electron) bombardment of interstellar ice analogues. Here, some of the latest research performed in the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics in Leiden, the Netherlands is reviewed. The focus is on hydrogenation, i.e., H-atom addition reactions and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues at astronomically relevant temperatures. It is shown that solid state processes are crucial in the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, providing pathways towards molecular complexity in space.

  13. Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activity of the Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics is focused on experimental research in condensed matter physics. Thermal neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect are the main techniques mastered in the laboratory. Most of the studies aim at better understanding of properties and processes observed in modern materials. Some applied research and theoretical studies were also performed. Research activities of the Department in 2001 can be summarized as follows: Neutron scattering studies concerned the magnetic ordering in TbB 12 and TmIn 3 and some special features of magnetic excitations in antiferromagnetic γ-Mn-alloys. Some work was devoted to optimization of the neutron single crystal monochromators and polarizers grown in Crystal Growth Laboratory. Small angle scattering studies on the surfactant - water ternary system were performed in cooperation with JINR Dubna. Moessbauer effect investigations of dysprosium intermetallic compounds yielded the new data for Pauling-Slater curves. The same technique applied to perovskites and ferrocene adduct to fullerene helped to resolve their structure. X-ray topographic and diffractometric studies were performed on hydrogen implanted semiconductor surfaces employing the synchrotron radiation sources. The X-ray method was applied also to investigations of plasma spraying process and phase composition of ceramic oxide coatings. Large part of studies concerned the structure of biologically active, pharmacologically important organic complexes, supported by modeling of their electron structure. Crystal growth of large size single-crystals of metals and alloys was used for preparation of specimens with mosaic structure suitable for neutron monochromator and polarizer systems. The construction work of the Neutron and Gamma Radiography Station has been completed. The results of first tests and studies proved the expected abilities of the systems. The possibility to visualize inner structures

  14. Investigations in the field of solid-state polymerization Pt. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahr, L.; Cser, F.; Kovacs, G.; Hardy, Gy.

    1978-01-01

    Chloranil (CA) and bromanil (BA) which have otherwise similar radiation-chemical properties affect the solid state polymerization of acenaphthylene (ACN) in different manner. CA decreases the rate of polymerization proportionally to its concentration and besides, it also decreases the conversion limit and the molecular weight of the product. BA does not influence the reaction up to a conversion of 20%, but soon afterwards the conversion limit of the polymerization is reached. This limit, above 8M% BA content, is independent of the BA concentration. The reason for the different behaviour is that while BA forms an ideal eutectics with ACN, CA forms a solid solution of limited miscibility at the temperature of the experiments. Both pairs of compounds give charge transfer complex in solid state. The charge transfer complex of BA exists merely at the boundary layer of the crystals, but that of CA is within the crystal lattice of ACN as in a solid solvent. In none of the studied cases could be detected the charge transfer complex with its own specific crystal structure. The effect of CA on the solid state polymerization of ACN is discussed on the basis of the results obtained by PPP and CNDO/2 calculations on ACN and CA. (author)

  15. Modification of the solid-state nature of sulfathiazole and sulfathiazole sodium by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stefano; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Nolan, Lorraine; Hu, Yun; Healy, Anne Marie

    2012-06-01

    Solid-state characterisation of a drug following pharmaceutical processing and upon storage is fundamental to successful dosage form development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using different solvents, feed concentrations and spray drier configuration on the solid-state nature of the highly polymorphic model drug, sulfathiazole (ST) and its sodium salt (STNa). The drugs were spray-dried from ethanol, acetone and mixtures of these organic solvents with water. Additionally, STNa was spray-dried from pure water. The physicochemical properties including the physical stability of the spray-dried powders were compared to the unprocessed materials. Spray drying of ST from either acetonic or ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in a closed cycle mode yielded crystalline powders. In contrast, the powders obtained from ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in an open cycle mode were amorphous. Amorphous ST crystallised to pure form I at ≤35 % relative humidity (RH) or to polymorphic mixtures at higher RH values. The usual crystal habit of form I is needle-like, but spherical particles of this polymorph were generated by spray drying. STNa solutions resulted in an amorphous material upon processing, regardless of the solvent and the spray drier configuration employed. Moisture induced crystallisation of amorphous STNa to a sesquihydrate, whilst crystallisation upon heating gave rise to a new anhydrous polymorph. This study indicated that control of processing and storage parameters can be exploited to produce drugs with a specific/desired solid-state nature.

  16. Molecular and solid-state properties of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Richard L.; Kress, Joel D.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    We use a hybrid density-functional-theory approach to calculate ground-state electronic properties and a time-dependent density-functional-theory approach to investigate the excited state electronic properties of molecular tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)-aluminum, Alq. The calculated molecular results are compared with measurements on dense solid-state films of Alq. We specifically consider: the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold, the ionization potential, the single-particle energy gap, the static dielectric constant, and the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. We find that the molecular calculations can describe the optical absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption threshold without significant corrections for solid-state effects. The energies of the triplet excited states are computed and the lowest triplet is found to lie 0.64 eV below the lowest excited singlet state. In contrast, large dielectric corrections must be included for the molecular calculations to describe the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap. When these dielectric corrections are made, using the calculated molecular polarizability, which accurately gives the measured static dielectric constant, both the ionization potential and single-particle energy gap are well described. The calculated molecular dipole moment can be used to interpret the electric-field dependence of the electron mobility. The solid-state properties, determined from the molecular calculations, are then used in a device model to describe the measured current-voltage characteristics in Alq diodes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. COMPARATIVE EVALUTION OF CEPHALOSPORIN-C PRODUCTION IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION AND SUBMERGED LIQUID CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezazarandi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of solid state fermentation (SSF utilization in producing enzymes & secondary metabolites have been shown, whereas, submerged liquid fermentation (SLF condition has the major usage in industrial production of antibiotics. As an antibiotic of B-lactams group, cephalosporin-C (CPC is indicated due to its wide effect and broad convention in treatment of infectious diseases. Regarding industrial production of CPC regularly done in SLF condition, we compared CPC production sum in SLF and SSF conditions. In this analysis, A. chrysogenum was employed, which was inoculated to SLF and SSF, while internal fermenter conditions were totally under control. After extraction of CPC, productions in two states of SLF and SSF were compared using the cylinder plate method. According to Antibiotic assay and production amount comparison, results expressed a ratio of development of production in SSF conditions to SLF conditions. Regarding previous studies on a solid state fermenter and its advantages, in this study, convenience of SSF conditions compared to SLF conditions was experimented. Also mentioning that maintaining the condition of solid state fermenter is more comfortable and practical than liquid state fermenter, using a solid based fermenter to produce antibiotics, especially CPC, can be appropriate. Considering appropriate control conditions of SSF to produce secondary metabolites, decrease in expenses, and increase of production, taking advantage of it in order to increase production parallel to modern methods, such as genetically manipulating CPC producing microorganisms are recommended to pharmacological industries. Also, to make this method applicable, further studies in industrial criterion seem necessary.

  18. Quantum Optics with Nanomechanical and Solid State Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaehne, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents theoretical studies in an interfacing field of quantum optics, nanomechanics and mesoscopic solid state physics and proposes new methods for the generation of particular quantum states and quantum state transfer for selected hybrid systems. The first part of this thesis focuses on the quantum limit of a macroscopic object, a nanomechanical resonator. This is studied for two different physical systems. The first one is a nanomechanical beam incorporated in a superconducting circuit, in particular a loop-shaped Cooper pair box (CPB) - circuit. We present a scheme for ground state cooling of the flexural mode of the nanomechanical beam. Via the Lorentz force coupling of the beam motion to circulating CPB-circuit currents, energy is transferred to the CPB qubit which acts as a dissipative two-level system. The cooling process is driven by a detuned gate-voltage drive acting on the CPB. We analyze the cooling force spectrum and present analytical expressions for the cooling rate and final occupation number for a wide parameter regime. In particular, we find that cooling is optimized in a strong drive regime, and we present the necessary conditions for ground-state cooling. In a second system, we investigate the creation of squeezed states of a mechanical oscillator (a vibrating membrane or a movable mirror) in an optomechanical setup. An optical cavity is driven by squeezed light and couples via radiation pressure to the mechanical oscillator, effectively providing a squeezed heat-bath for the mechanical oscillator. Under the conditions of laser cooling to the ground state, we find an efficient transfer of squeezing with roughly 60% of light squeezing conveyed to the mechanical oscillator (on a dB scale). We determine the requirements on the carrier frequency and the bandwidth of squeezed light. Beyond the conditions for ground state cooling, we predict mechanical squashing to be observable in current systems. The second part of the thesis is

  19. Photonic design for efficient solid state energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mukul

    The efficiency of conversion between electrical and photonic energy in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and solar cells is strongly affected by the photonic modes supported by the device structure. In this thesis, we show how tuning of the local photon density of states in subwavelength structures can be used to optimize device performance. The first part of the thesis is focused on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), a candidate technology for next-generation displays and solid-state lighting. An important unsolved problem in OLEDs is to ensure that a significant fraction of photons emitted by the organic emissive layer couple out of the device structure instead of remaining trapped in the device. It is shown using modeling and experiments that optimized non-periodic dielectric multilayer stacks can significantly increase the photon outcoupling while maintaining display quality brightness uniformity over the viewing cone. In the second part, we discuss the theoretical limits to broadband light harvesting in photovoltaic cells. First, it is shown that the extent to which one-dimensional optical cavities can be used to enhance light absorption over a broad spectral range is limited by the requirement that the cavity mirrors have a causal response. This result is used as a guide to design practical dielectric structures that enhance light harvesting in planar thin-film organic solar cells. Finally, we consider the enhancement of optical absorption in two- and three-dimensional structures in which incident light is scattered into quasi-trapped modes for more effective utilization of solar radiation. It is shown that there is an upper bound to the degree to which optical absorption can be enhanced that is identical to the limit found in the geometric optics regime. Rigorous optical simulations are used to show that an optical structure consisting of a two-dimensional array of inverted pyramids comes close to this limit. Before

  20. Toward high brightness, multi-kilowatt solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, L.E.; Manes, K.R.

    1990-11-01

    High average power (HAP) solid state laser output with improved beam quality has introduced new capabilities in materials processing. At the 500 W level and with a beam quality of a ''few'' times the diffraction limit, the General Electric NY slab is able to drill 5 cm of stainless steel in a few seconds. We expect that 2--3 kW of near infrared laser output in a low order spatial mode would enable metal working now unknown to industry. The HAP output of slab lasers is limited by the size of the available laser crystals and the pump power. Core free, six cm diameter NY boules have been grown on an experimental basis. High optical quality NG can be obtained up to 10 cm in diameter. We present the results of our modeling based on these crystals pumped by advanced arc-lamps or laser diode arrays. We project HAP laser outputs of 1.6 kW from an existing Vortek pumped NG oscillator and about 2 kW from diode pumped NY device. Several kW of laser output can be expected from two such slabs in a MOPA configuration before optical damage limits are reached. The three dimensional stress-optic code which we used to optimize our designs, was normalized to available experimental data obtained with the above NG slab at the 500 W level and a 40 W diode pumped NY test bed. Our calculations indicate the essential parameters for attainment of high beam quality. Cooling uniformity across the pumped faces of the slab is critical and the location of the transition between pumped and un-pumped regions towards the slab tips is very important. A flat pumping profile was found to be desirable and predicted one wave of distortion which should be correctable over about 75% of the aperture however, an even better wavefront was predicted over 90% of the aperture when the regions near the edges of the slab were slightly over-pumped relative to the central regions and the regions near to the ends were tapered to compensate for transition effects

  1. Laser Based Phosphor Converted Solid State White Light Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantore, Michael

    Artificial lighting and as a consequence the ability to be productive when the sun does not shine may be a profound achievement in society that is largely taken for granted. As concerns arise due to our dependence on energy sources with finite lifespan or environmentally negative effects, efforts to reduce energy consumption and create clean renewable alternatives has become highly valued. In the scope of artificial lighting, the use of incandescent lamps has shifted to more efficient light sources. Fluorescent lighting made the first big gains in efficiency over incandescent lamps with peak efficiency for mature designs reaching luminous efficacy of approximately 90 lm/W; more than three times as efficient as an incandescent lamp. Lamps based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) which can produce light at even greater efficiency, color quality and without the potential for hazardous chemical release from lamp failure. There is a significant challenge with LED based light sources. Their peak efficiency occurs at low current densities and then droops as the current density increases. Laser diodes (LDs) do not suffer from decreasing efficiency due to increased current. An alternative solid state light source using LDs has potential to make further gains in efficiency as well as allow novel illuminant designs which may be impractical or even impossible even with LED or other conventional sources. While similar to LEDS, the use of LDs does present new challenges largely due to the increased optical power density which must be accommodated in optics and phosphor materials. Single crystal YAG:Ce has been shown to be capable of enduring this more extreme operating environment while retaining the optical and fluorescing qualities desired for use as a wavelength converter in phosphor converted LD based white emitting systems. The incorporation of this single crystal phosphor in a system with a commercial laser diode with peak wall plug efficiency of 31% resulted in emission of

  2. Ultra-Thin Solid-State Nanopores: Fabrication and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Aaron Tzeyang

    Solid-state nanopores are a nanofluidic platform with unique advantages for single-molecule analysis and filtration applications. However, significant improvements in device performance and scalable fabrication methods are needed to make nanopore devices competitive with existing technologies. This dissertation investigates the potential advantages of ultra-thin nanopores in which the thickness of the membrane is significantly smaller than the nanopore diameter. Novel, scalable fabrication methods were first developed and then utilized to examine device performance for water filtration and single molecule sensing applications. Fabrication of nanometer-thin pores in silicon nitride membranes was achieved using a feedback-controlled ion beam method in which ion sputtering is arrested upon detection of the first few ions that drill through the membrane. Performing fabrication at liquid nitrogen temperatures prevents surface atom rearrangements that have previously complicated similar processes. A novel cross-sectional imaging method was also developed to allow careful examination of the full nanopore geometry. Atomically-thin graphene nanopores were fabricated via an electrical pulse method in which sub-microsecond electrical pulses applied across a graphene membrane in electrolyte solution are used to create a defect in the membrane and controllably enlarge it into a nanopore. This method dramatically increases the accuracy and reliability of graphene nanopore production, allowing consistent production of single nanopores down to subnanometer sizes. In filtration applications in which nanopores are used to selectively restrict the passage of dissolved contaminants, ultra-thin nanopores minimize the flow resistance, increasing throughput and energy-efficiency. The ability of graphene nanopores to separate different ions was characterized via ionic conductance and reversal potential measurements. Graphene nanopores were observed to conduct cations preferentially over

  3. Experimental study on the EMP failure mode of DC solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Chen Xiangyue; Zhai Aibin; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    DC solid state relay is a new type switch device without touch point, and is extensive used by aviation and spaceflight technique. In this paper, the EMP failure modes of solid state relays were obtained by current injection method. (authors)

  4. Proceedings of 5. scientific conference on solid state physics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 5. Kazakhstan scientific conference on solid state physics was held on 28-30 October, 1999 in Karaganda. Scientists and researchers from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Estonia present various reports on different problems of solid state physics

  5. Solid-state emissive triarylborane-based BODIPY dyes: photophysical properties and fluorescent sensing for fluoride and cyanide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Liang; Pan, Hong; Zhao, Yi-Hong; Zhao, Cui-Hua

    2011-12-07

    We disclose two novel BODIPY dyes, which contain the bulky substituent, [(4-dimesitylboryl)phenyl]ethynyl at 2- and 2,6-positions. The steric bulkiness of the boryl group is effective to suppress the intermolecular interaction in the solid state and thus these two compounds display intense fluorescence not only in solution but also in the solid state. In addition, the BODIPY dyes display sensitive fluorescence responses to fluoride and cyanide anions through the complexation with the boron center of the boryl group and the subsequent decomposition of the BODIPY core, illustrating their potential uses for the fluorescence sensing of fluoride and cyanide ions.

  6. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  7. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  8. Quantitative approach to track lipase producing Pseudomonas sp. S1 in nonsterilized solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, R K; Subudhi, E; Kumar, M

    2014-06-01

    Proliferation of the inoculated Pseudomonas sp. S1 is quantitatively evaluated using ERIC-PCR during the production of lipase in nonsterile solid state fermentation an approach to reduce the cost of enzyme production. Under nonsterile solid state fermentation with olive oil cake, Pseudomonas sp. S1 produced 57·9 IU g(-1) of lipase. DNA fingerprints of unknown bacterial isolates obtained on Bushnell Haas agar (BHA) + tributyrin exactly matched with that of Pseudomonas sp. S1. Using PCR-based enumeration, population of Pseudomonas sp. S1 was proliferated from 7·6 × 10(4) CFU g(-1) after 24 h to 4·6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) after 96 h, which tallied with the maximum lipase activity as compared to control. Under submerged fermentation (SmF), Pseudomonas sp. S1 produced maximum lipase (49 IU ml(-1) ) using olive oil as substrate, while lipase production was 9·754 IU ml(-1) when Pseudomonas sp. S1 was grown on tributyrin. Optimum pH and temperature of the crude lipase was 7·0 and 50°C. Crude enzyme activity was 71·2% stable at 50°C for 360 min. Pseudomonas sp. S1 lipase was also stable in methanol showing 91·6% activity in the presence of 15% methanol, whereas 75·5 and 51·1% of activity were retained in the presence of 20 and 30% methanol, respectively. Thus, lipase produced by Pseudomonas sp. S1 is suitable for the production of biodiesel as well as treatment of oily waste water. This study presents the first report on the production of thermophilic organic solvent tolerant lipase using agro-industry waste in nonsterile solid state fermentation. Positive correlation between survival of Pseudomonas sp. S1 and lipase production under nonsterile solid state fermentation was established, which may emphasize the need to combine molecular tools and solid state fermentation in future studies. Our study brings new insights into the lipase production in cost-effective manner, which is an industrially relevant approach. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I

    2010-01-01

    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  10. Fungal Invertase Expression in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitlahuac Aranda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study invertase activity expression in Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated under different concentrations of two substrates using solid-state fermentation (SSF on polyurethane foam. Glucose was used as repressor and sucrose was the inducer. Invertase production increased when glucose was present in the medium (up to 100 g/L; however, higher concentration than this reduced the enzyme production. Induction-repression ratio obtained using any glucose concentration was at least 2.5 times higher than that under basal conditions (without inducer.

  11. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, M.; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol -1 , respectively. (Authors)

  12. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  13. Observations of spectroscopic binaries with a solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, F. Jr.; Lacy, C.H.; Tomkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent installation of a solid-state 1024-element silicon photodiode array detector (Reticon) at the coude focus of the 2.7 m McDonald Observatory reflector has greatly extended its limits of observation for binary and multiple systems which have weak and/or broad-lined components. This detector can produce extremely high signal-to-noise ratio observations and has high quantum efficiency over the wavelength region 3000-11000 A. The observational programs of three users of this device are described. (Auth.)

  14. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  15. Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.

  16. Gamma camera system with composite solid state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A composite solid-state detector is described for utilization within gamma cameras. The detector's formed of an array of detector crystals, the opposed surfaces of each of which are formed incorporating an impedance-derived configuration for determining one coordinate of the location of discrete impinging photons upon the detector. A combined read-out for all detectors within the composite array is achieved through a row and column interconnection of the impedance configurations. Utilizing the read-outs for respective sides of the discrete crystals, a resultant time-constant characteristic for the composite detector crystal array remains essentially that of individual crystal detectors

  17. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  18. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  19. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature...... electrochemical cells are still a "black box". In order to identify local reaction sites, surface coverage and potential/current introduced materials and surface modifications, in situ techniques are needed to gain a better understanding of the elementary and performance limiting steps for these cells...