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Sample records for solid-state ceramic route

  1. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  2. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  3. New generation Li+ NASICON glass-ceramics for solid state Li+ ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelakshi; Dalvi, Anshuman

    2018-04-01

    Lithiumion conducting NASICON glass-ceramics have been prepared by a novel planetary ball milling assisted synthesis route. Structural, thermal and electrical investigations have been carried out on the novel composites composed of LiTi(PO4)3 (LTP) and 50[Li2SO4]-50[Li2O-P2O5] ionic glass reveal interesting results. Composites were prepared keeping the concentration of the ionic glass fixed at 20 wt%. X-ray diffraction and diffe rential thermal analysis confirm the glass-ceramic formation. Moreover, the structure of LTP remains intact during the glass -ceramic formation. Electrical conductivity of the glass-ceramic composite is found to be higher than that of the pristine glass (50LSLP) and LTP. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities of LTP exhibit improvement in composite. Owing to high ionic conductivity and thermal stability, novel glass -ceramic seems to be a promising candidate for all solid-state battery applications.

  4. Solid state reaction in alumina nanoparticles/LZSA glass-ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montedo, O.K.; Oliveira, A.N. de; Raupp-Pereira, F.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this work is to present results related to solid state reactions on LZSA glass-ceramic composites containing alumina reinforcement nano-particles. A LZSA (Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2-Al2O3) glass-ceramic has been prepared by sintering of powders and characterized. Composites containing 0 to 77 vol.% of alumina nanoparticles (27-43 nm APS, 35 m2.g-1 SSA) and a 16.9Li2O•5.0ZrO2•65.1SiO2•8.6Al2O3 glass-ceramic matrix have been prepared. X-ray diffractometry studies have been performed in order of investigating the solid state reactions occurring in LZSA-based composites. Results of the XRD patterns have been related to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young modulus, and dielectric constant, showing that, in comparison with the glass-ceramic composition, the composites showed a decrease of CTE with the alumina concentration increasing, due to the increasing of beta-spodumeness formation (solid solution of beta-spodumene, Li2O.Al2O3.4-10SiO2). The performance of the glass-ceramic was improved with the alumina nano-particles addition, showing potential of using in the preparation of Low Thermal Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC). (author)

  5. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study of formation of lithium titanate by solid state route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonak, Sagar; Jain, Uttam; Sahu, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of formation of lithium titanate from the solid state reaction of lithium carbonate and titanium oxide was studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetric technique. Thermogravimetric data for the reaction of lithium carbonate and titanium oxide was obtained at various heating rates. The methods such as Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose were used to estimate the kinetic parameters from the obtained thermogravimetric data. The average activation energy for the formation of lithium titanate by solid state route was found to be 243 kJ/mol K. The reaction mechanism was determined by the method given by Malek. It was found that the three dimensional diffusion model best describes the reaction kinetics. A kinetic equation describing the reaction is proposed and reaction mechanism is discussed

  6. Porous SiC ceramics fabricated by quick freeze casting and solid state sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous SiC ceramics with uniform microstructure were fabricated by quick freezing in liquid nitrogen and solid state sintering. Poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA was added as binder and pore morphology controller in this work. The microstructure and mechanical properties of porous SiC ceramics could be controlled by the composition of the aqueous slurries. Both solid content of the slurries and PVA content impacted on the pore structures and mechanical properties of the porous SiC ceramics. The solid content of slurries and PVA content varied from 60 to 67.5 wt% and 2–6 wt%, respectively. Besides, the grain morphology of ceramics was also tailored by changing the sintering temperature from 2050 to 2150 °C. Porous SiC ceramics with an average porosity of 42.72%, flexural strength of 59.28 MPa were obtained at 2150 °C from 67.5 wt% slurries with 2 wt% PVA.

  7. A Li-Garnet composite ceramic electrolyte and its solid-state Li-S battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Liu, Cai; Lu, Yang; Xiu, Tongping; Jin, Jun; Badding, Michael E.; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2018-04-01

    A high strength Li-Garnet solid electrolyte composite ceramic is successfully prepared via conventional solid state method with Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 and nano MgO powders. Well sintered ceramic pellets and bars are obtained with 0-9 wt.% MgO. Fracture strength is approximately 135 MPa for composite ceramics with 5-9 wt.% MgO, which is ∼50% higher than that of pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (90 MPa). Lithium-ion conductivity of the composite is above 5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature; comparable to the pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 material. SEM cross-sections of the composite ceramic shows a much more uniform microstructure comparing with pure ones, owing to the grain growth inhibition effect of the MgO second phase. A battery cell consisting of Li/composite ceramics/Sulfur-Carbon at 25 °C exhibits a capacity of 685 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C at the 200th cycle, while maintaining a coulombic efficiency of 100%. These results indicate that the composite ceramic Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12-MgO is promising for the production of electrolyte membrane and fabrication of Li-Sulfur batteries.

  8. Solid-state reaction synthesis and aqueous durability of Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Zhang, Kuibao, E-mail: xiaobao320@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Yin, Dan [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hbzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction process using cerium as the surrogate of tetravalence actinide nuclide. The occupancy of Ce in the waste forms was investigated. The aqueous durability of Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramic was examined as well. The results show that zirconolite and pseudobrookite coexisted after being sintered at 1200 °C for 6 h. Meanwhile, perovskite is inevitable generated during the process. CeO{sub 2} can be successfully incorporated into the lattice structure of the zirconolite-rich ceramics. The maximum containing capacity of CeO{sub 2} is up to 14.95 wt% or y = 0.4. The normalized elemental leaching rates of Ce and Ca are fairly constant in low values of 1.2 × 10{sup −6} and 2.3 × 10{sup −2} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} after 28 days. The normalized leaching rate of Fe is also in a low value of 2.9 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} after 7 days. - Highlights: • Ce-doped zirconolite-rich ceramic was produced at 1200 °C. • Pseudobrookite-type Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} was employed to incorporate Fe element. • Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} coexisted in the Ce-doped zirconolite-rich waste form after being sintered at 1200 °C for 6 h. • The leaching rate of Ca was relatively higher than that of borosilicate glasses.

  9. Preparation of Ultra-Fine Nickel Manganite Powders and Ceramics by a Solid-State Coordination Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Dao-lai; Wang, Zhongbing; Wang, Zhichun; Yang, Pinghua; Liu, W.; Liu, Wei; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Chen, Chusheng

    2006-01-01

    A solid-state coordination reaction was adopted to prepare negative temperature coefficient ceramics. A mixed oxalate NiMn2(C2O4)3·6H2O, a coordination compound, was synthesized by milling a mixture of nickel acetate, manganese acetate, and oxalic acid for 5 h at room temperature. An ultrafine

  10. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malič, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 °C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 °C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 °C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 °C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  11. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 deg. C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 deg. C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO 3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 deg. C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 deg. C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  12. Solid-state reaction mechanism and microwave dielectric properties of CaTiO{sub 3}–LaAlO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Juan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Fang, Danhua; Lu, Chao; Dou, Zhanming; Wang, Gan; Zhang, Fan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhang, Tianjin, E-mail: zhangtj@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • CaTiO{sub 3}–LaAlO{sub 3} perovskite ceramics were prepared by four sintering reaction routes. • The solid-state reaction mechanism was investigated by XRD and TG/DSC techniques. • Sintering routes had more influence on the parameters of Q × f and τ{sub f} than on ε{sub r}. - Abstract: 0.675CaTiO{sub 3}–0.325LaAlO{sub 3} perovskite ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering process through four reaction routes. The solid-state reaction mechanisms were investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetric analysis techniques. The results show that interactions occurred between mixtures of CaCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} as well as La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and they can influence the sintering behavior of the mixtures. Prior to the formation of solid solutions, the perovskite phases CaTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3} were formed regardless of the combination of oxide powders used as reagents. From the powder mixtures which were calcined at 1200 °C, a Ca-rich Ca{sub 9}Al{sub 6}O{sub 18} phase was present at 1400 °C if free La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} used in the reaction mixtures. Ca-rich phases were also formed at higher temperature (1450 °C) if LaAlO{sub 3} was present. The densities of the ceramics obtained by the four routes were different at specific sintering temperatures, and the highest density was obtained for the reaction route two. Results indicated that the preparation pathways had more influence on Q × f and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency (τ{sub f}) than on the dielectric constants (ε{sub r}), and Q × f decreased and τ{sub f} increased rapidly when the secondary phase presented. Route four is considered as an optimal pathway for the preparation of 0.675CaTiO{sub 3}–0.325LaAlO{sub 3} ceramics.

  13. Solid-state reaction mechanism and microwave dielectric properties of CaTiO3–LaAlO3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Juan; Fang, Danhua; Lu, Chao; Dou, Zhanming; Wang, Gan; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Tianjin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CaTiO 3 –LaAlO 3 perovskite ceramics were prepared by four sintering reaction routes. • The solid-state reaction mechanism was investigated by XRD and TG/DSC techniques. • Sintering routes had more influence on the parameters of Q × f and τ f than on ε r . - Abstract: 0.675CaTiO 3 –0.325LaAlO 3 perovskite ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering process through four reaction routes. The solid-state reaction mechanisms were investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetric analysis techniques. The results show that interactions occurred between mixtures of CaCO 3 and TiO 2 as well as La 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 , and they can influence the sintering behavior of the mixtures. Prior to the formation of solid solutions, the perovskite phases CaTiO 3 and LaAlO 3 were formed regardless of the combination of oxide powders used as reagents. From the powder mixtures which were calcined at 1200 °C, a Ca-rich Ca 9 Al 6 O 18 phase was present at 1400 °C if free La 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 used in the reaction mixtures. Ca-rich phases were also formed at higher temperature (1450 °C) if LaAlO 3 was present. The densities of the ceramics obtained by the four routes were different at specific sintering temperatures, and the highest density was obtained for the reaction route two. Results indicated that the preparation pathways had more influence on Q × f and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency (τ f ) than on the dielectric constants (ε r ), and Q × f decreased and τ f increased rapidly when the secondary phase presented. Route four is considered as an optimal pathway for the preparation of 0.675CaTiO 3 –0.325LaAlO 3 ceramics.

  14. Mechanochemically assisted solid-state and citric acid complex syntheses of Cu-doped sodium cobaltite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pršić, S.; Savić, S.M.; Branković, Z.; Vrtnik, S.; Dapčević, A.; Branković, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sodium cobaltite was synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid-state reaction and citric acid complex (CAC) method. • We investigated effect of Cu-doping in NaCo 2−x Cu x O 4 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05). • ICP analysis showed that the controlling of the samples composition is easier by the CAC method. • The Seebeck coefficient in Cu-doped samples was higher compared to the undoped one. • The highest figure of merit was observed in the sample with the lowest Cu concentration. - Abstract: In the last decade, the sodium cobaltite ceramic became a promising candidate for potential thermoelectric applications, because of its large thermopower and low resistivity. In this work, polycrystalline samples of NaCo 2−x Cu x O 4 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were prepared using mechanochemically assisted solid-state reaction method (MASSR) and the citric acid complex method (CAC). Bulk samples were prepared by pressing into disc-shaped pellets and subsequently subjected to a thermal treatment at 880 °C in inert argon atmosphere. Changes in structural and microstructural characteristics of the samples, caused by the substitution of Cu for Co, were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis showed that the compositions of the final products correspond to γ-NaCo 2 O 4 and confirmed that desired compound was obtained in both syntheses procedures. The advantages and disadvantages of these two syntheses procedures have been observed and discussed: the CAC method enabled obtaining samples with higher density and fine microstructure compared to the MASSR method, thus better thermoelectric properties. The Cu 2+ substitution led to the increase in Seebeck coefficient in both synthesis routes. The highest figure of merit of 0.022 at 300 K was observed for the sample doped with 1 mol% Cu, obtained by the CAC method, and it was almost twice

  15. Mechanochemically assisted solid-state and citric acid complex syntheses of Cu-doped sodium cobaltite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pršić, S., E-mail: sanjaprsic@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Savić, S.M., E-mail: slavicas@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Branković, Z., E-mail: zorica.brankovic@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Vrtnik, S., E-mail: stane.vrtnik@ijs.si [Institute Jožef Stefan, Condensed Matter Physics, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dapčević, A., E-mail: hadzi-tonic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Branković, G., E-mail: goran.brankovic@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Sodium cobaltite was synthesized by mechanochemically assisted solid-state reaction and citric acid complex (CAC) method. • We investigated effect of Cu-doping in NaCo{sub 2−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05). • ICP analysis showed that the controlling of the samples composition is easier by the CAC method. • The Seebeck coefficient in Cu-doped samples was higher compared to the undoped one. • The highest figure of merit was observed in the sample with the lowest Cu concentration. - Abstract: In the last decade, the sodium cobaltite ceramic became a promising candidate for potential thermoelectric applications, because of its large thermopower and low resistivity. In this work, polycrystalline samples of NaCo{sub 2−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were prepared using mechanochemically assisted solid-state reaction method (MASSR) and the citric acid complex method (CAC). Bulk samples were prepared by pressing into disc-shaped pellets and subsequently subjected to a thermal treatment at 880 °C in inert argon atmosphere. Changes in structural and microstructural characteristics of the samples, caused by the substitution of Cu for Co, were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis showed that the compositions of the final products correspond to γ-NaCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} and confirmed that desired compound was obtained in both syntheses procedures. The advantages and disadvantages of these two syntheses procedures have been observed and discussed: the CAC method enabled obtaining samples with higher density and fine microstructure compared to the MASSR method, thus better thermoelectric properties. The Cu{sup 2+} substitution led to the increase in Seebeck coefficient in both synthesis routes. The highest figure of merit of 0.022 at 300 K was observed for the sample doped with 1 mol% Cu, obtained by

  16. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregiroux, D.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR 3+ ) orthophosphate with a general formula TR 3+ PO 4 , is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR 3+ PO 4 powders (with TR 3+ = La 3+ to Gd 3+ , Pu 3+ and Am 3+ ). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce 4+ , U 4+ , Pu 4+ ) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR 3+ PO 4 pellets. The determination of some mechanical and thermal

  17. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  18. Recent advances in solid state NMR and its application to ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    The basic principles of solid state NMR are explained. Four application examples contained amorphous glass, determination of defects of oxide crystal, nano particle and ionic materials. The structure of inorganic glass is measured by 29 Si, 11 B, 31 P and 23 Na NMR and Magic Angle Spinning NMR (MAS-NMR), chemical species near hydrogen by Cross-Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) method, and hydrogen by Combined Rotation And Multiple Pulse Spectroscopy (CRAMPS) and MAS-NMR. Hydrous and anhydrous silicate glass with condensed 17 O was measured by 17 O Multi Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQ/MAS). 27 Al in slags was analyzed by 27 Al 5Q-MAS. 89 Y NMR spectrum of YSZ (Yttria Stabilization Zirconia, Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 ) was explained. The ion transfer phenomena in the electrolyte are observed directly by the solid state NMR. (S.Y.)

  19. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webler, Geovana D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano [Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Fonseca, Eduardo J.S., E-mail: eduardo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity.

  20. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Geovana D.; Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano; Fonseca, Eduardo J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity

  1. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  2. Dielectric properties, impedance analysis and modulus behavior of CaTiO{sub 3} ceramic prepared by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Y.J., E-mail: yjeng_86@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hassan, J., E-mail: jumiah@science.upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, M., E-mail: mansor@science.upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A single phase orthorhombic CaTiO{sub 3} structure with sub-micron grains is produced. •The frequency exponent ‘s’ is temperature dependent and explained by CBH model. •The dielectric constant and loss tangent are frequency and temperature dependent. •The modulus plot reveals the presence of thermally activated dielectric relaxation. •Cole-cole plot reveals two primary relaxation processes exist in the sample. -- Abstract: Calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) with the general formula for perovskites, ABO{sub 3}, is of technological importance, particularly with regard to dielectric properties. In this work, CaTiO{sub 3} ceramic material was prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. The dielectric properties, impedance characteristics and modulus behavior of the CaTiO{sub 3} ceramic material sintered at 1240 °C were investigated in the frequency range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup 6} Hz and temperature range of 100–250 °C. The XRD analysis of the sintered CaTiO{sub 3} shows that it is an orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters a = 5.4398 Å, b = 7.6417 Å, and c = 5.3830 Å. The FESEM micrograph shows a significant difference in grain size distribution ranging from 0.26 to 2.32 μm. The AC conductivity, σ{sub AC}, is found to increase with increasing temperature within the frequency range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup 6} Hz confirming the hopping of electrons to be the conduction mechanism. Due to the decreasing values of the frequency exponent s with increasing temperature, the results of the σ{sub AC} are discussed using the correlated barrier height (CBH) model. For dielectric studies, the dielectric constant, ε′ is found to decrease with increasing frequency. In the whole temperature range of 100–250 °C, high and low frequency plateau are observed. Each converges at high frequency (>10{sup 5} Hz) for all the temperatures. The frequency dependence of loss tangent, tan δ, decreases with rise in temperature, with the

  3. Characterization of SrCo1.5Ti1.5Fe9O19 hexagonal ferrite synthesized by sol-gel combustion and solid state route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinaykumar, R.; Mazumder, R.; Bera, J.

    2017-01-01

    Co-Ti co-substituted SrM hexagonal ferrite (SrCo 1.5 Ti 1.5 Fe 9 O 19 ) was synthesized by sol-gel combustion and solid state route. The effects of sources of TiO 2 raw materials; titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) and titanyl nitrate (TN) on the phase formation behavior and properties of the ferrite were studied. The thermal decomposition behavior of the gel was studied using TG-DSC. The phase formation behavior of the ferrite was studied by using X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR analysis. Phase formation was comparatively easier in the TN-based sol-gel process. The morphology of powder and sintered ferrite was investigated using scanning electron microscope. Magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity, permeability, tan δ µ and dielectric properties were investigated. The ferrite synthesized by sol-gel based chemical route showed higher saturation magnetization, permeability and permittivity compared to the ferrite synthesized by solid state route. - Highlights: • SrCo 1.5 Ti 1.5 Fe 9 O 19 ferrite was successfully prepared by sol–gel combustion process. • Sol-gel synthesis of the ferrite using titanyl nitrate has been reported first time. • Phase formation was easier in the titanyl nitrate based sol-gel process. • Better magneto-dielectric properties were observed in sol-gel processed ferrite.

  4. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  5. Self-aligned nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons by facile solid-state and co-precipitation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, J. H.; Kanade, K. G.; Nikam, L. K.; Chaudhari, P. D.; Panmand, R. P.; Kale, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of well-aligned nanocrystalline hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by facile solid-state and co-precipitation method. The co-precipitation reactions were performed using aqueous and ethylene glycol (EG) medium using zinc acetate and adipic acid to obtain zinc adipate and further decomposition at 450 °C to confer nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons. XRD shows the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO. Thermal study reveals complete formation of ZnO at 430 °C in case of solid-state method, whereas in case of co-precipitation method complete formation was observed at 400 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscope shows spherical morphology for ZnO synthesized by solid-state method. The aqueous-mediated ZnO by co-precipitation method shows rod-like morphology. These rods are formed via self assembling of spherical nanoparticles, however, uniformly dispersed spherical crystallites were seen in EG-mediated ZnO. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations clearly show well aligned and highly crystalline transparent and thin hexagonal ZnO. The particle size was measured using TEM and was observed to be 50–60 nm in case of solid-state method and aqueous-mediated co-precipitation method, while 25–50 nm in case of EG-mediated co-precipitation method. UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for EG-mediated ZnO, which demonstrate the mono-dispersed lower particle size. The band gap of the ZnO was observed to be 3.4 eV which is higher than the bulk, implies nanocrystalline nature of the ZnO. The photoluminescence studies clearly indicate the strong violet and weak blue emission in ZnO nanoparticles which is quite unique. The process investigated may be useful to synthesize other oxide semiconductors and transition metal oxides.

  6. Self-aligned nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons by facile solid-state and co-precipitation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, J. H. [Mahatma Phule College, Department of Chemistry (India); Kanade, K. G. [Annasaheb Awate College (India); Nikam, L. K. [B.G. College (India); Chaudhari, P. D.; Panmand, R. P.; Kale, B. B., E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com [Center for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET) (India)

    2012-02-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of well-aligned nanocrystalline hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by facile solid-state and co-precipitation method. The co-precipitation reactions were performed using aqueous and ethylene glycol (EG) medium using zinc acetate and adipic acid to obtain zinc adipate and further decomposition at 450 Degree-Sign C to confer nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons. XRD shows the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO. Thermal study reveals complete formation of ZnO at 430 Degree-Sign C in case of solid-state method, whereas in case of co-precipitation method complete formation was observed at 400 Degree-Sign C. Field emission scanning electron microscope shows spherical morphology for ZnO synthesized by solid-state method. The aqueous-mediated ZnO by co-precipitation method shows rod-like morphology. These rods are formed via self assembling of spherical nanoparticles, however, uniformly dispersed spherical crystallites were seen in EG-mediated ZnO. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations clearly show well aligned and highly crystalline transparent and thin hexagonal ZnO. The particle size was measured using TEM and was observed to be 50-60 nm in case of solid-state method and aqueous-mediated co-precipitation method, while 25-50 nm in case of EG-mediated co-precipitation method. UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for EG-mediated ZnO, which demonstrate the mono-dispersed lower particle size. The band gap of the ZnO was observed to be 3.4 eV which is higher than the bulk, implies nanocrystalline nature of the ZnO. The photoluminescence studies clearly indicate the strong violet and weak blue emission in ZnO nanoparticles which is quite unique. The process investigated may be useful to synthesize other oxide semiconductors and transition metal oxides.

  7. Enhanced electrocaloric analysis and energy-storage performance of lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics for potential solid-state refrigeration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Fu; Huang, Xian-Xiong; Tang, Xin-Gui; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Biao; Lu, Sheng-Guo

    2018-01-10

    The unique properties and great variety of relaxer ferroelectrics make them highly attractive in energy-storage and solid-state refrigeration technologies. In this work, lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics are prepared and studied. The giant electrocaloric effect in lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics is revealed for the first time. Large refrigeration efficiency (27.4) and high adiabatic temperature change (1.67 K) are achieved by indirect analysis. Direct measurements of electrocaloric effect show that reversible adiabatic temperature change is also about 1.67 K, which exceeds many electrocaloric effect values in current direct measured electrocaloric studies. Both theoretical calculated and direct measured electrocaloric effects are in good agreements in high temperatures. Temperature and electric field related energy storage properties are also analyzed, maximum energy-storage density and energy-storage efficiency are about 0.31 J/cm 3 and 91.2%, respectively.

  8. On the magnetic behavior of polycrystalline RBaCo205+δ synthesized by solid state and wet chemical routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, L; Galeano, V; Paucar, C; Morán, O; Vallejo, E; Gómez, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, polycrystalline RBaCo 2 O 5+δ (R = La, Y, Eu) samples were obtained through solid state reaction and polymeric precursor method. The crystalline quality of the samples was carefully evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction. Depending on the R cation, the main phases were characterized in a tetragonal P4/mmm, orthorhombic Pmmm or trigonal R-3c structure. The oxygen content, being a fundamental parameter in the studied system, was determined by iodometric tritration. While no stoichiometric oxygen content was determined, the value of 5 ended up being close to 0.5 for all the samples studied. VSM magnetization measurements were taken according to the zero field cooling protocol. The M(T) curves clearly shows the characteristic magnetic behavior of the cobaltate with stoichiometry 112. The temperature at which the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition occurs varies with the cation R

  9. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  10. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics): An Eco-Friendly Route to Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). This technology provides an eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches. Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented.

  11. Disentangled solid state and metastable polymer melt; a solvent free route to high-modulus high-strength tapes and films of UHMWPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjay

    2013-03-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) having average molar mass greater than a million g/mol is an engineering polymer. Due to its light-weight, high abrasion resistance and biocompatibility it is used for demanding applications such as body armour, prostheses etc. At present, because of its high melt viscosity to achieve the uniaxial/biaxial properties in the form of fibers/films the polymer is processed via solution route where nearly 95wt% of the solvent is used to process 5wt% of the polymer. In past several attempts have been made to process the polymer without using any solvent. However, compared to the solvent processing route the achieved mechanical properties were rather poor. Here we show that by controlled synthesis it is feasible to obtain UHMWPE that could be processed free of solvent to make uniaxial tapes and biaxial films, having unprecedented mechanical properties, exceeding that of the solution spun fibers. We address some of the fundamental aspects of chemistry, physics, rheology and processing for the development of desired morphological features to achieve the ultimate mechanical properties in tapes and films. The paper will also address the metastable melt state obtained on melting of the disentangled crystals and its implication on rheology in linear and nonlinear viscoelastic region. Solid state NMR studies will be applied to establish disentangled state in solid state to the polymerisation conditions. References: Macromolecules 2011, 44(14), 5558-5568; Nature Materials 2005, 4, 635-641; Phys Rev Lett 2006, 96(21), 218303-218205. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Dutch Polymer Institute.

  12. Effect of processing routes on microstructure, electrical and dielectric behavior of Mg-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 electro-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Laxman; Rai, U. S.; Mandal, K. D.; Rai, Alok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    In the present communication, data on magnesium-doped calcium copper titanate CaCu2.90Mg0.10Ti4O12 (CCMTO) electro-ceramic, synthesized by the semi-wet route (SWR), ball-milled route (BMR) and solid-state route (SSR), is characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM techniques. XRD confirmed the formation of single phase in CCMTO ceramic. The CuO phase present at grain boundaries in SWR ceramic was shown by the SEM micrograph, which was verified by EDX. The TEM image of SWR ceramic shows nanocrystalline particles in the range 80±20 nm. The value of the dielectric constant of SWR ( ɛ r ˜20091) ceramic is higher than those of BMR and SSR ( ɛ r ˜1247) ceramics at 1 kHz at 450 K. A dielectric relaxation has been observed in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 kHz. The high-temperature dielectric dispersion shows one large low-frequency response and two Debye-type relaxations. The impedance and modulus studies show the highest grain-boundary resistance for BMR ceramic.

  13. Printable Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Route toward Shape-Conformable Power Sources with Aesthetic Versatility for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hee; Choi, Keun-Ho; Cho, Sung-Ju; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin; Lee, Sang-Young

    2015-08-12

    Forthcoming flexible/wearable electronic devices with shape diversity and mobile usability garner a great deal of attention as an innovative technology to bring unprecedented changes in our daily lives. From the power source point of view, conventional rechargeable batteries (one representative example is a lithium-ion battery) with fixed shapes and sizes have intrinsic limitations in fulfilling design/performance requirements for the flexible/wearable electronics. Here, as a facile and efficient strategy to address this formidable challenge, we demonstrate a new class of printable solid-state batteries (referred to as "PRISS batteries"). Through simple stencil printing process (followed by ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking), solid-state composite electrolyte (SCE) layer and SCE matrix-embedded electrodes are consecutively printed on arbitrary objects of complex geometries, eventually leading to fully integrated, multilayer-structured PRISS batteries with various form factors far beyond those achievable by conventional battery technologies. Tuning rheological properties of SCE paste and electrode slurry toward thixotropic fluid characteristics, along with well-tailored core elements including UV-cured triacrylate polymer and high boiling point electrolyte, is a key-enabling technology for the realization of PRISS batteries. This process/material uniqueness allows us to remove extra processing steps (related to solvent drying and liquid-electrolyte injection) and also conventional microporous separator membranes, thereupon enabling the seamless integration of shape-conformable PRISS batteries (including letters-shaped ones) into complex-shaped objects. Electrochemical behavior of PRISS batteries is elucidated via an in-depth analysis of cell impedance, which provides a theoretical basis to enable sustainable improvement of cell performance. We envision that PRISS batteries hold great promise as a reliable and scalable platform technology to open a new concept of cell

  14. Effect of synthesis route on the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3: A comparative study between solid state and sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, Pittala; Srinath, S.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO 3 (BFO) powder was prepared through optimized solid state (SS) and sol–gel (SG) reaction methods. The effect of preparation routes on the crystal purity and multiferroic properties of the BFO was investigated. Sol–gel synthesis results almost a single-phase material at relatively lower temperatures while the solid-state method results into BFO with a small amount of Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 secondary phase. The grain size of SG processed sample reduces to half the size of the one that is prepared by SS. Elemental analysis shows a stoichiometric Bi:Fe content for SG samples by restricting the Bi loss. In comparison with the SS samples, dielectric constant of SG samples exhibit higher values with Maxwell–Wagner type dielectric dispersion. A cusp at 50 K was seen in M–T curves for SS samples, for which no frequency dependence was observed in a.c susceptibility measurements ruling out the earlier predictions of spin glass nature in this system. M−H loops show a typical antiferromagnetic nature at 300 K while a weak ferromagnetic behavior is found at 10 K. A slight increase in H C and M r was observed for SG samples over SS. The improved properties of SG processed BFO makes it more promising for applications. - Highlights: • Optimized conditions to attain the BiFeO 3 with minimized impurities are reported. • The influence of the impurities on the dielectric, magnetic properties is reported. • Maxwell–Wagner relaxation is found for BiFeO 3 prepared by sol–gel technique. • a.c. susceptibility measurements ruled out the possibility of spin glass nature. • The anomalous behavior of H C with the temperature is reported

  15. Synthetic routes to a nanoscale inorganic cluster [Ga13(μ3-OH)6(μ2-OH)18(H2O)](NO3)15 evaluated by solid-state 71Ga NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammann, Blake A.; Marsh, David A.; Ma, Zayd L.; Wood, Suzannah R.; Eric West, Michael; Johnson, Darren W.; Hayes, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state 71 Ga NMR was used to characterize a series of [Ga 13 (μ 3 -OH) 6 (μ 2 -OH) 18 (H 2 O)](NO 3 ) 15 “Ga 13 ” molecular clusters synthesized by multiple methods. These molecular clusters are precursors to thin film electronics and may be employed in energy applications. The synthetic routes provide varying levels of impurities in the solid phase, and these impurities often elude traditional characterization techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Solid-state NMR can provide a window into the gallium species even in amorphous phases. This information is vital in order to prevent the impurities from causing defect sites in the corresponding thin films upon gelation and condensation (polymerization) of the Ga 13 clusters. This work demonstrates the resolving power of solid-state NMR to evaluate structure and synthetic quality in the solid state, and the application of high-field NMR to study quadrupolar species, such as 71 Ga. - Graphical abstract: The various synthetic routes and 71 Ga solid-state NMR spectra of the nanoscale inorganic cluster [Ga 13 (μ 3 -OH) 6 (μ 2 -OH) 18 (H 2 O)](NO 3 ) 15 . - Highlights: • Solid-state 71 Ga NMR of hydroxo-aquo metal clusters and the impurities present. • High-field NMR capability allows for quadrupolar species, such as 71 Ga, to be routinely studied. • Efficient and environmentally friendly synthetic routes have been developed to prepare hydroxo-aquo metal clusters.

  16. Synthesis of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO2 with high-active visible light degradation property via solid state reaction route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaoyou; Tang Qunli; Feng Qingge

    2011-01-01

    S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-TiO 2 , Cr-TiO 2 , S-Cr-TiO 2 ) were successfully synthesized via a simple, effective and environmental benign solid state reaction route. The low angle XRD patterns demonstrated that the resulting samples possess mesostructures. The further characterizations via N 2 adsorption-desorption and XPS showed that the typical S/Cr co-doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr)) possesses mesopore with the high specific surface area of 118.4 m 2 /g and narrow pore size distribution, and both S and Cr have been incorporated into the lattice of TiO 2 with the amounts of 4.16% sulfur and 7.88% chromium, respectively. And Raman spectroscopy shows that the surface of S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr) material possesses stretching vibrational peaks at ∼709, ∼793 cm -1 are assignable to the Ti-O-Cr, O-Cr (Ti)-OH bonds, respectively. Interestingly, the UV-vis displayed that the absorption regions of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 cover the visible light region. As for the series of S-Cr-TiO 2 samples, the absorption region even extends to near infrared region with strong adsorption. Moreover, compared with the pure titanium dioxide (P25-TiO 2 ), the photodegradation properties of bromocresol green (BCG) on the S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 showed excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation. Within 50 min visible light irradiation, 82.6% of the initial BCG was degraded for the S-Cr-TiO 2 (6S-4Cr) photocatalyst.

  17. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  18. Kinetic modeling of the polymer-derived ceramics route: investigation of the thermal decomposition kinetics of poly[B-(methylamino)borazine] precursors into boron nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Samuel; Fiaty, Koffi; Cornu, David; Miele, Philippe; Laurent, Pierre

    2006-05-11

    A complete kinetic modeling of the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) route is achieved for the first time through the investigation of the solid-state decomposition of a typical melt-spinnable poly[B-(methylamino)borazine] into boron nitride fibers at various heating rates. Through the use of the Lorentz fitting approach, it is shown that the two-step weight loss associated with the polymer-to-ceramic conversion is governed by a complex interplay of five diffusion-type transport mechanisms that are independent of the applied heating schedule. The application of the Friedman method to dynamic thermogravimetry data yields Ea and ln A values that are seen to increase with the extent of the ceramic conversion from region one (Ea = 38.73 kJ mol(-1)) to region five (Ea = 146.64 kJ mol(-1)). This fact indicates that both the mechanisms within those regions are parallel routes to the formation of the final solid-state material and their complexity increases with the conversion progress. The cross-linking process (first weight loss) of the polymer is governed by three dependent poorly energetic mechanisms. The first weight loss is activated by ammonolysis reactions that provide a modified polymer capable of undergoing condensation reactions in regions two and three to yield a highly cross-linked polymer. A large evolution of methylamine is identified during this process. Mineralization (region four) and ceramization (region five) steps are represented by two highly energetic multistep mechanisms. The mineralization step is associated with a large evolution of methylamine and occurs during the transition between the cross-linking and ceramization processes through the cleavage of the inter-ring B-N bonds. Ceramization represents the end of the polymer-to-ceramic conversion in which the planar consolidation of BN hexagons occurs through complex structural rearrangements of the borazine units (cleavage of the intraring B-N bonds) accompanied with an ammonia evolution. Finally

  19. Li insertion into Li4Ti5O12 spinel prepared by low temperature solid state route: Charge capability vs surface area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Fabián, M.; Klusáčková, Monika; Klementová, Mariana; Pitňa Lásková, Barbora; Danková, Z.; Senna, M.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 265 (2018), s. 480-487 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06511S; GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8F15003 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Li4Ti5O12 * Charge capacity * Solid state * Li insertion * Surface area Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  20. Characterization of SrCo{sub 1.5}Ti{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 9}O{sub 19} hexagonal ferrite synthesized by sol-gel combustion and solid state route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinaykumar, R., E-mail: vinaykumar.r1984@gmail.com; Mazumder, R., E-mail: ranabrata@nitrkl.ac.in; Bera, J., E-mail: jbera@nitrkl.ac.in

    2017-05-01

    Co-Ti co-substituted SrM hexagonal ferrite (SrCo{sub 1.5}Ti{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 9}O{sub 19}) was synthesized by sol-gel combustion and solid state route. The effects of sources of TiO{sub 2} raw materials; titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) and titanyl nitrate (TN) on the phase formation behavior and properties of the ferrite were studied. The thermal decomposition behavior of the gel was studied using TG-DSC. The phase formation behavior of the ferrite was studied by using X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR analysis. Phase formation was comparatively easier in the TN-based sol-gel process. The morphology of powder and sintered ferrite was investigated using scanning electron microscope. Magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity, permeability, tan δ{sub µ} and dielectric properties were investigated. The ferrite synthesized by sol-gel based chemical route showed higher saturation magnetization, permeability and permittivity compared to the ferrite synthesized by solid state route. - Highlights: • SrCo{sub 1.5}Ti{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 9}O{sub 19} ferrite was successfully prepared by sol–gel combustion process. • Sol-gel synthesis of the ferrite using titanyl nitrate has been reported first time. • Phase formation was easier in the titanyl nitrate based sol-gel process. • Better magneto-dielectric properties were observed in sol-gel processed ferrite.

  1. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  2. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  3. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  4. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  5. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  6. A new chemical route to a hybrid nanostructure: room-temperature solid-state reaction synthesis of Ag@AgCl with efficient photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Cao, Yali

    2012-08-07

    The room-temperature solid-state chemical reaction technique has been used to synthesize the silver nanoparticle-loaded semiconductor silver@silver chloride for the first time. It has the advantages of convenient operation, lower cost, less pollution, and mass production. This simple technique created a wide array of nanosized silver particles which had a strong surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region, and built up an excellent composite structure of silver@silver chloride hybrid which exhibited high photocatalytic activity and stability towards decomposition of organic methyl orange under visible-light illumination. Moreover, this work achieved the control of composition of the silver@silver chloride composite simply by adjusting the feed ratio of reactants. It offers an alternative method for synthesising metal@semiconductor composites.

  7. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  8. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  9. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  10. Monoclinic β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} nanocrystalline particles employing novel urea assisted solid state route: Synthesis, characterization and sintering behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Biranchi M., E-mail: biranchi.barc@gmail.com [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Vashi Complex, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India); Mohanty, Trupti; Prakash, Deep [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Vashi Complex, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sinha, P.K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Vashi Complex, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India)

    2017-07-15

    Pure phase monoclinic nano-crystalline Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder was synthesized by a novel urea assisted solid state synthesis method using readily available and economical precursors. A single phase and well crystalline Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder has been obtained at slightly lower temperature (600–700 °C) and shorter duration (2 h) as compared to the conventional solid state method. The proposed method has significant advantages in comparison to other viable methods mainly in terms of phase purity, powder properties and sinterability. Analysis of chemical composition using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) shows no loss of lithium from Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} in the proposed method. The emergence of monoclinic Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of as-synthesized powder. The crystallite size of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder was calculated to be in the range of 15–80 nm, which varied as a function of urea composition and temperature. The morphology of as-prepared Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powders was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of urea composition on phase and morphology was investigated so as to delineate the role of urea. Upon sintering at < 1000 °C temperature, the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder compact attained about 98% of the theoretical density with fine grained (grain size: 2–3 μm) microstructure. It indicates excellent sinter-ability of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder synthesized by the proposed method. The fine grained structure is desirable for better tritium breeding performance of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at variable temperature showed good electrical properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. The proposed method is simple, anticipated to be cost effective and convenient to realise for large scale production of phase pure nanocrystalline and having significantly enhanced sinter-ability Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder.

  11. Study of positron lifetime spectrum for Zn O varistor ceramics fabricated by Sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xigui; Wei Shutao; Zhang Ruiying; Cheng Guosheng; Dai Xianqi; Zhang Jincang; Xing Huaimin

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of positron lifetime spectrum for ZnO varistor ceramics fabricated by Sol-gel route was carried out. The relationship between lifetime parameters and the densification and nonlinear coefficient α was given. The dependence of electrical properties on sintering temperature and duration was discussed

  12. Ceramic Foams from Pre-Ceramic Polymer Routes for Reusable Acreage Thermal Protection System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Chien, Jennifer; Schaeffler, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Motivation. Current light weight insulation. Advantages of preceramic-polymer-derived ceramic foams. Rigid insulation materials. Tailor foam microstructures. Experimental approach. Results: sacrificial materials, sacrificial fillers. Comparison of foam microstructures. Density of ceramic foams. Phase evolution and properties: oxidation behavior. mechanical properties, aerothermal performance. Impact damage of microcellular foams. Conclusions.

  13. Bioactivity analysis of the Ta (V doped SiO2–CaO–Na2O–P2O5 ceramics prepared by solid state sintering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Zia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to control the degradation rate of material at a higher degradation rate improving the chemical stability of the material. Ta is known to have good chemical resistance, biocompatibility and show no adverse biological response. In the present study, SiO2–Na2O–CaO–P2O5 bioceramics with different Ta2O5 contents was prepared by solid state sintering method at 1000 °C. The as-sintered ceramics were subjected to immersion studies in stimulated body fluid (SBF for 21 days under static condition and characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and AAS. The findings of the research indicate that the addition of Ta2O5 controlled degradability, and all samples showed sufficient bioactivity.

  14. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  15. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  16. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  17. Investigation of amorphous and crystalline phosphates in magnesium phosphate ceramics with solid-state H-1 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viani, Alberto; Mali, G.; Mácová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2017), s. 6571-6579 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : sol-gel processes * spectroscopy * MgO * chemically-bonded ceramics Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027288421730278X

  18. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  19. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  20. Growth of self-textured Ga3+-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 ceramics by solid state reaction and their significant enhancement in ionic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shiying; Zhu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Yue; Ling, Ming'en; Hu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Jiliang

    2018-03-01

    A highly self-textured Ga2O3-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO-Ga) solid electrolyte with a nominal composition of Li6.55Ga0.15La3Zr2O12 is obtained by a simple and low-cost solid-state reaction technique, requiring no seed crystals to achieve grain orientation. The as-prepared self-textured LLZO-Ga shows a strong (420) preferred orientation with a high Lotgering factor of 0.91. Coherently, a terrace-shaped microstructure consisting of many parallel layers, indicating a two-dimensional-like growth mode, is clearly observed in the self-textured sample. As a result, the highly self-textured garnet-type lithium-ion conducting solid electrolyte of LLZO-Ga exhibits an extremely high ionic conductivity, reaching a state-of-the-art level of 2.06 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature (25 °C) and thus shedding light on an important strategy for improving the structure and ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes.

  1. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  2. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  3. Biomimetic routes to nanoscale-toughened oxide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschaume, Olivier

    In this work, a novel anion exchange technique has been developed and optimised in order to prepare extra-pure, hydroxide-free solutions of aluminium polyoxocations (A113 and A130) as well as for the preparation of nanosized, highly monodisperse aluminium hydroxide particles in the particle size range 20-200nm. In order for the evolution and composition of the resulting systems to be monitored, an array of characterisation techniques including 27A1 NMR, dynamic light scattering, po-tentiometry, conductometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy, have been implemented and complemented with successful data treatment strategies. The quantitative data obtained indicates that the static anion exchange method is a soft, environmentally friendly, low-cost, energy-saving and convenient procedure for the preparation of Al- containing model systems. The A1 species obtained can be used for high-precision model studies on A1 speciation, and serve as nanosize precursors to a variety of Al-containing materials. The use of these pure A1 precursors has a clear advantage in materials synthesis arising from an improved understanding and better control of A1 speciation. In a second development of the project, the model systems have been used in a nanotectonic approach to biomimetic materials synthesis, with possible applications to the optimisation of Al-containing materials such as ceramics or composite films. Bearing this aim in mind, the interactions of the prepared aluminium species with the model protein BSA and a bioelastomer, elastin, were monitored and the resulting composite materials characterised. The methodology developed for the synthesis and characterisation of pure A1 species and A1 species/biomolecule systems is a robust base for further studies spanning research fields such as Chemistry, Biology or Environmental sciences, and possess a large potential for application to industrial products and processes.

  4. Calcination and solid state reaction of ceramic-forming components to provide single-phase superconducting materials having fine particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Emerson, James E.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method for the preparation of single phase, fine grained ceramic materials from precursor powder mixtures where at least one of the components of the mixture is an alkali earth carbonate. The process consists of heating the precursor powders in a partial vacuum under flowing oxygen and under conditions where the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 evolved during the calcination is kept to a very low level relative to the oxygen. The process has been found particularly suitable for the preparation of high temperature copper oxide superconducting materials such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x "123" and YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.8 "124".

  5. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  6. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  7. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  8. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  9. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  10. Synthetic routes to a nanoscale inorganic cluster [Ga{sub 13}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 6}(μ{sub 2}-OH){sub 18}(H{sub 2}O)](NO{sub 3}){sub 15} evaluated by solid-state {sup 71}Ga NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammann, Blake A. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Marsh, David A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Ma, Zayd L. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Wood, Suzannah R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Eric West, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Johnson, Darren W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Hayes, Sophia E., E-mail: hayes@wustl.edu [Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Solid-state {sup 71}Ga NMR was used to characterize a series of [Ga{sub 13}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 6}(μ{sub 2}-OH){sub 18}(H{sub 2}O)](NO{sub 3}){sub 15} “Ga{sub 13}” molecular clusters synthesized by multiple methods. These molecular clusters are precursors to thin film electronics and may be employed in energy applications. The synthetic routes provide varying levels of impurities in the solid phase, and these impurities often elude traditional characterization techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Solid-state NMR can provide a window into the gallium species even in amorphous phases. This information is vital in order to prevent the impurities from causing defect sites in the corresponding thin films upon gelation and condensation (polymerization) of the Ga{sub 13} clusters. This work demonstrates the resolving power of solid-state NMR to evaluate structure and synthetic quality in the solid state, and the application of high-field NMR to study quadrupolar species, such as {sup 71}Ga. - Graphical abstract: The various synthetic routes and {sup 71}Ga solid-state NMR spectra of the nanoscale inorganic cluster [Ga{sub 13}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 6}(μ{sub 2}-OH){sub 18}(H{sub 2}O)](NO{sub 3}){sub 15}. - Highlights: • Solid-state {sup 71}Ga NMR of hydroxo-aquo metal clusters and the impurities present. • High-field NMR capability allows for quadrupolar species, such as {sup 71}Ga, to be routinely studied. • Efficient and environmentally friendly synthetic routes have been developed to prepare hydroxo-aquo metal clusters.

  11. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  12. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  13. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  14. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  15. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  16. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  17. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  18. Structural and dielectric characterization of praseodymium-modified lead titanate ceramics synthesized by the OPM route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Alexandre H., E-mail: alehp1@yahoo.com.br [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Souza, Flavio L., E-mail: fleandro.ufabc@gmail.com [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, UFABC - Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre 09210-170, SP (Brazil); Longo, Elson, E-mail: elson@iq.unesp.br [Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry Institute of Araraquara, UNESP - Sao Paulo State University, Rua Francisco Degni, CP 355, Araraquara 14801-907, SP (Brazil); Leite, Edson R., E-mail: derl@power.ufscar.br [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Camargo, Emerson R., E-mail: camargo@ufscar.br [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos 13565-905, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Highly reactive nanosized powders of Pb(0.8)Pr(0.2)TiO(3) were obtained by the OPM route. {yields} Tetragonal phase was observed by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. {yields} SEM images showed powders partially sintered with particles of approximately 54 nm. {yields} Dielectric measurements show a normal behavior for the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition. - Abstract: Quasi-spherical nanoparticles of praseodymium-modified lead titanate powder (Pb{sub 0.80}Pr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}) with an average size of 54.8 nm were synthesized successfully by the oxidant-peroxo method (OPM) and were used to prepare highly dense ceramic bodies which were sintered at 1100 and 1150 deg. C for 2 h. A tetragonal phase was identified in the powder and ceramic samples by X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. The fractured surface of the ceramic sample showed a high degree of densification with fairly uniform grain sizes. Dielectric constants measured in the range of 30-300 deg. C at different frequencies (120 Hz and at 1, 10 and 100 kHz) indicated that samples with 20 mol% praseodymium showed normal ferroelectric behavior regardless of the sintering temperature.

  19. Structural and dielectric characterization of praseodymium-modified lead titanate ceramics synthesized by the OPM route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Alexandre H.; Souza, Flavio L.; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.; Camargo, Emerson R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Highly reactive nanosized powders of Pb(0.8)Pr(0.2)TiO(3) were obtained by the OPM route. → Tetragonal phase was observed by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. → SEM images showed powders partially sintered with particles of approximately 54 nm. → Dielectric measurements show a normal behavior for the ferroelectric to paraelectric transition. - Abstract: Quasi-spherical nanoparticles of praseodymium-modified lead titanate powder (Pb 0.80 Pr 0.20 TiO 3 ) with an average size of 54.8 nm were synthesized successfully by the oxidant-peroxo method (OPM) and were used to prepare highly dense ceramic bodies which were sintered at 1100 and 1150 deg. C for 2 h. A tetragonal phase was identified in the powder and ceramic samples by X-ray powder diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. The fractured surface of the ceramic sample showed a high degree of densification with fairly uniform grain sizes. Dielectric constants measured in the range of 30-300 deg. C at different frequencies (120 Hz and at 1, 10 and 100 kHz) indicated that samples with 20 mol% praseodymium showed normal ferroelectric behavior regardless of the sintering temperature.

  20. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  1. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  2. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  3. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  4. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning; Synthese par voie solide et frittage de ceramiques a structure monazite. Application au conditionnement des actinides mineurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregiroux, D

    2005-11-15

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR{sup 3+}) orthophosphate with a general formula TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4}, is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} powders (with TR{sup 3+} = La{sup 3+} to Gd{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce{sup 4+}, U{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+}) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4

  6. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)

  7. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1988-03-01

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies

  8. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  9. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  10. Solid state reaction synthesis of Ba0.75Sr0.25AlSi2O8 - Al2O3 ceramic composites from mechanically activated precursor mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Ramírez, M. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic composites with Ba0.75Sr0.25AlSi2O8 (SBAS/Al2O3 mass ratios of: 1 90/10, 2 70/30, and 3 50/50, were in situ synthesized at 900-1500 °C/5 h from mixtures of fly ash, BaCO3, SrCO3 and Al2O3. The green mixtures were mechanically activated for 0, 4 and 8 h in an attrition mill. As a result, the solid state reactions were faster and occurred at lower temperatures. Only the SBAS and Al2O3 phases were obtained at 1300-1500°C, with the SBAS present in composition 1 achieving full conversion from its hexagonal (Hexacelsian into its monoclinic (Celsian form, with or without milling. The higher nominal SBAS content of composition 1 facilitated in it the mentioned conversion, in comparison with the other two studied compositions, which required to be mechanically activated for times that increased with increasing Al2O3 content, in order to attain in them similarly high Hexacelsian to Celsian conversions. The mechanical properties of the synthesized materials increased with increasing milling time, sintering temperature and Al2O3 content. Thus, the best mechanical properties were obtained for composition 3 milled for 8 h and sintered at 1500 °C.Compósitos cerámicos con relaciones Ba0.75Sr0.25AlSi2O8 (SBAS/Al2O3 en masa de: 1 90/10, 2 70/30, y 3 50/50, fueron sintetizados in situ a 900-1500 °C/5 h usando mezclas de cenizas volantes, BaCO3, SrCO3 y Al2O3 . Las mezclas en verde fueron activadas mecánicamente por 0, 4 y 8 h en un molino de atrición. Como resultado, las reacciones en el estado sólido fueron más rápidas y ocurrieron a menores temperaturas. A 1300-1500°C sólo se obtuvo las fases SBAS y Al2O3 , con el SBAS presente en la composición 1 transformado completamente de su forma hexagonal (Hexacelsiana a la monoclínica (Celsiana, con o sin molienda. El mayor contenido nominal de SBAS en esa composición facilitó dicha conversión, en comparación con las otras dos composiciones estudiadas, las cuales requirieron ser activadas mec

  11. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  12. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  13. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  14. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  15. Kinetic study of solid-state processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Jiri; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for kinetic analysis of solid-state processes has been developed and the criteria capable of classifying different processes are explored. They provide a useful tool for the determination of the most suitable kinetic model. The method has been applied to the analysis of calorimetric data corresponding to the crystallization processes in amorphous ZrO 2 . It is found that the crystallization kinetics of amorphous powder sample exhibits a complex behavior under non-isothermal conditions. A two-parameter model provides a satisfactory description of the crystallization process for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. This enables better control of crystallization extent in fine ZrO 2 powders that is important for preparation of zirconia ceramics with defined properties. (author)

  16. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  17. Characterization of Bi2/3Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics synthesized by semi-wet route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gautam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bi2/3Cu3Ti4O12 (BCTO ceramic was synthesized by the semi-wet route using metal nitrate solutions and solid TiO2 powder in a stoichiometric ratio. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR study of BCTO precursor powder and calcined ceramic showed the presence of alcoholic functional groups and the stretching band of Ti-O and Cu-O respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX were employed to characterize the structure, surface morphology and purity of the sintered BCTO ceramic respectively. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the single phase formation of BCTO ceramic at 1073 K. The average dimension of grains calculated by SEM and AFM was found to be in the range of 0.73±0.2 µm with clear grain boundaries. Magnetic property was investigated over a wide temperature range 2–300 K at a magnetic field of 7 tesla. The Curie temperature was calculated by zero field cooled (MZFC and field cooled (MFC magnetization at 100 Oe applied field which was found to be 125 K. The sintered BCTO ceramic shows high dielectric constant (ε'=2.9×104 at 323 K and 100 Hz.

  18. Preparation and characterization of the La0.57Li0.30TiO3 (LLTO, x = 0.1) perovskite for solid state pH sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.B.; Andreeta, M.R.B.; Souza, D.M.P.F. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Lithium lanthanum titanates (Lix La2/3-xTiO3 with x = 0.1 or LLTO) have been studied in the last decade as an alternative to the development of new in situ pH sensors in different harsh environments. Despite the widespread possibilities of applications, the development of synthesis and processing routes of LLTO remains a challenging issue due of the structural complexity of this perovskite system. The standard solid state route for the powder and ceramics synthesis of the LLTO compound, employed as pH sensor devices, is based on multiple calcinations and grinding steps. This route ensures a higher degree of crystallinity and better electrical response in comparison with the sol-gel one [4]. The present work aims to establish an overview of the difficulties founded to obtain the single phase compound using a two step thermal treatment process powder synthesis, followed by ceramic sintering, as an alternative to the time consuming standard route (multiple thermal treatments). In the two step thermal treatment route, the powders were prepared by solid state oxide mixing method, calcinated at 850°C/4h, followed by a single thermal treatment at 1100 °C/12h. After each thermal treatment the powder was re-homogenized in vibratory mill. The powders obtained by the proposed new route were pressed isostatically at 200 MPa and sintered at temperatures varying from 1150 to 1350 °C/6h. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The single phase was obtained by both routes and ceramics up to 98 % of theoretical density were obtained by the two step process. Conductivities up to of 10-3 S/cm were obtained in ceramics prepared by the new route (sintered at 1250 °C). These results are in very good agreement with the ones reported in the literature, achieved by standard preparation method. (author)

  19. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  20. Novel Routes for Sintering of Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics and their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    concentrations. As input components the zirconyl-nitrate ZrО(NO3)2 and cerium nitrate Сe(NO3)3∙6H2O of “pure” grade, nitric acid “pure for analysis...H. Gocmez, Hydrothermal synthesis and properties of Ce1-xGdxO2-δ solid solutions // Solid State Sciences. – 2002. – Vol. 4. – P. 585-590. 19. E...J. Kilner, Ionic conductivity in the CeO2-Gd2O3 system (0.05≤Gd/Ce≤0.4) prepared by oxalate coprecipitation // Solid State Ionics. - 2002. – Vol

  1. Preparation of nanostructured La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} ceramics by a combined sol–gel and spark plasma sintering route and resulting magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayadi, F.; Regaieg, Y. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086 CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, LPM, B.P 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W.; Koubaa, M.; Cheikhrouhou, A. [Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, LPM, B.P 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Lecoq, H.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086 CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Sicard, L., E-mail: lorette.sicard@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086 CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-05-01

    This work proposes an original, easy to achieve and inexpensive route to synthesize manganite ceramics for magnetic refrigeration, combining sol–gel chemistry to Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The target La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) compounds are obtained as single phases which crystallize in the orthorhombic structure (Pnma space group). SPS allows a quick sintering at a relatively low temperature (700 °C in this work) compared to the conventional solid state method (≥1100 °C), leading to densified ultrafine grained pellets (85% of compactness). Magnetic studies show that Ba substitution does not affect significantly the relative cooling power (RCP) of these manganites, while it increases their Curie temperature (T{sub C}) by several tens of degrees. Typically, RCP values ranging between 267 and 270 J/kg (for a magnetic field change of 5 T) and T{sub C} between 205 and 245 K were measured when x was increased from 0 to 0.2, respectively. These results combined to the fact that the synthesis route is economically advantageous makes the obtained ceramics interesting as active refrigerants for magnetic refrigeration technology below room temperature. - Highlights: • Nanostructured La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3} ceramics were obtained as single phase. • An original and low cost method was developed combining sol–gel chemistry and SPS. • The method can be extended to prepare most dense nanostructured oxides. • Our ceramics have higher RCP than those obtained by the solid state method. • The optimum temperature of the magnetocaloric effect is tunable with Ba content.

  2. Processing by both classical and mechanosynthesis routes and characterization of a new solid solution of tungsten-bronze structure ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachane, M.; Moure, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Zegzouti, A.; Daoud, M.; Castro, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new family of ferroelectric compounds with Ba 2-x Na 1+x Li x Nb 5 O 15 composition (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and tetragonal tungsten-bronze structure is processed for the first time. This new family of materials derived from Ba 2 NaNb 5 O 15 compound was processed by classical solid-state reaction and by mechanosynthesis. The powders prepared by these two routes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (at room and high temperature), differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The results confirm the formation of the solid solution in the whole range of composition. The influence of Li addition on the dielectric permittivity and losses and on the ferro-paraelectric transition temperature is also studied

  3. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  4. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  5. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  6. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  7. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  8. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  9. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  10. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  11. Encapsulation of sacrificial silicon containing particles for SH oxide ceramics via a boehmite precursor route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabat, A.L.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Sloof, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Easy crack propagation in oxide ceramic coatings limits their application in high temperature environment (e.g. such as engines and gas turbine components) [1]. In order to overcome this problem, incorporation of sacrificial particles into an oxide ceramic coating may be a viable option. Particles

  12. Reactive Processing of Environment Conscious, Biomorphic Ceramics: A Novel and Eco-friendly Route to Advanced Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environment-conscious, biomorphic ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials that can be produced with renewable resources (wood) and wood wastes (wood sawdust). These materials have tailorable properties with numerous potential applications. Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by the infiltration of wood-derived carbonaceous preforms with oxide and silicon based materials. The wood-derived carbonaceous preforms have been shown to be quite useful in producing porous or dense materials with different microstructures and compositions. The microstructure and mechanical properties (flexural strength, fracture toughness, elastic modulus, and compressive strength) of a wide variety of Sic-based ecoceramics have been measured. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches. In this presentation the fabrication approach, microstructure, and thermomechanical properties of a wide variety of Sic-based Ecoceramics will be reported.

  13. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  14. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  15. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  16. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  17. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  18. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  19. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  20. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  1. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  2. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  3. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  4. Studies in solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Rosenkranz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed over 10 years by the high temperature chemistry group are reviewed. Attention was paid to different aspects of ionic solids from the point of view of practical as well as theoretical needs of nuclear technology. Thus ceramic fuel compound like uranates, urania-thoria system, solid electrolytes based on oxides and ionics transformations were studied under reactor irradiation. (author) 13 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs

  5. Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomer, Laura; Liewald, Mathias; Riedmüller, Kim Rouven

    2018-05-01

    Metal-ceramic Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC) belong to a special subcategory of composite materials and reveal enhanced properties compared to conventional composite materials. Currently, IPC are produced by infiltration of a ceramic open-pore body with liquid metal applying high pressure and I or high temperature to avoid residual porosity. However, these IPC are not able to gain their complete potential, because of structural damages and interface reactions occurring during the manufacturing process. Compared to this, the manufacturing of IPC using the semi-solid forming technology offers great perspectives due to relative low processing temperatures and reduced mechanical pressure. In this context, this paper is focusing on numerical investigations conducted by using the FLOW-3D software for gaining a deeper understanding of the infiltration of open-pore bodies with semi-solid materials. For flow simulation analysis, a geometric model and different porous media drag models have been used. They have been adjusted and compared to get a precise description of the infiltration process. Based on these fundamental numerical investigations, this paper also shows numerical investigations that were used for basically designing a semi-solid forming tool. Thereby, the development of the flow front and the pressure during the infiltration represent the basis of the evaluation. The use of an open and closed tool cavity combined with various geometries of the upper die shows different results relating to these evaluation arguments. Furthermore, different overflows were designed and its effects on the pressure at the end of the infiltration process were investigated. Thus, this paper provides a general guideline for a tool design for manufacturing of metal-ceramic IPC using semi-solid forming.

  6. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  7. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  8. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  9. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite prepared using auto combustion and ceramic route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, C.; Perumal, M.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite is synthesized by using low temperature auto combustion and high temperature ceramic methods. The prepared samples have values of lattice constant equal to 8.40 Å and 8.38 Å for auto combustion and ceramic methods respectively. The FTIR spectrum of samples of the auto combustion method shows a high frequency vibrational band at 580 cm −1 assigned to tetrahedral site and a low frequency vibrational band at 409 cm −1 assigned to octahedral site which are shifted to 590 cm −1 and 412 cm −1 for the ceramic method sample. SEM micrographs of samples show a substantial difference in surface morphology and size of the grains between the two methods. The frequency dependent dielectric constant and ac conductivity of the samples measured from 1 Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature are reported. The room temperature magnetic hysteresis parameters of the samples are measured using VSM. The measured values of saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization are 42 emu/g, 1553 Oe, 18.5 emu/g for the auto combustion method, 66.7 emu/g, 379.6 Oe, and 17.3 emu/g for the ceramic method, respectively. The difference in preparation methods and size of the grains causes interesting changes in electrical and magnetic properties

  10. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  11. Synthesis of BZN-(α) and BZN-(β) pyrochloric ceramics by the solid state relation; Sintese das ceramicas pirocloricas BZN-α e BZN-β pela relacao em estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, F.C.; Alves, A.G.; Alves, Y.M.; Pereira, F.M.M.; Barroso, M.B., E-mail: werleyfarias@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Pereira, C.A.; Saraiva, I.R. [Faculdade DeVry Fanor (FANOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Conde, W.S.; Sombra, A.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicacoes e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), CE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The ceramics the base of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} (BZN) have two main phases, Bi{sub 1,5}ZnNb{sub 1,5}O{sub 7} (α) and Bi{sub 2}Zn{sub 2/3}Nb{sub 4/3}O{sub 7} (β) with cubic and monoclinic crystal structures, respectively. This study was aimed to summarize the BZN-α phase and BZN-β chemically homogeneous and observe the phase transformations that occur in the system, using the ceramic method. They were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and the Rietveld method in structural refinement and Infrared Spectroscopy. The BZN-α phase is presented in pure sintering temperatures used, although BZN-β phase has brought the remaining stages of its formation process, as Bi{sub 5}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 15} and BiNbO{sub 4}. For BZN-α were observed absorptions at 469 and 328 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the metal-oxygen stretch the BZN-β showed absorption bands at wavelengths of 601, 515, 447 and 328 cm{sup -1}, also being assigned metal-oxygen bond. (author)

  12. Solid-state thermal decomposition of the [Co(NH3)5CO3]NO3·0.5H2O complex: A simple, rapid and low-temperature synthetic route to Co3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, Saeid; Safabakhsh, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► [Co(NH 3 ) 5 CO 3 ]NO 3 ·0.5H 2 O complex was used for preparing pure Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. ► Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared at low temperature of 175 °C. ► Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles show a weak ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. ► The method is simple, low-cost and suitable for the production of Co 3 O 4 . - Abstract: Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were easily prepared via the decomposition of the pentammine(carbonato)cobalt(III) nitrate precursor complex [Co(NH 3 ) 5 CO 3 ]NO 3 ·0.5H 2 O at low temperature (175 °C). The product was characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area measurements and magnetic measurements. The FT-IR, XRD, Raman and EDX results indicated that the synthesized Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are highly pure and have a single phase. The TEM analysis revealed nearly uniform and quasi-spherical Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with an average particle size of approximately 10 nm. The optical absorption spectrum of the Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles showed two direct band gaps of 2.18 and 3.52 eV with a red shift in comparison with previous reported values. The prepared Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles showed a weak ferromagnetic behaviour that could be attributed to uncompensated surface spins and/or finite-size effects. Using the present method, Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles can be produced without expensive organic solvents and complicated equipment. This simple, rapid, safe and low-cost synthetic route can be extended to the synthesis of other transition-metal oxides.

  13. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  14. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  15. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  16. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  18. Facile synthesis of Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics electrolyte with micron range particles for all-solid-state batteries via a low-temperature solution technique (LTST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunho; Lee, Sewook; Park, Jongyeop; Nichols, William T.; Shin, Dongwook

    2018-06-01

    A lithium ion conductive 75Li2Sṡ25P2S5 glass-ceramics electrolyte is, for the first time, successfully synthesized via a new low-temperature solution technique (LTST) and compared to the conventional mechanical-milling technique. Both samples are composed of the highly lithium ion conductive thio-LISICON III analog phase. Due to the uniform dispersion of reactants in an organic liquid, the use of LTST produced significantly smaller and more uniform particle sizes (2.2 ± 1.68 μm) resulting in a 6.5 times higher specific surface area compared to the mechanically-milled sample. A pronounced enhancement of both the rate capability and cyclability is demonstrated for the LTST solid electrolyte sample due to the more intimate contact with the LiCoO2 active material. Furthermore, the LTST sample shows excellent electrochemical stability throughout the potential range of -1 to 5 V. These results suggest that the proposed technique using the optimized LTST process is promising for the preparation of 75Li2Sṡ25P2S5 solid electrolytes for use in advanced Li-ion batteries.

  19. Direct ink write fabrication of transparent ceramic gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ivy Krystal; Seeley, Zachary M.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Duoss, Eric B.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state laser gain media based on the garnet structure with two spatially distinct but optically contiguous regions have been fabricated. Transparent gain media comprised of a central core of Y2.97Nd0.03Al5.00O12.00 (Nd:YAG) and an undoped cladding region of Y3Al5O12 (YAG) were fabricated by direct ink write and transparent ceramic processing. Direct ink write (DIW) was employed to form the green body, offering a general route to preparing functionally structured solid-state laser gain media. Fully-dense transparent optical ceramics in a "top hat" geometry with YAG/Nd:YAG have been fabricated by DIW methods with optical scatter at 1064 nm of <3%/cm.

  20. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  1. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  2. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  3. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  4. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  5. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  6. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  7. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  8. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  9. Structural, electric and dielectric properties of Eu-doped SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics obtained by co-precipitation route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Afqir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the structure and dielectric properties of Eu-doped SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics prepared by co-precipitation route and sintered at 850 °C. The materials were examined using XRD and FTIR methods. XRD data indicated the formation of well crystallized structure of the pure and doped SrBi2Nb2O9, without the presence of undesirable phases. FTIR spectra do not bring a significant shift in the band positions. Moreover, the AC conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the ceramics were determined through the frequency range [50 kHz–1 MHz]. In particular, the dielectric constant (ε′ and dielectric losses (tan δ of the SrBi2Nb2O9 and SrBi1.6Eu0.4Nb2O9 ceramics were measured as a function of temperature at various frequencies.

  10. Large Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-Free (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 Ceramics Prepared via Citrate Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Zhu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning; Luo, Haosu

    2017-01-01

    The 1 wt % Li-doped (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 (BCZT-Li) ceramics prepared by the citrate method exhibit improved phase purity, densification and electrical properties, which provide prospective possibility to develop high-performance electrocaloric materials. The electrocaloric effect was evaluated by phenomenological method, and the BCZT-Li ceramics present large electrocaloric temperature change ∆T, especially large electrocaloric responsibility ξ = ∆Tmax/∆Emax, which can be comparable to the largest values reported in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. The excellent electrocaloric effect is considered as correlating with the coexistence of polymorphic ferroelectric phases, which are detected by the Raman spectroscopy. The large ξ value accompanied by decreased Curie temperature (around 73 °C) of the BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method presents potential applications as the next-generation solid-state cooling devices. PMID:28927004

  11. Large Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-Free (Ba0.85Ca0.15(Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 Ceramics Prepared via Citrate Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1 wt % Li-doped (Ba0.85Ca0.15(Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 (BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method exhibit improved phase purity, densification and electrical properties, which provide prospective possibility to develop high-performance electrocaloric materials. The electrocaloric effect was evaluated by phenomenological method, and the BCZT-Li ceramics present large electrocaloric temperature change ∆T, especially large electrocaloric responsibility ξ = ∆Tmax/∆Emax, which can be comparable to the largest values reported in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. The excellent electrocaloric effect is considered as correlating with the coexistence of polymorphic ferroelectric phases, which are detected by the Raman spectroscopy. The large ξ value accompanied by decreased Curie temperature (around 73 °C of the BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method presents potential applications as the next-generation solid-state cooling devices.

  12. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf texture development were studied using both [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystals templates. By using a PO 2 of 1x10-11 atm during high temperature heat treatment, matrix coarsening was limited while enabling single crystal boundary motion up to 0.35 mm during growth between 1250°C and 1300°C with growth rates ˜ 3--4 microm/h for both single crystal orientations. By

  13. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  14. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  15. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  16. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  17. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  18. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  19. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  20. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  1. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  2. Synthesis, structural and microwave dielectric properties of Al2W3-xMoxO12 (x = 0-3) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surjith, A.; James, Nijesh K.; Ratheesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solid state synthesis of phase pure Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) compositions. → Sintering studies of Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) ceramics. → Structural and microstructural evaluation using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM studies. → Microwave dielectric property evaluation of Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) ceramics through Hakki and Coleman post resonator and cavity perturbation techniques. → Structure-property correlation through Laser Raman studies. - Abstract: Low dielectric ceramics in the Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) system have been prepared through solid state ceramic route. The phase purity of the ceramic compositions has been studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The microstructure of the sintered ceramics was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The crystal structure of the ceramic compositions as a result of Mo substitution has been studied using Laser Raman spectroscopy. The microwave dielectric properties of the ceramics were studied by Hakki and Coleman post resonator and cavity perturbation techniques. Al 2 Mo x W 3-x O 12 (x = 0-3) ceramics exhibited low dielectric constant and relatively high unloaded quality factor. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of the compositions is found to be in the range -41 to -72 ppm/deg. C.

  3. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  4. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  5. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  6. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  7. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  8. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  9. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  10. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  11. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  12. Solid state multinuclear NMR. A versatile tool for studying the reactivity of solid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J.D. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2004-08-31

    Traditionally, X-ray powder diffraction has been a favoured method for studying chemical reactions in the solid state, but the increasing importance of energy-efficient synthesis methods for solids (e.g. sol-gel synthesis, mechanochemical synthesis) has led to the need for an analytical method not dependent on long-range structural periodicity. Multinuclear solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) represents a technique which is equally applicable to amorphous or crystalline solids, and is now used in increasing numbers of solid state studies.This paper briefly outlines the principles and practical details of this powerful technique and gives examples of its use in solid-state chemistry, particularly in very recent studies of mechanochemical synthesis of advanced sialon ceramics. The temperature at which these technically important silicon aluminium oxynitride compounds are formed can be significantly lowered by high-energy grinding of their components to produce X-ray amorphous precursors. Solid-state NMR has been used to provide detailed information which could not have been obtained by any other means about the chemical environment of the Si and Al atoms in these amorphous precursors, and the various atomic movements undergone as they crystallise to the final product.

  13. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Kongyin; Tang Baoyin; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Langping; Wang Songyan; Wu Hongchen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 μs waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  14. Research on IGBT solid state switch

    CERN Document Server

    Gan Kong Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Wang Lang Ping; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Wu Hong Chen

    2002-01-01

    The experiments on the IGBT solid state switch for induction accelerator was carried out with two series 1.2 kV, 75 A IGBT (GA75TS120U). The static and dynamic balancing modules were carried out with metal oxide varistors, capacities and diodes in order to suppress the over-voltage during IGBT on and off. Experimental results show that IGBT solid state switch works very stable under the different conditions. It can output peak voltage 1.8 kV, rise time 300 ns, fall time 1.64 mu s waveforms on the loads. The simulation data using OrCAD are in accord with experimental results except the rise time

  15. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  16. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  17. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  18. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  19. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  20. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  1. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  2. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  3. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  4. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  5. Preparation and characterization of bismuth ruthenate pyrochlore via solid state reaction and sol-gel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuree Sansernnivet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores, potential cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells(ITSOFCs, were prepared via solid-state and sol-gel method. Effects of the preparation routes and conditions on the phase and microstructures of the materials were investigated in this study using XRD and SEM. The study showed that the preparation method and the adding sequence of the starting meterials have a significant effect on the crystal phase and the particle size obtained. Sol-gel synthesis could yield a material with only pyrochlore structure, i.e. Bi2Ru2O7, while the solid state method yielded powder with a small amount of the secondary RuO2 phase. The sol-gel synthesis resulted in materialswith a finer particle size (~0.3-1.0 μm compared to powder synthesized via the solid state reaction method.

  6. Comparative evaluation of electrical conductivity of hydroxyapatite ceramics densified through ramp and hold, spark plasma and post sinter Hot Isostatic Pressing routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchi Suresh, M., E-mail: suresh@arci.res.in; Biswas, P.; Mahender, V.; Johnson, Roy, E-mail: royjohnson@arci.res.in

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite ceramics synthesized through sonochemical route were processed and densified through ramp & hold (R&H) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) routes. The effect of processing route on the relative density and electrical conductivity were studied. Further, the samples were Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) under argon pressure at elevated temperature to further densify the sample. All these samples processed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and AC Conductivity. The samples have exhibited hydroxyapatite phase; however, microstructures exhibited distinctly different grain morphologies and grain sizes. AC impedance spectroscopic measurement was carried out on hydroxyapatite samples processed through different routes and the corresponding spectra were analyzed by the analogy to equivalent circuit involving resistors and capacitors. SPS sintered sample after HIPing has exhibited the highest conductivity. This can be attributed to the higher density in combination with finer grain sizes. Activation energy based on Arrhenius equation is calculated and the prominent conduction mechanism is proposed. - Highlights: • Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of SPS and R&H processed samples has resulted into densities near to theoretical densities • No change in the crystal structure is observed in SPS and R&H samples before and after HIP treatment • SPS processed and HIP treated samples resulted into higher conductivities with smaller grain sizes and grain boundary area.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  8. Comparison of Reactive and Non-Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Routes for the Fabrication of Monolithic and Composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Orrù

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wider utilization of ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC materials strongly depends on the availability of efficient techniques for their fabrication as dense bodies. Based on recent results reported in the literature, it is possible to state that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technology offers a useful contribution in this direction. Along these lines, the use of two different SPS-based processing routes for the preparation of massive UHTCs is examined in this work. One method, the so-called reactive SPS (R-SPS, consists of the synthesis and densification of the material in a single step. Alternatively, the ceramic powders are first synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS and then sintered by SPS. The obtained results evidenced that R-SPS method is preferable for the preparation of dense monolithic products, while the sintering of SHS powders requires relatively milder conditions when considering binary composites. The different kinetic mechanisms involved during R-SPS of the monolithic and composite systems, i.e., combustion-like or gradual solid-diffusion, respectively, provides a possible explanation. An important role is also played by the SHS process, particularly for the preparation of composite powders, since stronger interfaces are established between the ceramic constituents formed in situ, thus favoring diffusion processes during the subsequent SPS step.

  9. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  10. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  11. Applications of solid state ionics for batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G.

    1988-09-01

    An overview is presented of solid state battery systems, especially those based on inorganic materials such as AgI, CuI and LiI. Emphasis is focussed on the structural and other modifications that are required to produce room temperature, compacted powder electrolytes with enhanced conductivity. The implications for primary batteries of discharge-induced changes of the local structure surrounding the mobile species are considered with reference to cuprous electrolytes. The use of these materials for other applications is discussed.

  12. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  13. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300 0 C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO 4 :Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot-pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150 0 C prior to first use dosimeters

  14. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  15. Solid State Research, 1980:4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Fetterman G. A. Koepf* P. F. Goldsmith6 B.J. Clifton D. Buhl* N. R. Eriekson" D.D. Peck N. McAvoy* P. F. Tannenwald Accepted by Science St40... Fetterman 22 **** -^m^m-i^jm^ -«%, j». ■*** REFERENCES 1. Solid State Research Report, Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (1980:2), pp. 11-12. DTK? AD-A092724...17. M.G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, and J. L. Carlsten, Phys. Rev. A 19, 2304(1979). - 18. W. A.M. Blumberg, U.R. Fetterman , D.D. Peck, and P.F

  16. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  18. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  19. Miniature solid-state gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, W.N.; Cross, L.E.; Steyert, W.A.

    1985-05-07

    A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described. 9 figs.

  20. Solid state electrolytes for all-solid-state 3D lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Ph.D. thesis is to understand the lithium ion motion and to enhance the Li-ionic conductivities in commonly known solid state lithium ion conductors by changing the structural properties and preparation methods. In addition, the feasibility for practical utilization of several

  1. A facile precursor route to highly loaded metal/ceramic nanofibers as a robust surface-enhanced Raman template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak

    2017-09-01

    We report silver (Ag)/ceramic nanofibers with highly robust and sensitive optical sensory capabilities that can withstand harsh conditions. These nanofibers are fabricated by first electrospinning solutions of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and metal precursor polymers, followed by subsequent series of heat treatment. The reported fabrication method demonstrate the effects of (i) the location of Ag crystals, (ii) crystal size and shape, and (iii) constituents of the ceramic matrix as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) templates with 10-6 M 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Notably, these silver/ceramic nanofibers preserved most of their highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) even under high temperature of 400 °C, in contrast to preformed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in PVA nanofibers which lost most of its optical property presumably due to (i) Ag oxidation and (ii) loss of the matrix material. Among the ceramic substrates of ZrO2, Al2O3, and ZnO with silver crystals, we discovered that the ZnO substrate showed the most consistent and the strongest signal strength owing to the synergistic chemical and optical properties of the ZnO substrate. Moreover, the pure Ag nanofiber proved to be the best heat-resistant SERS template, owing to its (i) anisotropic morphology and (ii) thicker diameter when compared with other conventional Ag nanomaterials. These results demonstrated simple yet highly controllable fabrication of robust SERS templates, with potential applications in a catalytic sensory which is often exposed to harsh conditions.

  2. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  3. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  4. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  5. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  6. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  7. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  8. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  9. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  10. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  11. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  12. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  13. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  14. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  15. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  16. Effect of CASP glass doping on sintering and dielectric properties of SBN ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guohua; Qi Bing

    2009-01-01

    16CaO-29Al 2 O 3 -34SiO 2 -13PbO-4B 2 O 3 -2ZnO-2P 2 O 5 (CASP) glass doped-Sr 0.5 Ba 0.5 Nb 2 O 6 (SBN50) ceramics have been synthesized by solid-state ceramic route. The effects of CASP glass on the firing, microstructure and dielectric characterization of SBN50 ceramics are investigated. The densities of the ceramic samples firstly increase and then slightly decrease with increasing CASP glass content. The appropriate amount of doping glass is 2%. The SBN50 ceramics doped with CASP glass can be sintered at a relatively low temperature, 1200 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the single phase (tetragonal tungsten bronze type structure) is preserved for all the samples. The diffuse character of the ceramic system increases and the dielectric constant at phase transition temperature (T c ) markedly decreases as CASP glass content increases. Interestingly, the CASP glass addition drastically alters the microstructure of the sintered ceramics. The isotropic grains in the pure SBN50 ceramics transform to rod like grains after the addition of CASP glass. The grain size of SBN phase is found to obviously increase with increase in CASP glass doping level

  17. Iron based superconductors and related compounds synthesized by solid state metathesis and high temperature reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovsky, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The results of this thesis can be divided into three major topics, which can also be seen as different approaches of solid state chemistry to reveal interesting features of known and unknown compounds and to develop alternative synthesis routes. Firstly, known compounds with related structural motifs to the superconducting iron-arsenides were investigated regarding their structural and physical properties. In case of La 3 Pd 4 Ge 4 the influence of Fe doping on the properties was studied, whereas in the series ZrMAs (M=Ti,V) the physical properties have not yet been reported at all and were investigated for the first time. Secondly, an alternative synthesis route has been developed for the synthesis of superconducting LaFeAsO 1-x F x . This solid state metathesis reaction distinctly increased the quality of the samples compared to conventionally prepared products. Furthermore, the reaction pathway was investigated and clarified, which helps to understand the processes during high temperature solid state metathesis reactions in general. Thirdly, this alternative synthesis route was expanded to other systems and new compounds like co-substituted LaFe 1-x Mn x AsO 1-y F y were prepared and thoroughly investigated. This led to a complex study of the interplay of magnetism, electronic and structural conditions and the occurrence of superconducting properties. The investigation and understanding of such complex coherences will probably be decisive for the further understanding of the superconducting mechanism in iron based superconductors.

  18. Review on Development of Ceramic Membrane From Sol-Gel Route: Parameters Affecting Characteristics of the Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Othman and H. Mukhtar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of laboratory scale ceramic membrane preparation using sol-gel technique with pore sizes in the range of 1-10nm is reviewed. Parameters affecting the characteristics of membrane during membrane development are highlighted and discussed in detail. Experimental results from literatures have shown that the correct amount of acid, water, PVA, appropriate membrane thickness, proper control of drying rate, and appropriate temperature profile selection during sintering process are necessary in order to acquire sufficient strength and reduce the formation of crack in the membrane. The different temperature setting during sintering process also influences the size of pore formed.Key Words: Sol-Gel, Inorganic Membrane, Ceramic Membrane, Gas Permeation, Sintering, Sol Properties, Membrane Morphologies, Pore Size Distribution.

  19. UV sensitivity of various solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Zeljka; Ranogajec-Komor, Maria; Miljanic, Saveta

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The light sensitivity is an important characteristic of solid state passive dosimeters used in individual, clinical and environmental dosimetry. Light sensitivity stands for the response directly induced by visible or UV light in a fully annealed material. For the above mentioned applications a negligible light sensitivity is an advantage. However, high light sensitivity and linear response allows the use of detectors as UV dosimeters. For this purpose various TL detectors and the glass element of the RPL dosemeter type SC-1 were systematically investigated after exposure to UV light (254 and 366 nm) as a function of time. The following solid state detectors were investigated relative to TLD-100: Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,Cu,Si, Al 2 O 3 :C and the glass element of RPL dosimeter. UV irradiations were performed with Camag UV lamp at 254 nm and at 366 nm. The illumination times were 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Day light illumination was also carried out at room temperature over time period of several hours up to 2 weeks. The UV light response of each detector was compared to the response obtained after irradiation with 137 Cs. Al 2 O 3 :C, showed high light sensitivity; after 10 minutes illumination with 254 nm UV light the response was equivalent to 130 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation. The 254 nm UV response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200 A), as well as TLD-700H and Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P were proportional to the time of illumination. The responses after 10 min UV illumination were equivalent to 0.001 mGy, 0.01 mGy and 0.1 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation, respectively. The complete SC-1 RPL dosimeter is insensitive to light because the glass element is encapsulated in light protected holder throughout the automatic evaluation process following the annealing (irradiation, preheat, readout). The responses of the previously annealed glass element after 20 min illumination with 254 nm and 366 nm UV light were equivalent to 45μSv and 3 μSv of 137 Cs gamma

  20. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  1. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  2. Automatic measurement for solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Since in solid state track detectors, their tracks are measured with a microscope, observers are forced to do hard works that consume time and labour. This causes to obtain poor statistic accuracy or to produce personal error. Therefore, many researches have been done to aim at simplifying and automating track measurement. There are two categories in automating the measurement: simple counting of the number of tracks and the requirements to know geometrical elements such as the size of tracks or their coordinates as well as the number of tracks. The former is called automatic counting and the latter automatic analysis. The method to generally evaluate the number of tracks in automatic counting is the estimation of the total number of tracks in the total detector area or in a field of view of a microscope. It is suitable for counting when the track density is higher. The method to count tracks one by one includes the spark counting and the scanning microdensitometer. Automatic analysis includes video image analysis in which the high quality images obtained with a high resolution video camera are processed with a micro-computer, and the tracks are automatically recognized and measured by feature extraction. This method is described in detail. In many kinds of automatic measurements reported so far, frequently used ones are ''spark counting'' and ''video image analysis''. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  4. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  5. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  7. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  8. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  9. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  10. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  11. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  12. Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced

  13. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  14. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  15. Harwell's atomic, molecular and solid state computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.H.

    1976-02-01

    This document is intended to introduce the computational facilities available in the fields of atomic, molecular the solid state theory on the IBM370/165 at Harwell. The programs have all been implemented and thoroughly tested by the Theory of Solid State Materials Group. (author)

  16. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...

  17. Engineering the Membrane/Electrode Interface To Improve the Performance of Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-08-17

    This paper investigates the effect of adding a 450 nm layer based on porous TiO2 at the interface between a 4.5 μm carbon/TiO2 nanoparticle-based electrode and a polymer electrolyte membrane as a route to improve energy storage performance in solid-state supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterization showed that adding the interface layer reduced charge transfer resistance, promoted more efficient ion transfer across the interface, and significantly improved charge/discharge dynamics in a solid-state supercapacitor, resulting in an increased areal capacitance from 45.3 to 111.1 mF cm(-2) per electrode at 0.4 mA cm(-2).

  18. Rheology of StelliteTM 21 Alloy in Semi-Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołek K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the rheological properties of StelliteTM 21 alloy in the semi-solid state, as the results could be used for identifying the appropriate temperature range for thixoforming of this alloy, and a secondary objective of the experimental work was the development of mathematical model of the alloy’s apparent viscosity. Such viscosity models are necessary for numerical simulations of the thixoforming processes. The StelliteTM 21 alloy exhibits high hardness and thus shaping in the semi-solid state is promising route of production of parts from this alloy. Within the confines of experimental work the measurement methods of the rheological properties at high temperatures was developed. They are based on the use of specially designed viscometer equipped with high temperature furnace.

  19. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  20. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Preparation and electrical properties of (1 - x)Sr(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3-xPbTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Bijun; Cheng Zhenquan; Sun Renbing; Ding Chenlu

    2009-01-01

    (1 - x)Sr(Fe 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 -xPbTiO 3 (SFN-PT) ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method via the wolframite precursor route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirmed that the synthesized SFN-PT ceramics are of pure perovskite structure. With the increase of the concentration of PbTiO 3 (PT), crystal structure of the sintered SFN-PT ceramics changes from rhombohedral phase to tetragonal phase. Dielectric response of the SFN-PT ceramics changes from diffused and broad dielectric peaks to relatively sharp ones accompanied by the increase of the temperature of dielectric maximum (T m ). Small content of MnO 2 or Li 2 CO 3 doping can greatly decrease the dielectric loss of the SFN-PT ceramics, furthermore, the abnormal increase of dielectric constant and loss tangent in the paraelectric phase is suppressed accordingly. Typical P-E hysteresis loops are observed in the SFN-PT ceramics, however, the saturate polarization (P s ) is small. MnO 2 or Li 2 CO 3 doping can greatly decrease the coercive field (E c ) of the SFN-PT ceramics accompanied by large increase of P s . Piezoelectric constant d 33 of the SFN-PT ceramics is small except for SFN30-PT70 ceramics, which reaches 22pC/N

  2. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  3. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of

  4. Permittivity and modulus spectroscopic study of BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat K. Kar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ba(Fe0.5Nb0.5O3 (BFN powder was synthesized in single perovskite phase by conventional solid state reaction route and BFN ceramic was obtained by uniaxial pressing and sintering at 1350 °C. Complex immittance like: permittivity and modulus spectroscopic formalism were simultaneously used to explain dielectric behaviour of the ceramics. The activation energy calculated from dielectric relaxation below 100 °C was found to be ~0.19 eV. The activation energy obtained from modulus spectra above 100 °C was ~0.59 eV. The space charge polarization model was used to explain the origin of relaxation and “giant” permittivity of BFN ceramics near room temperature.

  5. Giant dielectric response in (Sr, Sb) codoped CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics: A novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, M. K.; Rao, T. Lakshmana; Karna, Lipsarani; Dash, S.

    2018-04-01

    The CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) remains as the best material for practical applications due to its high dielectric constant. To improve further the dielectric properties of CCTO to several orders in magnitude, a novel approach is adopted by codoping of Sr, Sb ions. The ceramic samples were fabricated by the conventional solid state route. The structure, morphology and detail dielectric properties were investigated systematically. All the samples crystalizes in a cubic symmetry with Im-3 space group. Sr substituted in Ca site can effectively suppress the grain growth, achieving a fine grained ceramic structure; however the grain size decreased slightly as Sb concentration increased further; whereas the dielectric permittivity of the ceramics increased drastically. The giant dielectric response was considered to be closely related with a reduction in the potential barrier height at grain boundaries (GBs) supported by the reduction in the activation energy for the conduction process.

  6. Effect of orthorhombic distortion on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanwar, Amit; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    High temperature bismuth layered piezoelectric and ferroelectric ceramics of CaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 (CBT) have been prepared using the solid state route. The formation of single phase material with orthorhombic structure was verified from x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The orthorhombic distortion present in the CBT ceramic sintered at 1200 deg. C was found to be maximum. A sharp phase transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric was observed in the temperature dependent dielectric studies of all CBT ceramics. The Curie's temperature (T c =790 deg. C) was found to be independent of measured frequency. The behavior of ac conductivity as a function of frequency (100 Hz-1 MHz) at low temperatures ( 33 ). The observed results indicate the important role of orthorhombic distortion in determining the improved property of multicomponent ferroelectric material.

  7. Study of synthesis routes and processing of NiO-YSZ ceramic composite for use as anode in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji

    2011-01-01

    This study aim the definition of synthesis and ceramic processing conditions of the anodic component suitable for operation of SOFC, i.e, homogeneous distribution of NiO in YSZ matrix and porosity after reduction above 30%. The selected synthesis routes included the co-precipitation in ammonia media, mechanical mixing of powders and combustion reaction from nitrate salts. The characterization techniques of powders included the X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, laser diffraction, nitrogen gas adsorption technique (BET) and Helium pycnometry. The obtained results indicated that the loss of Ni 2+ in co-precipitation process, due to the formation of complex [Ni(NH 3 ) n ] 2+ , can be minimized by controlling the pH around 9.3, keeping the concentration of nickel cation in the solution to be precipitated around 0.1M. In the mechanical mixing method the best condition of powder dispersion, without differential sedimentation, was obtained for zeta potential values at pH around 8.0, fixing the dispersant concentration at 0.8%. For the combustion synthesis it was observed that when stoichiometric and twofold stoichiometric urea was used, amorphous phase was formed and a higher surface area was attained in the final products. Employing the fuel-rich solution condition, crystallization of the powder was observed and the relative intensity of reflections of XRD patterns increased with excess of fuel, due to increasing the reaction temperature. Sinterability studies of pellets prepared from powder synthesized by the three routes described above showed the temperature around 1300 deg C for maximum rate densification and porosity between 6.0 and 14%. Reduction results of the composites confirmed that the reduction kinetics occurs in two steps. The first one with a linear behavior and controlled by chemical reaction on the surface. The second reduction step is the reduction that is controlled by gas diffusion in micro pores, generated by reduction

  8. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  9. Monolithic All-Phosphate Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery with Improved Interfacial Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shicheng; Mertens, Andreas; Tempel, Hermann; Schierholz, Roland; Kungl, Hans; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2018-06-22

    High interfacial resistance between solid electrolyte and electrode of ceramic all-solid-state batteries is a major reason for the reduced performance of these batteries. A solid-state battery using a monolithic all-phosphate concept based on screen printed thick LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 anode and Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode composite layers on a densely sintered Li 1.3 Al 0.3 Ti 1.7 (PO 4 ) 3 solid electrolyte has been realized with competitive cycling performance. The choice of materials was primarily based on the (electro-)chemical and mechanical matching of the components instead of solely focusing on high-performance of individual components. Thus, the battery utilized a phosphate backbone in combination with tailored morphology of the electrode materials to ensure good interfacial matching for a durable mechanical stability. Moreover, the operating voltage range of the active materials matches with the intrinsic electrochemical window of the electrolyte which resulted in high electrochemical stability. A highly competitive discharge capacity of 63.5 mAh g -1 at 0.39 C after 500 cycles, corresponding to 84% of the initial discharge capacity, was achieved. The analysis of interfacial charge transfer kinetics confirmed the structural and electrical properties of the electrodes and their interfaces with the electrolyte, as evidenced by the excellent cycling performance of the all-phosphate solid-state battery. These interfaces have been studied via impedance analysis with subsequent distribution of relaxation times analysis. Moreover, the prepared solid-state battery could be processed and operated in air atmosphere owing to the low oxygen sensitivity of the phosphate materials. The analysis of electrolyte/electrode interfaces after cycling demonstrates that the interfaces remained stable during cycling.

  10. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  11. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  12. On the formation of molecules and solid-state compounds from the AGB to the PN phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the asymptoyic giant branch (AGB) phase, different elements are dredge- up to the stellar surface depending on progenitor mass and metallicity. When the mass loss increases at the end of the AGB, a circumstellar dust shell is formed, where different (C-rich or O-rich) molecules and solid-state compounds are formed. These are further processed in the transition phase between AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe) to create more complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors in C-rich environments and oxides and crystalline silicates in O-rich ones). We present an observational review of the different molecules and solid-state materials that are formed from the AGB to the PN phases. We focus on the formation routes of complex fullerene (and fullerene-based) molecules as well as on the level of dust processing depending on metallicity.

  13. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  14. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  15. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also ..... The results are better illustrated in a double ...... Matter 17 4501. 94. Ernst M 2006 Germany: Solid-State NMR Summer.

  16. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  17. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Solid State Ionics: Recent Advances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become an important research tool in Solid State Ionics. Some new developments are highlighted: new methods of automatic parameter extraction from impedance measurements are briefly discussed. The Kramers–Kronig data validation test presents another

  19. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  20. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  1. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  2. The distribution choice for the threshold of solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    Either normal distribution or Weibull distribution can be accepted as sample distribution of the threshold of solid state relay. By goodness-of-fit method, bootstrap method and Bayesian method, the Weibull distribution is chosen later. (authors)

  3. optimisation of solid optimisation of solid state fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from banana peels via solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger. ermentation ... [7,8], apple pomace [9], banana peels [4], date palm. [10], carob ... powder, jams, juice, bar, biscuits, wine etc results in ... Yeast extract was taken as nitrogen.

  4. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  5. A Low Power, Solid State, Method of Oxygen Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of the work prior to the start of this project is the planar monolith - allowing for solid state oxygen production at pressures up to 300 psig....

  6. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  7. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  8. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its....... In addition, POIPC-based solid-state proton conductors are also expected to find applications in sensors and other electrochemical devices....

  9. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  10. Proceedings of the DAE solid state physics symposium. V. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, is organized annually. The topics covered are phase transitions, soft condensed matter, nano-materials, experimental techniques, instrumentation and solid state devices, superconductivity, magnetism, electronic structure and phonons, semiconductor physics, transport properties, surface - interface and thin films, liquids, glasses and amorphous systems, etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  12. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  13. Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activity of the Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics is focused on experimental research in condensed matter physics. Thermal neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect are the main techniques mastered in the laboratory. Most of the studies aim at better understanding of properties and processes observed in modern materials. Some applied research and theoretical studies were also performed. Research activities of the Department in 2001 can be summarized as follows: Neutron scattering studies concerned the magnetic ordering in TbB 12 and TmIn 3 and some special features of magnetic excitations in antiferromagnetic γ-Mn-alloys. Some work was devoted to optimization of the neutron single crystal monochromators and polarizers grown in Crystal Growth Laboratory. Small angle scattering studies on the surfactant - water ternary system were performed in cooperation with JINR Dubna. Moessbauer effect investigations of dysprosium intermetallic compounds yielded the new data for Pauling-Slater curves. The same technique applied to perovskites and ferrocene adduct to fullerene helped to resolve their structure. X-ray topographic and diffractometric studies were performed on hydrogen implanted semiconductor surfaces employing the synchrotron radiation sources. The X-ray method was applied also to investigations of plasma spraying process and phase composition of ceramic oxide coatings. Large part of studies concerned the structure of biologically active, pharmacologically important organic complexes, supported by modeling of their electron structure. Crystal growth of large size single-crystals of metals and alloys was used for preparation of specimens with mosaic structure suitable for neutron monochromator and polarizer systems. The construction work of the Neutron and Gamma Radiography Station has been completed. The results of first tests and studies proved the expected abilities of the systems. The possibility to visualize inner structures

  14. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  15. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  16. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO3 bulk ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantaray, S.; Mishra, D.K.; Pradhan, S.K.; Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B.R.; Behera, Debdhyan; Rout, P.P.; Das, S.K.; Sahu, D.R.; Roul, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO 3 (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO 3 . Room temperature dielectric constant (ε r ) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO 3 at room temperature as multifunctional materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of single-phasic polycrystalline GdMnO 3 sample by the solid state sintering route. • Observation of square type P–E hysteresis loop with higher saturation and remnant polarization. • Observation of antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K in polycrystalline GdMnO 3 . • Possibility of room temperature application of GdMnO 3 as multifunctional material

  17. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO{sub 3} bulk ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samantaray, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, D.K. [Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, S ‘O’ A University, Bhubaneswar 751030, Odisha (India); Pradhan, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B.R. [Institue of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Behera, Debdhyan [Advanced Materials Technology Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Rout, P.P.; Das, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Sahu, D.R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Roul, B.K., E-mail: ims@iopb.res.in [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India)

    2013-08-15

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO{sub 3} (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO{sub 3}. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO{sub 3} at room temperature as multifunctional materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of single-phasic polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3} sample by the solid state sintering route. • Observation of square type P–E hysteresis loop with higher saturation and remnant polarization. • Observation of antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K in polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3}. • Possibility of room temperature application of GdMnO{sub 3} as multifunctional material.

  18. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  19. Processing and characterizations of BNT-KNN ceramics for actuator applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallam Chandrasekhar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BNT-KNN powder (with composition 0.93Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.07K0.5Na0.5NbO3 was synthesized as a single perovskite phase by conventional solid state reaction route and dense ceramics were obtained by sintering of powder compacts at 1100 °C for 4 h. Dielectric study confirmed relaxor behaviour, whereas the microstructure study showed sharp cornered cubic like grains with an average grain size ∼1.15 µm. The saturated polarization vs. electric field (P-E hysteresis loops confirmed the ferroelectric (FE nature while the butterfly shaped strain vs. electric field (S-E loops suggested the piezoelectric nature of the BNT-KNN ceramic samples. Maximum electric field induced strain of ∼0.62% suggested the usefulness of this system for actuator applications.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of Sm{sup 3+} substituted PZT ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, S.K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India)], E-mail: 628@ssplnet.org; Thakur, O.P.; Bhattacharya, D.K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India); Prakash, Chandra [DRDO Bhawan, DHQ, New Delhi 110 011 (India); Chatterjee, Ratnamala [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-01-22

    Samarium modified lead zirconate titanate (PSZT: Pb{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x}(Zr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35})O{sub 3}: x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) ceramics were synthesized by solid state ceramic route. XRD shows single-phase formation with rhombohedral structure up to x = 0.04. With Sm-substitution, the grain size first increases up to x = 0.02 and then decreases. A metal/ferroelectric/metal (MFM) structure was made by depositing gold electrode on the flat surfaces for electrical measurements. All samples show normal ferroelectric behaviour, however, a squareness of P-E loop (polarization vs. electric field) was observed to increase with Sm content. Higher electromechanical coupling coefficients (K{sub p} and K{sub t}) have been achieved for the PZT with 6 mol% Sm substitution and having fine grain size.

  1. Electrical Degradation in Ceramic Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-09

    and D. M. Smyth, " Positron Annihilation in Calcium-Doped Barium Titanate", in Electro- Ceramics and Solid State Ionsi, H. L. Tuller and D. M. Smyth...2 with the formation of ompensating oxygen vacancies, and this causes an increase in the ioni conductivity: 2CaO CaC + Call + 20 + (5) TiO2 --- V

  2. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  3. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  4. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  5. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  6. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  7. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  9. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  10. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  11. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  12. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  13. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  14. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  15. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  16. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  17. Space-time complexity in solid state models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this Workshop on symmetry-breaking it is appropriate to include the evolving fields of nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems in which transitions to and between various degrees of ''complexity'' (including ''chaos'') occur in time or space or both. These notions naturally bring together phenomena of pattern formation and chaos and therefore have ramifications for a huge array of natural sciences - astrophysics, plasmas and lasers, hydrodynamics, field theory, materials and solid state theory, optics and electronics, biology, pattern recognition and evolution, etc. Our particular concerns here are with examples from solid state and condensed matter

  18. Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Akana, G.L.; Gower, E.J.; Hawkins, S.A.; Hickman, B.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Brooksby, C.A.; /NONE - BECHTEL NEVADA LAS VEGAS; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Nguyen, M.N.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  19. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-01-01

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems

  20. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-05-05

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  1. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  2. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  3. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  4. Radiation-chemical aspects of solid state hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.; Collins, K.E.; Collins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of nuclear hot atom chemical (NHAC) processes occurring in solids is seriously limited by the lack of adequate methods for directly studying the chemical species containing hot atoms. In the present review the effects of ionizing radiation on parent and non-parent yields from solid state targets is surveyed and qualitative interpretations are given. After a few general remarks of the relationship of radiation chemistry to solid state NHAC, a detailed description of the radiation effects is given (radiation annealing, neutron activation, changes in separable yield). (Auth.)

  5. Growth of single crystals of BaFe12O19 by solid state crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, John G.; Sun, Hengyang; Kook, Young-Geun; Kim, Joon-Seong; Le, Phan Gia

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are grown for the first time by solid state crystal growth. Seed crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are buried in BaFe 12 O 19 +1 wt% BaCO 3 powder, which are then pressed into pellets containing the seed crystals. During sintering, single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 up to ∼130 μm thick in the c-axis direction grow on the seed crystals by consuming grains from the surrounding polycrystalline matrix. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that the single crystal and the surrounding polycrystalline matrix have the same chemical composition. Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal to have the BaFe 12 O 19 structure. The optimum growth temperature is found to be 1200 °C. The single crystal growth behavior is explained using the mixed control theory of grain growth. - Highlights: • Single crystals of BaFe 12 O 19 are grown by solid state crystal growth. • A single crystal up to ∼130 μm thick (c-axis direction) grows on the seed crystal. • The single crystal and surrounding ceramic matrix have similar composition. • Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal has the BaFe 12 O 19 structure.

  6. Solid-State Recycling of Light Metal Reinforced Inclusions by Equal Channel Angular Pressing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Alimi Sami.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state recycling of light metals reinforced inclusions through hot Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP is performed to directly recycle metal scraps and reduce cost of material in engineering applications. The ECAP is one of the most important method in severe plastic deformation (SPD that can convert light metals into finished products. This paper reviews several experimental and numerical works that have been done to investigate the effects of the ECAP parameters such as die angles, material properties, outer corner angle, friction coefficient, temperature, size of chips, pressing force, ram speed and direct effects of number of passes on the strain distributions. It also includes the performance enhancement of aluminium matrix composite reinforced ceramic-based particles that derived from direct recycled aluminium chips for sustainable manufacturing practices.

  7. High Energy Storage Density and Impedance Response of PLZT2/95/5 Antiferroelectric Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi; Liu, Qiuxiang; Tang, Xingui; Zhang, Tianfu; Jiang, Yanping; Li, Wenhua; Luo, Jie

    2017-02-08

    (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ (PLZT2/95/5) ceramics were successfully prepared via a solid-state reaction route. The dielectric properties were investigated in the temperature region of 26-650 °C. The dielectric diffuse anomaly in the dielectric relaxation was found in the high temperature region of 600-650 °C with increasing the measuring frequency, which was related to the dynamic thermal process of ionized oxygen vacancies generated in the high temperature. Two phase transition points were detected during heating, which were found to coexist from 150 to 200 °C. Electric field induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition behavior of the (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ ceramics was investigated in this work with an emphasis on energy storage properties. A recoverable energy-storage density of 0.83 J/cm³ and efficiency of 70% was obtained in (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ ceramics at 55 kV/cm. Based on these results, (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ ceramics with a large recoverable energy-storage density could be a potential candidate for the applications in high energy-storage density ceramic capacitors.

  8. High Energy Storage Density and Impedance Response of PLZT2/95/5 Antiferroelectric Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 (PLZT2/95/5 ceramics were successfully prepared via a solid-state reaction route. The dielectric properties were investigated in the temperature region of 26–650 °C. The dielectric diffuse anomaly in the dielectric relaxation was found in the high temperature region of 600–650 °C with increasing the measuring frequency, which was related to the dynamic thermal process of ionized oxygen vacancies generated in the high temperature. Two phase transition points were detected during heating, which were found to coexist from 150 to 200 °C. Electric field induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition behavior of the (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 ceramics was investigated in this work with an emphasis on energy storage properties. A recoverable energy-storage density of 0.83 J/cm3 and efficiency of 70% was obtained in (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 ceramics at 55 kV/cm. Based on these results, (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 ceramics with a large recoverable energy-storage density could be a potential candidate for the applications in high energy-storage density ceramic capacitors.

  9. Stoichiometric control in Bi4Ti3O12 synthesis by novel hybrid solid state reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadea, C.; Phatharapeetranun, N.; Ksapabutr, B.

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT) is performed via a novel solid state reaction. The reaction is designed to control the stoichiometric content of the highly volatile element, i.e. Bi. The chemical route consists in trapping bismuth oxide colloids in a stabilized titanium based sol...

  10. Patterning of lithium lanthanum titanium oxide films by soft lithography as electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.; Göbel, Ole; van den Ham, E.J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Notten, P.H.L.; Hintzen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of sol–gel processing and soft-lithographic patterning presents a promising route towards three-dimensional (3D) micro Li-ion electrodes, and may offer a viable approach for the fabrication of all-solid-state 3D Li-ion batteries. The methods are relatively simple and therefore cheap

  11. Patterning of lithium lanthanum titanium oxide films by soft lithography as electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.; Göbel, O.F.; van den Ham, E.J.; ten Elshof, J.E.; Notten, P.H.L.; Hintzen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of sol-gel processing and soft-lithographic patterning presents a promising route towards three-dimensional (3D) micro Li-ion electrodes, and may offer a viable approach for the fabrication of all-solid-state 3D Li-ion batteries. The methods are relatively simple and therefore cheap

  12. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  13. Advanced Solid-state Lasers - to Ignition and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.; Bibeau, C.; Orth, C; Meier, W.R.; Payne, S.; Sutton, S.

    1998-01-01

    This brochure concentrates on the diode-pumped solid-state laser. Surrounding it on the cover are some of the primary technological developments that make it a candidate for the means by which inertial confinement fusion will create inertial fusion energy as an inexhaustible source of electric power

  14. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  15. Atomic and solid state physics with the 14UD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.S.

    1975-02-01

    The use of energetic heavy ions in atomic and solid state physics is discussed. Topics that are discussed include: 1) Properties of excited ions, 2) radiation damage studies by channeling, 3) energy loss of ions and range measurements, 4) oscillating effects in channeling, 5) x-ray production in solids, 6) coherence effects in channeling and 7) formation of united atoms. (author)

  16. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  17. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  18. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  19. Modeling all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilov, D.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is presented. The model includes the charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface, diffusion of lithium in the intercalation electrode, and diffusion and migration of ions in the electrolyte. The model has been applied to

  20. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  1. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  2. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  3. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  4. Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.

  5. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker .... authors, a slowly utilizable carbon source is preferable for high lovastatin ...

  6. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker et .... Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin yield by Aspergillus ...

  7. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the me...... of a DCM-FA-rich phase in the forming microsphere....

  8. Bayesian Analysis for EMP Survival Probability of Solid State Relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    The principle to estimate the parameter p of binomial distribution by Bayesian method and the several non-informative prior are introduced. The survival probability of DC solid state relay under current injection at certain amplitude is obtained by this method. (authors)

  9. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  10. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off [de

  11. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  12. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  13. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  14. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  15. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  16. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  17. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  18. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  19. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  20. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  1. Microelectronics: Atoms diffusion in solid state. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Higuera, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamentals on which the technology for the diffusion of impurities in solid state is based, is presented. This technology is widely used to produce controlled and localized concentrations of atoms of the mentioned impurities in base solids in order to obtain those characteristics which may lead to the implementation of electronic, optoelectronic and electrooptic devices. (Author)

  2. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  3. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  4. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  5. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  6. Solid-state thermal decomposition of the [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}CO{sub 3}]NO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O complex: A simple, rapid and low-temperature synthetic route to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Saeid, E-mail: sfarhad2001@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University, Khorramabad 68135-465 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safabakhsh, Jalil [Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University, Khorramabad 68135-465 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}CO{sub 3}]NO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O complex was used for preparing pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared at low temperature of 175 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles show a weak ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is simple, low-cost and suitable for the production of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were easily prepared via the decomposition of the pentammine(carbonato)cobalt(III) nitrate precursor complex [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}CO{sub 3}]NO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O at low temperature (175 Degree-Sign C). The product was characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area measurements and magnetic measurements. The FT-IR, XRD, Raman and EDX results indicated that the synthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are highly pure and have a single phase. The TEM analysis revealed nearly uniform and quasi-spherical Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an average particle size of approximately 10 nm. The optical absorption spectrum of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles showed two direct band gaps of 2.18 and 3.52 eV with a red shift in comparison with previous reported values. The prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles showed a weak ferromagnetic behaviour that could be attributed to uncompensated surface spins and/or finite-size effects. Using the present method, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be produced without expensive organic solvents and complicated equipment. This simple, rapid, safe and low-cost synthetic route can be extended to the synthesis of other

  7. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Key role of alternative oxidase in lovastatin solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Ailed; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Barrios-González, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Lovastatin is a commercially important secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus, either by solid-state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. In a previous work, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in idiophase positively regulates lovastatin biosynthetic genes. In addition, it has been found that lovastatin-specific production decreases with aeration in solid-state fermentation (SSF). To study this phenomenon, we determined ROS accumulation during lovastatin SSF, under high and low aeration conditions. Paradoxically, high aeration caused lower ROS accumulation, and this was the underlying reason of the aeration effect on lovastatin production. Looking for a mechanism that is lowering ROS production under those conditions, we studied alternative respiration. The alternative oxidase provides an alternative route for electrons passing through the electron transport chain to reduce oxygen. Here, we showed that an alternative oxidase (AOX) is expressed in SSF, and only during idiophase. It was shown that higher aeration induces higher alternative respiration (AOX activity), and this is a mechanism that limits ROS generation and keeps them within healthy limits and adequate signaling limits for lovastatin production. Indeed, the aox gene was induced in idiophase, i.e., at the time of ROS accumulation. Moreover, exogenous ROS (H 2 O 2 ), added to lovastatin solid-state fermentation, induced higher AOX activity. This suggests that high O 2 availability in SSF generates dangerously high ROS, so alternative respiration is induced in SSF, indirectly favoring lovastatin production. Conversely, alternative respiration was not detected in lovastatin-submerged fermentation (SmF), although exogenous ROS also induced relatively low AOX activity in SmF.

  9. Synthesis of low loss, thermally stable CexY1-xTiTaO6 microwave ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Kumar, H.; John, Annamma; Vijayakumar, C.; Thomas, J.K.; Varma, Manoj Raama; Solomon, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Ce x Y 1-x TiTaO 6 ceramics were prepared through the solid-state ceramic route. The materials were sintered in the range 1520-1580 deg. C. The structure of the system was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic methods. The cell parameters of solid solutions were calculated using the least square method. The microstructure was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric constant (ε r ), temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ f ) and the unloaded quality factor (Q u ) are measured in the microwave frequency region using cavity resonator method. The dielectric constant increases with higher concentrations of Ce in the solid solutions. Nearly zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ f ) was obtained for Ce 0.24 Y 0.76 TiTaO 6 . The samples are of high quality factor and are useful electronic materials for microwave applications

  10. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 26 °C (299 K). (paper)

  11. Monolayer Nickel Cobalt Hydroxyl Carbonate for High Performance All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ma, Hongnan; Huang, Shifei; Zhang, Xuejiao; Xia, Meirong; Tang, Yongfu; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2016-09-07

    The emergence of atomically thick nanolayer materials, which feature a short ion diffusion channel and provide more exposed atoms in the electrochemical reactions, offers a promising occasion to optimize the performance of supercapacitors on the atomic level. In this work, a novel monolayer Ni-Co hydroxyl carbonate with an average thickness of 1.07 nm is synthesized via an ordinary one-pot hydrothermal route for the first time. This unique monolayer structure can efficiently rise up the exposed electroactive sites and facilitate the surface dependent electrochemical reaction processes, and thus results in outstanding specific capacitance of 2266 F g(-1). Based on this material, an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor is developed adopting alkaline PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) gel (PVA/KOH) as electrolyte, which performs remarkable cycling stability (no capacitance fade after 19 000 cycles) together with promising energy density of 50 Wh kg(-1) (202 μWh cm(-2)) and high power density of 8.69 kW kg(-1) (35.1 mW cm(-2)). This as-assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (AASC) holds great potential in the field of portable energy storage devices.

  12. Experimental analysis of the strength of silver-alumina junction elaborated at solid state bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serier, B.; Bachir Bouiadjra, B.; Belhouari, M.; Treheux, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The adhesion strength is closely related to the plastic deformation of the metal joint. → It is possible to transform a system with weak energy of adhesion into a system with strong energy. → The adhesion strength depends on Silver diffusion in the ceramic grains boundaries. -- Abstract: The mechanisms of ceramics-metal assemblies, particularly silver and alumina, can be better understood by studying the strength of their adhesion. These two materials are a priori non-reactive, their thermodynamic work of adhesion is low and the difference between their thermal coefficients of expansion in very considerable. In this study, the strength of silver-alumina junctions elaborated at solid state by thermo-compression is tested by an indirect tensile test and shearing one. The effects of several parameters such as: the pressure of bonding, the time of bonding, the temperature, and the oxygen dissolve in metal solid solution on the strength of the junction are analyzed. The obtained results show that the resistance of the junction is affected by all this parameters and it is essential to optimize these different parameters in order to increase the durability of the junction. It was also shown that the diffusion of the silver in alumina could be the cause of the damage of alumina near the interface.

  13. Advances in Solid-State Transformations of Coordination Bonds: From the Ball Mill to the Aging Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mottillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the formation of coordination bonds is pivotal to the development of a plethora of functional metal-organic materials, ranging from coordination polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs to metallodrugs. The interest in and commercialization of such materials has created a need for more efficient, environmentally-friendly routes for making coordination bonds. Solid-state coordination chemistry is a versatile greener alternative to conventional synthesis, offering quantitative yields, enhanced stoichiometric and topological selectivity, access to a wider range of precursors, as well as to molecules and materials not readily accessible in solution or solvothermally. With a focus on mechanochemical, thermochemical and “accelerated aging” approaches to coordination polymers, including pharmaceutically-relevant materials and microporous MOFs, this review highlights the recent advances in solid-state coordination chemistry and techniques for understanding the underlying reaction mechanisms.

  14. Structure, dielectric and electrical properties of cerium doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hongjun; Hou Jungang; Qu Yuanfang; Shan Dan; Yao Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rare-earth doped barium zirconate titanate (BZT) ceramics, Ba(Zr 0.25 Ti 0.75 )O 3 + xCeO 2 , (x = 0–1.5 at%) were obtained by a solid state reaction route. ► Morphological analysis on sintered samples by scanning electron microscopy shows that the addition of rare-earth ions affects the growth of the grain and remarkably changes the grain morphology. ► The effect of rare-earth addition to BZT on dielectric and electrical properties is analyzed, demonstrating that the samples with x = 0.4 and x = 0.6 could be semiconducting in air atmosphere. - Abstract: Rare-earth doped barium zirconium titanate (BZT) ceramics, Ba(Zr 0.25 Ti 0.75 )O 3 + xCeO 2 , (x = 0–1.5 at%) were obtained by a solid state reaction route. Perovskite-like single-phase compounds were confirmed from X-ray diffraction data and the lattice parameters were refined by the Rietveld method. It is found that, integrating with the lattice parameters and the distortion of crystal lattice, there is an alternation of substitution preference of cerium ions for the host cations in perovskite lattice. Morphological analysis on sintered samples by scanning electron microscopy shows that the addition of rare-earth ions affects the growth of the grain and remarkably changes the grain morphology. The effect of rare-earth addition to BZT on dielectric and electrical properties is analyzed. High values of dielectric tunability are obtained for cerium doped BZT. Especially, the experimental results on the effect of the contents of rare-earth addition on the resistivity of BZT ceramics were investigated, demonstrating that the samples with x = 0.4 and x = 0.6 could be semiconducting in air atmosphere.

  15. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S C; Man, B Y; Jiang, S Z; Chen, C S; Liu, M; Yang, C; Gao, S B; Zhang, C; Feng, D J; Huang, Q J; Hu, G D; Chen, X F

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method for the direct metal-free growth of graphene on quartz substrate. The direct-grown graphene yields excellent nonlinear saturable absorption properties and is demonstrated to be suitable as a saturable absorber (SA) for an ultrafast solid-state laser. Nearly Fourier-limited 367 fs was obtained at a central wavelength of 1048 nm with a repetition rate of 105.7 MHz. At a pump power of 7.95 W, the average output power was 1.93 W and the highest pulse energy reached 18.3 nJ, with a peak power of 49.8 kW. Our work opens an easy route for making a reliable graphene SA with a mode-locking technique and also displays an exciting prospect in making low-cost and ultrafast lasers. (letter)

  16. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  17. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  18. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  19. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  20. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...

  1. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  2. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Robert; Odronitz, Florian; Hammesfahr, Bjorn; Hellkamp, Marcel; Kollmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  3. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  4. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng, E-mail: Xinsheng_Ling@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  5. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  6. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  7. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  8. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  9. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  10. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  11. Advances in solid-state NMR of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foston, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations

  13. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  14. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  15. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  16. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  17. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  18. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acid s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  19. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  20. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  1. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-08-27

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ({approx}10 T) and at low temperature {approx}1 K .

  2. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (∼10 T) and at low temperature ∼1 K

  3. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  4. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes

  5. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  6. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  7. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  8. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  9. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  10. Experimental solid state NMR of gas hydrates : problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudrakovski, I.; Lu, H.; Ripmeester, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences; Kumar, R.; Susilo, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Luzi, M. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Solid State NMR is a suitable spectroscopic technique for hydrate research for several reasons, including its capability to distinguish between different structural types of hydrates, its quantitative nature and potential for both in-situ and time resolved experiments. This study illustrated the applications of solid state NMR for compositional and structural studies of clathrate hydrates, with particular emphasis on experimental techniques and potential ways to overcome technical difficulties. In order to use the method to its full capacity, some instrumental developments are needed to adapt it to the specific experimental requirements of hydrate studies, such as very low temperatures and high pressures. This presentation discussed the quantification of the Carbon-13 spectra with examples from natural and synthetic hydrates prepared from multi-component mixtures of hydrocarbons. The main approach used for the first two examples was Carbon-13 NMR with Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) at -100 degrees C. The detailed characterization of mixed hydrogen hydrates required low temperature hydrogen MAS. The quantification problems encountered during these experiments were also discussed. The purpose of these recent experimental developments was to prompt wider application of Solid State NMR in hydrate research. NMR proved to be a viable method for analyzing the composition and structure of multi-component mixed gas hydrates; characterizing natural gas hydrates; and, evaluating the formation conditions and properties of mixed hydrogen hydrates. The limitations of the method were highlighted and sensible choices of experimental conditions and techniques that ensure accurate results were discussed. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  12. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  13. Solid State Pathways towards Molecular Complexity in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Harold; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Bouwman, Jordy; Cuppen, Herma M.; Cuylle, Steven H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Fedoseev, Gleb; Fuchs, Guido W.; Ioppolo, Sergio; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lamberts, Thanja; Öberg, Karin I.; Romanzin, Claire; Tenenbaum, Emily; Zhen, Junfeng

    2011-12-01

    It has been a long standing problem in astrochemistry to explain how molecules can form in a highly dilute environment such as the interstellar medium. In the last decennium more and more evidence has been found that the observed mix of small and complex, stable and highly transient species in space is the cumulative result of gas phase and solid state reactions as well as gas-grain interactions. Solid state reactions on icy dust grains are specifically found to play an important role in the formation of the more complex ``organic'' compounds. In order to investigate the underlying physical and chemical processes detailed laboratory based experiments are needed that simulate surface reactions triggered by processes as different as thermal heating, photon (UV) irradiation and particle (atom, cosmic ray, electron) bombardment of interstellar ice analogues. Here, some of the latest research performed in the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics in Leiden, the Netherlands is reviewed. The focus is on hydrogenation, i.e., H-atom addition reactions and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues at astronomically relevant temperatures. It is shown that solid state processes are crucial in the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, providing pathways towards molecular complexity in space.

  14. Low-Temperature Sintering Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 Microwave Dielectric Ceramics with LMZBS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Huaiwu; Liu, Cheng; Su, Hua; Jia, Lijun; Li, Jie; Huang, Xin; Gan, Gongwen

    2018-05-01

    Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics doped with Li2O-MgO-ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 glass (LMZBS) were prepared via a solid-state route. The LMZBS glass effectively reduced the sintering temperature of Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics to 950°C. The effects of the LMZBS glass on the sintering behavior, microstructures and microwave dielectric properties of Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics are discussed in detail. Among all the LMZBS doped Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics, the sample with 1 wt.% of LMZBS glass sintered at 950°C for 4 h exhibited good dielectric properties: ɛ r = 16.7, Q × f = 31,000 GHz (9.92 GHz), τ f = - 1.3 ppm/°C. The Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics possessed excellent chemical compatibility with Ag electrodes, and could be applied in low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications.

  15. Large-scale grain growth in the solid-state process: From "Abnormal" to "Normal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minhong; Han, Shengnan; Zhang, Jingwei; Song, Jiageng; Hao, Chongyan; Deng, Manjiao; Ge, Lingjing; Gu, Zhengfei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) has been a common phenomenon during the ceramic or metallurgy processing since prehistoric times. However, usually it had been very difficult to grow big single crystal (centimeter scale over) by using the AGG method due to its so-called occasionality. Based on the AGG, a solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) method was developed. The greatest advantages of the SSCG technology are the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the technique. But the traditional SSCG technology is still uncontrollable. This article first summarizes the history and current status of AGG, and then reports recent technical developments from AGG to SSCG, and further introduces a new seed-free, solid-state crystal growth (SFSSCG) technology. This SFSSCG method allows us to repeatedly and controllably fabricate large-scale single crystals with appreciable high quality and relatively stable chemical composition at a relatively low temperature, at least in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3(KNN) and Cu-Al-Mn systems. In this sense, the exaggerated grain growth is no longer 'Abnormal' but 'Normal' since it is able to be artificially controllable and repeated now. This article also provides a crystal growth model to qualitatively explain the mechanism of SFSSCG for KNN system. Compared with the traditional melt and high temperature solution growth methods, the SFSSCG method has the advantages of low energy consumption, low investment, simple technique, composition homogeneity overcoming the issues with incongruent melting and high volatility. This SFSSCG could be helpful for improving the mechanical and physical properties of single crystals, which should be promising for industrial applications.

  16. Ion conductivity of nasicon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoj, J.W.; Engell, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Nasicon ss ,Na 1 + X Zr 2 Si X P 3 - X O 12 o , X , 3, includes some of the best solid state sodium conductors known today. Compositions in the interval 1.6 , X , 2.6 show conductivities comparable to the best β double-prime-alumina ceramics. It is well known that the ion conductivity of β-alumina is strongly dependent on the texture of the ceramic. Here a similar behavior is reported for Nasicon ceramics. Ceramics of the bulk composition Na 2.94 Zr 1.49 Si 2.20 P 0.80 O 10.85 were prepared by a gel method. The final ceramics consist of Nasicon crystals with x = 2.14 and a glass phase. The grain size and texture of the ceramics were controlled by varying the thermal history of the gel based raw materials and the sintering conditions. The room temperature resistivity of the resulting ceramics varies from 3.65*10 3 ohm cm to 1.23*10 3 ohm cm. Using the temperature comparison method and estimates of the area of grain boundaries in the ceramics, the resistivity of the Nasicon phase is estimated to be 225 ohm cm at 25 degrees C. B 2 O 3 - or Al 2 O 3 -doping of the glass bearing Nasicon ceramic lower the room temperature resistivity by a factor 2 to 5. The dopants do not substitute into the Nasicon phase in substantial amounts

  17. Synthesis, microstructural and electrical characterization of ceramic compounds based on strontium and calcium titanates and iron-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Joao Roberto do

    2011-01-01

    Ca x Sr 1-x Ti 1-y Fe y O 3- δ, X = 0, 0.5 and 1.0, y = 0 and 0.35, ceramic compounds were synthesized by reactive solid state synthesis of CaCO 3 , SrCO 3 , TiO 2 and Fe 2 O 3 , and by the polymeric precursor technique. The ceramic powders were evaluated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Sintered ceramic pellets were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The electromotive force resulting from the exposing the pellets to partial pressure de oxygen in the ∼50 ppm in the 600-1100 ℃ range was monitored using an experimental setup consisting of an oxygen electrochemical pump with yttria-stabilized zirconia transducer and sensor. Rietveld analysis of the X-ray data allowed for determining the crystalline structures: cubic perovskite (y = 0) and orthorhombic perovskite (y ≠ 0). The electrical conductivity was determined by the two probe impedance spectroscopy measurements in the 5 Hz-13 MHz frequency range from room temperature to approximately 200 ℃. The deconvolution of the [-Z ( ω) x Z'(ω)] impedance diagrams in the 300 < T(K) < 500 range shows two semicircles due to intragranular (bulk) and intergranular (grain boundary) contributions to the electrical resistivity. Sintered pellets using powders prepared by the ceramic route present higher inter- and intragranular resistivity values than pellets prepared with chemically synthesized powders. The emf signal under exposure oxygen shows that these compounds may be used in oxygen sensing devices in the 600 - 1100 ℃ range. Scanning probe microscopy topographic analysis of the polished and thermally etched surfaces of the pellets gave details of grain morphology, showing that pellets prepared with powders synthesized by the chemical route are less porous than the ones obtained by the ceramic route. These results are in agreement with the impedance spectroscopy

  18. Experimental study on the EMP failure mode of DC solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Chen Xiangyue; Zhai Aibin; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    DC solid state relay is a new type switch device without touch point, and is extensive used by aviation and spaceflight technique. In this paper, the EMP failure modes of solid state relays were obtained by current injection method. (authors)

  19. Proceedings of 5. scientific conference on solid state physics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 5. Kazakhstan scientific conference on solid state physics was held on 28-30 October, 1999 in Karaganda. Scientists and researchers from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Estonia present various reports on different problems of solid state physics

  20. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  1. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  2. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  3. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I

    2010-01-01

    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  4. Fungal Invertase Expression in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitlahuac Aranda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study invertase activity expression in Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated under different concentrations of two substrates using solid-state fermentation (SSF on polyurethane foam. Glucose was used as repressor and sucrose was the inducer. Invertase production increased when glucose was present in the medium (up to 100 g/L; however, higher concentration than this reduced the enzyme production. Induction-repression ratio obtained using any glucose concentration was at least 2.5 times higher than that under basal conditions (without inducer.

  5. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, M.; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol -1 , respectively. (Authors)

  6. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  7. Solid state lasers: a major direction in quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the report is to analyze development of solid-state lasers (SSL) as one of the most important avenues of the quantum electronics. The obtained intensity of a laser radiation at the focus equal to 5x10 1 0 W/cm 2 (the field intensity equal to about 5x10 1 0 V/cm 2 ) is noted to enable to observe nonlinear quantum- electrodynamic effects. Besides, one managed to increase the SSL efficiency conventionally equal to maximum 3% up to 48-50%. Paper describes new types of SSLs, namely, the crystalline fiber lasers with the lateral gradient of the index of refraction [ru

  8. Observations of spectroscopic binaries with a solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, F. Jr.; Lacy, C.H.; Tomkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent installation of a solid-state 1024-element silicon photodiode array detector (Reticon) at the coude focus of the 2.7 m McDonald Observatory reflector has greatly extended its limits of observation for binary and multiple systems which have weak and/or broad-lined components. This detector can produce extremely high signal-to-noise ratio observations and has high quantum efficiency over the wavelength region 3000-11000 A. The observational programs of three users of this device are described. (Auth.)

  9. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  10. Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.

  11. Gamma camera system with composite solid state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A composite solid-state detector is described for utilization within gamma cameras. The detector's formed of an array of detector crystals, the opposed surfaces of each of which are formed incorporating an impedance-derived configuration for determining one coordinate of the location of discrete impinging photons upon the detector. A combined read-out for all detectors within the composite array is achieved through a row and column interconnection of the impedance configurations. Utilizing the read-outs for respective sides of the discrete crystals, a resultant time-constant characteristic for the composite detector crystal array remains essentially that of individual crystal detectors

  12. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  13. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  14. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature...... electrochemical cells are still a "black box". In order to identify local reaction sites, surface coverage and potential/current introduced materials and surface modifications, in situ techniques are needed to gain a better understanding of the elementary and performance limiting steps for these cells...

  16. Solid state theory. An introduction. 2. rev. and ext. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields. (orig.)

  17. Quantum theory of the solid state part B

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed

  18. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  19. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  20. Design Considerations of a Solid State Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbozorgi, Mohammad; Houssainy, Sammy; Thacker, Ariana; Ip, Peggy; Ismail, Walid; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2016-11-01

    With the growing governmental restrictions on carbon emission, renewable energies are becoming more prevalent. A reliable use of a renewable source however requires a built-in storage to overcome the inherent intermittent nature of the available energy. Thermal design of a solid state energy storage has been investigated for optimal performance. The impact of flow regime, laminar vs. turbulent, on the design and sizing of the system is also studied. The implications of low thermal conductivity of the storage material are discussed and a design that maximizes the round trip efficiency is presented. This study was supported by Award No. EPC-14-027 Granted by California Energy Commission (CEC).

  1. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and its application in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used are the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulations experiments and field measurements were carried out to verify the method possibilities. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author) [pt

  2. High Radiation Tolerant Ceramic Voltage Isolator (Non-optical Gate Driver), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Phase I effort is to design, develop and demonstrate a novel solid-state ceramic-based voltage isolator and demonstrate its potential to provide a...

  3. Direct Succinic Acid Production from Minimally Pretreated Biomass Using Sequential Solid-State and Slurry Fermentation with Mixed Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerico Alcantara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bio-based succinic acid production involves anaerobic bacterial fermentation of pure sugars. This study explored a new route for directly producing succinic acid from minimally-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass via a consolidated bioprocessing technology employing a mixed lignocellulolytic and acidogenic fungal co-culture. The process involved a solid-state pre-fermentation stage followed by a two-phase slurry fermentation stage. During the solid-state pre-fermentation stage, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were co-cultured in a nitrogen-rich substrate (e.g., soybean hull to induce cellulolytic enzyme activity. The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown separately on carbon-rich birch wood chips to induce ligninolytic enzymes, rendering the biomass more susceptible to cellulase attack. The solid-state pre-cultures were then combined in a slurry fermentation culture to achieve simultaneous enzymatic cellulolysis and succinic acid production. This approach generated succinic acid at maximum titers of 32.43 g/L after 72 h of batch slurry fermentation (~10 g/L production, and 61.12 g/L after 36 h of addition of fresh birch wood chips at the onset of the slurry fermentation stage (~26 g/L production. Based on this result, this approach is a promising alternative to current bacterial succinic acid production due to its minimal substrate pretreatment requirements, which could reduce production costs.

  4. Joining of metals to structural ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistiaga, J M; Salvador, J M

    1988-01-01

    A wide review is made on metal-ceramics joining by brazing, mainly by active metal containing brazing filler alloys and solid state welding that is diffusion welding and hot isostatic pressure (HIP). Both the basic aspects of the processes and the mechanisms involved are considsered. At last, different joint testing ands evaluation procedures are presented. (Author)

  5. Joining of metals to structural ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistiaga, J.M.; Salvador, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A wide review is made on metal-ceramics joining by brazing, mainly by active metal containing brazing filler alloys and solid state welding that is diffusion welding and hot isostatic pressure (HIP). Both the basic aspects of the processes and the mechanisms involved are considered. At last, different joint testing and evaluation procedures are presented. (Author)

  6. Microwave dielectric properties of low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics for LTCC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jian-Li; Fu, Zhi-Fen; Liu, Peng; Wang, Bing; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure gives the Q × f and τ_f of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics sintered at various temperatures with different LiF contents. Addition of LiF enhanced the sinterability and optimized the microwave dielectric properties of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics. The excellent microwave dielectric properties (ε_r = 15.8, Q × f = 64,500 GHz, and τ_f = −0.2 ppm/°C) of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics sintered at 850 °C illustrated that LiF is a simple effective sintering aids for Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics. Such sample was compatible with Ag electrodes, suitable for the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications. - Highlights: • Temperature stability of Li_2TiO_3 ceramics were improved by doping MgO. • The low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics are fabricated. • LiF liquid phase reduced sintering temperature of Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics to 850 °C. • The low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics possess well microwave dielectric properties. • The sample was compatible with Ag electrodes and suitable for LTCC applications. - Abstract: We fabricated the low-fired Li_2TiO_3–MgO ceramics doped with LiF by a conventional solid-state route, and investigated systematically their sintering characteristics, microstructures and microwave dielectric properties. The results showed that temperature stability of Li_2TiO_3 ceramics were improved by doping MgO. Well microwave dielectric properties for Li_2TiO_3–13 wt%MgO (LTM) ceramics with ε_r = 16.4, Q × f = 87,500 GHz, and τ_f = −1.2 ppm/°C were obtained at 1325 °C. Furthermore, addition of LiF enhanced the sinterability and optimized the microwave dielectric properties of LTM ceramics. A typically sample of LTM-4 wt%LiF ceramics with optimum dielectric properties (ε_r = 15.8, Q × f = 64,500 GHz, and τ_f = −0.2 ppm/°C) were achieved at 850 °C for 4 h. Such sample was compatible with Ag electrodes, suitable for the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications.

  7. A new class of boron nitride fibers with tunable properties by combining an electrospinning process and the polymer-derived ceramics route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Vincent; Bernard, Samuel; Brioude, Arnaud; Cornu, David; Miele, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    Novel boron nitride (BN) fibers have been developed with diameters ranging from the nano- to microscale by thermal conversion of as-electrospun fibers from polyacrylonitrile and poly[B-(methylamino)borazine] blend solutions. Such a new class of ceramic fibers is seen as potential candidate for thermal management applications and filtration systems in harsh environments.Novel boron nitride (BN) fibers have been developed with diameters ranging from the nano- to microscale by thermal conversion of as-electrospun fibers from polyacrylonitrile and poly[B-(methylamino)borazine] blend solutions. Such a new class of ceramic fibers is seen as potential candidate for thermal management applications and filtration systems in harsh environments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and EDX results. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00185a

  8. Templated Solid-State Dewetting of Thin Silicon Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Delobbe, Anne; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Thin film dewetting can be efficiently exploited for the implementation of functionalized surfaces over very large scales. Although the formation of sub-micrometer sized crystals via solid-state dewetting represents a viable method for the fabrication of quantum dots and optical meta-surfaces, there are several limitations related to the intrinsic features of dewetting in a crystalline medium. Disordered spatial organization, size, and shape fluctuations are relevant issues not properly addressed so far. This study reports on the deterministic nucleation and precise positioning of Si- and SiGe-based nanocrystals by templated solid-state dewetting of thin silicon films. The dewetting dynamics is guided by pattern size and shape taking full control over number, size, shape, and relative position of the particles (islands dimensions and relative distances are in the hundreds nm range and fluctuate ≈11% for the volumes and ≈5% for the positioning). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. State of the art of solid state dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Susana O.; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; D'Errico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed

  10. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  11. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  12. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  13. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  14. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  15. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  16. Synthesisofc-lifepo4 composite by solid state reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, I.; Hidayat, S.; Noviyanti, A. R.; Rakhmawaty, D.; Ernawati, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the enhancement of LiFePO4 conductivity was conducted by doping method with carbon materials. Carbon-based materials were obtained from the mixture of sucrose, and the precursor of LiH2PO4 and α-Fe2O3 was synthesized by solid state reaction. Sintering temperature was varied at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C and 1,000°C. The result showed that C-LiFePO4 could be synthesized by using solid state reaction method. Based on the XRD and FTIR spectrums, C-LiFePO4 can be identified as the type of crystal, characterized by the appearance of sharp signal on (011), (211) and typical peak of LiFePO4 materials. The result of conductivity measurement from C-LiFePO4 at sintering temperature of 900°C and 1,000°C was 2×10-4 S/cm and 4×10-4S/cm, respectively. The conductivity value at sintering temperature of 700°C and 800°C was very small (<10-6 S/cm), which cannot be measured by the existing equipment.

  17. Muon beams, used for studying the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The positive muon provides a remarkable spectroscopic probe of the solid state. Implanted in virtually any material, its spin polarisation may be monitored to define the sites it occupies in lattices or molecules and to report on local structure and dynamics. Wide ranging applications in solid state science are illustrated in this article by examples in magnetics, chemistry and quantum diffusion. Primarily, the muon is a sensitive microscopic magnetometer: this elementary particle has spin 1/2 and a magnetic moment about three times that of the proton. The frequencies of its resonance or precession signals provide a direct and accurate measurement of local magnetic or hyperfine fields. Its relaxation functions characterise the distribution in space or the fluctuation in time of these fields. The muon is rarely a passive probe, however, since it represents a defect carrying unit positive charge. In fact its interactions with the local environment are commonly the main focus of interest; studies of this most fundamental of defects have eliminated complacency in several areas. The interactions, chemical and elastic, are essentially identical with those of the proton, so that their study is invaluable in situations where hydrogen cannot be detected by conventional spectroscopies. Alternatively, when muon and proton behaviour may be compared, the comparison reveals a variety of kinetic and dynamic isotope effects: the muon has about one ninth the proton mass. This order of magnitude ratio greatly facilitates identification of specifically quantum effects, ie those including zero point energy or tunnelling. (author)

  18. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  19. In situ immobilized, magnetite nanoplatelets over holey graphene nanoribbons for high performance solid state supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, Shubra; Sahu, Vikrant; Marichi, Ram Bhagat; Singh, Gurmeet; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal platelet morphology of magnetite offers efficient material utilization. • Enhanced electronic conductivity of Fe 3 O 4 /GNR nanocomposites via GNR-GNR network. • Exploring the best optimized 30 wt. (%) Fe 3 O 4 on GNR as solid state supercapacitor. - ABSTRACT: Among major phases of iron oxide, magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is potential candidate for pseudocapacitors. Yet, the clustering of magnetite nanoparticles confines them from being exploited as charge storage material. Herein, magnetite hexagonal nanoplatelets are synthesized on holey graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by hydrothermal route and tested for charge storage performance in solid-state supercapacitor incorporating gel electrolyte (PVA-H 2 SO 4 ). GNR besides providing large surface for adsorption of magnetite platelets also improved the charge collection ability of nanocomposite through interconnected nanoribbon network. Mass loading over GNR is optimized to a maximum of 30 wt. (%) by ensuring mono dispersion of magnetite nanoplatelets and high conductivity (14.0 S m −1 ) of nanocomposite. Above 50 wt. (%) magnetite loading, structural identity of nanoribbon is tempered and as a consequence increased network resistivity depletion in charge storage capacity is observed. Mass loading of magnetite over nanoribbon showed an inverse relationship with ion diffusion and electronic conduction. Balanced ionic and electronic conduction in 30 wt. (%) magnetite loaded nanoribbon results in a supercapacitor cell delivering 1241.5 W kg −1 while maintaining 26.9 Wh kg −1 energy density. About 95% capacitance retention over 3000 charge discharge cycles at 2.3 A g −1 demonstrate magnetite as a high performance supercapacitor electrode.

  20. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Cells Using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mao; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li + -ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of the promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D) structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li 6.25 Al 0.25 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZAl), which is a Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZ) with Li + -ion conductivity of ~10 –4 S ⋅cm −1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 μm depth holes in 700 μm × 700 μm area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO 2 /LLZAl/lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO 2 –LLZAl interface is formed by point-to-point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, Li 3 BO 3 , which is a mechanically soft solid electrolyte with a low melting point at around 700

  1. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  3. Boron nitride ceramics from molecular precursors: synthesis, properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Samuel; Salameh, Chrystelle; Miele, Philippe

    2016-01-21

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) attracts considerable interest because its structure is similar to that of carbon graphite while it displays different properties which are of interest for environmental and green technologies. The polar nature of the B-N bond in sp(2)-bonded BN makes it a wide band gap insulator with different chemistry on its surface and particular physical and chemical properties such as a high thermal conductivity, a high temperature stability, a high resistance to corrosion and oxidation and a strong UV emission. It is chemically inert and nontoxic and has good environmental compatibility. h-BN also has enhanced physisorption properties due to the dipolar fields near its surface. Such properties are closely dependent on the processing method. Bottom-up approaches consist of transforming molecular precursors into non-oxide ceramics with retention of the structural units inherent to the precursor molecule. The purpose of the present review is to give an up-to-date overview on the most recent achievements in the preparation of h-BN from borazine-based molecular single-source precursors including borazine and 2,4,6-trichloroborazine through both vapor phase syntheses and methods in the liquid/solid state involving polymeric intermediates, called the Polymer-Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route. In particular, the effect of the chemistry, composition and architecture of the borazine-based precursors and derived polymers on the shaping ability as well as the properties of h-BN is particularly highlighted.

  4. A New Miniaturized Inkjet Printed Solid State Electrolyte Sensor for Applications in Life Support Systems - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Stefanos Fasoulas, -; Eberhart, Martin; Berndt, Felix

    New generations of integrated closed loop systems will combine life support systems (incl. biological components) and energy systems such as fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Those systems and their test beds also contain complex safety sensor monitoring systems. Especially in fuel cells and electrolysis systems, the hydrogen and oxygen flows and exchange into other areas due to diffusion processes or leaks need to be monitored. Knowledge of predominant gas concentrations at all times is essential to avoid explosive gas mixtures. Solid state electrolyte sensors are promising for use as safety sensors. They have already been developed and produced at various institutes, but the power consumption for heating an existing solid state electrolyte sensor element still lies between 1 to 1.5 W and the operational readiness still takes about 20 to 30 s. This is partially due to the current manufacturing process for the solid state electrolyte sensor elements that is based on screen printing technology. However this technology has strong limitations in flexibility of the layout and re-designs. It is therefore suitable for mass production, but not for a flexible development and the production of specific individual sensors, e.g. for space applications. Moreover a disadvantage is the relatively high material consumption, especially in combination with the sensors need of expensive noble metal and ceramic pastes, which leads to a high sensor unit price. The Inkjet technology however opens up completely new possibilities in terms of dimensions, geometries, structures, morphologies and materials of sensors. This new approach is capable of printing finer high-resolution layers without the necessity of meshes or masks for patterning. Using the Inkjet technology a design change is possible at any time on the CAD screen. Moreover the ink is only deposited where it is needed. Custom made sensors, as they are currently demanded in space sensor applications, are thus realized simply

  5. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  6. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  7. Synthesis of Ca_3CO_4O_9 via solid state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, K.P.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Marques, K.A.; Junior, S.M.S.; Brasileiro, C.T.; Coutinho, S.V.C.R.; Souza, T.; Chagas, T.F.; Silva, R.M.; Macedo, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) stand out as the most promising today's energy conversion technologies. In the development of cathode materials for SOFC, calcium cobaltate (Ca3Co4O9, C349) appears as a potential alternative to traditional lanthanum manganites. In this work, C349 was prepared via solid state reaction of stoichiometric mixtures containing CaCO3 from mollusk shells, in natura (M1) and heat treated at 550 ° C (M2), and Co3O4 obtained by citrate method. The M1 and M2 mixtures were calcined at 800 (powder) and 900 ° C (tablets) for 12 h. The crystal structure and phase composition of the powder and the reaction products were studied by X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data. The results showed the formation of free C349 secondary stages, showing a good alternative to use waste from seafood shells as raw material for obtaining high-value ceramics.(author)

  8. Solid state synthesis and structural refinement of polycrystalline La ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perovskite structure based ceramic precursors have a characteristic property of substitution in the ``A" site of the ABO3 structure. This makes them a potential material for nuclear waste management in synthetic rock (SYNROC) technology. In order to simulate the mechanism of rare earth fixation in perovskite, La ...

  9. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic fabricated using soda-lime–silica waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H. [Electroceramics Group, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5–20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass–ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed. - Highlights: • A novel ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic was synthesized by an incorporation method. • The bioactive part was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass. • The doping of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} to Bioglass{sup ®} 45S5 glass–ceramic is likely to decrease bioactivity.

  10. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, D; Gaydecki, P; Quek, S; Torres, V

    2007-01-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research

  11. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2007-07-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  12. Permeability, strength and electrochemical studies on ceramic multilayers for solid-state electrochemical cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Charlas, Benoit; Stamate, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical reactor can be used to purify flue gasses. Such a reactor can be a multilayer structure consisting of alternating layers of porous electrodes and electrolytes (a porous cell stack). In this work optimization of such a unit has been done by changing the pore former composition...

  13. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Agrawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase. The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF. The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds. Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

  14. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  15. Fast neutron detection using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    CR-39 and Makrofol-E solid state nuclear track detectors were studied aiming their application to fast neutron detection. Optimum etching conditions of those two kinds of materials were determined the followings - the Makrofol-E detector is electrochemically etched in a PEW solution (15% KOH, 40% ethilic alcohol and 45% water) for 2 h., with an applied electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r/m/s/) and frequency of 2 kHz, at room temperature; - the CR-39 detector is chemically pre-etched during 1 h in a 20% (w/v) NaOH solution at 70 sup(0)C, followed by 13 h electrochemical etch using the same solution at room temperature and an electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r.m.s.) and frequency of 2 kHz.(E.G.)

  16. Fatty acids polymorphism and solid-state miscibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbabode, Gabin [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ggbabode@ulb.ac.be; Negrier, Philippe; Mondieig, Denise [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Moreno, Evelyn; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Angel [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-05

    The pentadecanoic acid-hexadecanoic acid (C{sub 15}H{sub 29}OOH-C{sub 16}H{sub 31}OOH) binary system is dealt with in this article. The polymorphism of 20 mixed materials has been investigated combining calorimetric measurements, isothermal and versus temperature X-ray powder diffraction and also FTIR spectroscopy. In particular, the cell parameters of the stable forms, temperatures and heats of phase changes for the two constituents and a proposal of phase diagram are given in this article. Three solid forms are created by mixing in addition with the four solid forms of the pure components. All these solid forms are stabilized on narrow domains of composition, implying a reduced solid-state miscibility of the pentadecanoic and hexadecanoic acids.

  17. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1994-10-01

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  19. Solid state laser driver for an ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of the main power amplifier of a multi-beamline, multi-megawatt solid state ICF reactor driver. Simultaneous achievement of useful beam quality and high average power is achieved by a proper choice of amplifier geometry. An amplifier beamline consists of a sequence of face-pumped rectangular slab gain elements, oriented at the Brewster angle relative to the beamline axis, and cooled on their large faces by helium gas that is flowing subsonically. The infrared amplifier output radiation is shifted to an appropriately short wavelength ( 10% (including all flow cooling input power) when the amplifiers are pumped by efficient high-power AlGaAs semiconductor laser diode arrays. 11 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Darrow, D.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube

  1. An all-solid-state lithium/polyaniline rechargeable cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhi; Peng, Xinsheng; Zhang, Borong; Wang, Baochen

    1992-07-01

    The performance of an all-solid-state cell having a lithium negative electrode, a modified polyethylene oxide (PEO)-epoxy resin (ER) electrolyte, and a polyaniline (PAn) positive electrode has been studied using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge cycling, and polarization curves at various temperatures. The redox reaction of the PAn electrode at the PAn/modified PEO-ER interface exhibits good reversibility. At 50-80 C, the Li/PEO-ER-LiClO4/PAn cell shows more than 40 charge/discharge cycles, 90 percent charge/discharge efficiency, and 54 W h kg discharge energy density (on PAn weight basis) at 50 micro-A between 2 and 4 V. The polarization performance of the battery improves steadily with increase in temperature.

  2. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z; Manchiraju, K [Southwire Co.

    2012-02-22

    This project is to develop and demonstrate the concept feasibility of a highly energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis process, friction stir extrusion (FSE) technology. Specifically, the project seeks to explore and demonstrate the feasibility to recycle metals, produce nano-particle dispersion strengthened bulk materials and/or nano-composite materials from powders, chips or other recyclable feedstock metals or scraps through mechanical alloying and thermo-mechanical processing in a single-step. In this study, we focused on metal recycling, producing nano-engineered wires and evaluating their potential use in future generation long-distance electric power delivery infrastructure. More comprehensive R&D on the technology fundamentals and system scale-up toward early-stage applications in two targeted “showcase” fields of use: nano engineered bulk materials and Al recycling will be considered and planned as part of Project Continuation Plan.

  3. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  4. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  5. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  6. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  7. Trends of studies in some aspects of solid state plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Of late, there is a discernible trend to study solid state plasmas. Such a study, by itself, constitutes a broad class of problems but those with dominantly utilitarian aspects have not hitherto been studied in abundance. The utility stems from the nature of media, namely, piezoelectric media or strictly speaking, piezoelectric semiconducting media, in which amplification of waves or otherwise has to be reckoned for wothwhile pursuits in regard to energy conversions. There are both theoretical and experimental dimensions to such studies. The present study restricts itself only to theoretical work. A chronological sequence of extent studies enables one to get at the right perspective. Basic equations along with formulations are set forth. Thermopiezosemiconducting media are also considered on the above lines. Salients and snags of erstwhile studies are pointed out. Possible directions of developments of such studies together with techniques to which they may become amenable are also indicated. (author)

  8. Gamma sterilization of cefotaxime sodium in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Aladawi, M. A.; Hammoudeh, A.; Albaroudi, H.

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the solid state of Cefotaxime sodium salt (C 1 8H 1 6N 8 Na 2 O 7 S 3 ) as a member of the third generation of cephalosporin. Solid Cefotaxime as a pharmaceutical dosage was exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 kGy in 60 Co package irradiator. Physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium have been investigated by using UV (Ultra Violet) and IR (Infra Red) spectroscopic, pH, solubility and DSC (Deferential Scanning Calorimetric) methods. The biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium was investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a strain of bacteria. The obtained results indicated that gamma irradiation have no effect on physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium, No significant differences were found between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in the biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium on E. Coli. (Author)

  9. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  10. Solid state low power pulsed NMR spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.S.; Parthasarathy, T.G.; Menon, M.P.S.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer system is described for relaxation time studies on solid and liquid samples. The spectrometer design is fully solid state and a special microcomputer interface is incorporated for automatic evaluation of the relaxation times. The prototype system has been designed to operate at 9 MHz, but the modular concept used in the construction permits operation at any frequency in the range 5-10 MHz. The system has a recovery time of 15 micro seconds at 9 MHz. The range of measurement for the spin-lattice relaxation time is 0.1 millisecond to 1000 seconds; for spin-spin relaxation time, the range is 14μ seconds to 100 milliseconds. (author)

  11. Optimized control strategy for crowbarless solid state modular power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    Solid state modular power supply with series connected IGBT based power modules have been employed as high voltage bias power supply of klystron amplifier. Auxiliary compensation of full wave inverter bridge with ZVS/ZCS operations of all IGBTs over entire operating range is incorporated. An optimized control strategy has been adopted for this power supply needing no output filter, making this scheme crowbarless and is presented in this paper. DSP based fully digital control with same duty cycle for all power modules, have been incorporated for regulating this power supply along with adequate protection features. Input to this power supply is taken directly from 11 kV line and the input system is intentionally made 24 pulsed to reduce the input harmonics, improve the input power factor significantly, there by requiring no line filters. Various steps have been taken to increase the efficiency of major subsystems, so as to improve the overall efficiency of this power supply significantly. (author)

  12. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors

  13. Construction of a Solid State Research Facility, Building 3150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct a new facility to house the Materials Synthesis Group (MSG) and the Semiconductor Physics Group (SPG) of the Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The location of the proposed action is Roane County, Tennessee. MSG is involved in the study of crystal growth and the preparation and characterization of advanced materials, such as high-temperature superconductors, while SPG is involved in semiconductor physics research. All MSG and a major pardon of SPG research activities are now conducted in Building 2000, a deteriorating structure constructed in the 1940. The physical deterioration of the roof; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; and the plumbing make this building inadequate for supporting research activities. The proposed project is needed to provide laboratory and office space for MSG and SPG and to ensure that research activities can continue without interruption due to deficiencies in the building and its associated utility systems

  14. Solid state track recorder measurements in the poolside critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fission rate measurements using solid state track recorders (SSTR) have been performed at the PCA. A schematic representation of a cross-section of the PCA is shown. Fission rates were measured in the pressure vessel simulator at the T/4, T/2 and 3T/4 positions and in the void box (VB). SSTR measurements were carried out with 232 Th, 235 U (bare and cadmium covered), 238 U and 237 Np fissionable deposits. Midplane only measurements were carried out for 235 U and 237 Np, while 5 axial locations at 1/4T and 1/2T and 3 axial locations at 3/4T and in the VB were sampled for 232 Th and 238 U. The HEDL SSTR fission rate measurements reported herein for both configurations together with NBS and CEN/SCK fission chamber measurements will be used to establish absolute and relative fission reaction rates, and ratios for the PCA pressure vessel Benchmark Facility

  15. Unravelling radiative energy transfer in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikov, Rustamzhon; Press, Daniel Aaron; Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of organic and inorganic luminescent materials (e.g., phosphors, quantum dots, etc.) are being used for lighting and new materials (e.g., graphene, perovskite, etc.) are currently under investigation. However, the understanding of radiative energy transfer is limited, even though it is critical to understand and improve the performance levels of solid-state lighting devices. In this study, we derived a matrix approach that includes absorption, reabsorption, inter-absorption and their iterative and combinatorial interactions for one and multiple types of fluorophores, which is simplified to an analytical matrix. This mathematical approach gives results that agree well with the measured spectral and efficiency characteristics of color-conversion light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it also provides a deep physical insight by uncovering the entire radiative interactions and their contribution to the output optical spectrum. The model is universal and applicable for all kinds of fluorophores.

  16. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate cultivation (SSC or solid state fermentation (SSF is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products. This process involves the fermentation of solid substrate medium with microorganism in the absence of free flowing water. Recent developments and concerted focus on SSF enabled it to evolve as a potential bio- technology as an alternative to thetraditional chemical synthesis. SSF is being successfully exploited for food production, fuels, enzymes, antibiotics, animal feeds and also for dye degradation. This paper discusses the various micro and macro level engineering problems associated with SSF and some possible solutions for its full commercial realization.

  17. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  18. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...... doubled, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Lasing in the wavelength region from 560 to 570 nm is observed from a laser with a side-length of 50 µm. In this proof of concept, the lasers are multimode with a mode wavelength separation of approximately 1.6 nm, as determined by the waveguide propagation constant......We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...

  19. Solid state modulator for klystron power supply XFEL TDS INJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Zybin, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.; Shemarykin, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    The transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS INJ for European X-ray Free Electron Laser includes power supply for the CPI VKS-8262HS klystron. It has been designed for pulse high-voltage, cathode heating, solenoid and klystron ion pump. The klystron power supply includes solid state modulator, pulse transformer, controlled power supply for cathode heating and commercial power supplies for solenoid and ion pump. Main parameters of the modulator are 110 kV of peak voltage, 72 A peak current, and pulse length up to 6 μs. The klystron power supply has been developed, designed, manufactured, tuned, tested and installed in the XFEL building. All designed parameters are satisfied.

  20. Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Koguchi, Y; Ashida, T; Tsuruta, T

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector is suitable for detecting heavy ions such as fission fragments, because it is insensitive to right ions such as alpha particles and protons. Detection efficiency of fission tracks is about 100%, which is unaffected under conditions below 240degC lasting for 1h or below 1 MGy of gamma-ray irradiation. Optimum etching condition for the DAP detector for detection of fission fragments is 2-4 h using 30% KOH aqueous solution at 90degC or 8-15 min using PEW-65 solution at 60degC. DAP detector is useful in detecting induced fission tracks for dating of geology or measuring intense heavy ions induced by ultra laser plasma. The fabrication of copolymers of DAP and CR-39 makes it possible to control the discrimination level for detection threshold of heavy ions. (author)

  1. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 2018 DOE Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-01-31

    The 2018 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio provides an overview of all SSL projects that have been funded by DOE since 2000. Projects that were active during 2017 are found in the main body of this report, and all historic projects can be found in the appendix. Within these sections, project profiles are sorted by technology type (i.e., LED or OLED) and then by performer name. A profile is provided on each project. Each profile includes a brief technical description, as well as information about project partners, funding, and the research period. This report is updated annually, although the research described in the Portfolio changes periodically as new projects are initiated and existing ones are concluded.

  3. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred

    2017-08-29

    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  4. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  5. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  6. Majorana Fermions in Particle Physics, Solid State and Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    This review is based on lectures given by M. J. Duff summarising the far reaching contributions of Ettore Majorana to fundamental physics, with special focus on Majorana fermions in all their guises. The theoretical discovery of the eponymous fcrmion in 1937 has since had profound implications for particlc physics, solid state and quantum computation. The breadth of these disciplines is testimony to Majorana's genius, which continues to permeate physics today. These lectures offer a whistle-stop tour through some limited subset of the key ideas. In addition to touching on these various applications, we will draw out some fascinating relations connecting the normed division algebras R, ℂ, H, O to spinors, trialities. K-theory and the classification of stable topological states of symmetry-protected gapped free-fermion systems.

  7. Annealing effects in solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Current analyses of the annealing process in Solid State Track Recorders (SSTR) reveal fundamental misconceptions. The use of the Arrhenius equation to describe the decrease in track density resulting from annealing is shown to be incorrect. To overcome these deficiencies, generalized reaction rate theory is used to describe the annealing process in SSTR. Results of annealing experiments are used to guide this theoretical formulation. Within this framework, the concept of energy per etchable defect for SSTR is introduced. A general correlation between sensitivity and annealing susceptibility in SSTR is deduced. In terms of this general theory, the apparent correlation between fission track size and fission track density observed under annealing is readily explained. Based on this theoretical treatment of annealing phenomena, qualitative explanations are advanced for current enigmas in SSTR cosmic ray work

  8. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  9. Effects of TiO2 addition on microwave dielectric properties of Li2MgSiO4 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Aleena; Masin, B.; Sreemoolanadhan, H.; Ashok, K.; Vijayakumar, T.

    2018-03-01

    Silicates have been widely studied for substrate applications in microwave integrated circuits owing to their low dielectric constant and low tangent loss values. Li2MgSiO4 (LMS) ceramics are synthesized through solid-state reaction route using TiO2 as an additive to the pure ceramics. Variations in dielectric properties of LMS upon TiO2 addition in different weight percentages (0.5, 1.5, 2) are studied by keeping the sintering parameters constant. Crystalline structure, phase composition, and microstructure of LMS and LMS-TiO2 ceramics were studied using x-ray diffraction spectrometer and High Resolution Scanning electron microscope. Density was measured through Archimedes method and the microwave dielectric properties were examined by Cavity perturbation technique. LMS achieved relative permittivity (ε r) of 5.73 and dielectric loss (tan δ) of 5.897 × 10‑4 at 8 GHz. In LMS-TiO2 ceramics, 0.5 wt% TiO2 added LMS showed comparatively better dielectric properties than other weight percentages where ε r = 5.67, tan δ = 7.737 × 10‑4 at 8 GHz.

  10. Effect of orthorhombic distortion on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Amit; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-04-01

    High temperature bismuth layered piezoelectric and ferroelectric ceramics of CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBT) have been prepared using the solid state route. The formation of single phase material with orthorhombic structure was verified from x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The orthorhombic distortion present in the CBT ceramic sintered at 1200 °C was found to be maximum. A sharp phase transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric was observed in the temperature dependent dielectric studies of all CBT ceramics. The Curie's temperature (Tc=790 °C) was found to be independent of measured frequency. The behavior of ac conductivity as a function of frequency (100 Hz-1 MHz) at low temperatures (<500 °C) follows the power law and is attributed to hopping conduction. The presence of large orthorhombic distortion in the CBT ceramic sintered at 1200 °C results in high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high piezoelectric coefficient (d33). The observed results indicate the important role of orthorhombic distortion in determining the improved property of multicomponent ferroelectric material.

  11. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  12. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furenlid, L.R.; Beren, J.; Kraner, H.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Stephani, D.; Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Cramer, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500 000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since X-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 elements Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10 x 10 matrix of 4 mm x 4 mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultrahigh purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A/D converter, and histogramming memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entrie instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection. (orig.)

  13. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Manchiraju

    2012-03-27

    Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

  14. Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition from RKKP targets (sol-gel vs melt-processing route)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, J.V., E-mail: giulietta.rau@ism.cnr.it [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Teghil, R. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Fosca, M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); De Bonis, A. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Cacciotti, I.; Bianco, A. [Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, UR INSTM ' Roma Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Albertini, V. Rossi [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Caminiti, R. [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); Ravaglioli, A. [Parco Torricelli delle Arti e delle Scienze, Via Granarolo, 64-48018 Faenza (Ra) (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulsed Lased Deposition allowed congruent transfer of target composition to coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target was prepared by sol-gel process suitable for compositional tailoring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium, widely used for orthopaedics and dental implants, was used as substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The physico-chemical properties of the prepared coatings are reported. -- Abstract: The deposition of innovative glass-ceramic composition (i.e. RKKP) coatings by Pulsed Lased Deposition (PLD) technique is reported. RKKP was synthesised following two methodologies: melt-processing and sol-gel, the latter being particularly suitable to tailor the compositional range. The PLD advantage with respect to other deposition techniques is the congruent transfer of the target composition to the coating. The physico-chemical properties of films were investigated by Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Angular and Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction, and Vickers microhardness. The deposition performed at 12 J/cm{sup 2} and 500 Degree-Sign C allows to prepare crystalline films with the composition that replicates rather well that of the initial targets. The 0.6 {mu}m thin melt-processing RKKP films, possessing the hardness of 25 GPa, and the 4.3 {mu}m thick sol-gel films with the hardness of 17 GPa were obtained.

  15. Bioactive glass–ceramic coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition from RKKP targets (sol–gel vs melt-processing route)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, J.V.; Teghil, R.; Fosca, M.; De Bonis, A.; Cacciotti, I.; Bianco, A.; Albertini, V. Rossi; Caminiti, R.; Ravaglioli, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bioactive glass–ceramic coatings for bone tissue repair and regeneration. ► Pulsed Lased Deposition allowed congruent transfer of target composition to coating. ► Target was prepared by sol–gel process suitable for compositional tailoring. ► Titanium, widely used for orthopaedics and dental implants, was used as substrate. ► The physico-chemical properties of the prepared coatings are reported. -- Abstract: The deposition of innovative glass–ceramic composition (i.e. RKKP) coatings by Pulsed Lased Deposition (PLD) technique is reported. RKKP was synthesised following two methodologies: melt-processing and sol–gel, the latter being particularly suitable to tailor the compositional range. The PLD advantage with respect to other deposition techniques is the congruent transfer of the target composition to the coating. The physico-chemical properties of films were investigated by Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Angular and Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction, and Vickers microhardness. The deposition performed at 12 J/cm 2 and 500 °C allows to prepare crystalline films with the composition that replicates rather well that of the initial targets. The 0.6 μm thin melt-processing RKKP films, possessing the hardness of 25 GPa, and the 4.3 μm thick sol–gel films with the hardness of 17 GPa were obtained.

  16. Parallel β-Sheet Structure of Alanine Tetrapeptide in the Solid State As Studied by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Horiguchi, Kumiko; Aoki, Akihiro; Tasei, Yugo; Naito, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The structural analysis of alanine oligopeptides is important for understanding the crystalline region in silks from spiders and wild silkworms and also the mechanism of cellular toxicity of human diseases arising from expansion in polyalanine sequences. The atomic-level structures of alanine tripeptide and tetrapeptide with antiparallel β-sheet structures (AP-Ala3 and AP-Ala4, respectively) together with alanine tripeptide with parallel β-sheet structures (P-Ala3) have been determined, but alanine tetrapeptide with a parallel β-sheet structure (P-Ala4) has not been reported yet. In this article, first, we established the preparation protocol of P-Ala4 from more stable AP-Ala4. Second, complete assignments of the (13)C, (15)N, and (1)H solid-state NMR spectra were performed with (13)C- and (15)N-labeled Ala4 samples using several solid-state NMR techniques. Then, the structural constraints were obtained, for example, the amide proton peaks of P-Ala4 in the (1)H double-quantum magic-angle spinning NMR spectrum were heavily overlapped and observed at about 7.4 ppm, which was a much higher field than that of 8.7-9.1 ppm observed for AP-Ala4, indicating that the intermolecular hydrogen-bond lengths across strands (N-H···O═C) were considerably longer for P-Ala4, that is, 2.21-2.34 Å, than those reported for AP-Ala4, that is, 1.8-1.9 Å. The structural model was proposed for P-Ala4 by NMR results and MD calculations.

  17. Towards a lattice-matching solid-state battery: synthesis of a new class of lithium-ion conductors with the spinel structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosciano, Fabio; Pescarmona, Paolo P; Houthoofd, Kristof; Persoons, Andre; Bottke, Patrick; Wilkening, Martin

    2013-04-28

    Lithium ion batteries have conquered most of the portable electronics market and are now on the verge of deployment in large scale applications. To be competitive in the automotive and stationary sectors, however, they must be improved in the fields of safety and energy density (W h L(-1)). Solid-state batteries with a ceramic electrolyte offer the necessary advantages to significantly improve the current state-of-the-art technology. The major limit towards realizing a practical solid-state lithium-ion battery lies in the lack of viable ceramic ionic conductors. Only a few candidate materials are available, each carrying a difficult balance between advantages and drawbacks. Here we introduce a new class of possible solid-state lithium-ion conductors with the spinel structure. Such compounds could be coupled with spinel-type electrode materials to obtain a "lattice matching" solid device where low interfacial resistance could be achieved. Powders were prepared by wet chemistry, their structure was studied by means of diffraction techniques and magic angle spinning NMR, and Li(+) self-diffusion was estimated by static NMR line shape measurements. Profound differences in the Li(+) diffusion properties were observed depending on the composition, lithium content and cationic distribution. Local Li(+) hopping in the spinel materials is accompanied by a low activation energy of circa 0.35 eV being comparable with that of, e.g., LLZO-type garnets, which represent the current benchmark in this field. We propose these novel materials as a building block for a lattice-matching all-spinel solid-state battery with low interfacial resistance.

  18. Sol-gel route to synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes: Thermal stability of TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qunyin Xu; Anderson, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper concerning the synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes, the authors focus on the preparation and thermal stability of unsupported microporous TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membranes. It has been observed that, by adding up to 20% ZrO 2 into TiO 2 or up to 10% TiO 2 into ZrO 2 , these microporous membranes display improved thermal stability. They can be fired up to 500 C for 0.5 h without closing micropores. However, membranes containing almost equal percentages of each component have lost microporous features and have low surface areas and low porosities. A phase diagram of a two-component TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membrane has been prepared based on DTA and X-ray diffraction data in order to better understand the microstructure changes upon firing

  19. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  20. Preparation and electrical properties of (1 - x)Sr(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Bijun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China)], E-mail: fangbj@em.jpu.edu.cn; Cheng Zhenquan; Sun Renbing; Ding Chenlu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China)

    2009-03-05

    (1 - x)Sr(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (SFN-PT) ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method via the wolframite precursor route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirmed that the synthesized SFN-PT ceramics are of pure perovskite structure. With the increase of the concentration of PbTiO{sub 3} (PT), crystal structure of the sintered SFN-PT ceramics changes from rhombohedral phase to tetragonal phase. Dielectric response of the SFN-PT ceramics changes from diffused and broad dielectric peaks to relatively sharp ones accompanied by the increase of the temperature of dielectric maximum (T{sub m}). Small content of MnO{sub 2} or Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} doping can greatly decrease the dielectric loss of the SFN-PT ceramics, furthermore, the abnormal increase of dielectric constant and loss tangent in the paraelectric phase is suppressed accordingly. Typical P-E hysteresis loops are observed in the SFN-PT ceramics, however, the saturate polarization (P{sub s}) is small. MnO{sub 2} or Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} doping can greatly decrease the coercive field (E{sub c}) of the SFN-PT ceramics accompanied by large increase of P{sub s}. Piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} of the SFN-PT ceramics is small except for SFN30-PT70 ceramics, which reaches 22pC/N.