Sample records for solid-phase laser cytometry

  1. Sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food and water by immunomagnetic separation and solid-phase laser cytometry

    Pyle, B. H.; Broadaway, S. C.; McFeters, G. A.


    Rapid, direct methods are needed to assess active bacterial populations in water and foods. Our objective was to determine the efficiency of bacterial detection by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and the compatibility of IMS with cyanoditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) incubation to determine respiratory activity, using the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Counterstaining with a specific fluorescein-conjugated anti-O157 antibody (FAb) following CTC incubation was used to allow confirmation and visualization of bacteria by epifluorescence microscopy. Broth-grown E. coli O157:H7 was used to inoculate fresh ground beef (enumeration or solid-phase laser cytometry. Enumeration by laser scanning permitted detection of ca. 10 CFU/g of ground beef or bacteria on beads by the IMS-CTC-FAb method, compared with recovery by sorbitol MacConkey agar plating, yielded greater numbers (beef, 6.0 times; peptone, 3.0 times; water, 2.4 times). Thus, within 5 to 7 h, the IMS-CTC-FAb method detected greater numbers of E. coli O157 cells than were detected by plating. The results show that the IMS-CTC-FAb technique with enumeration by either fluorescence microscopy or solid-phase laser scanning cytometry gave results that compared favorably with plating following IMS.

  2. Sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food and water by immunomagnetic separation and solid-phase laser cytometry

    Pyle, B. H.; Broadaway, S. C.; McFeters, G. A.


    Rapid, direct methods are needed to assess active bacterial populations in water and foods. Our objective was to determine the efficiency of bacterial detection by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and the compatibility of IMS with cyanoditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) incubation to determine respiratory activity, using the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Counterstaining with a specific fluorescein-conjugated anti-O157 antibody (FAb) following CTC incubation was used to allow confirmation and visualization of bacteria by epifluorescence microscopy. Broth-grown E. coli O157:H7 was used to inoculate fresh ground beef (water. Inoculated meat was diluted and homogenized in a stomacher and then incubated with paramagnetic beads coated with anti-O157 specific antibody. After IMS, cells with magnetic beads attached were stained with CTC and then an anti-O157 antibody-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate and filtered for microscopic enumeration or solid-phase laser cytometry. Enumeration by laser scanning permitted detection of ca. 10 CFU/g of ground beef or water, 2.4 times). Thus, within 5 to 7 h, the IMS-CTC-FAb method detected greater numbers of E. coli O157 cells than were detected by plating. The results show that the IMS-CTC-FAb technique with enumeration by either fluorescence microscopy or solid-phase laser scanning cytometry gave results that compared favorably with plating following IMS.

  3. Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae abundance in Austrian saline lakes, assessed with quantitative solid-phase cytometry


    International audience; In order to elucidate the main predictors of Vibrio cholerae dynamics and to estimate the risk of Vibrio cholera-related diseases, a recently developed direct detection approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry (CARD-FISH/ SPC) was applied in comparison to cultivation for water samples from the lake Neusiedler See, Austria and three shallow alkaline lakes over a period of 20 months. Vibrio cholerae attached to crustacean zoo-plankto...

  4. Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae abundance in Austrian saline lakes, assessed with quantitative solid-phase cytometry.

    Schauer, Sonja; Jakwerth, Stefan; Bliem, Rupert; Baudart, Julia; Lebaron, Philippe; Huhulescu, Steliana; Kundi, Michael; Herzig, Alois; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander


    In order to elucidate the main predictors of Vibrio cholerae dynamics and to estimate the risk of Vibrio cholera-related diseases, a recently developed direct detection approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry (CARD-FISH/SPC) was applied in comparison to cultivation for water samples from the lake Neusiedler See, Austria and three shallow alkaline lakes over a period of 20 months. Vibrio cholerae attached to crustacean zooplankton was quantified via FISH and epifluorescence microscopy. Concentrations obtained by CARD-FISH/SPC were significantly higher than those obtained by culture in 2011, but were mostly of similar magnitude in 2012. Maximum cell numbers were 1.26 × 10(6) V. cholerae per L in Neusiedler See and 7.59 × 10(7) V. cholerae per L in the shallow alkaline lakes. Only on a few occasions during summer was the crustacean zooplankton the preferred habitat for V. cholerae. In winter, V. cholerae was not culturable but could be quantified at all sites with CARD-FISH/SPC. Beside temperature, suspended solids, zooplankton and ammonium were the main predictors of V. cholerae abundance in Neusiedler See, while in the shallow alkaline lakes it was organic carbon, conductivity and phosphorus. Based on the obtained concentrations a first estimation of the health risk for visitors of the lake could be performed. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Near infrared lasers in flow cytometry.

    Telford, William G


    Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Supercontinuum white light lasers for flow cytometry

    Telford, William G.; Subach, Fedor V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.


    Excitation of fluorescent probes for flow cytometry has traditionally been limited to a few discrete laser lines, an inherent limitation in our ability to excite the vast array of fluorescent probes available for cellular analysis. In this report, we have used a supercontinuum (SC) white light laser as an excitation source for flow cytometry. By selectively filtering the wavelength of interest, almost any laser wavelength in the visible spectrum can be separated and used for flow cytometric analysis. The white light lasers used in this study were integrated into a commercial flow cytometry platform, and a series of high-transmission bandpass filters used to select wavelength ranges from the blue (~480 nm) to the long red (>700 nm). Cells labeled with a variety of fluorescent probes or expressing fluorescent proteins were then analyzed, in comparison with traditional lasers emitting at wavelengths similar to the filtered SC source. Based on a standard sensitivity metric, the white light laser bandwidths produced similar excitation levels to traditional lasers for a wide variety of fluorescent probes and expressible proteins. Sensitivity assessment using fluorescent bead arrays confirmed that the SC laser and traditional sources resulted in similar levels of detection sensitivity. Supercontinuum white light laser sources therefore have the potential to remove a significant barrier in flow cytometric analysis, namely the limitation of excitation wavelengths. Almost any visible wavelength range can be made available for excitation, allowing access to virtually any fluorescent probe, and permitting “fine-tuning” of excitation wavelength to particular probes. PMID:19072836

  7. Platelet antibody screening by flow cytometry is more sensitive than solid phase red cell adherence assay and lymphocytotoxicity technique: a comparative study in Thai patients.

    Buakaew, Jarin; Promwong, Charuporn


    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of lymphocytotoxicity test (LCT), solid phase red cell adherence assay (SPRCA) and flow cytometry in detecting platelet reactive antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I and human platelet antigens (HPA). Sera from 38 thrombocytopenic patients and 5 mothers of thrombocytopenic newborns were screened for platelet reactive antibodies by these three methods using screening platelets and/or lymphocytes panels derived from six subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of each method and levels of agreement were analysed. HLA antibodies were found in 18, 17 and 19 out of 43 patients' sera tested by LCT, SPRCA and flow cytometry, respectively. Four out of 43 patients' sera were reactive against HPA by flow cytometry, but were reactive to only 2 sera by SPRCA. Using flow cytometry as the reference method, the sensitivities/specificities of SPRCA and LCT in HLA antibody detection were 84.21/95.83% and 94.73/100%, respectively, with a good strength of agreement. SPRCA had 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity in HPA antibody detection compare to flow cytometry. Flow cytometry appeared to be the most sensitive technique compared with SPRCA and LCT for both HPA and HLA antibody screening. SPRCA sensitivity was too low for HPA antibody detection, but this might be because of the small number of samples. There was one serum from the mother of a baby suffering neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), in whom SPRCA could not detect HPA antibodies, while flow cytometry came out positive. Therefore, SPRCA should not be used in NAIT investigation and flow cytometry should be employed instead.

  8. Laser-induced solid-solid phase transition in As under pressure: a theoretical prediction

    Zijlstra, Eeuwe S; Huntemann, Nils; Garcia, Martin E [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)], E-mail:


    In arsenic, a pressure-induced solid-solid phase transition from the A7 into the simple cubic structure has been experimentally demonstrated (Beister et al 1990 Phys. Rev. B 41 5535). In this paper, we present calculations, which predict that this phase transition can also be induced by an ultrashort laser pulse in As under pressure. In addition, calculations for the pressure-induced phase transition are presented. Using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation, we found that the pressure-induced phase transition takes place at 26.3 GPa and is accompanied by a volume change {delta}V=0.5 a{sub 0}{sup 3} atom{sup -1}. The laser-induced phase transition is predicted for an applied pressure of 23.8 GPa and an absorbed laser energy of 2.8 mRy atom{sup -1}.

  9. Laser ablation cell sorting in scanning cytometry

    Shen, Feimo; Price, Jeffrey H.


    Flow cytometry has been an important tool for automated cells sorting. However, the lack of good sensitivity prevents it from being used for rare events sorting; furthermore, fragile cells, anchorage-dependent cells, and clump forming cells cannot be sorted this way. A fully automated, high-speed scanning cytometer with autofocus and image segmentation is capable of accurately locating contaminant cells in a monolayer cell population. A laser ablation system was incorporated into the cytometer to negatively sort out the unwanted cells by applying a focused, ultra-short laser pulse (sub-micron diameter, pulse duration = 4 nsec, wavelength - 500 nm) to each targeted cell. Due to the high power density (approximately 1010 W/cm2) that was present at the focal point, disruptive mechanical forces were generated and were responsible for the kill. Fluorescently stained NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were used as a model contaminant target ells in an unstained NIH-3T3 population to determine the identification-kill effectiveness. The contaminant cells were stained with the fluorochrome CellTracker Blue CMAC, whereas the background cells were left intact. Ablation pulses were applied in frame-by-frame increment batches to the cell culture on the microscope. The negative sorting effectiveness was analyzed by automatically re-scanning the post-ablation cell culture in phase contrast and propidium iodide stained epi fluorescent fields to verify cell death.

  10. Solid-phase laser-induced forward transfer of variable shapes using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator

    Pohl, R.; Jansink, M.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in `t Veld, A. J.


    Laser-induced forward transfer is a promising method for 3D printing of various materials, including metals. The ejection mechanism is complex and depends strongly on the experimental parameters, such as laser fluence and donor layer thickness. However, the process can be categorized by the physical condition of the ejected material, i.e., the donor layer is transferred in liquid phase or the material is transferred as a `pellet' in solid phase. Currently, solid-phase transfer faces several problems. Large shearing forces, occurring at the pellet perimeter during transfer, limit the similarity between the desired pellet shape and the deposited pellet shape. Furthermore, the deposited pellet may be surrounded by debris particles formed by undesired transferred donor material. This work introduces a novel approach for laser-induced forward transfer of variable shaped solid-phase pellets. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to apply grayscale intensity modulation to an incident laser beam to shape the intensity profile. Optimized beams consist of a high fluence perimeter around an interior characterized by a lower fluence level. These beams are used successfully to transfer solid-phase pellets out of a 100-nm Au donor layer using a single laser pulse. The flexibility of the SLM allows a variable desired pellet shape. The shapes of the resulting deposited pellets show a high degree of similarity to the desired shapes. Debris-free deposited pellets are achieved by pre-machining the donor layer, prior to the transfer, using a double-pulse process.

  11. Kinetics of the laser-induced solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon-Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy and computer simulations

    Očenášek, J.; Novák, P.; Prušáková, L.


    This study demonstrates that a laser-induced crystallization instrumented with Raman spectroscopy is, in general, an effective tool to study the thermally activated crystallization kinetics. It is shown, for the solid phase crystallization of an amorphous silicon thin film, that the integral intensity of Raman spectra corresponding to the crystalline phase grows linearly in the time-logarithmic scale. A mathematical model, which assumes random nucleation and crystal growth, was designed to simulate the crystallization process in the non-uniform temperature field induced by laser. The model is based on solving the Eikonal equation and the Arhenius temperature dependence of the crystal nucleation and the growth rate. These computer simulations successfully approximate the crystallization process kinetics and suggest that laser-induced crystallization is primarily thermally activated.

  12. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco


    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  13. Defect elimination in solid-phase crystallised Si thin films by line-focus diode laser annealing

    Li, Wei, E-mail:; Varlamov, Sergey; Huang, Jialiang


    A high density of intragrain defects in solid-phase crystallised Si thin films results in poor electronic properties and impedes their use for thin-film solar cell or thin-film transistor applications. This paper demonstrates that a high-power line-focus diode laser can eliminate intragrain defects (microtwins and dislocations) in polycrystalline Si films while maintaining the smooth defect-free surface. Improved electronic properties of ultra-thin polycrystalline Si thin films are thus achieved. To alleviate crack formation during diode laser annealing, a rapid-thermal pre-treatment at 800 °C for 60 s is introduced since it effectively relieves the tensile stress in the films and thus generates a more stable precursor material for subsequent laser annealing. The film thickness plays an important role in diode laser annealing. The films thinner than 100 nm show relatively smaller improvement due to the limited absorption of 808 nm laser radiation. - Highlights: • Diode laser annealing can greatly eliminate intragrain defects in SPC poly-Si films. • Electronic qualities are effectively improved by diode laser annealing. • Residual stress in the SPC poly-Si films can be relieved by RTA pre-treatment. • A thin damage-free and smooth poly-Si film is achieved by diode laser annealing.

  14. Rapid Quantification of the Toxic Alga Prymnesium parvum in Natural Samples by Use of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Solid-Phase Cytometry

    West, N. J.; Bacchieri, R.; Hansen, Gert


    alga Prymnesium parvum in natural samples, using a specific monoclonal antibody and indirect immunofluorescence. The immunoglobulin G antibody 16E4 exhibited narrow specificity in that it recognized several P. parvum strains and a Prymnesium nemamethecum strain but it did not cross-react with P. parvum...... and enumeration of cultured P. parvum cells preserved with different fixatives showed that the highest cell counts were obtained when cells were fixed with either glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde plus the cell protectant Pluronic F-68, whereas the use of formaldehyde alone resulted in significantly lower counts....... Immunofluorescence labeling and analysis with the solid-phase cytometer of fixed natural samples from a bloom of P. parvum occurring in Lake Colorado in Texas gave cell counts that were close to those obtained by the traditional method of counting using light microscopy. These results show that a solid...

  15. Quantification of telomere length by FISH and laser scanning cytometry

    Mahoney, John E.; Sahin, Ergun; Jaskelioff, Mariela; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.; Protopopov, Alexei I.


    Telomeres play a critical role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability. Telomere erosion, coupled with loss of DNA damage checkpoint function, results in genomic instability that promotes the development of cancer. The critical role of telomere dynamics in cancer has motivated the development of technologies designed to monitor telomere reserves in a highly quantitative and high-throughput manner in humans and model organisms. To this end, we have adapted and modified two established technologies, telomere-FISH and laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, we have produced a number of enhancements to the iCys LSC (CompuCyte) package including software updates, use of 60X dry objectives, and increased spatial resolution by 0.2 um size of stage steps. In addition, the 633 nm HeNe laser was replaced with a 532 nm green diode laser to better match the viewing options. Utilization of telomere-deficient mouse cells with short dysfunctional telomeres and matched telomerase reconstituted cultures demonstrated significantly higher mean integral specific fluorescence values for mTR transfectants relative to empty vector controls: 4.485M vs. 1.362M (ptelomere intensities for individual cells were obtained and demonstrated intercellular heterogeneity in telomere lengths. The validation of the approach derives from a strong correlation between iCys LSC values and Southern blotting. This validated method greatly increases our experimental throughput and objectivity.

  16. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob;


    for translation of MALDI-MS based diagnostic methods to clinical applications. We have investigated a number of MALDI matrices and several miniaturized solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods for serum protein concentration and desalting with the aim of generating reproducible, high-quality protein profiles by MALDI...... mass spectra (m/z 1000-12,000) to be obtained from serum. In a proof-of-principle application, SPE with chelating material and MALDI-MS identified protein peaks in serum that had been previously reported for distinguishing a person diagnosed with breast cancer from a control. These preliminary results...

  17. Laser scanning cytometry as a tool for biomarker validation

    Mittag, Anja; Füldner, Christiane; Lehmann, Jörg; Tarnok, Attila


    Biomarkers are essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. As diverse is the range of diseases the broad is the range of biomarkers and the material used for analysis. Whereas body fluids can be relatively easily obtained and analyzed, the investigation of tissue is in most cases more complicated. The same applies for the screening and the evaluation of new biomarkers and the estimation of the binding of biomarkers found in animal models which need to be transferred into applications in humans. The latter in particular is difficult if it recognizes proteins or cells in tissue. A better way to find suitable cellular biomarkers for immunoscintigraphy or PET analyses may be therefore the in situ analysis of the cells in the respective tissue. In this study we present a method for biomarker validation using Laser Scanning Cytometry which allows the emulation of future in vivo analysis. The biomarker validation is exemplarily shown for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on synovial membrane. Cryosections were scanned and analyzed by phantom contouring. Adequate statistical methods allowed the identification of suitable markers and combinations. The fluorescence analysis of the phantoms allowed the discrimination between synovial membrane of RA patients and non-RA control sections by using median fluorescence intensity and the "affected area". As intensity and area are relevant parameters of in vivo imaging (e.g. PET scan) too, the presented method allows emulation of a probable outcome of in vivo imaging, i.e. the binding of the target protein and hence, the validation of the potential of the respective biomarker.

  18. Reproducibility of serum protein profiling by systematic assessment using solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Callesen, Anne K; Christensen, René Depont; Madsen, Jonna S


    for serum protein profiling we investigated a range of sample preparation techniques and developed a statistical method based on repeated analyses for evaluation of protein-profiling performance of MALDI MS. Two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods were investigated, namely custom......Protein profiling of human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is potentially a new diagnostic tool for early detection of human diseases, including cancer. Sample preparation is a key issue in MALDI MS and the analysis of complex samples such as serum......-made microcolumns and commercially available magnetic beads. Using these two methods, nineteen different sample preparation methods for serum profiling by MALDI MS were systematically tested with regard to matrix selection, stationary phase, selectivity, and reproducibility. Microcolumns were tested with regard...

  19. Solid-phase laser-induced forward transfer of variable shapes using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator

    Pohl, R.; Jansink, M.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.


    Laser-induced forward transfer is a promising method for 3D printing of various materials, including metals. The ejection mechanism is complex and depends strongly on the experimental parameters, such as laser fluence and donor layer thickness. However, the process can be categorized by the physical

  20. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Ridder, Barbara; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Welle, Alexander; Mattes, Daniela S.; von Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M.; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Meier, Michael A. R.; Breitling, Frank


    Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a "solid" solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm2, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  1. Solid-phase microextraction

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...

  2. Green fiber lasers: An alternative to traditional DPSS green lasers for flow cytometry

    Telford, William G.; Babin, Sergey A.; Khorev, Serge V.; Rowe, Stephen H.


    Green and yellow diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers (532 and 561 nm) have become common fixtures on flow cytometers, due to their efficient excitation of phycoerythrin (PE) and its tandems, and their ability to excite an expanding array of expressible red fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, they have some disadvantages. DPSS 532 nm lasers emit very close to the fluorescein bandwidth, necessitating optical modifications to permit detection of fluorescein and GFP. DPSS 561 nm lasers likewise emit very close to the PE detection bandwidth, and also cause unwanted excitation of APC and its tandems, requiring high levels of crossbeam compensation to reduce spectral overlap into the PE tandems. In this paper, we report the development of a new generation of green fiber lasers that can be engineered to emit in the range between 532 and 561 nm. A 550 nm green fiber laser was integrated into both a BD LSR II™ cuvette and FACSVantage DiVa™ jet-in-air cell sorter. This laser wavelength avoided both the fluorescein and PE bandwidths, and provided better excitation of PE and the red fluorescent proteins DsRed and dTomato than a power-matched 532 nm source. Excitation at 550 nm also caused less incidental excitation of APC and its tandems, reducing the need for crossbeam compensation. Excitation in the 550 nm range therefore proved to be a good compromise between 532 and 561 nm sources. Fiber laser technology is therefore providing the flexibility necessary for precisely matching laser wavelengths to our flow cytometry applications. PMID:19777600

  3. In vitro micronucleus assay for the analysis of total particulate matter in cigarette smoke: comparison of flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry with microscopy.

    Yao, Jianhua; Gao, Qian; Mi, Qili; Li, Xuemei; Miao, Mingming; Cheng, Peng; Luo, Ying


    The possible genotoxicity of the total particulate matter (TPM) in cigarette smoke has typically been evaluated using the in vitro micronucleus assay. In recent years, automated scoring techniques have been developed to replace the manual counting process in this assay. However, these automated scoring techniques have not been applied in routine genotoxicity assays for the analysis of TPM to improve the assay efficiency. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were treated with TPM produced from 14 types of cigarettes at five concentrations (25-200μg/ml) without exogenous metabolic activation. The three following methods were used to score the micronucleus (MN) frequency: (a) flow cytometry with SYTOX and EMA dyes, which differentially stain micronuclei and apoptotic/necrotic chromatin to enhance assay reliability; (b) laser scanning cytometry with FITC and PI dyes, which is a system that combines the analytical capabilities of flow and image cytometry; and (c) visual microcopy with Giemsa dye. The test results obtained using the three methods were compared using correlation analysis. The key findings for this set of compounds include the following: (a) both flow cytometry- and laser scanning cytometry-based methods were effective for MN identification, (b) the three scoring methods could detect dose-dependent micronucleus formation for the 14 types of TPM, and (c) the MN frequencies that were measured in the same samples by flow cytometry, laser scanning cytometry, and visual microscopy were highly correlated, and there were no significant differences (p>0.05). In conclusion, both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry can be used to evaluate the MN frequency induced by TPM without exogenous metabolic activation. The simpler and faster processing and the high correlation of the results make these two automatic methods appropriate tools for use in in vitro micronucleus assays for the analysis of TPM using CHO cells.

  4. Low-temperature (˜180 °C) position-controlled lateral solid-phase crystallization of GeSn with laser-anneal seeding

    Matsumura, Ryo; Chikita, Hironori; Kai, Yuki; Sadoh, Taizoh; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Miyao, Masanobu


    To realize next-generation flexible thin-film devices, solid-phase crystallization (SPC) of amorphous germanium tin (GeSn) films on insulating substrates combined with seeds formed by laser annealing (LA) has been investigated. This technique enables the crystallization of GeSn at controlled positions at low temperature (˜180 °C) due to the determination of the starting points of crystallization by LA seeding and Sn-induced SPC enhancement. The GeSn crystals grown by SPC from LA seeds showed abnormal lateral profiles of substitutional Sn concentration. These lateral profiles are caused by the annealing time after crystallization being a function of distance from the LA seeds. This observation of a post-annealing effect also indicates that GeSn with a substitutional Sn concentration of up to ˜10% possesses high thermal stability. These results will facilitate the fabrication of next-generation thin-film devices on flexible plastic substrates with low softening temperatures (˜250 °C).

  5. Solid phase transformations II

    Čermák, J


    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  6. Solid phase transformations

    Čermák, J


    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  7. Solid-Phase Random Glycosylation

    Agoston, K.; Kröger, Lars; Dekany, Gyula


    Two different approaches were employed to study solid phase random glycosylations to obtain oligosaccharide libraries. In approach I, Wang resin esters were attached to the acceptors structures. Following their glycosylation and resin cleavage, the peracetylated components of the oligosaccharide ...

  8. Solid-phase peptide synthesis

    Jensen, Knud Jørgen


    This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective.......This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective....

  9. Femtosecond laser fabrication of fiber based optofluidic platform for flow cytometry applications

    Serhatlioglu, Murat; Elbuken, Caglar; Ortac, Bulend; Solmaz, Mehmet E.


    Miniaturized optofluidic platforms play an important role in bio-analysis, detection and diagnostic applications. The advantages of such miniaturized devices are extremely low sample requirement, low cost development and rapid analysis capabilities. Fused silica is advantageous for optofluidic systems due to properties such as being chemically inert, mechanically stable, and optically transparent to a wide spectrum of light. As a three dimensional manufacturing method, femtosecond laser scanning followed by chemical etching shows great potential to fabricate glass based optofluidic chips. In this study, we demonstrate fabrication of all-fiber based, optofluidic flow cytometer in fused silica glass by femtosecond laser machining. 3D particle focusing was achieved through a straightforward planar chip design with two separately fabricated fused silica glass slides thermally bonded together. Bioparticles in a fluid stream encounter with optical interrogation region specifically designed to allocate 405nm single mode fiber laser source and two multi-mode collection fibers for forward scattering (FSC) and side scattering (SSC) signals detection. Detected signal data collected with oscilloscope and post processed with MATLAB script file. We were able to count number of events over 4000events/sec, and achieve size distribution for 5.95μm monodisperse polystyrene beads using FSC and SSC signals. Our platform shows promise for optical and fluidic miniaturization of flow cytometry systems.



    The solid-phase synthesis of isoxazolines on 2-polystyrylsulfonamidoethanol resin isreported. 2-Polystyrylsuifonamidoethanol resin 1 was reacted with acryloyl chloride to afford2-polystyrylsulfonylamidoethyl acrylate resin 2, which was further reacted with brominatedaldoximes by [3+2] cycioaddition to give isoxazoline resin 4. Resin 4 was treated with aqueous 6mol/L HCI solution to obtain isoxazolines in good yield and purity.

  11. Multiple solid-phase microextraction

    Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ


    Theoretical aspects of multiple solid-phase microextraction are described and the principle is illustrated with the extraction of lidocaine from aqueous solutions. With multiple extraction under non-equilibrium conditions considerably less time is required in order to obtain an extraction yield that

  12. Femtosecond laser pulse optimization for multiphoton cytometry and control of fluorescence

    Tkaczyk, Eric Robert

    This body of work encompasses optimization of near infrared femtosecond laser pulses both for enhancement of flow cytometry as well as adaptive pulse shaping to control fluorescence. A two-photon system for in vivo flow cytometry is demonstrated, which allows noninvasive quantification of circulating cell populations in a single live mouse. We monitor fluorescently-labeled red blood cells for more than two weeks, and are also able to noninvasively measure circulation times of two distinct populations of breast cancer cells simultaneously in a single mouse. We build a custom laser excitation source in the form of an extended cavity mode-locked oscillator, which enables superior detection in whole blood or saline of cell lines expressing fluorescent proteins including the green fluorescent protein (GFP), tdTomato and mPlum. A mathematical model explains unique features of the signals. The ability to distinguish different fluorescent species is central to simultaneous measurement of multiple molecular targets in high throughput applications including the multiphoton flow cytometer. We demonstrate that two dyes which are not distinguishable to one-photon measurements can be differentiated and in fact quantified in mixture via phase-shaped two-photon excitation pulses found by a genetic algorithm. We also selectively enhance or suppress two-photon fluorescence of numerous common dyes with tailored pulse shapes. Using a multiplicative (rather than ratiometric) fitness parameter, we are able to control the fluorescence while maintaining a strong signal. With this method, we control the two-photon fluorescence of the blue fluorescent protein (BFP), which is of particular interest in investigations of protein-protein interactions, and has frustrated previous attempts of control. Implementing an acousto-optic interferometer, we use the same experimental setup to measure two-photon excitation cross-sections of dyes and prove that photon-photon interferences are the


    SUNWeimin; LUOJuntao; 等


    The solid-phase synthesis of isoxazolines on 2-polystyrylsulfonamidoethanol resin is reported.2-Polystyrylsulfonamidoethanol resin 1 was reacted with acryloyl chloride to afford 2-polystyrylsulfonylamidoethyl acrylate resin 2,which was further reacted with brominated aldoximes by [3+2] cycloaddition to give isoxazoline resin 4.Resin 4 was treated with aqueous 6 mol/L HCl solution to obtain isoxazolines in good yield and purity.

  14. Multiparameter analysis of human epithelial tumor cell lines by laser scanning cytometry.

    Pollice, A A; Smith, C A; Brown, K; Farkas, D L; Silverman, J F; Shackney, S E


    Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a relatively new slide-based technology developed for commercial use by CompuCyte (Cambridge, MA) for performing multiple fluorescence measurements on individual cells. Because techniques developed for performing four or more measurements on individual lymphoid cells based on light scatter as a triggering parameter for cell identification are not suitable for the identification of fixed epithelial tumor cells, an alternative approach is required for the analysis of such cells by LSC. Methods for sample preparation, event triggering, and the performance of multiple LSC measurements on disaggregated fixed human cells were developed using normal lymphocytes and two human breast cancer cell lines, JC-1939 and MCF-7, as test populations. Optimal conditions for individual cell identification by LSC were found to depend on several factors, including deposited cell density (cells per unit area), the dynamic range of probe fluorescence intensities, and intracellular distribution of the fluorescent probe. Sparsely deposited cells exhibited the least cell overlap and the brightest immunofluorescent staining. Major advantages of using DNA probes over a cytoplasmic immunofluorescent protein marker such as tubulin for event triggering are that the former exhibit greater fluorescence intensity within a relatively sharply demarcated nuclear region. The DNA-binding dye LDS-751 was found to be suboptimal for quantitative DNA measurements but useful as a triggering measurement that permits the performance of simultaneous fluorescein isothiocyanate-, phycoerythrin-, and indodicarbocyanine-based measurements on each cell. A major potential advantage of LSC over flow cytometry is the high yields of analyzable cells by LSC, permitting the performance of multiple panels of multicolor measurements on each tumor. In conclusion, we have developed and optimized a technique for performing multiple fluorescence measurements on fixed epithelial cells by LSC

  15. Analysis of Cellular DNA Content by Flow and Laser Scanning Cytometry

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Halicka, H. Dorota; Zhao, Hong


    This chapter covers several aspects of methodology of DNA content analysis in individual cells that is most commonly used for assessment of DNA ploidy and for enumeration of cells in particular phases of the cell cycle. Briefly presented are general principles of instrumentation and cell analysis by flow- and laser scanning- cytometry. Described are major methods designed to stain DNA with fluorochromes in live cells, in detergent-permeabilized cells, in cells fixed prior to DNA staining as well as in nuclei of cells isolated from paraffin-embedded tissues. Briefly addressed are approaches to estimate cellular DNA content in conjunction with cellular immunophenotype. Discussed are factors that affect accuracy of DNA content measurement such as: (i) differences in chromatin structure of the analyzed cells that restrict DNA accessibility to fluorochromes, (ii) stoichiometry of interaction between fluorochromes and DNA in chromatin and (iii) chemical mass action law defining dependency of fluorochrome binding to DNA in relation to fluorochrome concentration and number of potential binding sites in a sample. Described also are controls used to ensure accuracy of DNA ploidy determination, the principles in ploidy assessment and possible pitfalls in analysis. PMID:20687474

  16. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Assessment of DNA replication in central nervous system by Laser Scanning Cytometry

    Lenz, Dominik; Mosch, Birgit; Bocsi, Jozsef; Arendt, Thomas; Tárnok, Attila


    μIn neurons of patients with Alzheimers's disease (AD) signs of cell cycle re-entry as well as polyploidy have been reported1, 2, indicating that the entire or a part of the genome of the neurons is duplicated before its death but mitosis is not initiated so that the cellular DNA content remains tetraploid. It was concluded, that this imbalance is the direct cause of the neuronal loss in AD3. Manual counting of polyploidal cells is possible but time consuming and possibly statistically insufficient. The aim of this study was to develop an automated method that detects the neuronal DNA content abnormalities with Laser Scanning Cytometry (LSC).Frozen sections of formalin-fixed brain tissue of AD patients and control subjects were labelled with anti-cyclin B and anti-NeuN antibodies. Immunolabelling was performed using Cy5- and Cy2-conjugated secondary antibodies and biotin streptavidin or tyramid signal amplification. In the end sections of 20m thickness were incubated with propidium iodide (PI) (50μg/ml) and covered on slides. For analysis by the LSC PI was used as trigger. Cells identified as neurons by NeuN expression were analyzed for cyclin B expression. Per specimen data of at least 10,000 neurons were acquired. In the frozen brain sections an automated quantification of the amount of nuclear DNA is possible with LSC. The DNA ploidy as well as the cell cycle distribution can be analyzed. A high number of neurons can be scanned and the duration of measuring is shorter than a manual examination. The amount of DNA is sufficiently represented by the PI fluorescence to be able to distinguish between eu- and polyploid neurons.

  18. Qualification and standardisation of solid phase surface machining using laser beams. Final report; Qualifizierung und Normung der Festphasen-Oberflaechenbearbeitung mit Laserstrahlung. Abschlussbericht

    Bergmann, H.W.; Mueller, K.


    Laser hardening is still not generally accepted, owing to a lack of data on material response, which makes it hard for the potential user to assess the possibilities and limits of the process. A test method was developed and tested on four model materials. The results will provide a basis for an extensive dta compilation and will be developed into future specifications for application of laser hardening. The investigations described here are not laser-specific and can be applied to other surface hardening processes as well. [German] Das Laserstrahlhaerten hat trotz intensiver Forschung und Entwicklung noch nicht die erwartete Verbreitung in der Industrie gefunden. Daher ist es das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit, das Verfahren aus werkstoffkundlicher Sicht zu qualifizieren, um damit eine wichtige Voraussetzung fuer die breite industrielle Nutzung zu schaffen. Als wesentliche Hindernisse wurde der fehlende Haertbarkeitsbegriff und ein Mangel an Daten zur Beschreibung des Werkstoffverhaltens erkannt. Dies macht es einem potentiellen Anwender schwer, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen des Verfahrens abzuschaetzen. Fuer die Charakterisierung des Werkstoffverhaltens bei einer Kurzzeitaustenitisierung war es notwendig, bestehende Pruefverfahren zu modifizieren, um den Gegebenheiten einer raschen Erwaermung Rechnung zu tragen. Es wurde ein einfacher Versuchsstand entwickelt, der es erlaubt, die generelle Eignung eines Werkstoffs zu beurteilen. Die Anwendung des Pruefverfahrens auf vier verschiedene Modellwerkstoffe hat dessen Aussagefaehigkeit bestaetigt. Die konduktive Erwaermung von Proben ermoeglicht es, die Zeit-Temperaturzyklen, die beim Laserstrahlhaerten auftreten, naeherungsweise nachzubilden. Damit laesst sich einerseits das Umwandlungsverhalten der Werkstoffe auf elegante Art und Weise untersuchen, andererseits ist es moeglich, die mechanischen Eigenschaften in dem Zustand zu messen, den der Werkstoff im Augenblick der Laserbehandlung tatsaechlich besitzt. Diese

  19. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung


    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract.

  20. Tissomics: two- and three-dimensional distribution of nuclei in brain tissue using laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    Lenz, Domnik; Mittag, Anja; Mosch, Birgit; Bocsi, Jozsef; Arendt, Thomas; Tarnok, Attila


    Automated quantitative (i.e. stochiometric) analysis of tissues is of eminent importance in the understanding of all interactions between cells in their natural environment. In tissue cytometry a solid trigger is necessary in order to unequivocally differentiate between cellular and non-cellular events. This can be best performed by nuclear staining. Aim of this study was to analyze a brain tissue section by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) in order to depict the threedimensional distribution of nuclei in the tissue. To this end the section was measured in several foci and different nuclei detected in several depths of the tissue were assigned to the respective layer. Frozen sections of formalin-fixed rat or human brain tissue (120μm thickness) were incubated with propidiumiodide (PI) (50μg/ml) and covered on slides. For analysis by the LSC propidiumiodide was used as trigger. After a first analysis focussed on the top of the tissue, the focus was adjusted in 30μm steps deeper into the tissue. Per analysis data of at least 50,000 cells were acquired. After finishing measurements from all depths of the field were merged, i.e. data were combined into a composite data file. With the special features of the LSC it was possible to develop a method depicting the threedimensional distribution of the nuclei in solid tissue sections. LSC can be useful tool for this relatively new field of solid tissue cytometry termed tissomics. After evaluation of methods like this, so far not available data can be analysed for diagnostic purposes. By these studies we intend to demonstrate the power of the LSC for the routine pathological use. This should add up to the bright versatility of applications for the LSC as a cytometric instrument suitable for high throughput and high content analysis.

  1. DNA ploidy and cell cycle analyses in the bone marrow cells of patients with megaloblastic anemia using laser scanning cytometry.

    Tsujioka, Takayuki; Tochigi, Aki; Kishimoto, Mitsuyo; Kondo, Toshinori; Tasaka, Taizo; Wada, Hideho; Sugihara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yataro; Tohyama, Kaoru


    Megaloblastic anemias are characterized by several hematopoietic cells with dysplastic nuclear morphology. The analyses of DNA ploidy and cell cycle of these cells are important to understand the property of such diseases. As laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a useful tool to evaluate the morphology of the cells fixed on the slide glass together with the quantitative analysis of the fluorescence information of each cell by rapid scanning of the specimens, the authors examined the DNA ploidy and cell cycle of six cases with megaloblastic anemia using LSC. Giant neutrophilic series such as giant metamyelocytes and giant band cells were found to have extraordinarily higher DNA ploidy, while hypersegmented neutrophils represented the normal diploid pattern like normal neutrophils. As to megaloblasts, cell cycle analysis showed that the proportion of the cells in S phase was increased as compared with the case of normal erythroblasts. The present study clearly demonstrates the abnormal aspects of the hematopoietic cells with megaloblastic anemia from the viewpoint of the DNA ploidy and cell cycle analyzed by the use of LSC. (c) 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society

  2. Application of primary cell cultures of laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry in the evaluation of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum.

    Krzysztof Kupisz


    Full Text Available Unsatisfactory effects of treatment of laryngeal carcinoma patients stimulate the clinicians as well as researchers to develop new more effective treatment models and to find new reliable prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the use of primary cell cultures of the laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry (LSC in the assessment of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum. Nineteen primary cultures of laryngeal carcinoma cells established from fragments of laryngeal carcinoma infiltrations were cultured with or without cisplatin, stained with monoclonal antibodies against P53 and BCL-2 proteins and analyzed by LSC. Cisplatin added to the culture medium leads to the significant increase of P53 expression and decrease of BCL-2 expression. Moreover, changes of P53 and BCL-2 expressions were significantly correlated. Our findings of apoptosis regulatory mechanisms could be useful in patient qualification for the chemotherapeutic follow-up treatment.

  3. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.


    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  4. Quantification of chemotaxis during pediatric cardiac surgery by flow and laser scanning cytometry

    Tarnok, Attila; Schmid, Joerg W.; Osmancik, Pavel; Lenz, Dominik; Pipek, Michal; Hambsch, Joerg; Gerstner, Andreas O.; Schneider, Peter


    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) alters the leukocyte composition of the peripheral blood (PB). This response contributes to the sometimes adverse outcome with capillary leakage. Migration of activated cells to sites of inflammation, driven by chemokines is part of this response. In order to determine the chemotactic activity of patients serum during and after surgery we established an assay for PB leukocytes (PBL). PBL from healthy donors were isolated and 250,000 cells were placed into a migration chamber separated by a filter from a second lower chamber filled with patient serum. After incubation cells from top and bottom chamber were removed and stained with a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies for leukocyte subsets and analyzed on a flow cytometer (FCM). Cells at the bottom of the filter belong to the migrating compartment and were quantified by LSC after staining of nucleated cells. Increased chemotactic activity started at onset of anaesthesia followed by a phase of low activity immediately after surgery and a second phase of a high post-operative activity. The in vitro results correlated with results obtained by immunopenotyping of circulating PBL. Manipulation of the chemokine pattern might prove beneficial to prevent extravasation of cells leading to tissue damage. In chemotaxis assays with low amount of available serum the combined use of FCM and Laser Scanning LSC proved as an appropriate analytical tool.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of Ca2+ and pH by laser cytometry using fluo-3 and SNARF-1.

    Atsumi, T; Sugita, K; Kohno, M; Takahashi, T; Ueha, T


    We present a new convenient method for simultaneous measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) using laser cytometry with a mixture of fluo-3 (for [Ca2+]i) and SNARF-1 (for pHi), with iso excitation (488 nm)-dual emission (530 nm for fluo-3 and > 630 nm for SNARF-1). By using this technique, we measured the changes in [Ca2+]i and pHi in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and HSG human salivary gland cells stimulated by ATP. We found that alkalization in A-431 cell occurred with the elevation of [Ca2+]i; in contrast, alkalization in HSG cells did not occur at all, even though the elevation of [Ca2+]i was observed. Using BAPTA (a chelating agent of Ca2+) and amiloride (an inhibitor of the Na+/H+ exchanger), we found that the elevation of pHi requires the elevation of [Ca2+]i but that the elevation of [Ca2+]i does not always require a rise in pHi. From our results we conclude that elevation of [Ca2+]i takes precedence over the elevation of pHi in ATP-stimulated signal transduction.

  6. Solid phase synthesis of bifunctional antibodies.

    DeSilva, B S; Wilson, G S


    Bifunctional antibodies were prepared using the principle of solid-phase synthesis. The two Fab' fragments were chemically linked together via a bismaleimide crosslinking reagent. The F(ab')2 fragments from intact IgG were prepared using an immobilized pepsin column. Goat, mouse and human antibodies were digested completely within 4 h. The F(ab')2 fragments thus produced did not contain any IgG impurities. The Fab' fragments were produced by reducing the inter-heavy chain disulfide bonds using 2-mercaptoethylamine. The use of the solid-phase reactor in the preparation of the bifunctional antibodies eliminated many of the time-consuming separation steps between the fragmentation and conjugation steps. This procedure facilitates the automation of the bifunctional antibody preparation and the rapid optimization of reaction conditions.

  7. [Solid phase techniques in blood group serology].

    Uthemann, H; Sturmfels, L; Lenhard, V


    As alternatives to hemagglutination, solid-phase red blood cell adherence assays are of increasing importance. The adaptation of the new techniques to microplates offers several advantages over hemagglutination. Using microplates the assays may be processed semiautomatically, and the results can be read spectrophotometrically and interpreted by a personal computer. In this paper, different red blood cell adherence assays for AB0 grouping, Rh typing, Rh phenotyping, antibody screening and identification, as well as crossmatching will be described.

  8. Recent advances in solid phase peptide synthesis

    White, P.D.


    Since its introduction by Merrifield half a century ago, solid phase peptide synthesis has evolved to become the enabling technology for the development of peptide therapeutics. Using modern methods, 100 - 1000s of peptides can be routinely synthesised in parallel for screening as leads for drug development and peptide APIs are produced in ton scale. In this talk I consider the state of art and report on recent advances to overcome remaining issues such as aspartimide formation, racemisation ...

  9. Development of headspace solid-phase microextraction method for ...

    ... solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... interface temperature) and solid phase microextraction parameters (fiber coating type, ...

  10. Parallel solid-phase synthesis of diaryltriazoles

    Matthias Wrobel


    Full Text Available A series of substituted diaryltriazoles was prepared by a solid-phase-synthesis protocol using a modified Wang resin. The copper(I- or ruthenium(II-catalyzed 1,3-cycloaddition on the polymer bead allowed a rapid synthesis of the target compounds in a parallel fashion with in many cases good to excellent yields. Substituted diaryltriazoles resemble a molecular structure similar to established terphenyl-alpha-helix peptide mimics and have therefore the potential to act as selective inhibitors for protein–protein interactions.

  11. Solid phase microextraction device using aerogel

    Miller, Fred S.; Andresen, Brian D.


    A sample collection substrate of aerogel and/or xerogel materials bound to a support structure is used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device. The xerogels and aerogels may be organic or inorganic and doped with metals or other compounds to target specific chemical analytes. The support structure is typically formed of a glass fiber or a metal wire (stainless steel or kovar). The devices are made by applying gel solution to the support structures and drying the solution to form aerogel or xerogel. Aerogel particles may be attached to the wet layer before drying to increase sample collection surface area. These devices are robust, stable in fields of high radiation, and highly effective at collecting gas and liquid samples while maintaining superior mechanical and thermal stability during routine use. Aerogel SPME devices are advantageous for use in GC/MS analyses due to their lack of interfering background and tolerance of GC thermal cycling.

  12. Solid Phase Synthesis of Polymacromer and Copolymacromer Brushes


    REPORT Solid Phase Synthesis of Polymacromer and Copolymacromer Brushes 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We report a novel solid phase...form poly-macromer brushes wherein macromonomers are linked via triazole groups. After each addition step, the terminal alkyne group can be deprotected...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Solid Phase Synthesis , polymers and copolymers Hernán R. Rengifo, Cristian Grigoras, Benjamin I

  13. Stable solid-phase Rh antigen.

    Yared, M A; Moise, K J; Rodkey, L S


    Numerous investigators have attempted to isolate the Rh antigens in a stable, immunologically reactive form since the discovery of the Rh system over 56 years ago. We report here a successful and reproducible approach to solubilizing and adsorbing the human Rh antigen(s) to a solid-phase matrix in an antigenically active form. Similar results were obtained with rabbit A/D/F red blood cell antigens. The antigen preparation was made by dissolution of the red blood cell membrane lipid followed by fragmentation of the residual cytoskeleton in an EDTA solution at low ionic strength. The antigenic activity of the soluble preparations was labile in standard buffers but was stable in zwitterionic buffers for extended periods of time. Further studies showed that the antigenic activity of these preparations was enhanced, as was their affinity for plastic surfaces, in the presence of acidic zwitterionic buffers. Adherence to plastic surfaces at low pH maintained antigenic reactivity and specificity for antibody was retained. The data show that this approach yields a stable form of antigenically active human Rh D antigen that could be used in a red blood cell-free assay for quantitative analysis of Rh D antibody and for Rh D antibody immunoadsorption and purification.


    The detection of infective protozoan parasites contained in large volume environmental samples represents a unique challenge in environmental parasitology. Compounding this problem is the fact that infective stages of many protozoan parasites do not readily replicate in media or ...

  15. Experimental setup for investigating silicon solid phase crystallization at high temperatures.

    Schmidt, Thomas; Gawlik, Annett; Schneidewind, Henrik; Ihring, Andreas; Andrä, Gudrun; Falk, Fritz


    An experimental setup is presented to measure and interpret the solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films on glass at very high temperatures of about 800 °C. Molybdenum-SiO(2)-silicon film stacks were irradiated by a diode laser with a well-shaped top hat profile. From the relevant thermal and optical parameters of the system the temperature evolution can be calculated accurately. A time evolution of the laser power was applied which leads to a temperature constant in time in the center of the sample. Such a process will allow the observation and interpretation of solid phase crystallization in terms of nucleation and growth in further work.

  16. Preparation of Ion Exchange Films for Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry and Solid-Phase Fluorometry

    Hill, Carol M.; Street, Kenneth W.; Tanner, Stephen P.; Philipp, Warren H.


    Atomic spectroscopy has dominated the field of trace inorganic analysis because of its high sensitivity and selectivity. The advantages gained by the atomic spectroscopies come with the disadvantage of expensive and often complicated instrumentation. Solid-phase spectroscopy, in which the analyte is preconcentrated on a solid medium followed by conventional spectrophotometry or fluorometry, requires less expensive instrumentation and has considerable sensitivity and selectivity. The sensitivity gains come from preconcentration and the use of chromophore (or fluorophore) developers and the selectivity is achieved by use of ion exchange conditions that favor the analyte in combination with speciative chromophores. Little work has been done to optimize the ion exchange medium (IEM) associated with these techniques. In this report we present a method for making ion exchange polymer films, which considerably simplify the solid-phase spectroscopic techniques. The polymer consists of formaldehyde-crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol with polyacrylic acid entrapped therein. The films are a carboxylate weak cation exchanger in the calcium form. They are mechanically sturdy and optically transparent in the ultraviolet and visible portion of the spectrum, which makes them suitable for spectrophotometry and fluorometry.

  17. Detection and isolation of rare cells by 2-step enrichment high-speed flow cytometry/cell sorting and single cell LEAP laser ablation

    Zordan, M. D.; Leary, James F.


    The clonal isolation of rare cells, especially cancer and stem cells, in a population is important to the development of improved medical treatment. We have demonstrated that the Laser-Enabled Analysis and Processing (LEAP, Cyntellect Inc., San Diego, CA) instrument can be used to efficiently produce single cell clones by photoablative dilution. Additionally, we have also shown that cells present at low frequencies can be cloned by photoablative dilution after they are pre-enriched by flow cytometry based cell sorting. Circulating tumor cells were modeled by spiking isolated peripheral blood cells with cells from the lung carcinoma cell line A549. Flow cytometry based cell sorting was used to perform an enrichment sort of A549 cells directly into a 384 well plate. Photoablative dilution was performed with the LEAPTM instrument to remove any contaminating cells, and clonally isolate 1 side population cell per well. We were able to isolate and grow single clones of side population cells using this method at greater than 90% efficiency. We have developed a 2 step method that is able to perform the clonal isolation of rare cells based on a medically relevant functional phenotype.

  18. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy

    Wilson, Walter B.; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F. T.; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A.; Campiglia, Andres D.


    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2 K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 μg L−1 (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. PMID:26653471

  19. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D


    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples.

  20. Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides containing sialic acids

    Chian-Hui Lai


    Full Text Available A sialic acid glycosyl phosphate building block was designed and synthesized. This building block was used to prepare α-sialylated oligosaccharides by automated solid-phase synthesis selectively.


    B. S. Chandravanshi

    cation exchange-solid phase extraction (SCX-SPE) was investigated as an .... Stock solutions, with a concentration of 1.00 mg/mL were prepared ... Johannesburg, South Africa) connected to a vacuum pump (Vacuubrand, GMBH, Germany).

  2. Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis of Balanol Analogues

    Nielsen, John; Lyngsø, Lars Ole


    The natural product balanol has served as a template for the design and synthesis of a combinatorial library using solid-phase chemistry. Using a retrosynthetic analysis, the structural analogues have been assembled from three relatively accessible building blocks. The solid-phase chemistry inclu...... including MSNT-mediated esterification of both support-bound alcohols and carboxylic acids has been implemented successfully. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  3. Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis of Balanol Analogues

    Nielsen, John; Lyngsø, Lars Ole


    The natural product balanol has served as a template for the design and synthesis of a combinatorial library using solid-phase chemistry. Using a retrosynthetic analysis, the structural analogues have been assembled from three relatively accessible building blocks. The solid-phase chemistry inclu...... including MSNT-mediated esterification of both support-bound alcohols and carboxylic acids has been implemented successfully. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  4. Fuel spill identification using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. 1. Aviation turbine fuels.

    Lavine, B K; Brzozowski, D M; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Mayfield, H T


    The water-soluble fraction of aviation jet fuels is examined using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. Gas chromatographic profiles of solid-phase extracts and solid-phase microextracts of the water-soluble fraction of kerosene- and nonkerosene-based jet fuels reveal that each jet fuel possesses a unique profile. Pattern recognition analysis reveals fingerprint patterns within the data characteristic of fuel type. By using a novel genetic algorithm (GA) that emulates human pattern recognition through machine learning, it is possible to identify features characteristic of the chromatographic profile of each fuel class. The pattern recognition GA identifies a set of features that optimize the separation of the fuel classes in a plot of the two largest principal components of the data. Because principal components maximize variance, the bulk of the information encoded by the selected features is primarily about the differences between the fuel classes.

  5. Two- and three-color immunofluorescence using aminocoumarin, fluorescein, and phycoerythrin-labelled antibodies and single laser flow cytometry.

    Delia, D; Martinez, E; Fontanella, E; Aiello, A


    Antibodies coupled to 7-aminocoumarin (AMCA) emit a bright blue fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) excitation and are therefore ideal for three-color immunofluorescence (IF) with fluorescein (FITC) and phycoerythrin (PE) labeled reagents; however, due to the different absorption spectra, the use of these fluorophores for multicolor flow-cytometric analysis requires a double light excitation source (e.g., two-laser system). We report a strategy which uses a single argon-ion laser to simultaneously excite AMCA, FITC, and PE, thus allowing the flow cytometric analysis of three immunological parameters. When the UV-visible argon-ion laser is fitted with an appropriate set of mirrors, the 35.1-363.8 nm (UV) and 488 nm wavelengths (accounting for 80 mW and 520 mW, respectively) are simultaneously generated; these lines can then be exactly focused on the same observation point by an achromatic cylindrical lens. A number of comparative analysis were performed with this instrumental set up to verify the sensitivity of AMCA IF and its possible application for multicolor immunophenotypic evaluation of blood cell subsets. When AMCA- and FITC-labeled antimouse Ig antibodies were assessed for their ability to detect limiting amounts of mouse monoclonal antibody bound to cells, the former was less sensitive than the latter. A number of factors, including differences in excitation energy (80 mW for AMCA and 520 mw for FITC) and extinction coefficients (1.9 x 10(4) for AMCA and 6 x 10(4) for FITC) could explain this result.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. HLA antibody detection with solid phase assays: great expectations or expectations too great?

    Gebel, H M; Bray, R A


    Alloantibodies directed against HLA antigens, are a barrier to long-term solid organ allograft survival. The clinical impact of preformed, donor-directed HLA alloantibodies range from acceptable risk to unequivocal contraindication for organ transplantation. HLA antibodies are key factors that limit patient access to donor organs. Serological methods were once the only approach to identify HLA antigens and antibodies. Limitations in these technologies led to the development of solid phase approaches. In the early 1990s, the development of the polymerase chain reaction enabled DNA-based HLA antigen testing to be performed. By the mid-1990s, microparticle-based technology that utilized flow cytometry for analysis was developed to detect both classes I and II HLA antibodies. These methodologies revolutionized clinical histocompatibility testing. The strengths and weaknesses of these assays are described in detail in this review.

  7. Solid-phase techniques in blood transfusion serology.

    Beck, M L; Plapp, F V; Sinor, L T; Rachel, J M


    For nearly a century, erythrocyte agglutination has persisted as the most widely used method for the demonstration of antigen-antibody reaction in immunohematology. So far, no other system has been developed which can match its simplicity, versatility, and general reliability. The major disadvantage of agglutination reactions is the lack of an objective endpoint, which has severely hindered attempts to automate routine pretransfusion tests. To overcome this problem, we have designed a series of solid-phase assays for ABO and Rh grouping, antibody screening, compatibility, and hepatitis tests. Each of these solid-phase assays shares a common endpoint of red cell adherence, which is easily interpreted visually or spectrophotometrically. Computer interface permits the automatic interpretation and recording of results. We believe this solid-phase system should finally bring the blood bank laboratory into the age of automation.

  8. Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Applied to Food Analysis

    Israel S. Ibarra


    Full Text Available Magnetic solid phase extraction has been used as pretreatment technique for the analysis of several compounds because of its advantages when it is compared with classic methods. This methodology is based on the use of magnetic solids as adsorbents for preconcentration of different analytes from complex matrices. Magnetic solid phase extraction minimizes the use of additional steps such as precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration which decreases the manipulation of the sample. In this review, we describe the main procedures used for synthesis, characterization, and application of this pretreatment technique which were applied in food analysis.


    Yu-ying Li; Jia-song He


    Solid phase transition of the a form crystals to the β form crystals in syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) samples has occurred in supercritical CO2. This transformation is different from those detected under other conditions. The effects of some factors (e.g. time, temperature, and pressure) on the solid phase transformation of sPS in supercritical CO2 were analyzed in detail. Experimental results show that longer time, higher temperature or higher pressure favors the transformation of the α form crystals to the β form crystals.

  10. Two-Photon Flow Cytometry

    Zhog, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B.; Myc, Andrzej; Cao, Zhengyl; Bielinska, Anna; Thomas, Thommey; Baker, James R., Jr.


    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for obtaining quantitative information from fluorescence in cells. Quantitation is achieved by assuring a high degree of uniformity in the optical excitation and detection, generally by using a highly controlled flow such as is obtained via hydrodynamic focusing. In this work, we demonstrate a two-beam, two- channel detection and two-photon excitation flow cytometry (T(sup 3)FC) system that enables multi-dye analysis to be performed very simply, with greatly relaxed requirements on the fluid flow. Two-photon excitation using a femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) laser has the advantages that it enables simultaneous excitation of multiple dyes and achieves very high signal-to-noise ratio through simplified filtering and fluorescence background reduction. By matching the excitation volume to the size of a cell, single-cell detection is ensured. Labeling of cells by targeted nanoparticles with multiple fluorophores enables normalization of the fluorescence signal and thus ratiometric measurements under nonuniform excitation. Quantitative size measurements can also be done even under conditions of nonuniform flow via a two-beam layout. This innovative detection scheme not only considerably simplifies the fluid flow system and the excitation and collection optics, it opens the way to quantitative cytometry in simple and compact microfluidics systems, or in vivo. Real-time detection of fluorescent microbeads in the vasculature of mouse ear demonstrates the ability to do flow cytometry in vivo. The conditions required to perform quantitative in vivo cytometry on labeled cells will be presented.

  11. The model of solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon under elastic stress


    Solid phase crystallization of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) film stressed by a Si3N4 cap was studied by laser Raman spectroscopy. The a-Si films were deposited on Si3N4 (50 nm)/Si(100) substrate by rf sputtering. The stress in an a-Si film was controlled by thickness of a Si3N4 cap layer. The Si3N4 films were also deposited by rf sputtering. It was observed that the crystallization was affected by the stress in a-Si films introduced by the Si3N4 cap layer. The study suggests that the elastic s...

  12. Analysis of cell cycle and replication of mouse macrophages after in vivo and in vitro Cryptococcus neoformans infection using laser scanning cytometry.

    Coelho, Carolina; Tesfa, Lydia; Zhang, Jinghang; Rivera, Johanna; Gonçalves, Teresa; Casadevall, Arturo


    We investigated the outcome of the interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with murine macrophages using laser scanning cytometry (LSC). Previous results in our lab had shown that phagocytosis of C. neoformans promoted cell cycle progression. LSC allowed us to simultaneously measure the phagocytic index, macrophage DNA content, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation such that it was possible to study host cell division as a function of phagocytosis. LSC proved to be a robust, reliable, and high-throughput method for quantifying phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of C. neoformans promoted cell cycle progression, but infected macrophages were significantly less likely to complete mitosis. Hence, we report a new cytotoxic effect associated with intracellular C. neoformans residence that manifested itself in impaired cell cycle completion as a consequence of a block in the G(2)/M stage of the mitotic cell cycle. Cell cycle arrest was not due to increased cell membrane permeability or DNA damage. We investigated alveolar macrophage replication in vivo and demonstrated that these cells are capable of low levels of cell division in the presence or absence of C. neoformans infection. In summary, we simultaneously studied phagocytosis, the cell cycle state of the host cell and pathogen-mediated cytotoxicity, and our results demonstrate a new cytotoxic effect of C. neoformans infection on murine macrophages: fungus-induced cell cycle arrest. Finally, we provide evidence for alveolar macrophage proliferation in vivo.

  13. Solid-phase oligosaccharide and glycopeptide synthesis using glycosynthases

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, Knud Jørgen;


    Enzymatic approaches for the preparation of oligosaccharides are interesting alternatives to traditional chemical synthesis, the main advantage being the regio- and stereoselectivity offered without the need for protecting groups. The use of solid-phase techniques offers easy workup procedures an...

  14. N-Acyliminium Intermediates in Solid-Phase Synthesis

    Quement, Sebastian Thordal le; Petersen, Rico; Meldal, M.


    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Examples of their use are numerous in solution-phase synthesis, but there are unmerited few reports on these highly reactive electrophiles in solid-phase synthesis. The present review covers the literature to date and i...

  15. Solid Phase Synthesis of Ethyl β-Substituted Indolepropionates

    刘占祥; 阮秀秀; 黄宪


    A facile solid phase synthesis of ethyl β-substituted indolepropionates is reported. Condensation between indole, polymer-supported cyclic malonic acid ester and aldehyde yielded the trimolecular adducts, which was cleaved by pyridine/EtOH to release the final products in good yield with high purity.

  16. Recent Approaches Toward Solid Phase Synthesis of β-Lactams

    Mandal, Bablee; Ghosh, Pranab; Basu, Basudeb

    Since the discovery of penicillin in 1929, β-lactam antibiotics have been recognized as potentially chemotherapeutic drugs of incomparable effectiveness, conjugating a broad spectrum of activity with very low toxicity. The primary motif azetidin-2-one ring (β-lactam) has been considered as specific pharmacophores and scaffolds. With the advent of combinatorial chemistry and automated parallel synthesis coupled with ample interests from the pharmaceutical industries, recent trends have been driven mostly by adopting solid phase techniques and polymer-supported synthesis of β-lactams. The present survey will present an overview of the developments on the polymer-supported and solid phase techniques for the preparation of β-lactam ring or β-lactam containing antibiotics published over the last decade. Both unsubstituted and substitutions with different functional groups at various positions of β-lactams have been synthesized using solid phase technology. However, Wang resin and application of Staudinger [2+2] cycloaddition reaction have remained hitherto the major choice. It may be expected that other solid phase approaches involving different resins would be developed in the coming years.

  17. Solid phase extraction method for determination of mitragynine in ...

    mitragynine in urine and its application to mitragynine excretion ... Purpose: To develop a solid phase extraction (SPE) method that utilizes reverse-phase high performance .... solution of MG (1 mg/mL) which was further ... Facility, Prince of Songkla University and carried ..... d), which permit unrestricted use, distribution,.

  18. Solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines

    Lyngsø, Lars O.; Nielsen, John


    The development of a solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines is described. Conjugate addition of hydrazines to α,β-unsaturated nitriles followed by cyclization yields 3-amino-2-pyrazolines. Acylation or sulfonation of the free amino-group yields a 24 member library of 3-amino-2- pyrazolines....

  19. Solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines

    Nielsen, John


    The development of a solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines is described. Conjugate addition of hydrazines to alpha,beta-unsaturated nitriles followed by cyclization yields 3-amino-2-pyrazolines. Acylation or sulfonation of the free amino-group yields a 24 member library of 3-amino-2...

  20. Solid-phase synthesis of complex and pharmacologically interesting heterocycles

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland


    Efficient routes for the creation of heterocycles continue to be one of the primary goals for solid-phase synthesis. Recent advances in this field rely most notably on transition-metal-catalysis and N-acyliminium chemistry to mediate a range of cyclization processes for the generation of compounds...

  1. Solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines

    Lyngsø, Lars O.; Nielsen, John


    The development of a solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines is described. Conjugate addition of hydrazines to α,β-unsaturated nitriles followed by cyclization yields 3-amino-2-pyrazolines. Acylation or sulfonation of the free amino-group yields a 24 member library of 3-amino-2- pyrazolines....

  2. Solid-phase synthesis of complex and pharmacologically interesting heterocycles

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland


    Efficient routes for the creation of heterocycles continue to be one of the primary goals for solid-phase synthesis. Recent advances in this field rely most notably on transition-metal-catalysis and N-acyliminium chemistry to mediate a range of cyclization processes for the generation of compounds...

  3. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    Cooke, Gary A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  4. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of biological samples

    Theodoridis, G; Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been introduced for the extraction of organic compounds from environmental samples. This relatively new extraction technique has now also gained a lot of interest in a broad field of analysis including food, biological and pharmaceutical samples. SPME has a num

  5. Investigation of binary solid phases by calorimetry and kinetic modelling

    Matovic, M.


    The traditional methods for the determination of liquid-solid phase diagrams are based on the assumption that the overall equilibrium is established between the phases. However, the result of the crystallization of a liquid mixture will typically be a non-equilibrium or metastable state of the solid

  6. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub...

  7. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-105 Grab Samples

    Ely, T. M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); LaMothe, M. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Lachut, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)


    The solid phase characterization (SPC) of three grab samples from single-shell Tank 241-C-105 (C-105) that were received at the laboratory the week of October 26, 2015, has been completed. The three samples were received and broken down in the 11A hot cells.

  8. Sensitive and fast mutation detection by solid phase chemical cleavage

    Hansen, Lise Lotte; Justesen, Just; Kruse, Torben A


    We have developed a solid phase chemical cleavage method (SpCCM) for screening large DNA fragments for mutations. All reactions can be carried out in microtiterwells from the first amplification of the patient (or test) DNA through the search for mutations. The reaction time is significantly...

  9. Flow cytometry and cell sorting.

    Ibrahim, Sherrif F; van den Engh, Ger


    Flow cytometry and cell sorting are well-established technologies in clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. Heterogeneous mixtures of cells are placed in suspension and passed single file across one or more laser interrogation points. Light signals emitted from the particles are collected and correlated to entities such as cell morphology, surface and intracellular protein expression, gene expression, and cellular physiology. Based on user-defined parameters, individual cells can then be diverted from the fluid stream and collected into viable, homogeneous fractions at exceptionally high speeds and a purity that approaches 100%. As such, the cell sorter becomes the launching point for numerous downstream studies. Flow cytometry is a cornerstone in clinical diagnostics, and cheaper, more versatile machines are finding their way into widespread and varied uses. In addition, advances in computing and optics have led to a new generation of flow cytometers capable of processing cells at orders of magnitudes faster than their predecessors, and with staggering degrees of complexity, making the cytometer a powerful discovery tool in biotechnology. This chapter will begin with a discussion of basic principles of flow cytometry and cell sorting, including a technical description of factors that contribute to the performance of these instruments. The remaining sections will then be divided into clinical- and research-based applications of flow cytometry and cell sorting, highlighting salient studies that illustrate the versatility of this indispensable technology.

  10. Studies in Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Personal Perspective

    Mitchell, A R


    By the early 1970s it had became apparent that the solid phase synthesis of ribonuclease A could not be generalized. Consequently, virtually every aspect of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was reexamined and improved during the decade of the 1970s. The sensitive detection and elimination of possible side reactions (amino acid insertion, N{sup {alpha}}-trifluoroacetylation, N{sup {alpha}{var_epsilon}}-alkylation) was examined. The quantitation of coupling efficiency in SPPS as a function of chain length was studied. A new and improved support for SPPS, the 'PAM-resin', was prepared and evaluated. These and many other studies from the Merrifield laboratory and elsewhere increased the general acceptance of SPPS leading to the 1984 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Bruce Merrifield.

  11. Entransy dissipation minimization for liquid-solid phase change processes


    The liquid-solid phase change process of a simple one-dimensional slab is studied in this paper.By taking entransy dissipation minimization as optimization objective,the optimal external reservoir temperature profiles are derived by using optimal control theory under the condition of a fixed freezing or melting time.The entransy dissipation corresponding to the optimal heat exchange strategies of minimum entransy dissipation is 8/9 of that corresponding to constant reservoir temperature operations,which is independent of all system parameters.The obtained results for entransy dissipation minimization are also compared with those obtained for the optimal heat exchange strategies of minimum entropy generation and constant reservoir temperature operations by numerical examples.The obtained results can provide some theoretical guidelines for the choice of optimal cooling or heating strategy in practical liquid-solid phase change processes.

  12. Semi-automated microwave assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis

    Pedersen, Søren Ljungberg

    with microwaves for SPPS has gained in popularity as it for many syntheses has provided significant improvement in terms of speed, purity, and yields, maybe especially in the synthesis of long and "difficult" peptides. Thus, precise microwave heating has emerged as one new parameter for SPPS, in addition...... to coupling reagents, resins, solvents etc. We have previously reported on microwave heating to promote a range of solid-phase reactions in SPPS. Here we present a new, flexible semi-automated instrument for the application of precise microwave heating in solid-phase synthesis. It combines a slightly modified...... Biotage Initiator microwave instrument, which is available in many laboratories, with a modified semi-automated peptide synthesizer from MultiSynTech. A custom-made reaction vessel is placed permanently in the microwave oven, thus the reactor does not have to be moved between steps. Mixing is achieved...

  13. Chromatography, solid-phase extraction, and capillary electrochromatography with MIPs.

    Tóth, Blanka; Horvai, George


    Most analytical applications of molecularly imprinted polymers are based on their selective adsorption properties towards the template or its analogs. In chromatography, solid phase extraction and electrochromatography this adsorption is a dynamic process. The dynamic process combined with the nonlinear adsorption isotherm of the polymers and other factors results in complications which have limited the success of imprinted polymers. This chapter explains these problems and shows many examples of successful applications overcoming or avoiding the problems.

  14. Solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles.

    Canfarotta, Francesco; Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey


    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials, generally based on acrylic or methacrylic monomers, that are polymerized in the presence of a specific target molecule called the 'template' and capable of rebinding selectively to this target molecule. They have the potential to be low-cost and robust alternatives to biomolecules such as antibodies and receptors. When prepared by traditional synthetic methods (i.e., with free template in solution), their usefulness has been limited by high binding site heterogeneity, the presence of residual template and the fact that the production methods are complex and difficult to standardize. To overcome some of these limitations, we developed a method for the synthesis of MIP nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) using an innovative solid-phase approach, which relies on the covalent immobilization of the template molecules onto the surface of a solid support (glass beads). The obtained nanoMIPs are virtually free of template and demonstrate high affinity for the target molecule (e.g., melamine and trypsin in our published work). Because of an affinity separation step performed on the solid phase after polymerization, poor binders and unproductive polymer are removed, so the final product has more uniform binding characteristics. The overall protocol, starting from the immobilization of the template onto the solid phase and including the purification and characterization of the nanoparticles, takes up to 1 week.

  15. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.


    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  16. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  17. Distribution of Dechlorinating Bacteria between the Aqueous and Solid Phases

    Cápiro, N. L.; Hatt, J. K.; Wang, Y.; Loeffler, F. E.; Pennell, K. D.


    Microbial monitoring of aquifers relies on nucleic acid biomarker analysis, which is typically performed with biomass recovered from groundwater samples; however, it is unclear what fraction of the target population(s) is associated with groundwater (i.e., planktonic cells) or is attached to solid phases (i.e., biofilms). Understanding how the titer of target organism(s) in groundwater correlates with the true cell titers of the target organism in the aquifer (i.e., planktonic plus attached cells) is critical for a meaningful interpretation of the data, the prediction of bioremediation performance, and the implementation of site management strategies. To evaluate the distribution of active cells between resident solid phase and the aqueous phase, one-dimensional columns were packed under water-saturated conditions with Bio-Dechlor INOCULUM, a PCE-to ethene-dechlorinating bacterial consortium containing both multiple Dehalococcoides (Dhc) strains and Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ (GeoSZ). The columns were packed with two distinct solid matrices: a low organic content sandy Federal Fine Ottawa soil or Appling soil with higher organic matter content. Influent reduced mineral salts medium supplied at a groundwater pore-water velocity of 0.3 m/day contained both 10 mM lactate as electron donor and 0.33 mM PCE as electron acceptor. Routine collection of biomass from column side ports and effluent samples measured the titers of target cells in the aqueous phase and determined when steady state conditions had been reached. A second set of column experiments evaluated delivery and filtration effects by the solid matrix (i.e., Federal Fine Ottawa sand versus Appling soil) under the same conditions except that electron donor or acceptor were omitted (no growth conditions). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis using Dhc and GeoSZ 16S rRNA gene-targeted primer and probe sets determined the planktonic cell counts, and destructive sampling of the columns allowed measurement

  18. Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis of Fusukang for AIDS

    甘一如; 戴琦; 张雪竹; 高晨昊


    A 36-residue peptide is designed to cure acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS), and is synthesized by the manual solid phase peptide synthesis technique. Different reaction conditions of the synthesis process were discussed. Stirring efficiency of mechanics and nitrogen was compared. The mechanical method displays a predominant performance. Although the coupling efficiencies of diisopropylcarbodiimide(DIC) and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide(DCC) are virtually identical, DIC offers several advantages over DCC in practice due to different physical characters. Wash conditions after deprotection and coupling were investigated to monitor washing efficiency. 0.369 2 g crude peptide was obtained.

  19. Solid-phase colorimetric method for the quantification of fucoidan.

    Lee, Jung Min; Shin, Z-U; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Yi, Tae-Hoo


    We described the simple, selective, and rapid method for determination of fucoidans using methylene blue staining of sulfated polysaccharides, immobilized into filter paper and consequent optic density (at A (663) nm) measurement of the eluted dye from filter paper. This solid-phase method allows selective determination of 1-20 μg fucoidan in presence of potentially interfering compounds (alginic acid, DNA, salts, proteins, and detergents). Further, we demonstrated the alternative way of using image processing software for fucoidan quantification without extraction of methylene blue dye from stained spots of fucoidan-dye complex.

  20. Spectroscopic investigations on the effect of humic acid on the formation and solubility of secondary solid phases of Ln2(CO3)3

    Stella Antoniou; Ioannis Pashalidis; Andre Gessner; Michael U Kumke


    The formation of secondary Ln(Ⅲ) solid phases (e.g., Nd2(CO3)3 and Sm2(CO3)3) was studied as a function of the humic acid concentration in 0.1 mol/L NaClO4 aqueous solution in the neutral pH range (5-6.5). The solid phases under investigation were prepared by alkaline precipitation under 100% CO2 atmosphere and characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible (DR-UV-Vis), Raman spectroscopy, and solubility measurements. The spectroscopic data obtained indicated that Nd2(CO3)3 and Sm2(CO3)3 were stable and remained the solubility limiting solid phases even in the presence of increased humic acid concentration (0.5 g/L) in solution.Upon base addition in the Ln(Ⅲ)-HA system, decomplexation of the previously formed Ln(Ⅲ)-humate complexes and precipitation of two distinct phases occurred, the inorganic (Ln2(CO3)3) and the organic phase (HA), which was adsorbed on the particle surface of the former.Nevertheless, humic acid affected the particle size of the solid phases. Increasing humic acid concentration resulted in decreasing crystallite size of the Nd2(CO3)3 and increasing crystallite size of the Sm2(CO3)3 solid phase, and affected inversely the solubility of the solid phases.However, this impact on the solid phase properties was expected to be of minor relevance regarding the chemical behavior and migration of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in the geosphere.

  1. Detection of bacterial protein toxins by solid phase magnetic immunocapture and mass spectrometry.

    Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Schlosser, Gitta


    Bacterial protein toxins are involved in a number of infectious and foodborne diseases and are considered as potential biological warfare agents as well. Their sensitive multiplex detection in complex environmental, food, and biological samples are an important although challenging task. Solid-phase immunoaffinity capture provides an efficient way to enrich and purify a wide range of proteins from complex mixtures. We have shown that staphylococcal enterotoxins, for example, can be efficiently enriched by means of magnetic immunocapture using antibody functionalized paramagnetic beads. The method was successfully interfaced by the on-beads and off-beads detection using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the protein level and by the off-beads nano-electrospray ionization-MS/MS detection at the enzyme digests level, enabling thus the unambiguous identification of the toxin. The method is applicable to any bacterial toxin to which an antibody is available.

  2. Solid-Phase Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan

    GaoLe-ping; DuYu-min; ZhangDao-bin; ShiXiao-wen; ZhanHuai-yu; SongWen-hua


    Chitosan was prepared with stressing method by blending chitin and solid alkali in a single-screw extruder at given temperature and characterized by potentiometric titration, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), infrared spectrum (IR) and carborr13 magnetic resonance sperctroscopy (13C NMR). Chitosan with a deacetylation degree (DD) of 76. 1% was obtained at a mass ratio 0.2 : 1 : 1 for H20/chitin/NaOH at 160℃ for 12 mirL Compared to conventional solution method(usually 1 : 10 for chitin/NaOH), the alkali assumption greatly decreased. Molecular weight of chitosan obtained by solid-phase method(S3,M. 1.54 X 10s ) was lower than that obtained by suspension method(Y2,Mw3. 34×105). During deacetylation, molecular weight decreased with high reaction temperature and long reaction time but remained same at different initial ratios of NaOH/chitirL It might be concluded that degradation of chitosan was caused by breakout of the main chain of the oxidized chitosan catalyzed by alkali during the deactylation. IR and 13C NMR showed that structures of chitosans prepared by solid-phase method were not changed.

  3. Solid-Phase Purification of Synthetic DNA Sequences.

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieslak, Jacek; Beaucage, Serge L


    Although high-throughput methods for solid-phase synthesis of DNA sequences are currently available for synthetic biology applications and technologies for large-scale production of nucleic acid-based drugs have been exploited for various therapeutic indications, little has been done to develop high-throughput procedures for the purification of synthetic nucleic acid sequences. An efficient process for purification of phosphorothioate and native DNA sequences is described herein. This process consists of functionalizing commercial aminopropylated silica gel with aminooxyalkyl functions to enable capture of DNA sequences carrying a 5'-siloxyl ether linker with a "keto" function through an oximation reaction. Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites functionalized with the 5'-siloxyl ether linker were prepared in yields of 75-83% and incorporated last into the solid-phase assembly of DNA sequences. Capture of nucleobase- and phosphate-deprotected DNA sequences released from the synthesis support is demonstrated to proceed near quantitatively. After shorter than full-length DNA sequences were washed from the capture support, the purified DNA sequences were released from this support upon treatment with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride in dry DMSO. The purity of released DNA sequences exceeds 98%. The scalability and high-throughput features of the purification process are demonstrated without sacrificing purity of the DNA sequences.

  4. Flow Cytometry Section

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  5. Flow cytometry bioinformatics.

    Kieran O'Neill

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry bioinformatics is the application of bioinformatics to flow cytometry data, which involves storing, retrieving, organizing, and analyzing flow cytometry data using extensive computational resources and tools. Flow cytometry bioinformatics requires extensive use of and contributes to the development of techniques from computational statistics and machine learning. Flow cytometry and related methods allow the quantification of multiple independent biomarkers on large numbers of single cells. The rapid growth in the multidimensionality and throughput of flow cytometry data, particularly in the 2000s, has led to the creation of a variety of computational analysis methods, data standards, and public databases for the sharing of results. Computational methods exist to assist in the preprocessing of flow cytometry data, identifying cell populations within it, matching those cell populations across samples, and performing diagnosis and discovery using the results of previous steps. For preprocessing, this includes compensating for spectral overlap, transforming data onto scales conducive to visualization and analysis, assessing data for quality, and normalizing data across samples and experiments. For population identification, tools are available to aid traditional manual identification of populations in two-dimensional scatter plots (gating, to use dimensionality reduction to aid gating, and to find populations automatically in higher dimensional space in a variety of ways. It is also possible to characterize data in more comprehensive ways, such as the density-guided binary space partitioning technique known as probability binning, or by combinatorial gating. Finally, diagnosis using flow cytometry data can be aided by supervised learning techniques, and discovery of new cell types of biological importance by high-throughput statistical methods, as part of pipelines incorporating all of the aforementioned methods. Open standards, data

  6. Cytometry metadata in XML

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.


    Introduction: The International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) has created a standard for the Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt 1.0). CytometryML will serve as a common metadata standard for flow and image cytometry (digital microscopy). Methods: The MIFlowCyt data-types were created, as is the rest of CytometryML, in the XML Schema Definition Language (XSD1.1). The datatypes are primarily based on the Flow Cytometry and the Digital Imaging and Communication (DICOM) standards. A small section of the code was formatted with standard HTML formatting elements (p, h1, h2, etc.). Results:1) The part of MIFlowCyt that describes the Experimental Overview including the specimen and substantial parts of several other major elements has been implemented as CytometryML XML schemas ( 2) The feasibility of using MIFlowCyt to provide the combination of an overview, table of contents, and/or an index of a scientific paper or a report has been demonstrated. Previously, a sample electronic publication, EPUB, was created that could contain both MIFlowCyt metadata as well as the binary data. Conclusions: The use of CytometryML technology together with XHTML5 and CSS permits the metadata to be directly formatted and together with the binary data to be stored in an EPUB container. This will facilitate: formatting, data- mining, presentation, data verification, and inclusion in structured research, clinical, and regulatory documents, as well as demonstrate a publication's adherence to the MIFlowCyt standard, promote interoperability and should also result in the textual and numeric data being published using web technology without any change in composition.

  7. A sensitive method to detect the hepatitis B virus mutations by using solid phase PCR on oligonucleotide array



    A sensitive method based on solid phase PCR on oligonucleotide array was established to detect two point mutations 1896G-A and 1901G-A in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, in which 6 probes including these two point mutations were immobilized on modified glass slides through 5' terminal linker,while the 3' terminal was made to be free. The mutated loci were designed to locate on the last nucleotides of 3' terminal respectively, and the positive control probes lacked the last nucleotide of 3' terminal in comparison with the probes used for detection. Probes fixed on oligonucleotide array were also the solid phase amplification primers. One pair of liquid primers was used to amplify the short template product from whole HBV DNA. Using target DNA as template, the solid primers were extended under the action of Taq DNA polymerase and incorporated with Cy-3dCTP as marker. During the thermal cycling reaction,probes served as solid phase amplification primers and amplification products bound to the oligonucleotide array, which could be visualized by incorporation with fluorescent dyes. After amplification, the oligonucleotide array was washed, performed with laser scanning, and then used for quantitative analysis to obtain the information for mutations. The hybridization results were compared with DNA sequencing. It was demonstrated that in case of sample A, the ratios of fluorescence intensities in wide type and in the muin these two loci. These results correlated to those obtained from DNA sequencing analysis in which the fluorescence intensity ratios in wide type and in the mutated types of 1996G-A and 1901D-A mutations in using solid phase PCR based on oligonucleotide array appears to be a sensitive and promising way to detect mutations with low-density.

  8. Solid-solid phase transitions via melting in metals

    Pogatscher, S.; Leutenegger, D.; Schawe, J. E. K.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.


    Observing solid-solid phase transitions in-situ with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is a great challenge, and is often only possible via computer simulations or in model systems. Recently, a study of polymeric colloidal particles, where the particles mimic atoms, revealed an intermediate liquid state in the transition from one solid to another. While not yet observed there, this finding suggests that such phenomena may also occur in metals and alloys. Here we present experimental evidence for a solid-solid transition via the formation of a metastable liquid in a `real' atomic system. We observe this transition in a bulk glass-forming metallic system in-situ using fast differential scanning calorimetry. We investigate the corresponding transformation kinetics and discuss the underlying thermodynamics. The mechanism is likely to be a feature of many metallic glasses and metals in general, and may provide further insight into phase transition theory.

  9. Solid phase epitaxial regrowth of (001) anatase titanium dioxide

    Barlaz, David Eitan; Seebauer, Edmund G., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois, 600 S Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)


    The growing interest in metal oxide based semiconductor technologies has driven the need to produce high quality epitaxial films of one metal oxide upon another. Largely unrecognized in synthetic efforts is that some metal oxides offer strongly polar surfaces and interfaces that require electrostatic stabilization to avoid a physically implausible divergence in the potential. The present work examines these issues for epitaxial growth of anatase TiO{sub 2} on strontium titanate (001). Solid phase epitaxial regrowth yields only the (001) facet, while direct crystalline growth by atomic layer deposition yields both the (112) and (001). The presence of amorphous TiO{sub 2} during regrowth may provide preferential stabilization for formation of the (001) facet.

  10. Nanoscale doping of compound semiconductors by solid phase dopant diffusion

    Ahn, Jaehyun, E-mail:; Koh, Donghyi; Roy, Anupam; Banerjee, Sanjay K., E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Chou, Harry [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kim, Taegon [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Semiconductor R& D Center, Samsung Electronics Corporation, 1 Samsungjeonja-ro, Hwasung, Kyounggi 445-330 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jonghan [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, P.O. Box 131, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)


    Achieving damage-free, uniform, abrupt, ultra-shallow junctions while simultaneously controlling the doping concentration on the nanoscale is an ongoing challenge to the scaling down of electronic device dimensions. Here, we demonstrate a simple method of effectively doping ΙΙΙ-V compound semiconductors, specifically InGaAs, by a solid phase doping source. This method is based on the in-diffusion of oxygen and/or silicon from a deposited non-stoichiometric silicon dioxide (SiO{sub x}) film on InGaAs, which then acts as donors upon activation by annealing. The dopant profile and concentration can be controlled by the deposited film thickness and thermal annealing parameters, giving active carrier concentration of 1.4 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. Our results also indicate that conventional silicon based processes must be carefully reviewed for compound semiconductor device fabrication to prevent unintended doping.

  11. A rapid easy—to—perform solid phase digoxin radioimmunoassay

    LiBin; ZhouMei-Ying; 等


    A solid-phase-radioimmunoassay(SPRIA) for the monitoring of blood digoxin level has been developed,in which a secondary antibody-coated polystyrene tubes are used.This noval method seems to be simple to use and only takes about an half hour.The standard curve is linear from 0.25to 4μg/L.The sensitivity of the detection is 0.1μg/L.Reproducibility studies with 3 control sera of 0.5-2.5μg/L give intraassay CV<5% and interassay CV<10%.The specimens are measured and compared with those of the conventional radioimmunoassay and the values are well correlated(r=0.96,Y=1.022X+0.04μg/L)。

  12. Solid-phase synthesis of siRNA oligonucleotides.

    Beaucage, Serge L


    Since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) as a means to silence the expression of specific genes, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides have been recognized as powerful tools for targeting therapeutically important mRNAs and eliciting their destruction. This discovery has created a high demand for synthetic oligoribonucleotides as potential therapeutics and has spurred a renaissance in the development of rapid, efficient methods for solid-phase RNA synthesis. The design and implementation of 2'-hydroxyl protecting groups that provide ribonucleoside phosphoramidites with coupling kinetics and coupling efficiencies comparable to those of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites are key to the production of RNA oligonucleotides in sufficient quantity and purity for pharmaceutical applications. In this context, various siRNAs were chemically modified to identify the biophysical and biochemical parameters necessary for effective and stable RNAi-mediated gene-silencing activities.

  13. Immunochemical cross-reactivity between albumin and solid-phase adsorbed histamine

    Poulsen, L K; Nolte, H; Søndergaard, I


    For production of an antibody against histamine, this was coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. To test the antiserum, an immunoradiometric assay was developed comprising solid-phase bound histamine, antisera and radiolabelled protein A. Titration and inhibition...... experiments revealed that histamine adsorbed onto a solid-phase could bind the antiserum. However, neither free histamine nor histamine coupled to unrelated carriers could inhibit the binding of antiserum to the solid-phase histamine. Cross-reactivity was demonstrated between HSA and solid-phase bound...

  14. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction of fluconazole from pharmaceutical formulations.

    Manzoor, S; Buffon, R; Rossi, A V


    This work encompasses a direct and coherent strategy to synthesise a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) capable of extracting fluconazole from its sample. The MIP was successfully prepared from methacrylic acid (functional monomer), ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (crosslinker) and acetonitrile (porogenic solvent) in the presence of fluconazole as the template molecule through a non-covalent approach. The non-imprinted polymer (NIP) was prepared following the same synthetic scheme, but in the absence of the template. The data obtained from scanning electronic microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and nitrogen Brunauer-Emmett-Teller plot helped to elucidate the structural as well as the morphological characteristics of the MIP and NIP. The application of MIP as a sorbent was demonstrated by packing it in solid phase extraction cartridges to extract fluconazole from commercial capsule samples through an offline analytical procedure. The quantification of fluconazole was accomplished through UPLC-MS, which resulted in LOD≤1.63×10(-10) mM. Furthermore, a high percentage recovery of 91±10% (n=9) was obtained. The ability of the MIP for selective recognition of fluconazole was evaluated by comparison with the structural analogues, miconazole, tioconazole and secnidazole, resulting in percentage recoveries of 51, 35 and 32%, respectively.

  15. Automated Solid-Phase Radiofluorination Using Polymer-Supported Phosphazenes

    Bente Mathiessen


    Full Text Available The polymer supported phosphazene bases PS-P2tBu and the novel PS-P2PEG allowed for efficient extraction of [18F]F− from proton irradiated [18O]H2O and subsequent radiofluorination of a broad range of substrates directly on the resin. The highest radiochemical yields were obtained with aliphatic sulfonates (69% and bromides (42%; the total radiosynthesis time was 35–45 min. The multivariate analysis showed that the radiochemical yields and purities were controlled by the resin load, reaction temperature, and column packing effects. The resins could be reused several times with the same or different substrates. The fully automated on-column radiofluorination methodology was applied to the radiosynthesis of the important PET radiotracers [18F]FLT and [18F]FDG. The latter was produced with 40% yield on a 120 GBq scale and passed GMP-regulated quality control required for commercial production of [18F]FDG. The combination of compact form factor, simplicity of [18F]F− recovery and processing, and column reusability can make solid phase radiofluorination an attractive radiochemistry platform for the emerging dose-on-demand instruments for bedside production of PET radiotracers.

  16. Binding of properdin to solid-phase immune complexes

    Junker, A; Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E


    The capacity of serum to support deposition of C3, properdin and factor B was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using solid-phase immune complexes (IC) for activation of complement. Deposition of C3 and properdin occurred in fairly dilute normal human serum (NHS), but factor B uptake...... was hardly detectable. Alternative pathway-mediated deposition of C3 with slow kinetics was demonstrated in C2-deficient serum and in NHS depleted of C1q, factor D and properdin (C1qDP-depleted serum) after reconstitution with factor D and properdin. Efficient uptake of properdin required a functional...... classical pathway, in the presence of which C3 and properdin were rapidly deposited onto the IC. Judging from findings in C3-deficient serum, factor I-deficient serum, and C1qDPB-depleted serum, the uptake of properdin was strictly C3-dependent, and did not require the presence of factors B and D. Thus, C3b...

  17. Microwave heating in solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    Pedersen, Søren L; Tofteng, A Pernille; Malik, Leila; Jensen, Knud J


    The highly refined organic chemistry in solid-phase synthesis has made it the method of choice not only to assemble peptides but also small proteins - mainly on a laboratory scale but increasingly also on an industrial scale. While conductive heating occasionally has been applied to peptide synthesis, precise microwave irradiation to heat the reaction mixture during coupling and N(α)-deprotection has become increasingly popular. It has often provided dramatic reductions in synthesis times, accompanied by an increase in the crude peptide purity. Microwave heating has been proven especially relevant for sequences which might form β-sheet type structures and for sterically difficult couplings. The beneficial effect of microwave heating appears so far to be due to the precise nature of this type of heating, rather than a peptide-specific microwave effect. However, microwave heating as such is not a panacea for all difficulties in peptide syntheses and the conditions may need to be adjusted for the incorporation of Cys, His and Asp in peptides, and for the synthesis of, for example, phosphopeptides, glycopeptides, and N-methylated peptides. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the advances in microwave heating for peptide synthesis, with a focus on systematic studies and general protocols, as well as important applications. The assembly of β-peptides, peptoids and pseudopeptides are also evaluated in this critical review (254 references).

  18. Ionic liquids in solid-phase microextraction: a review.

    Ho, Tien D; Canestraro, Anthony J; Anderson, Jared L


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has undergone a surge in popularity within the field of analytical chemistry in the past two decades since its introduction. Owing to its nature of extraction, SPME has become widely known as a quick and cost-effective sample preparation technique. Although SPME has demonstrated extraordinary versatility in sampling capabilities, the technique continues to experience a tremendous growth in innovation. Presently, increasing efforts have been directed towards the engineering of novel sorbent material in order to expand the applicability of SPME for a wider range of analytes and matrices. This review highlights the application of ionic liquids (ILs) and polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) as innovative sorbent materials for SPME. Characterized by their unique physico-chemical properties, these compounds can be structurally-designed to selectively extract target analytes based on unique molecular interactions. To examine the advantages of IL and PIL-based sorbent coatings in SPME, the field is reviewed by gathering available experimental data and exploring the sensitivity, linear calibration range, as well as detection limits for a variety of target analytes in the methods that have been developed.

  19. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Emma Dixon

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein.

  20. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Veronika Mäde


    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  1. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for wine volatile analysis.

    Azzi-Achkouty, Samar; Estephan, Nathalie; Ouaini, Naïm; Rutledge, Douglas N


    The most commonly used technique to prepare samples for the analysis of wine volatile is the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). This method has gained popularity in last few years, as it is a unique solventless preparation technique. In this paper, a summary of recently published studies using HS-SPME for the analysis of wine aromas, with special emphasis on the method developed, has been compiled. Several papers are discussed in detail, mainly with respect to the SPME conditions used. A brief summary of the reviews related to HS-SPME analysis is given and discussed. Several parameters affecting the HS-SPME, such as the salt concentration and the agitation conditions, are used in the same way as used in several papers. The HS-SPME extraction proved to be sufficiently sensitive to satisfy legislative requirements related to low detection and quantification limits as well as method accuracy and precision requirements. However, in order to achieve the best performance and precision, the protocol needs to be optimized for each case. The effect of different parameters must be well characterized to ensure correct extraction and desorption to ensure the transfer of extracted compounds into the analytical system. The operating parameters, such as time, temperature, and agitation, must then be kept constant for all the samples.


    E.Q. Xie; W.W. Wang; N. Jiang; D.Y. He


    Manganese silicide MnSi2-x thin films have been prepared on n-type silicon substratesthrough solid phase reaction. The heterostructures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction,Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared transmittance spec-troscopy and the four-point probe technique. The results show that two manganese sili-cides have been formed sequentially via the reaction of thin layer Mn with Si substrateat different irradiation annealing stages, i.e., MnSi at 450℃ and MnSi1.73 at 550℃.MnSi1.73 phase exhibits preferred growth after irradiation with infrared. In situ four-point probe measurements of sheet resistance during infrared irradiation annealingshow that nucleation of MnSi and phase transformation of MnSi to MnSi1. 73 occur at410℃ and 530℃, respectively; the MnSi phase shows metallic behavior, while MnSi1.73exhibits semiconducting behavior. Characteristic phonon bands of MnSi2-x silicides,which can be used for phase identification along with conventional XRD techniques,have been observed by FTIR spectroscopy.

  3. Solid Phase Formylation of N-Terminus Peptides

    Anna Lucia Tornesello


    Full Text Available Formylation of amino groups is a critical reaction involved in several biological processes including post-translational modification of histones. The addition of a formyl group (CHO to the N-terminal end of a peptide chain generates biologically active molecules. N-formyl-peptides can be produced by different methods. We performed the N-formylation of two chemotactic hexapetides, Met1-Leu2-Lys3-Leu4-Ile5-Val6 and Met1-Met2-Tyr3-Ala4-Leu5-Phe6, carrying out the reaction directly on peptidyl-resin following pre-activation of formic acid with N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimmide (DCC in liquid phase. The overnight incubation at 4 °C resulted in a significant increase in production yields of formylated peptides compared to the reaction performed at room temperature. The method is consistently effective, rapid, and inexpensive. Moreover, the synthetic strategy can be applied for the formylation of all primary amines at N-terminus of peptide chains or amino groups of lysine side-chains in solid phase.

  4. An acid-stable tert-butyldiarylsilyl (TBDAS) linker for solid-phase organic synthesis.

    Diblasi, Christine M; Macks, Daniel E; Tan, Derek S


    [reaction: see text] A new, robust tert-butyldiarylsilyl (TBDAS) linker has been developed for solid-phase organic synthesis. This linker is stable to both protic and Lewis acidic reaction conditions, overcoming a significant limitation of previously reported silyl linkers. Solid-phase acetal deprotection, olefination, asymmetric allylation, and silyl protecting group deblocking reactions have been demonstrated with TBDAS-linked substrates.

  5. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.


    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...


    A. R. Koohpaei ، S. J. Shahtaheri ، M. R. Ganjali ، A. Rahimi Forushani


    Full Text Available Solid phase extraction is one of the major applications of molecularly imprinted polymers fields for clean-up of environmental and biological samples namely molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction. In this study, solid phase extraction using the imprinted polymer has been optimized with the experimental design approach for a triazine herbicide, named atrazine with regard to the critical factors which influence the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction efficiency such as sample pH, concentration, flow-rate, volume, elution solvent, washing solvent and sorbent mass. Optimization methods that involve changing one factor at a time can be laborious. A novel approach for the optimization of imprinted solid-phase extraction using chemometrics is described. The factors were evaluated statistically and also validated with spiked water samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. Also, in order to the evaluate efficiency of the optimized molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction protocols, enrichment capacity, reusability and cross-reactivity of cartridges have been also evaluated. Finally, selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of atrazine was successfully demonstrated with a recovery above 90% for spiked drinking water samples. It was concluded that the chemometrics is frequently employed for analytical method optimization and based on the obtained results, it is believed that the central composite design could prove beneficial for aiding the molecularly imprinted polymer and molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction development.

  7. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Dumont, Philip John [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  8. Facile synthesis of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase using peptide coupling reagents

    Boas, Ulrik; Andersen, Heidi Gertz; Christensen, Jørn B.;


    Peptide coupling reagents can be used as versatile reagents for the formation of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase from the corresponding solid-phase anchored aliphatic primary amines. The formation of the thioureas is fast and highly chemoselective, and proceeds via formation...

  9. Complement fixation by solid phase immune complexes. Reduced capacity in SLE sera

    Baatrup, G; Jonsson, H; Sjöholm, A


    We describe an ELISA for assessment of complement function based on the capacity of serum to support fixation of complement components to solid phase immune complexes (IC). Microplates were coated with aggregated bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by rabbit anti-BSA IgG. The solid phase IC were ...

  10. Comparative solution and solid-phase glycosylations toward a disaccharide library

    Agoston, K.; Kröger, Lars; Agoston, Agnes


    A comparative study on solution-phase and solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis was performed. A 16-member library containing all regioisomers of Glc-Glc, Glc-Gal, Gal-Glc, and Gal-Gal disaccharides was synthesized both in solution and on solid phase. The various reaction conditions for different...

  11. Steady-state diffusion regime in solid-phase micro extraction kinetics

    Benhabib, K.; Laak, ter T.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.


    The temporal evolution of diffusion-controlled analyte accumulation in solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is critically discussed in terms of the various aspects of steady-state diffusion in the two phases under conditions of fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. For

  12. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  13. Development of novel solid-phase protein formulations

    Montalvo Ortiz, Brenda Liz

    Proteins are the next-generation drugs for the treatment of several diseases. However, the number of protein drugs is still limited due to the physical or chemical instability of proteins during processing, formulation, storage, and delivery. The formulation of proteins at the solid state has advantages over liquid state, such as improved stability during long-term storage and delivery and decreases transportation costs. In this dissertation, we developed new solid-phase protein formulations in which the integrity of the protein was not compromised. The long term goal of this research was to use these protein formulations to improve protein stability in drug delivery devices, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The first solid-phase protein formulation developed in this investigation was named "glassification". We proposed glassification as an alternative protein dehydration technique to the common used one, lyophilization, because this last method involves a series of steps which are detrimental to protein structure and stability. The glassification method consisted on protein dehydration by the use of organic solvents. As a result of the glassification process a small (micrometer size range) protein solid bead was obtained. The proteins used to study the glassification process were lysozyme (LYS), alpha-chymotrypsin (CHYMO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These studies revealed that the glassification process itself did not alter protein structure and the activity was preserved. Ethyl acetate was the most effective organic solvent for protein glassification because it led to the highest protein residual activity, no insoluble aggregate formation and is a relatively non-toxic solvent, which allow the incorporation of these protein microparticles in PLGA microspheres. The incorporation of spherical HRP microparticles into PLGA microspheres resulted in superior properties when compared with encapsulated lyophilized HRP powder, such as improved release

  14. Solid phase epitaxial regrowth of (100)GaAs

    Almonte, Marlene Isabel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering


    This thesis showed that low temperature (250°C) SPE of stoichiometrically balanced ion implanted GaAs layers can yield good epitaxial recovery for doses near the amorphization threshold. For 250°C anneals, most of the regrowth occurred in the first 10 min. HRTEM revealed much lower stacking fault density in the co-implanted sample than in the As-only and Ga-only samples with comparable doses. After low temp annealing, the nonstoichiometric samples had a large number of residual defects. For higher dose implants, very high temperatures (700°C) were needed to remove residual defects for all samples. The stoichiometrically balanced layer did not regrow better than the Ga-only and As-only samples. The co-implanted sample exhibited a thinner amorphous layer and a room temperature (RT) annealing effect. The amorphous layer regrew about 5 nm, suggesting that stoichiometrically balanced amorphous layers can regrow even at RT. Mechanisms for solid phase crystallization in (100)GasAs is discussed: nucleation and growth of randomly oriented crystallites and SPE. These two mechanisms compete in compound semiconductors at much lower temperatures than in Si. For the low dose As-only and Ga-only samples with low-temp anneals, both mechanisms are active. For this amorphization threshold dose, crystallites remain in the amorphous layer for all as-implants. 250°C annealing showed recrystallization from the surface and bulk for these samples; for the co-implant, the mechanism is not evident.

  15. Application of solid phase microextraction on dental composite resin analysis.

    Wang, Ven-Shing; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, San-Yue; Huang, Long-Chen; Chao, Keh-Ping


    A direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method was developed for the analysis of dentin monomers in saliva. Dentine monomers, such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA), have a high molecular weight and a low vapor pressure. The polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber with a medium polarity was employed for DI-SPME, and 215 nm of detection wavelength was found to be optimum in the chromatogram of HPLC measurement. The calibration range for DI-SPME was 0.30-300 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.998 for each analyte. The DI-SPME method achieved good accuracy (recovery 96.1-101.2%) and precision (2.30-8.15% CV) for both intra- and inter-day assays of quality control samples for three target compounds. Method validation was performed on standards dissolved in blank saliva, and there was no significant difference (p>0.2) between the DI-SPME method and the liquid injection method. However, the detection limit of DI-SPME was as low as 0.03, 0.27 and 0.06 μg/mL for TEGDMA, UDMA and Bis-GMA, respectively. Real sample analyses were performed on commercial dentin products after curing for the leaching measurement. In summary, DI-SPME is a more sensitive method that requires less sample pretreatment procedures to measure the resin materials leached in saliva.

  16. Ultrarapid mutation detection by multiplex, solid-phase chemical cleavage

    Rowley, G.; Saad, S.; Giannelli, F.; Green, P.M. [Guy`s & St. Thomas`s Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)


    The chemical cleavage of mismatches in heteroduplexes formed by probe and test DNA detects and locates any sequence change in long DNA segments ({approximately}1.8 kb), and its efficiency has been well tested in the analysis of both average (e.g., coagulation factor IX) and large, complex genes (e.g., coagulation factor VIII and dystrophin). In the latter application RT/PCR products allow the examination of all essential sequences of the gene in a minimum number of reactions. We use two specific chemical reactants (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) and piperidine cleavage of the above procedure to develop a very fast mutation screening method. This is based on: (1) 5{prime} or internal fluorescent labeling to allow concurrent screening of three to four DNA fragments and (2) solid-phase chemistry to use a microliter format and reduce the time required for the procedure, from amplification of sequence to gel loading inclusive, to one person-working-day. We test the two variations of the method, one entailing 5{prime} labeling of probe DNA and the other uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA, by detecting 114 known hemophilia B (coagulation factor IX) mutations and by analyzing 129 new patients. Uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA prior to formation of the heteroduplexes leads to almost twofold redundancy in the ability to detect mutations. Alternatively, the latter procedure may offer very efficient though less than 100% screening for sequence changes with only hydroxylamine. The full method with two chemical reactions (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) should allow one person to screen with virtually 100% accuracy more than 300 kb of sequence in three ABI 373 gels in 1 day. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Controllable core-shell-type resin for solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Sang-Myung; Lee, Yoon-Sik


    A simple, mild, and inexpensive biphasic functionalization approach is attempted for preparing an ideal core-shell-type resin. The core-shell-type architecture was constructed by coupling Fmoc-OSu to the amino groups on the shell layer of an aminomethyl polystyrene (AM PS) resin. The shell layer thickness of the resin could be easily controlled under mild conditions, which was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The efficiency of core-shell-type resin for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was demonstrated by the synthesis of various peptides and compared with commercially available noncore-shell-type resins such as AM PS and poly(ethylene glycol)-based resins. The core-shell-type resin provided effective performance during the synthesis of hydrophobic peptide sequences, a disulfide-bridged cyclic peptide, and a difficult PNA sequence. Furthermore, a highly aggregative peptide fragment, MoPrP 105-125, was synthesized more efficiently on the core-shell-type resin under microwave conditions than AM PS and ChemMatrix resins.



    Velocities of solid phase and liquid phase in debris flow are one key problem to research on impact and abrasion mechanism of banks and control structures under action of debris flow. Debris flow was simplified as two-phase liquid composed of solid phase with the same diameter particles and liquid phase with the same mechanical features. Assume debris flow was one-dimension two-phase liquid moving to one direction,then general equations of velocities of solid phase and liquid phase were founded in twophase theory. Methods to calculate average pressures, volume forces and surface forces of debris flow control volume were established. Specially, surface forces were ascertained using Bingham's rheology equation of liquid phase and Bagnold's testing results about interaction between particles of solid phase. Proportional coefficient of velocities between liquid phase and solid phase was put forward, meanwhile, divergent coefficient between theoretical velocity and real velocity of solid phase was provided too. To state succinctly before, method to calculate velocities of solid phase and liquid phase was obtained through solution to general equations. The method is suitable for both viscous debris flow and thin debris flow. Additionally, velocities every phase can be identified through analyzing deposits in-situ after occurring of debris flow. It is obvious from engineering case the result in the method is consistent to that in real-time field observation.

  19. Rapid preparation of rodent testicular cell suspensions and spermatogenic stages purification by flow cytometry using a novel blue-laser-excitable vital dye

    Rosana Rodríguez-Casuriaga


    Inclusion of a non-cytotoxic, DNA-specific, 488 nm-excitable vital fluorochrome (Vybrant DyeCycle Green [VDG], Invitrogen instead of Hoechst 33342 (requires UV laser, which can damage nucleic acids or propidium iodide (usually related to dead/damaged cells. As far as we know, this is the first report on the use of this fluorochrome for the discrimination and purification of meiotic prophase I substages.

  20. Determining the solid phases hosting arsenic in Mekong Delta sediments

    Wucher, M.; Stuckey, J. W.; McCurdy, S.; Fendorf, S.


    The major river systems originating from the Himalaya deposit arsenic bearing sediment into the deltas of South and Southeast Asia. High rates of sediment and organic carbon deposition combined with frequent flooding leads to anaerobic processes that release arsenic into the pore-water. Arsenic concentrations in the groundwater of these sedimentary basins are often above the World Health Organization drinking water standard of 10 μg As L-1. As a result, 150 million people are at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning through water and rice consumption. The composition of the iron bearing phases hosting the arsenic in these deltaic sediments is poorly understood. Here we implemented a suite of selective chemical extractions to help constrain the types of arsenic bearing solid phases, which were complimented with synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses to define the arsenic and iron mineralogy of the system. Sediment cores were collected in triplicate from a seasonally-inundated wetland in Cambodia at depths of 10, 50, 100, and 150 centimeters. We hypothesize that (i) arsenic will be predominantly associated with iron oxides, and (ii) the ratio of crystalline to amorphous iron oxides will increase with sediment depth (and age). We performed four selective extractions in parallel to quantify the various pools of arsenic. First, 1 M MgCl2 was used to extract electrostatically-bound arsenic (labile forms) from the sediment. Second, 1 M NaH2PO4 targeted strongly adsorbed arsenic. Third, 1 M HCl was used to liberated arsenic coprecipitated with amorphous Fe/Mn oxides, carbonates, and acid-volatile sulfides. Finally, a dithionite extraction was used to account for arsenic associated with reducible Fe/Mn oxides. Through this work, we identified the composition of the phases hosting arsenic at various depths through the soil profile, improving our understanding of how arsenic persists in the aquifer. In addition, defining the arsenic and

  1. Porous, High Capacity Coatings for Solid Phase Microextraction by Sputtering.

    Diwan, Anubhav; Singh, Bhupinder; Roychowdhury, Tuhin; Yan, DanDan; Tedone, Laura; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Sevy, Eric T; Shellie, Robert A; Kaykhaii, Massoud; Linford, Matthew R


    We describe a new process for preparing porous solid phase microextraction (SPME) coatings by the sputtering of silicon onto silica fibers. The microstructure of these coatings is a function of the substrate geometry and mean free path of the silicon atoms, and the coating thickness is controlled by the sputtering time. Sputtered silicon structures on silica fibers were treated with piranha solution (a mixture of concd H2SO4 and 30% H2O2) to increase the concentration of silanol groups on their surfaces, and the nanostructures were silanized with octadecyldimethylmethoxysilane in the gas phase. The attachment of this hydrophobic ligand was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle goniometry on model, planar silicon substrates. Sputtered silicon coatings adhered strongly to their surfaces, as they were able to pass the Scotch tape adhesion test. The extraction time and temperature for headspace extraction of mixtures of alkanes and alcohols on the sputtered fibers were optimized (5 min and 40 °C), and the extraction performances of SPME fibers with 1.0 or 2.0 μm of sputtered silicon were compared to those from a commercial 7 μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber. For mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, amines, and esters, the 2.0 μm sputtered silicon fiber yielded signals that were 3-9, 3-5, 2.5-4.5, and 1.5-2 times higher, respectively, than those of the commercial fiber. For the heavier alkanes (undecane-hexadecane), the 2.0 μm sputtered fiber yielded signals that were approximately 1.0-1.5 times higher than the commercial fiber. The sputtered fibers extracted low molecular weight analytes that were not detectable with the commercial fiber. The selectivity of the sputtered fibers appears to favor analytes that have both a hydrophobic component and hydrogen-bonding capabilities. No detectable carryover between runs was noted for the sputtered fibers. The repeatability (RSD%) for a fiber (n = 3) was less than 10% for all analytes tested

  2. Solid phase precipitates in (Zr,Th)-OH-(oxalate, malonate) ternary aqueous system

    Kobayashi, T.; Sasaki, T.; Takagi, I.; Moriyama, H. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering


    The solubility-limiting solid phases in the ternary aqueous systems of Zr(IV)/OH/oxalate, Zr(IV)/OH/malonate, Th(IV)/OH/oxalate and Th(IV)/OH/malonate were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The ternary solid phase of M(IV)/OH/carboxylate was observed to form, even under acidic conditions, depending on the pH and the concentration of carboxylate ligand. In the presence of a large excess of carboxylic acid, however; the binary M(IV)-carboxylate solid phase formed. (orig.)

  3. Design and Synthesis of a Dual Linker for Solid Phase Synthesis of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives

    Shaorong Wang


    Full Text Available A hydrophilic amino-terminated poly(ethylene glycol-type dual linker for solid phase synthesis of oleanolic acid derivatives using trityl chloride resin was designed and synthesized for the first time. Model reactions in both liquid and solid phase were performed to show the feasibility of its selective cleavage at two different sites. The biological assay results indicated that the long and flexible alkyl ether functionality in the linker is less likely to be critical for the binding event. Following the successful solid-phase synthesis of model compounds, the potential of this dual linker in reaction monitoring and target identification is deemed worthy of further study.

  4. Dynamic solid phase DNA extraction and PCR amplification in polyester-toner based microchip.

    Duarte, Gabriela R M; Price, Carol W; Augustine, Brian H; Carrilho, Emanuel; Landers, James P


    A variety of substrates have been used for fabrication of microchips for DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and DNA fragment separation, including the more conventional glass and silicon as well as alternative polymer-based materials. Polyester represents one such polymer, and the laser-printing of toner onto polyester films has been shown to be effective for generating polyester-toner (PeT) microfluidic devices with channel depths on the order of tens of micrometers. Here, we describe a novel and simple process that allows for the production of multilayer, high aspect-ratio PeT microdevices with substantially larger channel depths. This innovative process utilizes a CO(2) laser to create the microchannel in polyester sheets containing a uniform layer of printed toner, and multilayer devices can easily be constructed by sandwiching the channel layer between uncoated cover sheets of polyester containing precut access holes. The process allows the fabrication of deep channels, with ~270 μm, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of multilayer PeT microchips for dynamic solid phase extraction (dSPE) and PCR amplification. With the former, we found that (i) more than 65% of DNA from 0.6 μL of blood was recovered, (ii) the resultant DNA was concentrated to greater than 3 ng/μL (which was better than other chip-based extraction methods), and (iii) the DNA recovered was compatible with downstream microchip-based PCR amplification. Illustrative of the compatibility of PeT microchips with the PCR process, the successful amplification of a 520 bp fragment of λ-phage DNA in a conventional thermocycler is shown. The ability to handle the diverse chemistries associated with DNA purification and extraction is a testimony to the potential utility of PeT microchips beyond separations and presents a promising new disposable platform for genetic analysis that is low cost and easy to fabricate.

  5. Utilizing ion-pairing hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction for efficient glycopeptide enrichment in glycoproteomics

    Mysling, Simon; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Højrup, Peter;


    Glycopeptide enrichment is a prerequisite to enable structural characterization of protein glycosylation in glycoproteomics. Here we present an improved method for glycopeptide enrichment based on zwitter-ionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction (ZIC-HILIC SPE...

  6. Study on New Sensitive Method of Determination of Phosphorus by Solid Phase Spectrophotometry


    The use of solid phase spectrophotometry for the determination of trace phosphorus in the system of phosphomolybdate-fructose is described. The adsorption of the system on anion-exchange resin is reported.

  7. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N


    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  8. Design and Solid-Phase Synthesis of Multiple Muramyl Dipeptide (MMD)


    As a non-specific modulator of macrophage, multiplied muramyl dipeptide (MMD) is solid-phase synthesized by application of standard Fmoc chemistry strategy. Tam's multiple antigen system (MAS) is used as our four branched-linker on Lysine.

  9. Solid Phase Equilibria in the Pi-Ga-As and Pt-Ga-Sb Systems


    OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Research Contract N00014-87-K-0014 R&T Code 413E026---01 AD-A 198 654 TECHNICAL REPORT No. 9 SOLID PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE...Classtcation) UNCLASSLFIED: Tech.Rept.#9 SOLID PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN T11: Pt-Ga-As AND Pt-Ga-Sb SYST’IS 12 PERSONAL AuTiOR(S) C.T. Tsai and R.S. Williats 13a TYPE

  10. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis and Catalysis: Some Recent Strategies Using Alumina, Silica, and Polyionic Resins

    Basudeb Basu; Susmita Paul


    Solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS) and catalysis have gained impetus after the seminal discovery of Merrifield’s solid-phase peptide synthesis and also because of wide applicability in combinatorial and high throughput chemistry. A large number of organic, inorganic, or organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been employed as polymeric solid supports to promote or catalyze various organic reactions. This review article provides a concise account on our approaches involving the use of (i) al...

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymers: New molecular recognition materials for selective solid-phase extraction of organic compounds

    Martín Esteban, A.


    During the last few years molecularly imprinted polymers have appeared as new selective sorbents for solid-phase extraction of organic compounds in different samples. Molecular imprinting technology involves the preparation of a polymer with specific recognition sites for certain molecules. Once the polymer has been obtained, it can be used in solid-phase extraction protocols, where a careful selection of the most appropriate solvents to be used in the different steps (sample loading, washing...

  12. Expedient protocol for solid-phase synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines

    Olsen, Christian A; Witt, Matthias; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W


    [reaction: see text] An expedient solid-phase synthetic approach to secondary and tertiary amines was developed. The protocol employs conversion of resin-bound amino alcohols to the corresponding iodides, followed by iodide displacement with primary or secondary amines or with unprotected amino...... alcohols. This two-step procedure, affording products in good to excellent yields, is suitable for solid-phase synthesis of polyamines....

  13. Preparation of Pt/C Catalyst with Solid Phase Reaction Method


    The Pt/C catalyst was prepared with solid phase reaction method (Pt/C(S)) for the first time. Its performances were compared with that prepared by the traditional liquid phase reaction method. The results demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of Pt/C catalyst with solid phase reaction method for methanol oxidation is higher than that with liquid phase reaction method. XRD and TEM measurements indicate that the Pt/C(S) possesses low crystalline extent and small particle size.

  14. Cytometry of mammalian sperm

    Gledhill, B.L.


    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. The accessibility of male cells makes them well suited for analytical cytology. We might automate the process of determining sperm morphology but should not do so solely for increased speed. Rather, richer tangible benefits will derive from cytometric evaluation through increased sensitivity, reduced subjectivity, standardization between investigators and laboratories, enhanced archival systems, and the benefits of easily exchanged standardized data. Inroads on the standardization of assays for motility and functional integrity are being made. Flow cytometric analysis of total DNA content of individual sperm is an insensitive means to detect exposure to reproductive toxins because of the small size and low frequency of the DNA content errors. Flow cytometry can be applied to determine the proportions of X- and Y-sperm in semen samples.

  15. Optimizing the solid-phase immunofiltration assay. A rapid alternative to immunoassays.

    IJsselmuiden, O E; Herbrink, P; Meddens, M J; Tank, B; Stolz, E; Van Eijk, R V


    The technical variables of the solid-phase immunofiltration assay (SPIA) for the detection of antibodies bound to antigens on a solid-phase filter have been investigated. The binding to solid-phase filters of 125I-labelled axial filament proteins derived from Treponema phagedenis and the optimal conditions for blocking non-specific protein binding were analysed. Axial filament was applied to nitrocellulose, Hybond Nylon and Zeta Probe. After extensive rinsing, the highest amount (68%) of axial filament was observed bound to Zeta Probe. However, blocking non-specific protein binding by pre-wetting the filter with rinsing buffer containing 0.5% Tween 20, prevented the binding of protein to the filter only when nitrocellulose was used as solid phase. Tween 20 (0.5%) in the rinsing and incubation solutions was found to be necessary for the reduction of non-specific binding of contaminants in turbid sera. However, the use of such solutions resulted in a substantial leakage of antigen (47%) during rinsing procedures. Binding of antigen-specific antibody was analysed using 125I-labelled protein A. The maximal possible binding of the antibody occurred within 5 min when the antibody solution was filtered. For optimal binding of 125I-labelled protein A an incubation time of 1 h was needed. It is suggested that solid-phase immunofiltration may provide a rapid alternative for radioimmunoassays or enzyme immunoassays for the detection of specific antibodies.

  16. Determination of melamine in aquaculture feed samples based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    Lian, Ziru; Liang, Zhenlin; Wang, Jiangtao


    This research highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration and analysis of melamine in aquaculture feed samples. Melamine-imprinted polymers were synthesized employing methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The characteristics of obtained polymers were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and binding experiments. The imprinted polymers showed an excellent adsorption ability for melamine and were applied as special solid-phase extraction sorbents for the selective cleanup of melamine. An off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the separation and enrichment of melamine from aquaculture feed samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Optimum molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction conditions led to recoveries of the target in spiked feed samples in the range 84.6-96.6% and the relative standard deviation less than 3.38% (n = 3). The aquaculture feed sample was determined, and there was no melamine found. The results showed that the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction protocols permitted the sensitive, uncomplicated and inexpensive separation and pre-treatment of melamine in aquaculture feed samples.

  17. Two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy for the selective enrichment of aminoglycosides in milk.

    Shen, Aijin; Wei, Jie; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Ding, Junjie; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao


    An orthogonal two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy was established for the selective enrichment of three aminoglycosides including spectinomycin, streptomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin in milk. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography material (C18 ) and a weak cation-exchange material (TGA) were integrated in a single solid-phase extraction cartridge. The feasibility of two-dimensional clean-up procedure that experienced two-step adsorption, two-step rinsing, and two-step elution was systematically investigated. Based on the orthogonality of reversed-phase and weak cation-exchange procedures, the two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy could minimize the interference from the hydrophobic matrix existing in traditional reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. In addition, high ionic strength in the extracts could be effectively removed before the second dimension of weak cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. Combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, the optimized procedure was validated according to the European Union Commission directive 2002/657/EC. A good performance was achieved in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, decision limit, and detection capability in milk. Finally, the optimized two-dimensional clean-up procedure incorporated with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to the rapid monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A High-Throughput Process for the Solid-Phase Purification of Synthetic DNA Sequences.

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Beaucage, Serge L


    An efficient process for the purification of synthetic phosphorothioate and native DNA sequences is presented. The process is based on the use of an aminopropylated silica gel support functionalized with aminooxyalkyl functions to enable capture of DNA sequences through an oximation reaction with the keto function of a linker conjugated to the 5'-terminus of DNA sequences. Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites carrying this linker, as a 5'-hydroxyl protecting group, have been synthesized for incorporation into DNA sequences during the last coupling step of a standard solid-phase synthesis protocol executed on a controlled pore glass (CPG) support. Solid-phase capture of the nucleobase- and phosphate-deprotected DNA sequences released from the CPG support is demonstrated to proceed near quantitatively. Shorter than full-length DNA sequences are first washed away from the capture support; the solid-phase purified DNA sequences are then released from this support upon reaction with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride in dry dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and precipitated in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The purity of solid-phase-purified DNA sequences exceeds 98%. The simulated high-throughput and scalability features of the solid-phase purification process are demonstrated without sacrificing purity of the DNA sequences. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Silica supported Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic solid-phase extraction and magnetic in-tube solid-phase microextraction: application to organophosphorous compounds.

    Moliner-Martinez, Y; Vitta, Yosmery; Prima-Garcia, Helena; González-Fuenzalida, R A; Ribera, Antonio; Campíns-Falcó, P; Coronado, Eugenio


    This work demonstrates the application of silica supported Fe3O4 nanoparticles as sorbent phase for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) and magnetic on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (Magnetic-IT-SPME) combined with capillary liquid chromatography-diode array detection (CapLC-DAD) to determine organophosphorous compounds (OPs) at trace level. In MSPE, magnetism is used as separation tool while in Magnetic-IT-SPME, the application of an external magnetic field gave rise to a significant improvement of the adsorption of OPs on the sorbent phase. Extraction efficiency, analysis time, reproducibility and sensitivity have been compared. This work showed that Magnetic-IT-SPME can be extended to OPs with successful results in terms of simplicity, speed, extraction efficiency and limit of detection. Finally, wastewater samples were analysed to determine OPs at nanograms per litre.

  20. Effect of Host Medium on the Fluorescence Emission Intensity of Rhodamine B in Liquid and Solid Phase

    Fikry, M.; Omar, M. M.; Ismail, Lotfi Z.


    In this work, we study the effect of concentration, host medium, PH, ions complex and phase states on the fluorescence emission from the laser dye, Rhodamine B, pumping by UV laser as exited source. The polymethylmethacrylate PMMA used as host medium in case of solid phase samples while, ethanol and Tetrahydrofuran (THF) are used in case of liquid one. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was used to study the fluorescence properties of the both cases liquid and thin film solid-state samples. In addition, the Dual Thermal Lens (DTL) technique was used to study the quantum yield of these samples. The maximum fluorescence emission observed at concentration of Rhodamine B C=3×10-4M. At this concentration of Rhodamine B, the type of solvent and polarity of the medium affect on the fluorescence emission intensity of Rhodamine B with. The measurements revile that, the behavior of both phases state was analogous and Rhodamine B/PMMA thin film sample by ratio of 4:1 and thickness 0.12 mm is the best photostability sample and its quantum yield about ≈ 0.82. Also, the fluorescence emission intensity of Rhodamine B was quenched by complex formation of Co, Al, Cu and iodide ions with Rhodamine B due to the increase of the charge density of the ions.

  1. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Amine/Carboxyl Substituted Prolines and Proline Homologues: Scope and Limitations.

    Zhou, Ziniu; Scott, William L; O'Donnell, Martin J


    A solid-phase procedure is used to synthesize racemic peptidomimetics based on the fundamental peptide unit. The peptidomimetics are constructed around proline or proline homologues variably substituted at the amine and carbonyl sites. The procedure expands the diversity of substituted peptidomimetic molecules available to the Distributed Drug Discovery (D3) project. Using a BAL-based solid-phase synthetic sequence the proline or proline homologue subunit is both constructed and incorporated into the peptidomimetic by an α-alkylation, hydrolysis and intramolecular cyclization sequence. Further transformations on solid-phase provide access to a variety of piperazine derivatives representing a class of molecules known to exhibit central nervous system activity. The procedure works well with proline cores, but with larger six- and seven-membered ring homologues the nature of the carboxylic acid acylating the cyclic amine can lead to side reactions and result in poor overall yields.

  2. Solid-phase microextraction for bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305

    Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Boehm, Leonard [Land Use and Nutrition (IFZ) Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Research Centre for BioSystems, Giessen (Germany); Schlechtriem, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)


    An important aim of the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use is the identification of (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances. In other regulatory chemical safety assessments (pharmaceuticals, biocides, pesticides), the identification of such (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances is of increasing importance. Solid-phase microextraction is especially capable of extracting total water concentrations as well as the freely dissolved fraction of analytes in the water phase, which is available for bioconcentration in fish. However, although already well established in environmental analyses to determine and quantify analytes mainly in aqueous matrices, solid-phase microextraction is still a rather unusual method in regulatory ecotoxicological research. Here, the potential benefits and drawbacks of solid-phase microextraction are discussed as an analytical routine approach for aquatic bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305, with a special focus on the testing of hydrophobic organic compounds characterized by log K{sub OW}> 5. (orig.)

  3. Proposed method for controlling turbid particles in solid-phase bioluminescent toxicity measurement.

    Yeo, Seul-Ki; Park, Jun-Boum; Ahn, Joo-Sung; Han, Young-Soo


    In the recent half century, numerous methods have been developed to assess ecological toxicity. However, the presence of solid-particle turbidity sometimes causes such tests to end with questionable results. Many researchers focused on controlling this arbitrary turbidity effect when using the Microtox® solid-phase toxicity system, but there is not yet a standard method. In this study, we examined four solid-phase sample test methods recommended in the Microtox® manual, or proposed from the literature, and compared the existing methods with our proposed method (centrifuged basic solid-phase test, c-BSPT). Four existing methods use the following strategies to control turbid particles: complete separation of liquid and solid using 0.45-μm filtration before contacting solid samples and bacteria, natural settlement, moderate separation of large particles using coarser pore size filtration, and exclusion of light loss in the toxicity calculation caused by turbidity after full disturbance of samples. Our proposed method uses moderate centrifugation to separate out the heavier soil particles from the lighter bacteria after direct contact between them. Among the solid-phase methods tested, in which the bacteria and solid particles were in direct contact (i.e., the three existing methods and the newly proposed one, c-BSPT), no single method could be recommended as optimal for samples over a range of turbidity. Instead, a simple screening strategy for selecting a sample-dependent solid-phase test method was suggested, depending on the turbidity of the solid suspension. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering solid particles, and the necessity for optimal selection of test method to reduce errors in the measurement of solid-phase toxicity.

  4. Extraction of Pb2+ using Silica from Rice Husks Ash (RHA – Chitosan as Solid Phase

    Hanandayu Widwiastuti


    Full Text Available The existence of lead (Pb compounds in waters can be caused of waste pollution from industrial activities such as dye and battery industries. Lead has toxic characteristic and is able to causing deseases. The levels of Cr(VI can be decreased by methods such as electroplating, oxidation, reduction, and membrane separation. But this methods require high cost and produce a lot of waste. Furthermore, those methods cannot determine the small concentration of Pb2+. Therefore, solid phase extraction is used because it’s a simple method and can be used to preconcentrate Pb2+ ion. The aim of this study is to create solid phase from nature material as an alternative method to determine Pb2+ in water samples. The solid phase is silica from rice husks ash (RHA that was modified using chitosan. To achieve that aim, the optimization of silica : chitosan composition was done. The influence of Pb2+ concentration and citric acid concentration was studied to obtain optimum recovery of Pb2+. Interaction between Pb2+ ion and solid phase silica – chitosan could be estimated based on the result. The result showed the optimum composition of silica : chitosan is 65% silica : 35% chitosan with Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC 0.00455 mek/g. Mass Adsorbed Pb2+for 1 g silica : chitosan 65% is 9.715 mg/g. Optimum recovery of Pb2+ on solid phase extraction is reached at concentration of Pb2+ 10 ppm and citric acid concentration 0.05 M (88.25 % and 81.18 %. This result showed that solid phase extraction using silica – chitosan can be used as an alternative method to determine Pb2+ in water.

  5. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    Einstein, A.


    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  6. A photolabile linker for the solid-phase synthesis of peptide hydrazides and heterocycles.

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Komnatnyy, Vitaly V; Nielsen, Thomas E


    A photolabile hydrazine linker for the solid-phase synthesis of peptide hydrazides and hydrazine-derived heterocycles is presented. The developed protocols enable the efficient synthesis of structurally diverse peptide hydrazides derived from the standard amino acids, including those with side-chain protected residues at the C-terminal of the resulting peptide hydrazide, and are useful for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles. The linker is compatible with most commonly used coupling reagents and protecting groups for solid-phase peptide synthesis.

  7. Development of orthogonally protected hypusine for solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    Song, Aimin; Tom, Jeffrey; Yu, Zhiyong; Pham, Victoria; Tan, Dajin; Zhang, Dengxiong; Fang, Guoyong; Yu, Tao; Deshayes, Kurt


    An orthogonally protected hypusine reagent was developed for solid-phase synthesis of hypusinated peptides using the Fmoc/t-Bu protection strategy. The reagent was synthesized in an overall yield of 27% after seven steps from Cbz-Lys-OBzl and (R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one. The side-chain protecting groups (Boc and t-Bu) are fully compatible with standard Fmoc chemistry and can be readily removed during the peptide cleavage step. The utility of the reagent was demonstrated by solid-phase synthesis of hypusinated peptides.

  8. Synthesis of indium tin oxide powder by solid-phase reaction with microwave heating

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Kanayama, Keiji; Katoh, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto


    Indium tin oxide (ITO) powder was synthesized from indium oxide and tin oxide powders by a solid-phase method using microwave heating and conventional heating methods. Microwave heating could reduce the treatment time necessary for the completion of the solid-phase reaction by 1/30. This decrease was attributed to an increase in the diffusion rate of Sn at the local heat spot in the indium oxide formed by microwave irradiation. However, microwave heating also decreased the amount of ITO produ...

  9. Detection of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin by solid-phase extraction and UV/Vis spectroscopy

    Zhou, Zhengwei; Jiang, Jia Qian


    A simple and economic solid-phase extraction coupled with UV/Vis spectrophotometric method is described for the analysis of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin. Following solid-phase extraction from model wastewater samples containing standard ibuprofen or ciprofloxacin, elutes were analyzed by a UV/Vis spectrophotometer at 225 nm for ibuprofen and 280 nm for ciprofloxacin. The assay was linear for both compounds with good coefficients of correlation. This method shows good recoveries for both compounds with 101.0 ± 9.8% for ibuprofen and 99.4 ± 11.8% ciprofloxacin.

  10. A Photolabile Linker for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Peptide Hydrazides and Heterocycles

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland


    A photolabile hydrazine linker for the solid-phase synthesis of peptide hydrazides and hydrazine-derived heterocycles is presented. The developed protocols enable the efficient synthesis of structurally diverse peptide hydrazides derived from the standard amino adds, including those with side-cha......-chain protected residues at the C-terminal of the resulting peptide hydrazide, and are useful for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles. The linker is compatible with most commonly used coupling reagents and protecting groups for solid-phase peptide synthesis....

  11. CuAAC: An Efficient Click Chemistry Reaction on Solid Phase.

    Castro, Vida; Rodríguez, Hortensia; Albericio, Fernando


    Click chemistry is an approach that uses efficient and reliable reactions, such as Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), to bind two molecular building blocks. CuAAC has broad applications in medicinal chemistry and other fields of chemistry. This review describes the general features and applications of CuAAC in solid-phase synthesis (CuAAC-SP), highlighting the suitability of this kind of reaction for peptides, nucleotides, small molecules, supramolecular structures, and polymers, among others. This versatile reaction is expected to become pivotal for meeting future challenges in solid-phase chemistry.

  12. Indirect solid-phase immunosorbent assay for detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A. (Institute of Poliomyelitis anU Viral Encephalities of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow)


    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) using either enti-human or anti-mouse IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I, respectively, were developed for the detection of Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amapari, Tamiami, Lassa and LCM arenaviruses. Both methods allow high sensitivity detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies.

  13. Solid-phase synthesis of an apoptosis-inducing tetrapeptide mimicking the Smac protein

    Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette; Petersen, Mette Terp;


    An approach for the solid-phase synthesis of apoptosis-inducing Smac peptidomimetics is presented. Using a Rink linker strategy, tetrapeptides mimicking the N-4-terminal residue of the Smac protein [(N-Me)AVPF sequence] were synthesized on PEGA resin in excellent purities and yields. Following tw...

  14. Detection and specifity of class specific antibodies to whole bacteria cells using a solid phase radioimmunoassay

    Czerkinsky, C.; Rees, A.S.; Bergimeier, L.A.; Challacombe, S.J. (Guy' s Hospital Medical and Dental Schools, London (UK))


    A solid phase radioimmunoassay has been developed which can be used for the detection of isotype specific antibodies to whole bacteria and other particulate antigens, and is applicable to a variety of species. Bacteria are bound to the solid phase by the use either of antibodies, or of methyl glyoxal. Both methods result in a sensitive and reproducible assay, and bacteria do not appear to desorb from the solid phase. The specificity of antibodies to whole bacteria was examined by absorption of antisera with various species of bacteria and retesting, or by determining the binding of antisera to various bacteria bound to the solid phase. Both methods revealed specificity for the bacteria examined. Inhibition studies showed that antibodies to Streptococcus mutans whole cells could be inhibited by purified cell surface antigens glucosyltransferase and antigen I/II, but only minimally by lipoteichoic acid, c polysaccharide or dextran. In murine antisera antibodies of the IgG, IgM, and IgA classes could be detected at amounts of less than 1 ng/ml.

  15. New method for the preparation of solid-phase bound isocyanocarboxylic acids and Ugi reactions therewith

    Henkel, Bernd; Sax, Michael; Dömling, Alexander


    A novel method of synthesizing solid-phase bound isocyanocarboxylic acids is reported. The potassium salts of four different isocyanocarboxylic acids are coupled onto a brominated resin in DMF in good yields. 32 Ugi reactions were performed using these resins and 24 products were obtained in good to

  16. Solid phase microextraction speciation analysis of triclosan in aqueous mediacontaining sorbing nanoparticles

    Zielinska, K.


    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the speciation analysis of the hydrophobic compound triclosan in an aqueous medium containing sorbing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). It is found that these NPs, as well as their complexes with triclosan, partition between the bulk medium and the solid

  17. A Discovery-Oriented Approach to Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis

    Bockman, Matthew R.; Miedema, Christopher J.; Brennan, Brian B.


    In this discovery-oriented laboratory experiment, students use solid-phase synthesis techniques to construct a dipeptide containing an unknown amino acid. Following synthesis and cleavage from the polymeric support, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry is employed to identify the unknown amino acid that was used in the peptide coupling. This…

  18. Solid Phase Extraction: Applications to the Chromatographic Analysis of Vegetable Oils and Fats

    Panagiotopoulout, P. M.; Tsimidou, M.


    Applications of solid-phase extraction for the isolation of certain lipid classes prior to chromatographic analysis are given. More information was found for sterols and related compounds, polar phenols and contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Detailed analytical protocols are presented and discussed in many cases. (Author) 120 refs.

  19. Solid-phase synthesis of polyfunctional polylysine dendrons using aldehyde linkers

    Svenssen, Daniel K.; Mirsharghi, Sahar; Boas, Ulrik


    A straightforward method for the solid-phase synthesis of C-terminally modified polylysine dendrons has been developed by applying bisalkoxybenzaldehyde and trisalkoxybenzaldehyde linkers. The method has been used for the synthesis of polylysine dendrons with a variety of C-terminal ‘tail groups’...

  20. Solid phase microextraction speciation analysis of triclosan in aqueous mediacontaining sorbing nanoparticles

    Zielinska, K.


    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the speciation analysis of the hydrophobic compound triclosan in an aqueous medium containing sorbing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). It is found that these NPs, as well as their complexes with triclosan, partition between the bulk medium and the solid phas

  1. Micro versus macro solid phase extraction for monitoring water contaminants: a preliminary study using trihalomethanes.

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Morrison, Paul D; Meehan, Barry J; Jones, Oliver A H


    Solid phase extraction is one of the most commonly used pre-concentration and cleanup steps in environmental science. However, traditional methods need electrically powered pumps, can use large volumes of solvent (if multiple samples are run), and require several hours to filter a sample. Additionally, if the cartridge is open to the air volatile compounds may be lost and sample integrity compromised. In contrast, micro cartridge based solid phase extraction can be completed in less than 2 min by hand, uses only microlitres of solvent and provides comparable concentration factors to established methods. It is also an enclosed system so volatile components are not lost. The sample can also be eluted directly into a detector (e.g. a mass spectrometer) if required. However, the technology is new and has not been much used for environmental analysis. In this study we compare traditional (macro) and the new micro solid phase extraction for the analysis of four common volatile trihalomethanes (trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane). The results demonstrate that micro solid phase extraction is faster and cheaper than traditional methods with similar recovery rates for the target compounds. This method shows potential for further development in a range of applications.

  2. Solid-phase oligosaccharide synthesis with tris(alkoxy)benzyl amine (BAL) safety-catch anchoring

    Tolborg, Jakob Fjord; Jensen, Knud Jørgen


    A tris(alkoxy)benzylamine (BAL) handle strategy was developed for safety-catch anchoring of D-glucosamine derivatives in solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides; the linkage between the BAL handle and the amine proved stable to conc. TFA and Lewis acids, but after N-acylation the amide could...

  3. A Long Chain Alcohol as Support in Solid Phase Organic Synthesis

    Nurlela, Yeni; Minnaard, Adrian J.; Achmad, Sadijah; Wahyuningrum, Deana


    The solid phase synthesis is a method by which organic compound synthesis are performed on a support. With this method, the purification can be carried out easily by simple filtration and washing procedures. Long-chain alcohol (C-100 alcohol) can be used as a support because of its insolubility in o

  4. Determination of Roxarsone in feeds using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Sapp, R E; Davidson, S


    A method is presented for detection and quantitation of Roxarsone in poultry feed by liquid chromatography. The drug is extracted by phosphate buffer and determined by solid phase extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Recoveries of the sample spikes and fortified field samples agree closely with those obtained by the standard spectrophotometric method.

  5. A Solid Phase Synthesis of Chalcones by Claisen-Schmidt Condensations


    In order to accelerate the development of relatively inexpensive antimalarials that are effective against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falclparum, a methodology for the solid phase synthesis of chalcone (l, 3-diphenyl-2-propen-l-one) analogues in reasonably high yields has been developed.

  6. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  7. Microwave-assisted solid-phase Ugi four-component condensations

    Nielsen, John


    An 18-member library was constructed from 2 isocyanides, 3 aldehydes and 3 carboxylic acids via microwave-assisted solid-phase Ugi reactions on TentaGel S RAM. Products of high purity were obtained in moderate to excellent yields after reaction times of 5 minutes or less (irradiation at 60W). (C...

  8. Determination of lidocaine in plasma by direct solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography

    Koster, EHM; Wemes, C; Morsink, JB; de Jong, GJ


    Direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been used to extract the local anesthetic lidocaine from human plasma. A simplified model shows the relationship between the total amount of drug in plasma and the amount of drug extracted. The model takes into account that the drug participate

  9. Solid-phase micro-extraction in bioanalysis, exemplified by lidocaine determination

    de Jong, GJ; Koster, EHM


    Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) is a never sample preparation technique that can be used for gaseous, liquid or solid samples in conjunction with GC, HPLC or CE (e.g. [1]). The use of SPME for the analysis of drugs in biofluids is also becoming popular (e.g. [2]). The principle is that a fused s

  10. Side-chain-anchored N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp for bidirectional solid-phase synthesis

    Olsen, Christian A; Jørgensen, Malene; Hansen, Steen H;


    [reaction: see text] A mild resin-immobilization strategy employing a readily prepared trityl bromide resin for anchoring building blocks via a phenol group has been developed. With N(alpha)-Fmoc-Tyr-OPfp as a starter building block, it was possible to prepare asymmetrically substituted hybrids o...... of spider- and wasp-type polyamine toxins using solid-phase peptide synthesis conditions....

  11. Speciation analysis of aqueous nanoparticulate diclofenac complexes by solid-phase microextraction

    Zielinska, K.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Thibault, S.; Town, R.M.


    The dynamic sorption of an organic compound by nanoparticles (NPs) is analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the example case of the pharmaceutical diclofenac in dispersions of impermeable (silica, SiO(2)) and permeable (bovine serum albumin, BSA) NPs. It is shown that only the protonate

  12. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek


    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees.

  13. Solid-phase synthesis of succinylhydroxamate peptides : Functionalized matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors

    Leeuwenburgh, MA; Geurink, PP; Klein, T; Kauffman, HF; van der Marel, GA; Bischoff, R; Overkleeft, HS


    A novel solid-phase synthesis strategy toward succinylhydroxamate peptides, using an appropriately protected hydroxamate building block, is described. Rapid and efficient access is gained to amine-functionalized peptides, which can be decorated with, for instance, a fluorescent label. In addition, w

  14. A review on solid phase extraction of actinides and lanthanides with amide based extractants.

    Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K


    Solid phase extraction is gaining attention from separation scientists due to its high chromatographic utility. Though both grafted and impregnated forms of solid phase extraction resins are popular, the later is easy to make by impregnating a given organic extractant on to an inert solid support. Solid phase extraction on an impregnated support, also known as extraction chromatography, combines the advantages of liquid-liquid extraction and the ion exchange chromatography methods. On the flip side, the impregnated extraction chromatographic resins are less stable against leaching out of the organic extractant from the pores of the support material. Grafted resins, on the other hand, have a higher stability, which allows their prolong use. The goal of this article is a brief literature review on reported actinide and lanthanide separation methods based on solid phase extractants of both the types, i.e., (i) ligand impregnation on the solid support or (ii) ligand functionalized polymers (chemically bonded resins). Though the literature survey reveals an enormous volume of studies on the extraction chromatographic separation of actinides and lanthanides using several extractants, the focus of the present article is limited to the work carried out with amide based ligands, viz. monoamides, diamides and diglycolamides. The emphasis will be on reported applied experimental results rather than on data pertaining fundamental metal complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A convenient procedure for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids on PEGA resins

    Nandurkar, Nitin Subhash; Petersen, Rico; Qvortrup, Katrine


    An efficient method for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids is described. The method comprises the nucleophilic displacement of esters immobilized on PEGA resins with hydroxylamine/sodium hydroxide in isopropanol. The hydroxyaminolysis protocol is compatible with a broad range of PEGA-s...

  16. A Rapid Solid-phase Synthesis to Soluble Oligothiophene Molecular Wires


    A novel method for the preparation of oligothiophene molecular wires is described via a bi-directional solid-phase synthesis. Using an alternating sequence of bromination and Stille coupling reactions, oligomers were obtained up to the heptamer in excellent yield and purity.

  17. Linkers, resins, and general procedures for solid-phase peptide synthesis

    Shelton, Anne Pernille Tofteng; Jensen, Knud Jørgen


    and linkers for solid-phase synthesis is a key parameter for successful peptide synthesis. This chapter provides an overview of the most common and useful resins and linkers for the synthesis of peptides with C-terminal amides, carboxylic acids, and more. The chapter finishes with robust protocols for general...

  18. Total synthesis of human urotension-Ⅱ by microwave-assisted solid phase method


    Human urotension-Ⅱ was synthesized efficiently on Wang resin under microwave irradiation using Fmoc/tBu orthogonal protection strategy. Disulphide bridge was formed on solid phase with the irradiation of microwave, then the whole peptide was cleaved from the resin. The purity of crude peptide cyclized under microwave irradiation was higher than that under room temperature.

  19. Solid-phase Synthesis of a Novel Kind of Hydroxylated Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Tao PENG; Chu Yi YU; Zhi Tang HUANG


    An efficient solid-phase synthesis method for novel heterocyclic ketene aminals containing a hydroxyl group has been developed. The loading of the substrate on the resin through the hydroxyl group and the protection of the amine by the Schiff base were the key steps in the synthesis.

  20. Fibers coated with molecularly imprinted polymers for solid-phase microextraction

    Koster, E.H M; Crescenzi, C; den Hoedt, W; Ensing, K; de Jong, G.J.


    The simplicity and flexibility of solid-phase microextraction have been combined with the selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), Silica fibers were coated reproducible with a 75-mum layer of methacrylate polymer either nonimprinted or imprinted with clenbuterol to compare their extrac

  1. Dynamic speciation analysis of atrazine in aqueous latex nanoparticle dispersions using solid phase microextraction (SPME)

    Benhabib, K.; Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.


    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the dynamic speciation analysis of the pesticide atrazine in an aqueous medium containing sorbing latex nanoparticles. It is found that the overall rate of extraction of the analyte is faster than in the absence of nanoparticles and governed by the

  2. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko


    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  3. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Smac Peptidomimetics Incorporating Triazoloprolines and Biarylalanines

    Le Quement, Sebastian T.; Ishoey, Mette; Petersen, Mette T.;


    -Me)AVPF sequence, peptides incorporating triazoloprolines and biarylalanines were synthesized by means of Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition and Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. Solid-phase procedures were optimized to high efficiency, thus accessing all products in excellent crude purities...

  4. Rapid and convenient semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of arylopeptoids

    Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Boccia, Marcello Massimo; Nielsen, John


    A facile and expedient route to the synthesis of arylopeptoid oligomers (N-alkylated aminomethyl benz-amides) using semi-automated microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis is presented. The synthesis was optimized for the incorporation of side chains derived from sterically hindered or unreactive...

  5. A lab-on-a-chip device for rapid identification of avian influenza viral RNA by solid-phase PCR

    Yi, Sun; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bang, Dang Duong


    This paper describes a lab-on-a-chip device for fast AIV screening by integrating DNA microarray-based solid-phase PCR on a microfluidic chip.......This paper describes a lab-on-a-chip device for fast AIV screening by integrating DNA microarray-based solid-phase PCR on a microfluidic chip....

  6. A photolabile linker for the solid-phase synthesis of 4-substituted NH-1,2,3-triazoles

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland


    A novel photolabile linker for solid-phase synthesis is presented. The linker displays an azido handle for copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reactions with a variety of alkynes, remains intact under typical solid-phase reaction conditions, and enables a mild photolytic release of 4-subs...

  7. The Effects of Solid Phase Additives on Sintering Properties of Alumina Bioceramic

    WANG Xin-yu; LI Shi-pu; HE Jian-hua; JIANG Xin; LI Jian-hua


    In order to reduce the sintering temperature and improve the preparing conditions of alumina bioceramics,the Mg-Zr-Y composite solid phase additives were added into high purity Al2O3 micro-powder by chemical coprecipitation method.The powder was shaped under 200MPa cold isostatic pressure,and then the biscuits were sintered at 1600℃ under normal pressure.The sintered alumina materials were tested and the sintering mechanism was discussed.The results show that physical properties of the material were improved comparatively.The Mg-Zr-Y composite solid additives could promote the sintering of alumina bioceramics and the mechanism is solid phase sintering.

  8. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis and Catalysis: Some Recent Strategies Using Alumina, Silica, and Polyionic Resins

    Basudeb Basu


    Full Text Available Solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS and catalysis have gained impetus after the seminal discovery of Merrifield’s solid-phase peptide synthesis and also because of wide applicability in combinatorial and high throughput chemistry. A large number of organic, inorganic, or organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been employed as polymeric solid supports to promote or catalyze various organic reactions. This review article provides a concise account on our approaches involving the use of (i alumina or silica, either having doped with metal salts or directly, and (ii polyionic resins to either promote various organic reactions or to immobilize reagents/metal catalysts for subsequent use in hydrogenation and cross-coupling reactions. The reaction parameters, scopes, and limitations, particularly in the context of green chemistry, have been highlighted with pertinent approaches by other groups.

  9. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.;


    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  10. Advances in automatic, manual and microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    Sabatino, Giuseppina; Papini, Anna M


    Solid-phase strategies speed up the production of both short- and long-sequence peptides compared with solution methodologies. Therefore, solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), proposed by Merrifield in the early 1960s, contributed to the 'Peptide Revolution' in the fields of diagnostics, and drug and vaccine development. Since then, peptide chemistry research has aimed to optimize these synthetic procedures, focusing on areas such as amide bond formation (the coupling step), solid supports and automation. Particular attention was devoted to the environmental impact of SPPS: the requirement for large amounts of organic solvents meant high costs for industrial peptide manufacturing that needed to be reduced. SPPS, alone or in hybrid technologies, has become strategic for the production of peptides as active pharmaceutical ingredients on a commercial scale.

  11. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar


    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  12. Silica-Based Solid Phase Extraction of DNA on a Microchip

    陈晓芳; 沈科跃; 刘鹏; 郭旻; 程京; 周玉祥


    Micro total analysis systems for chemical and biological analysis have attracted much attention.However,microchips for sample preparation and especially DNA purification are still underdeveloped.This work describes a solid phase extraction chip for purifying DNA from biological samples based on the adsorption of DNA on bare silica beads prepacked in a microchannel.The chip was fabricated with poly-dimethylsiloxane.The silica beads were packed in the channel on the chip with a tapered microchannel to form the packed bed.Fluorescence detection was used to evaluate the DNA adsorbing efficiency of the solid phase.The polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the quality of the purified DNA for further use.The extraction efficiency for the DNA extraction chip is approximately 50% with a 150-nL extraction volume.Successful amplification of DNA extracted from human whole blood indicates that this method is compatible with the polymerase chain reaction.

  13. Solid phase epitaxy amorphous silicon re-growth: some insight from empirical molecular dynamics simulation

    Krzeminski, Christophe; 10.1140/epjb/e2011-10958-7


    The modelling of interface migration and the associated diffusion mechanisms at the nanoscale level is a challenging issue. For many technological applications ranging from nanoelectronic devices to solar cells, more knowledge of the mechanisms governing the migration of the silicon amorphous/crystalline interface and dopant diffusion during solid phase epitaxy is needed. In this work, silicon recrystallisation in the framework of solid phase epitaxy and the influence on orientation effects have been investigated at the atomic level using empirical molecular dynamics simulations. The morphology and the migration process of the interface has been observed to be highly dependent on the original inter-facial atomic structure. The [100] interface migration is a quasi-planar ideal process whereas the cases [110] and [111] are much more complex with a more diffuse interface. For [110], the interface migration corresponds to the formation and dissolution of nanofacets whereas for [111] a defective based bilayer reor...

  14. Microwave spectroscopic observation of distinct electron solid phases in wide quantum wells.

    Hatke, A T; Liu, Yang; Magill, B A; Moon, B H; Engel, L W; Shayegan, M; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Baldwin, K W


    In high magnetic fields, two-dimensional electron systems can form a number of phases in which interelectron repulsion plays the central role, since the kinetic energy is frozen out by Landau quantization. These phases include the well-known liquids of the fractional quantum Hall effect, as well as solid phases with broken spatial symmetry and crystalline order. Solids can occur at the low Landau-filling termination of the fractional quantum Hall effect series but also within integer quantum Hall effects. Here we present microwave spectroscopy studies of wide quantum wells that clearly reveal two distinct solid phases, hidden within what in d.c. transport would be the zero diagonal conductivity of an integer quantum-Hall-effect state. Explanation of these solids is not possible with the simple picture of a Wigner solid of ordinary (quasi) electrons or holes.

  15. Anisotropic kinetics of solid phase transition from first principles: alpha-omega phase transformation of Zr.

    Guan, Shu-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan


    Structural inhomogeneity is ubiquitous in solid crystals and plays critical roles in phase nucleation and propagation. Here, we develop a heterogeneous solid-solid phase transition theory for predicting the prevailing heterophase junctions, the metastable states governing microstructure evolution in solids. Using this theory and first-principles pathway sampling simulation, we determine two types of heterophase junctions pertaining to metal α-ω phase transition at different pressures and predict the reversibility of transformation only at low pressures, i.e. below 7 GPa. The low-pressure transformation is dominated by displacive Martensitic mechanism, while the high-pressure one is controlled by the reconstructive mechanism. The mechanism of α-ω phase transition is thus highly pressure-sensitive, for which the traditional homogeneous model fails to explain the experimental observations. The results provide the first atomic-level evidence on the coexistence of two different solid phase transition mechanisms in one system.

  16. The Use of Aryl Hydrazide Linkers for the Solid Phase Synthesis of Chemically Modified Peptides

    Woo, Y; Mitchell, A R; Camarero, J A


    Since Merrifield introduced the concept of solid phase synthesis in 1963 for the rapid preparation of peptides, a large variety of different supports and resin-linkers have been developed that improve the efficiency of peptide assembly and expand the myriad of synthetically feasible peptides. The aryl hydrazide is one of the most useful resin-linkers for the synthesis of chemically modified peptides. This linker is completely stable during Boc- and Fmoc-based solid phase synthesis and yet it can be cleaved under very mild oxidative conditions. The present article reviews the use of this valuable linker for the rapid and efficient synthesis of C-terminal modified peptides, head-to-tail cyclic peptides and lipidated peptides.

  17. 西仑吉肽的固相合成%Solid phase synthesis of cilengitide

    张波; 王卫国; 康武; 智小霞; 姚忠; 徐红岩


    Fully-protected linear peptide was synthesized by Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis methods. The solid phase carrier was 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin. HATU/HOBt and HBTU/HOBt were used as the coupling reagents. The synthesis of fully-protected cyclic peptide used THF/DCM ( at a ratio of 1: 1 by volume) as the solvent and HATU/HOBt as the coupling reagents. Finally cilengitide could be obtained by deprotection reaction.%采用Fmoc固相合成法,选用2-氯三苯甲基氯树脂作为固相载,HBTU/HOBt和HATU/HOBt为缩合剂,合成全保护线性肽.以V(DCM)∶V(THF)= 1∶1为溶剂,HATU/HOBt为缩合剂,合成全保护环肽.最后脱除保护基得终产物西仑吉肽.

  18. The Solid Phase Curing Time Effect of Asbuton with Texapon Emulsifier at the Optimum Bitumen Content

    Sarwono, D.; Surya D, R.; Setyawan, A.; Djumari


    Buton asphalt (asbuton) could not be utilized optimally in Indonesia. Asbuton utilization rate was still low because the processed product of asbuton still have impracticable form in the term of use and also requiring high processing costs. This research aimed to obtain asphalt products from asbuton practical for be used through the extraction process and not requiring expensive processing cost. This research was done with experimental method in laboratory. The composition of emulsify asbuton were 5/20 grain, premium, texapon, HCl, and aquades. Solid phase was the mixture asbuton 5/20 grain and premium with 3 minutes mixing time. Liquid phase consisted texapon, HCl and aquades. The aging process was done after solid phase mixing process in order to reaction and tie of solid phase mixed become more optimal for high solubility level of asphalt production. Aging variable time were 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes. Solid and liquid phase was mixed for emulsify asbuton production, then extracted for 25 minutes. Solubility level of asphalt, water level, and asphalt characteristic was tested at extraction result of emulsify asbuton with most optimum ashphal level. The result of analysis tested data asphalt solubility level at extract asbuton resulted 94.77% on 120 minutes aging variable time. Water level test resulted water content reduction on emulsify asbuton more long time on occurring of aging solid phase. Examination of asphalt characteristic at extraction result of emulsify asbuton with optimum asphalt solubility level, obtain specimen that have rigid and strong texture in order that examination result have not sufficient ductility and penetration value.

  19. Design of indirect solid-phase immunosorbent methods for detecting arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A.


    Specifications have been elaborated for formulating indirect solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) methods that employ anti-human and anti-mice G class immunoglobulin (IgG), conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I for detecting the arenaviruses Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amalpari, Tamiami, Lassa, and LCM (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). These methods make it possible to identify with a high degree of sensitivity arenavirus antigens and antibodies in various kinds of material.

  20. Determination of zinc in environmental samples by solid phase spectrophotometry: optimization and validation study

    Molina, Mar??a Francisca; Nechar, Mounir; Bosque-Sendra, Juan M.


    A simple and specific solid-phase spectrophotometric (SPS) determination of zinc in ??g dm-3 level has been developed based on the reaction of Zn(II) with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) in the presence of potassium iodide; the product was then fixed on an anionic exchanger. The absorbance of the gel, packed in a 1 mm cell, is measured directly. PAR and KI concentrations were optimized simultaneously using response surface methodology (RSM) from sequential experimental Doehlert designs. The ...

  1. Zirconyl chloride promoted highly efficient solid phase synthesis of amide derivatives


    An efficient solid phase route for the synthesis of amide derivatives by the reaction of carboxylic acids with urea in the presence of catalytic amount of zirconyl chloride under microwave irradiation conditions was described. In this way, a range of interesting amide derivatives was obtained in good to excellent yields. The catalyst was recycled with fresh reactants and it gave almost similar results without significant loss of activity up to the third run.

  2. R. Bruce Merrifield and Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Historical Assessment

    Mitchell, A R


    Bruce Merrifield, trained as a biochemist, had to address three major challenges related to the development and acceptance of solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The challenges were (1) to reduce the concept of peptide synthesis on a insoluble support to practice, (2) overcome the resistance of synthetic chemists to this novel approach, and (3) establish that a biochemist had the scientific credentials to effect the proposed revolutionary change in chemical synthesis. How these challenges were met is discussed in this article.

  3. A New Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Solid-phase Extraction of Cotinine from Human Urine

    Jun YANG; Xiao Lan ZHU; Ji Bao CAI; Qing De SU; Yun GAO; Liang ZHANG


    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), prepared around a cotinine template, has been synthesized. The feasibility of using the polymer for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of cotinine from biological samples has been investigated. The results show that cotinine can be quantitatively retained and eluted from the polymer. Experiments with human urine samples indicate that clean target analyte is obtained for HPLC with UV detection using the protocol.

  4. Selective fiber used for headspace solid-phase microextraction of abused drugs in human urine

    Sunanta Wangkarn


    A sensitive and selective fiber for simultaneous analysis of three drugs of abuse (amphetamine, methamphetamine and ephedrine) in urine samples was explored using headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Several parameters affecting extraction such as extraction time, extraction temperature, pH of solution and salt concentrations were investigated. Among five commercially available fibers, divinylbenzene/carboxen/ polydimethylsiloxane is th...

  5. Solid-phase cloning for high-throughput assembly of single and multiple DNA parts

    Lundqvist, Magnus; Edfors, Fredrik; Sivertsson, Åsa


    We describe solid-phase cloning (SPC) for high-throughput assembly of expression plasmids. Our method allows PCR products to be put directly into a liquid handler for capture and purification using paramagnetic streptavidin beads and conversion into constructs by subsequent cloning reactions. We...... at an average success rate above 80%. We report on several applications for SPC and we suggest it to be particularly suitable for high-throughput efforts using laboratory workstations....

  6. Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of peptide thioesters by masking as trithioortho esters

    Brask, Jesper; Albericio, F.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen


    Total chemical synthesis of proteins by chemoselective ligation relies on C-terminal peptide thioesters as building blocks. Their preparation by standard Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis is made difficult by the lability of thioesters to aminolysis by the secondary amines used for removal of th...... of the Fmoc group. Here we present a novel backbone amide linker (BAL) strategy for their synthesis in which the thioester functionality is masked as a trithioortho ester throughout the synthesis....

  7. Solid-phase microextraction for flavor analysis in Harari Khat (Catha edulis) stimulant

    AL-FLAHI Abdulsalam; ZOU Jian-kai (邹建凯); YIN Xue-feng (殷学锋)


    This research examined the typical flavor compounds in the commonest type of Khat called Harari Khat grown in the region of Ethiopia. Twenty-eight compounds, which includes 1,2-Propanedione, 1-Phenyl, Hexanol, Hexanal compounds, Limonene, Benzaldehyde with other flavors, were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane at room temperature for 30 min from Khat samples, and identified by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME- GC-MS). This method needs no organic solvents and required minimal sample.

  8. Effect of Microwave Radiation on Enzymatic and Chemical Peptide Bond Synthesis on Solid Phase

    Alessandra Basso


    Full Text Available Peptide bond synthesis was performed on PEGA beads under microwave radiations. Classical chemical coupling as well as thermolysin catalyzed synthesis was studied, and the effect of microwave radiations on reaction kinetics, beads' integrity, and enzyme activity was assessed. Results demonstrate that microwave radiations can be profitably exploited to improve reaction kinetics in solid phase peptide synthesis when both chemical and biocatalytic strategies are used.

  9. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis of Aryl Vinyl Ethers Using Sulfone-Linking Strategy

    余腊妹; 汤妮; 盛寿日; 陈茹冰; 刘晓玲; 蔡明中


    A novel facile solid-phase organic synthesis of aryl vinyl ethers by reaction of polystyrene-supported 2-phenylsulfonylethanol with phenols under Mitsunobu conditions and subsequent elimination reaction with DBU has been developed. The advantages of this method include straightforward operation, good yield and high purity of the products. Alternatively, a typical example of Suzuki coupling reaction on-resin was further applied to prepare 4-phenylphenyl vinyl ether for extending this method.

  10. Solid-phase reduction of Cr2O3 under chemical catalytic conditions

    Simonov, V. K.; Grishin, A. M.


    The kinetics of the solid-phase reduction of Cr2O3 with carbon under chemical catalytic action on the reacting system is studied. A significant intensification of the process in the presence of small amounts of potassium and sodium salts is established. The concepts of the catalyst action mechanism are considered and experimentally substantiated. Manufacture of iron-chromium master alloys with a restricted content of carbon can be organized at low temperatures, and they can be used in steelmaking.

  11. Preparation of high-quality poly-Si films by a solid phase crystallizing method

    Yao Ruo He


    A solid phase crystallizing method has been developed to grow a Si crystal at temperatures as low as 550 degree C. Using this method, a high-quality thin-film polycrystalline silicon (Poly-Si) was obtained. The largest grain size, examined with X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy images of recrystallized samples, is approximately 1 mu m for substrate temperature at 300 degree C and annealed at 550 degree C for 3 hours

  12. Determination of Trace Amount of Yttrium with Bromopyrogallol Red by Solid-phase Spectrophotometry


    A simple and sensitive method for the determination of trace amount of yttrium by solid-phase spectrophotometry has been studied. Yttrium can form a 1∶1 complex with bromopyrogallol red (BPR) on resin, which was determined directly at 605 nm, pH=6.5. It has a highly sensitivity ( = 6.3€?06) which is 300-fold higher than the corresponding spectrophotometry in solution. The method was applied to the determination of yttrium in churchite.

  13. Studies on solid phase synthesis,characterization and fluorescent property of the new rare earth complexes

    Shi, Jianwei; Xiaoxu TENG; Wang, Linling; Long, Rong


    Rare earth-β-diketone ligand complex luminescent material has stable chemical properties and excellent luminous property. Using europium oxide and (γ-NTA) as raw materials, novel rare earth-β-dione complexes are synthesized by solid state coordination chemistry. The synthesis temperature and milling time are discussed for optimization. Experimental results show that the suitable reaction situation is at 50 ℃ and 20 h for solid-phase synthesis. The compositions and structures of the complexes...

  14. The Synthesis of QADMAA and its Application to the Solid Phase ...

    and the solid phase extraction of the Co(II)-QADMAA chelate with C18 membrane disks was .... For up to 2.4 µg of Co(II), the use of about 5~10 mL 5 × 10–4 ..... 22 benzoic acid. 2-(3,5-Dibromo-2-pyridylazo)-diaminotoluene. pH 4–8. 590. 13.4.

  15. Determination of formaldehyde in Brazilian alcohol fuels by flow-injection solid phase spectrophotometry

    Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Leão, Elsimar S.; Dantas,Alailson Falcão; Pinheiro, Heloísa Lúcia C.; Costa, Antonio Celso Spinola; Andrade,Jailson Bittencourt de


    p. 711–715 In thiswork, a solid phase spectrophotometric method in association with flowinjection analysis for formaldehyde determination has been developed with direct measurement of light-absorption in C18 material. The 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine produced from the reaction between formaldehyde and fluoral P was quantitatively retained on C18 support and the spectrophotometric detection was performed simultaneously at 412 nm. The retained complex was quickly eluted from C18 mater...


    S. Manna


    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatographic determination of organophosphorous compound has been done by reverse phase chromatography in goats. The goats were dying showing the symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning. The viscera and stomach contents sample were received from Project Co-Ordinator, Animal Disease Research Institute, Phulnakhara, Cuttack, Orissa. The analysis of samples by HPLC with UV detector after cleaning up in Solid Phase Extraction (SPE revealed presence of malathion that was later quantified.

  17. Direct molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for a three-component plasma.

    Hughto, J; Horowitz, C J; Schneider, A S; Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew; Berry, D K


    The neutron-rich isotope ²²Ne may be a significant impurity in carbon and oxygen white dwarfs and could impact how the stars freeze. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the influence of ²²Ne in carbon-oxygen-neon systems on liquid-solid phase equilibria. Both liquid and solid phases are present simultaneously in our simulation volumes. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions in our simulations using a bond angle metric. In general we find good agreement for the composition of liquid and solid phases between our MD simulations and the semianalytic model of Medin and Cumming. The trace presence of a third component, neon, does not appear to strongly impact the chemical separation found previously for two-component carbon and oxygen systems. This suggests that small amounts of ²²Ne may not qualitatively change how the material in white dwarf stars freezes. However, we do find systematically lower melting temperatures (higher Γ) in our MD simulations compared to the semianalytic model. This difference seems to grow with impurity parameter Q_{imp} and suggests a problem with simple corrections to the linear mixing rule for the free energy of multicomponent solid mixtures that is used in the semianalytic model.

  18. Direct MD simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for three-component plasma

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew; Berry, D K


    The neutron rich isotope 22Ne may be a significant impurity in carbon and oxygen white dwarfs and could impact how the stars freeze. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the influence of 22Ne in carbon-oxygen-neon systems on liquid-solid phase equilibria. Both liquid and solid phases are present simultaneously in our simulation volumes. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions in our simulations using a bond angle metric. In general we find good agreement for the composition of liquid and solid phases between our MD simulations and the semi analytic model of Medin and Cumming. The trace presence of a third component, neon, does not appear to strongly impact the chemical separation found previously for two component carbon and oxygen systems. This suggests that small amounts of 22Ne may not qualitatively change how the material in white dwarf stars freezes. However, we do find systematically lower melting temperatures (higher Gamma) in our MD simulations compared to the semi analytic ...


    S. J. Shahtaheri, H. R. Heidari, F. Golbabaei, M. Alimohammadi, A. Rahimi Froshani


    Full Text Available Conventional analytical method for organic pollutants in water requires extraction of the pollutants, using hazardous solvent. Solid phase microextraction is a solvent free equilibrium extraction method, in which, proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of organic pollutants at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. Because individual volatile organic carbons are generally exposed environmentally and present in urine only at trace levels, a sensitive and accurate determination technique is essential. So, this study describes the optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME followed by GC-FID for benzene in spiked urine. Through this investigations, the parameters affecting the extraction and gas chromatographic determination of analytes, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were studied. An optimized headspace extraction was carried out at 30°C for 6 min in the presence of 0.2 g/mL of NaCl in the sample solution. Desorption of the analytes was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The accuracy, linearity, detection limits were also determined. The headspace solid phase microextraction, GC-FID technique provides a relatively simple, convenient, practical procedure, which was here successfully applied to determine benzene in spiked urine.

  20. Solid phase speciation of Zn and Cd in zinc smelter effluent-irrigated soils

    Prasenjit Ray


    Full Text Available Solubility of metal in contaminated soils is a key factor which controls the phytoavailability and toxic effects of metals on soil environment. The chemical equilibria of metal ions between soil solution and solid phases govern the solubility of metals in soil. Hence, an attempt was made to identify the probable solid phases (minerals, which govern the solubility of Zn2+ and Cd2+ in zinc smelter effluent-irrigated soils. Estimation of free ion activities of Zn2+ (pZn2+ and Cd2+ (pCd2+ by Baker soil test indicated that metal ion activities were higher in smelter effluent-irrigated soils as compared to that in tubewell water-irrigated soils. Identification of solid phases further reveals that free ion activity of Zn2+ and Cd2+ in soil highly contaminated with Zn and Cd due to long-term irrigation with zinc smelter effluent is limited by the solubility of willemite (Zn2SiO4 in equilibrium with quartz and octavite (CdCO3, respectively. However, in case of tubewell water-irrigated soil, franklinite (ZnFe2O4 in equilibrium with soil-Fe and exchangeable Cd are likely to govern the activity of Zn2+ and Cd2+ in soil solution, respectively. Formation of highly soluble minerals namely, willemite and octavite indicates the potential ecological risk of Zn and Cd, respectively in smelter effluent irrigated soil.

  1. The isolation of soyasaponins by fractional precipitation, solid phase extraction, and low pressure liquid chromatography.

    Gurfinkel, D M; Reynolds, W F; Rao, A V


    Bioactive soyasaponins are present in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, the isolation of soyasaponins in relatively pure form (>80%) using precipitation, solid phase extraction and reverse phase low pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) is described. Soy flour soyasaponins were separated from non-saponins by methanol extraction and precipitation with ammonium sulphate. Acetylated group A soyasaponins were isolated first by solid phase extraction followed by RP-LPLC (solvent: ethanol-water). Soyasaponins, from a commercial preparation, were saponified and fractionated into deacetylated group A and group B soyasaponins by solid phase extraction (methanol-water). Partial hydrolysis of group B soyasaponins produced a mixture of soyasaponin III and soyasapogenol B monoglucuronide. RP-LPLC of deacetylated group A soyasaponins separated soyasaponin A1 and A2 (38% methanol); of group B soyasaponins isolated soyasaponin I (50% ethanol); and of the partial hydrolysate separated soyasaponin III from soyasapogenol B monoglucuronide (50% ethanol). This methodology provides soyasaponin fractions that are suitable for biological evaluation.

  2. Comparative evaluation of four trityl-type amidomethyl polystyrene resins in Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis.

    Zikos, Christos; Livaniou, Evangelia; Leondiadis, Leondios; Ferderigos, Nikolas; Ithakissios, Dionyssis S; Evangelatos, Gregory P


    Four trityl-type (i.e. non-substituted trityl-, o-Cl-trityl-, o-F-trityl- and p-CN-trityl-) amidomethyl polystyrene resins were evaluated comparatively, in terms of the stability of the trityl-ester bond in slightly acidic dichloromethane solutions, and the p-CN-trityl-amidomethyl polystyrene resin was found to be the most stable of them. The above resins were applied, in parallel with Wang benzyl-type resin, well known for its stability in mild acidic conditions, to the Fmoc solid phase synthesis of the 43-amino acid residue long bioactive peptide thymosin beta-4. Independent of their differences in acid sensitivity, the resins seemed to function equally well under the conditions used, since pure thymosin beta-4 was obtained with a final yield of approximately 30% from each resin. The trityl-type amidomethyl polystyrene resins were also applied, in parallel with the Wang resin, to the Fmoc solid phase synthesis of a bioactive peptide containing proline at its C-terminus, i.e. the N-terminal tetrapeptide of thymosin beta-4, AcSDKP. In this case, the best yield (87%) was obtained with the o-Cl-trityl-amidomethyl polystyrene resin, which may be the resin of choice, of those studied, for the Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis.

  3. Preparation of fluorescent DNA probe by solid-phase organic synthesis


    Full Text Available Fluorescent DNA probe based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET was prepared by solid-phase organic synthesis when CdTe quantum dots (QDs were as energy donors and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs were as energy accepters. The poly(divinylbenzene core/poly(4-vinylpyridine shell microspheres, as solid-phase carriers, were prepared by seeds distillation-precipitation polymerization with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator in neat acetonitrile. The CdTe QDs and AuNPs were self-assembled on the surface of core/shell microspheres, and then the linkage of CdTe QDs with oligonucleotides (CdTe-DNA and AuNPs with complementary single-stranded DNA (Au-DNA was on the solid-phase carriers instead of in aqueous solution. The hybridization of complementary double stranded DNA (dsDNA bonded to the QDs and AuNPs (CdTe-dsDNA-Au determined the FRET distance of CdTe QDs and AuNPs. Compared with the fluorescence of CdTe-DNA, the fluorescence of CdTe-dsDNA-Au conjugates (DNA probes decreased extremely, which indicated that the FRET occurred between CdTe QDs and AuNPs. The probe system would have a certain degree recovery of fluorescence when the complementary single stranded DNA was introduced into this system, which showed that the distance between CdTe QDs and AuNPs was increased.

  4. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction monolithic capillary column for selective extraction and sensitive determination of safranine T in wolfberry.

    Su, Zihao; Zhai, Haiyun; Chen, Zuanguang; Zhou, Qing; Li, Jiangmei; Liu, Zhenping


    A method was developed to sensitively determine safranine T in wolfberry by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). The MISPE capillary monolithic column was prepared by water-bath in situ polymerization, using safranine T, methacrylic acid (MAA), and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The properties of the homemade MISPE capillary monolithic column, including capacity and specificity, were investigated under optimized conditions and the morphologies of inner polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean recoveries of safranine T in wolfberry ranged from 91.2 % to 92.9 % and the intraday and interday relative standard deviation (RSD) values all ranged from 3.4 % to 4.2 %. Good linearity was obtained over 0.001-1.0 μg mL(-1) (r = 0.9999) with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.4 ng g(-1). Under the selected conditions, enrichment factors of over 90-fold were obtained and the extraction on the monolithic column effectively cleaned up the wolfberry matrix. The results demonstrated that the proposed MISPE-HPLC-LIF method could be applied to sensitively determine safranine T in wolfberry.

  5. Rise of the Micromachines: Microfluidics and the Future of Cytometry

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew


    The past decade has brought many innovations to the field of flow and image-based cytometry. These advancements can be seen in the current miniaturization trends and simplification of analytical components found in the conventional flow cytometers. On the other hand, the maturation of multispectral imaging cytometry in flow imaging and the slide-based laser scanning cytometers offers great hopes for improved data quality and throughput while proving new vistas for the multiparameter, real-time analysis of cells and tissues. Importantly, however, cytometry remains a viable and very dynamic field of modern engineering. Technological milestones and innovations made over the last couple of years are bringing the next generation of cytometers out of centralized core facilities while making it much more affordable and user friendly. In this context, the development of microfluidic, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies is one of the most innovative and cost-effective approaches toward the advancement of cytometry. LOC devices promise new functionalities that can overcome current limitations while at the same time promise greatly reduced costs, increased sensitivity, and ultra high throughputs. We can expect that the current pace in the development of novel microfabricated cytometric systems will open up groundbreaking vistas for the field of cytometry, lead to the renaissance of cytometric techniques and most importantly greatly support the wider availability of these enabling bioanalytical technologies. PMID:21704837

  6. Immobilization and functional reconstitution of antibody Fab fragment by solid-phase refolding.

    Kumada, Yoichi; Hamasaki, Kyoto; Nakagawa, Aya; Sasaki, Eiju; Shirai, Tatsunori; Okumura, Masahiro; Inoue, Manami; Kishimoto, Michimasa


    In this study, we demonstrated the successful preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized hydrophilic polystyrene (phi-PS) plate via one- and two-step solid-phase refolding methods. Both polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag)-fused Fd fragment of heavy chain (Fab H-PS) and full-length of light-chain (Fab L-PS) were individually produced in insoluble fractions of Escherichia coli cells, and they were highly purified in the presence of 8M of urea. Antigen-binding activities of Fab antibody immobilized were correctly recovered by the one-step solid-phase refolding method that a mixture of Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS was immobilized in the presence of 0.5-2M urea, followed by surface washing of the phi-PS plate with PBST. These results indicate that by genetic fusion of a PS-tag, a complex between Fab H and Fab L was efficiently immobilized on the surface of a phi-PS plate even in the presence of a low concentration of urea, and was then correctly refolded to retain its high antigen-binding activity via removal of the urea. A two-step solid-phase refolding method whereby Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS were successively refolded on the surface of a phi-PS plate also resulted in Fab antibody formation on the plate. Furthermore, both the binding affinity and the specificity of the Fab antibody produced by the two-step method were highly maintained, according to the results of sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA using Fab antibody-immobilized plate via two-step solid-phase refolding. Thus, the solid-phase refolding method demonstrated in this study should be quite useful for the preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized PS surface with high efficiency from individually produced Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS. This method will be applicable to the preparation of a large Fab antibody library on the surface of a PS plate for use in antibody screening.

  7. Flow cytometry of murine spermatocytes.

    Gaysinskaya, Valeriya; Bortvin, Alex


    Protocols for purification of murine male germ cells by FACS based on Hoechst 33342 (Ho342) dye staining have been reported and optimized. However, the protocols are often challenging to follow, partly due to difficulties related to sample preparation, instrument parameters, data display, and selection strategies. In addition, troubleshooting of flow cytometry experiments usually requires some fluency in technical principles and instrument specifications and settings. This unit describes setup and procedures for analysis and sorting of male meiotic prophase I (MPI) cells and other germ cells. Included are procedures that guide data acquisition, display, gating, and back-gating critical for optimal data visualization and cell sorting. Additionally, a flow cytometry analysis of spermatogenesis-defective testis is provided to illustrate the applicability of the technique to the characterization and purification of cells from mutant testis.

  8. Teaching Phagocytosis Using Flow Cytometry

    John Boothby


    Full Text Available Investigative microbiology on protists in a basic teaching laboratory environment is limited by student skill level, ease of microbial culture and manipulation, instrumentation, and time. The flow cytometer is gaining use as a mainstream instrument in research and clinical laboratories, but has had minimal application in teaching laboratories. Although the cost of a flow cytometer is currently prohibitive for many microbiology teaching environments and the number of trained instructors and teaching materials is limited, in many ways the flow cytometer is an ideal instrument for teaching basic microbiology. We report here on a laboratory module to study phagocytosis in Tetrahymena sp. using flow cytometry in a basic microbiology teaching laboratory. Students and instructors found the flow cytometry data analysis program, Paint-A-GatePRO-TM, to be very intuitive and easy to learn within a short period of time. Assessment of student learning about Tetrahymena sp., phagocytosis, flow cytometry, and investigative microbiology using an inquiry-based format demonstrated an overall positive response from students.

  9. Synthesis of metronidazole-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymers by distillation precipitation polymerization and their use as a solid-phase adsorbent and chromatographic filler.

    Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Lu; Li Han Song, Le; Liu, Yuan; Tang, Hui; Li, Yingchun


    Metronidazole-imprinted polymers with superior recognition properties were prepared by a novel strategy called distillation-precipitation polymerization. The as-obtained polymers were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size determination and scanning electron microscopy, and their binding performances were evaluated in detail by static, kinetic and dynamic rebinding tests, and Scatchard analysis. The results showed that when the fraction of the monomers was 5 vol% in the whole reaction system, the prepared polymers afforded good morphology, monodispersity, and high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity to the target molecule, metronidazole. The optimal binding performance is 12.41 mg/g for metronidazole just before leakage occurred and 38.51 mg/g at saturation in dynamic rebinding tests. Metronidazole-imprinted polymers were further applied as packing agents in solid-phase extraction and as chromatographic filler, both of which served for the detection of metronidazole in fish tissue. The results illustrated the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 82.97 to 87.83% by using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction combined with a C18 commercial column and 93.7 to 101.2% by directly using the polymer-packed chromatographic column. The relative standard deviation of both methods was less than 6%.

  10. Solid phase total synthesis of the 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone (Ahp) cyclodepsipeptide and protease inhibitor Symplocamide A.

    Stolze, Sara C; Meltzer, Michael; Ehrmann, Michael; Kaiser, Markus


    The solid phase total synthesis of the marine cyanobacterial Ahp-cyclodepsipeptide Symplocamide A is reported as a model for a general route for the synthesis of tailor-made non-covalent serine protease inhibitors.

  11. Comparison of solid-phase and eluate assays to gauge the ecotoxicological risk of organic wastes on soil organisms.

    Domene, Xavier; Alcañiz, Josep M; Andrés, Pilar


    Development of methodologies to assess the safety of reusing polluted organic wastes in soil is a priority in Europe. In this study, and coupled with chemical analysis, seven organic wastes were subjected to different aquatic and soil bioassays. Tests were carried out with solid-phase waste and three different waste eluates (water, methanol, and dichloromethane). Solid-phase assays were indicated as the most suitable for waste testing not only in terms of relevance for real situations, but also because toxicity in eluates was generally not representative of the chronic effects in solid-phase. No general correlations were found between toxicity and waste pollutant burden, neither in solid-phase nor in eluate assays, showing the inability of chemical methods to predict the ecotoxicological risks of wastes. On the contrary, several physicochemical parameters reflecting the degree of low organic matter stability in wastes were the main contributors to the acute toxicity seen in collembolans and daphnids.

  12. Structural control of Fe-based alloys through diffusional solid/solid phase transformations in a high magnetic field.

    Ohtsuka, Hideyuki


    A magnetic field has a remarkable influence on solid/solid phase transformations and it can be used to control the structure and function of materials during phase transformations. The effects of magnetic fields on diffusional solid/solid phase transformations, mainly from austenite to ferrite, in Fe-based alloys are reviewed. The effects of magnetic fields on the transformation temperature and phase diagram are explained thermodynamically, and the transformation behavior and transformed structures in magnetic fields are discussed.

  13. Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Assay: a tubeless method for pretransfusion testing and other applications in transfusion science.

    Ching, Eric


    Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Assay (SPRCA) is one of the two tubeless methods developed to improve sensitivity and specificity in blood group serology. The SPRCA (solid phase) and the column agglutination (gel) technology have gained wide acceptance following successful adaptation to fully automated platforms, The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, principle, procedures as well as laboratory and clinical applications of the SPRCA in transfusion medicine.

  14. Matrix solid-phase dispersion and solid-phase microextraction applied to study the distribution of fenbutatin oxide in grapes and white wine.

    Montes, R; Canosa, P; Lamas, J Pablo; Piñeiro, A; Orriols, I; Cela, R; Rodríguez, I


    The fate of the acaricide fenbutatin oxide (FBTO) during the elaboration of white wine is evaluated. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were used as sample preparation techniques applied to the semi-solid and the liquid matrices involved in this research, respectively. Selective determination of FBTO was achieved by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). GC coupled to mass spectrometry was also used to establish the identity of FBTO by-products detected in must and wine samples. MSPD extractions were accomplished using C18 as dispersant and co-sorbent. Sugars and other polar interferences were first removed with water and water/acetone mixtures, then FBTO was recovered with 8 mL of acetone. When used in combination with GC-AED, the MSPD method provided limits of quantification (LOQs) in the low nanogram per gram range, recoveries around 90% and relative standard deviations below 13% for extractions performed in different days. Performance of SPME for must and wine was mainly controlled by the extraction temperature, time and fibre coating. Under final conditions, FBTO was extracted in the headspace mode for 45 min at 100 degrees C, using a 100 microm poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated fibre. The achieved LOQs remained around or below 0.1 ng mL(-1), depending on the type of sample, and the inter-day precision ranged from 10% to 13%. FBTO residues in grapes stayed mostly on the skin of the fruit. Although FBTO was not removed during must and white wine elaboration, it remained associated with suspended particles existing in must and lees, settled after must fermentation, with a negligible risk of being transferred to commercialised wine. On the other hand, two by-products of FBTO (bis and mono (2-methyl-2-phenylpropyl) tin) were identified, for first time, in must and final white wines obtained from FBTO treated grapes. Found values for the first species ranged from 0.03 to 0.9 ng mL(-1).


    Yuliya Modna


    Full Text Available The acute destructive pneumonias (ADP occupy up to 80% of the total number of pneumonias. They require constant improvement of treatment strategy. Nowadays the use of surfactants is a part of most treatment protocols. The aim was to study the features of the solid phase bronchoalveolar lavage in children with the ADPs in the dynamics of complex treatment with exogenous surfactant.Material and methods: We examined 39 patients of contaminated surgery. We identified 2 groups of patients. The patients of first group (n=27 had pulmonary pleural form of ADP, the second group (n=12 had pulmonary form of ADP. All patients got classical treatment and the earlier draining of pleural cavity. We used as an antiseptic reamberin 1.5% by 10 ml/kg and endobronchially injected exogenous surfactant Bl in dose12 mg/kg body weight a day, 6 mg/kg every 12 hours. All the children were made a bronchoscopy to obtain BAL to study the crystallization properties. The solid phase of BAL was studied by method of cuneal dehydration.Results: All facies before treatment were divided into two groups according to classification of facies of biological fluids. Only the facies of the second and the third types were detected there. It was revealed that the sizes of the zones of the facies were different in the comparison groups before treatment and after. And the level of crystalline structures and amorphous aggregates were different in the groups with different degrees of inflammation.Conclusion: So, we can assume that the change in surfactant system is characterized by changes in the morphological structure of solids phases of BAL. And the morphological structure of BAL depends on the chemical composition of BAL.

  16. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC assay of nicotine and cotinine in plasma and brain.

    Dawson, Ralph; Messina, S M; Stokes, C; Salyani, S; Alcalay, N; De Fiebre, N C; De Fiebre, C M


    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable assay for nicotine (NIC) and its major metabolite, cotinine (COT), in plasma and brain. A method was developed that uses an extraction method compatible with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and ultraviolet (UV) detection. Sequential solid-phase extraction on silica columns followed by extraction using octadecyl (C18) columns resulted in mean percent recovery (n = 5) of 51 +/- 5, 64 +/- 10, and 52 +/- 10% for NIC, COT, and phenylimidazole (PI), respectively, in spiked 1-mL serum samples. Recovery (mean +/- SEM) of the internal standard (PI) from spiked samples of nicotine-injected rats averaged 64.1 +/- 1.5% (n = 138) from plasma, and 20.7+/-0.8% (n = 128) from brain. The limits of detection of NIC in plasma samples were approximately 8 ng per mL, and of COT, 13.6 ng per mL. Further optimization of our extraction method, using slower flow rates and solid-phase extraction on silica columns, followed by C18 column extraction, yielded somewhat better recoveries (38 +/-3%) for 1-mL brain homogenates. Interassay precision (coefficient of variation) was determined on the basis of daily calibrations for 2 months and was found to be 7%, 9%, and 9% for NIC, COT, and PI, respectively, whereas intra-assay variability was 3.9% for both NIC and COT. Limited studies were performed on analytical columns for comparison of retention, resolution, asymmetry, and column capacity. We concluded that a simple two-step solid-phase extraction method, coupled with HPLC separation and UV detection, can be used routinely to measure NIC and COT in biological fluids and tissues.

  17. Preconcentration of indapamide from human urine using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    Yılmaz, Hüma; Basan, Hasan


    A simple, sensitive, and selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and spectrophotometric method has been developed for the clean-up and preconcentration of indapamide from human urine. Molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared by a non-covalent imprinting approach using indapamide as a template molecule, 2-(trifluoromethyl) acrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker, N,N-azobisisobutyronitrile as a thermal initiator and acetonitrile as a porogenic solvent. A non-imprinted polymer was also prepared in the same way, but in the absence of template. Molecularly imprinted polymer and non-imprinted polymer sorbents were dry-packed into solid-phase extraction cartridges. Eluates from cartridges were analyzed using a spectrophotometer for the determination of indapamide by referring to the calibration curve in the range 0.14-1.50 μg/mL. Preconcentration factor, limit of detection, and limit of quantification were 16.30, 0.025 μg/mL, and 0.075 μg/mL, respectively. A relatively high imprinting factor (9.3) was also achieved and recovery values for the indapamide spiked into human urine were in the range of 80.1-81.2%. In addition, relatively low within-day (0.17-0.42%) and between-day (1.1-1.4%) precision values were obtained as well. The proposed molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and spectrophotometric method was successfully applied to selective extraction, preconcentration, and determination of indapamide from human urine samples.

  18. Solid-Phase Iminium Cyclization Reactions for the Synthesis of Natural Product-Like Diketopiperazines

    Petersen, Rico

    The development of methodology for the solid-phase synthesis of fused 2,5-diketopiperazines with an emphasis on structural and stereochemical control, has been accomplished through two different approaches. The first approach was based on a highly trans-stereoselective (82% d.e.) intramolecular N......]tetrahydroisoquinoline product in a high purity (71%). Unfortunately an issue with incomplete conversion in the final step (20%) rendered separation of the diastereoisomers, by preparative RP-HPLC, problematic. Employing the developed methods, a diastereoisomeric matrix of aminomethylthiophene hydroxamic acid biased HDAC...

  19. Solid-phase synthesis and biological evaluation of a combinatorial library of philanthotoxin analogues

    Strømgaard, K; Brier, T J; Andersen, K


    The modular structure of philanthotoxins was exploited for construction of the first combinatorial library of these compounds using solid-phase parallel synthesis. (S)-Tyrosine and (S)-3-hydroxyphenylalanine were used as amino acid components, spermine, 1,12-dodecanediamine, and 4,9-dioxa-1...... former compounds may bind to nAChR in a similar fashion but differently from that of PhTX-12. The combinatorial library approach described in this work represents a prototype methodology for future exploration of structure-activity relationships of philanthotoxins....

  20. Preparation of A New Fiber by Sol-gel Technology in Solid-phase Microextraction (SPME)

    Li Ming WEI; Qing Yu OU; Ju Bai LI


    The sol-gel technology is applied for the preparation of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The fiber demonstrates high thermal stability, efficient extraction rate and the selectivity for non-polar or low-polar analytes. Efficient SPME-GC-FID analyses of benzene- toluene-ethylbenzene-xylenes (BTEXs) and low-polar halocarbon were achieved by the sol-gel coated DSDA-DDBT-TiO2 fiber. Some parameters of the SPME fiber for the determination of halocarbon in aqueous sample were investigated.

  1. Challenges of infrared reflective spectroscopy of solid-phase explosives and chemicals on surfaces

    Phillips, Mark C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.


    Reliable active and passive hyperspectral imaging and detection of explosives and solid-phase chemical residue on surfaces remains a challenge and an active area of research and development. Both methods rely on reference libraries for material identification, but in many cases the reference spectra do not sufficiently resemble those instrumental signals scattered from real-world objects. We describe a physics-based model using the dispersive complex dielectric constant to explain what is often thought of as anomalous behavior of scattered or non-specular signatures encountered in active and passive sensing of explosives or chemicals on surfaces and show modeling and experimental results for RDX.

  2. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate

    Cooke, G. A.


    The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX®1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku®2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon®3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.

  3. Selective Solid-phase Extraction of Aloe Emodin from Aloe by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    TIAN Ming-lei; LEE Yu-ri; PARK Dong-wha; ROW Kyung-ho


    The extraction and separation of aloe emodin were optimized via selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.Molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared from the functional monomer,methacrylic acid and a mixture of ethanol/dodecanol(90/10,volume ratio) as porogen.It overcomes the common problems of imprinting biological polar compounds and shows high selectivity compared favorably with those of non-imprinted polymer and commercially available C18 and silica cartridges in similar aloe emodin tests.Good linearity was obtained between 0.002 and 2.5 mg/mL(r2=0.998) with relative standard deviations below 3.3%.

  4. Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.

    Saidane, Dorra; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Hervé


    The high sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines may be reduced by extracting the naturally present carbonyl compounds from wine that are responsible for carbonyl bisulphites formation. The carbonyl compounds mainly responsible for trapping SO2 are acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid. The method employed was selective solid phase extraction, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted onto a support prepared from raw materials derived from lignin. This approach is more acceptable to winemakers than the polymer media previously reported, as it reduces the possible contamination of wine to molecules already present in the wine making process.

  5. Solid-phase enolate chemistry investigated using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Fruchart, Jean-Sébastien; Lippens, Guy; Kuhn, Cyrille; Gras-Masse, Hélène; Melnyk, Oleg


    Supported P4-t-Bu enolate chemistry of phenylacetyloxymethyl polystyrene (PS) resin was investigated using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Direct analysis of the crude reaction suspensions through the use of a diffusion filter (DF) allowed a rapid selection of the optimal experimental conditions, but also the characterization of the enolate on the solid phase. Comparison with solution experiments and literature data allowed us to address partially the structure of the enolate. HR-MAS NMR spectra of the enolate revealed also a tight interaction of P4-t-Bu base with the polymer matrix.

  6. Solid-Phase Immunoassay of Polystyrene-Encapsulated Semiconductor Coreshells for Cardiac Marker Detection

    Sanghee Kim


    Full Text Available A solid-phase immunoassay of polystyrene-encapsulated semiconductor nanoparticles was demonstrated for cardiac troponin I (cTnI detection. CdSe/ZnS coreshells were encapsulated with a carboxyl-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticle to capture the target antibody through a covalent bonding and to eliminate the photoblinking and toxicity of semiconductor luminescent immunosensor. The polystyrene-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS fluorophores on surface-modified glass chip identified cTnI antigens at the level of ~ng/mL. It was an initial demonstration of diagnostic chip for monitoring a cardiovascular disease.

  7. Structurally Diverse Polyamines: Solid-Phase Synthesis and Interaction with DNA.

    Umezawa, Naoki; Horai, Yuhei; Imamura, Yuki; Kawakubo, Makoto; Nakahira, Mariko; Kato, Nobuki; Muramatsu, Akira; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Higuchi, Tsunehiko


    A versatile solid-phase approach based on peptide chemistry was used to construct four classes of structurally diverse polyamines with modified backbones: linear, partially constrained, branched, and cyclic. Their effects on DNA duplex stability and structure were examined. The polyamines showed distinct activities, thus highlighting the importance of polyamine backbone structure. Interestingly, the rank order of polyamine ability for DNA compaction was different to that for their effects on circular dichroism and melting temperature, thus indicating that these polyamines have distinct effects on secondary and higher-order structures of DNA.

  8. A solid-phase dot assay using silica/gold nanoshells

    Zharov Vladimir; Khlebtsov Boris; Dykman Lev; Bogatyrev Vladimir; Khlebtsov Nikolai


    AbstractWe report on the first application of silica-gold nanoshells to a solid-phase dot immunoassay. The assay principle is based on staining of a drop (1 µl) analyte on a nitrocellulose membrane strip by using silica/gold nanoshells conjugated with biospecific probing molecules. Experimental example is human IgG (hIgG, target molecules) and protein A (probing molecules). For usual 15-nm colloidal gold conjugates, the minimal detectable amount of hIgG is about 4 ng. By contrast, for na...

  9. Solid-phase microextraction for flavor analysis in Harari Khat (Catha edulis) stimulant

    AL-FLAHIAbdulsalam; 邹建凯; 殷学锋


    This research examined the typical flavor compounds in the commonest type of Khat called Harari Khat grown in the region of Ethiopia.Twenty-eight compounds, which includes 1,2-Propanedione,1-Phenyl,Hexanol,Hexanal compounds,Limonene, Benzaldehyde with other flavors, were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane at room temperature for 30min from Khat samples,and identified by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS).This method needs no organic solvents and required minimal sample.

  10. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna


    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  11. Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R


    Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber.

  12. Synthesis of silicon carbide nanowires by solid phase source chemical vapor deposition

    NI Jie; LI Zhengcao; ZHANG Zhengjun


    In this paper,we report a simple approach to synthesize silicon carbide(SiC)nanowires by solid phase source chemical vapor deposition(CVD) at relatively low temperatures.3C-SiC nanowires covered by an amorphous shell were obtained on a thin film which was first deposited on silicon substrates,and the nanowires are 20-80 am in diameter and several μm in length,with a growth direction of[200].The growth of the nanowires agrees well on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)process and the film deposited on the substrates plays an important role in the formation of nanowires.

  13. An efficient protocol for the solid-phase synthesis of glycopeptides under microwave irradiation.

    Garcia-Martin, Fayna; Hinou, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Takahiko; Hayakawa, Shun; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro


    A standardized and smooth protocol for solid-phase glycopeptides synthesis under microwave irradiation was developed. Double activation system was proved to allow for highly efficient coupling of Tn-Ser/Thr and bulky core 2-Ser/Thr derivatives. Versatility and robustness of the present strategy was demonstrated by constructing a Mucine-1 (MUC1) fragment and glycosylated fragments of tau protein. The success of this approach relies on the combination of microwave energy, a resin consisting totally of polyethylene glycol, a low excess of sugar amino acid and the "double activation" method.



    We have developed a simple method for the extraction of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human whole blood using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The procedure involves the conversion of GHB to gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) with acid catalysis; gamma-valerolactone (GVL) was used as internal standard (IS). After heating a vial containing a whole blood sample with GHB and IS at 80℃ for 5 min in the presence of H3PO4 solution, a Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane -coated fiber was exposed to t...

  15. Chromatographic Separations Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges: Separation of Wine Phenolics

    Brenneman, Charles A.; Ebeler, Susan E.


    We describe a simple laboratory experiment that demonstrates the principles of chromatographic separation using solid-phase extraction columns and red wine. By adjusting pH and mobile phase composition, the wine is separated into three fractions of differing polarity. The content of each fraction can be monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. When the experiment is combined with experiments involving HPLC or GC separations, students gain a greater appreciation for and understanding of the highly automated instrumental systems currently available. In addition, they learn about the chemistry of polyphenolic compounds, which are present in many foods and beverages and which are receiving much attention for their potentially beneficial health effects.

  16. Exploring solid-phase approaches for the preparation of new beta-lactams from amino acids.

    Gerona-Navarro, Guillermo; Royo, Miriam; García-López, Ma Teresa; Albericio, Fernando; González-Muñiz, Rosario


    Two solid-phase approaches, involving the base-assisted intramolecular alkylation of N-chloroacetyl-Phe derivatives anchored to appropriate solid supports, were investigated for the preparation of novel beta-lactams. When a BAL-type strategy was used, the resin-bound azetidinones were easily formed, as established by MAS-NMR, but final compounds could not be removed from the resin, unless a suitable two linkers system was used. In the second approach, in which the Phe residue is anchored to a Wang-type resin through the carboxylate group, the corresponding 1,4,4-trisubstituted 2-azetidinone was obtained in moderate to good yield and high purity.

  17. Assessment of 4-nitrogenated benzyloxymethyl groups for 2'-hydroxyl protection in solid-phase RNA synthesis.

    Cieślak, Jacek; Kauffman, Jon S; Kolodziejski, Michelle J; Lloyd, John R; Beaucage, Serge L


    The search for a 2'-OH protecting group that would impart ribonucleoside phosphoramidites with coupling kinetics and coupling efficiencies comparable to those of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites led to an assessment of 2'-O-(4-nitrogenated benzyloxy)methyl groups through solid-phase RNA synthesis using phosphoramidites 2a-d, 12a, and 14a. These phosphoramidites exhibited rapid and efficient coupling properties. Particularly noteworthy is the cleavage of the 2'-O-[4-(N-methylamino)benzyloxy]methyl groups in 0.1 M AcOH, which led to U19dT within 15 min at 90 degrees C. [reaction: see text

  18. Novel nanoporous sorbent for solid-phase extraction in petroleum fingerprinting

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Hlengilizwe, Nyoni; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.


    Sample preparation is crucial in the analysis of petroleum and its derivatives. In this study, developing affordable sorbent for petroleum fingerprinting analysis using polymer waste such expanded polystyrene was explored. The potential of electrospun expanded polystyrene (EPS) as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique was investigated, and its efficiency was compared with commercial cartridges such as alumina, silica and alumina/silica hybrid commercial for petroleum fingerprinting analysis. The chromatograms showed that the packed electrospun EPS fibre demonstrated excellent properties for SPE applications relative to the hybrid cartridges.

  19. A Convergent Solid-Phase Synthesis of Actinomycin Analogues - Towards Implementation of Double-Combinatorial Chemistry

    Tong, Glenn; Nielsen, John


    The actinomycin antibiotics bind to nucleic acids via both intercalation and hydrogen bonding. We found this 'double-action attack' mechanism very attractive in our search for a novel class of nucleic acid binders. A highly convergent, solid-phase synthetic strategy has been developed for a class...... with the requirements for combinatorial synthesis and furthermore, the final segment condensation allows, for the first time, double-combinatorial chemistry to be performed where two combinatorial libraries can be reacted with each other. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  20. [Anaerobic solid-phase fermentation of plant substrates by Bacillus subtilis].

    Ushakova, N A; Brodskiĭ, E S; Kozlova, A A; Nifatov, A V


    Solid-phase growth of Bacillus subtilis 8130 on cellulose-rich plant substrates (presscakes or pulp) under hypoxic conditions was accompanied by cellulose depolymerization, protein hydrolysis, and degradation of other plant components, including some processes of mixed-type carbohydrate fermentation. The bacterial fermentation yielded propionic, butyric, and hexanoic acids and butyric acid derivatives. The bacterial metabolism and fermentation degree can be characterized by the proportions of fatty acids in the reaction mixture. The product of sea buckthorn cake fermentation has a good sorption quality.

  1. Solid-phase synthesis and biological evaluation of Joro spider toxin-4 from Nephila clavata

    Barslund, Anne Fuglsang; Poulsen, Mette Homann; Bach, Tinna Brøbech


    Polyamine toxins from orb weaver spiders are attractive pharmacological tools particularly for studies of ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors in the brain. These polyamine toxins are biosynthesized in a combinatorial manner, providing a plethora of related, but structurally complex toxins...... to be exploited in biological studies. Here, we have used solid-phase synthetic methodology for the efficient synthesis of Joro spider toxin-4 (JSTX-4) (1) from Nephila clavata, providing sufficient amounts of the toxin for biological evaluation at iGlu receptor subtypes using electrophysiology. Biological...

  2. Solid phase epitaxy of EuTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrates with different oxygen contents

    Shimamoto, K.; Hirose, Y.; Nakao, S.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.


    We investigated solid phase epitaxy (SPE) of EuTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrates with different oxygen contents. Amorphous EuTiOx thin films were deposited onto SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition and crystallized by subsequent annealing in a vacuum chamber. A pure perovskite EuTiO3 phase was obtained on the reduced (i.e., oxygen-depleted SrTiO3) substrate, while an Eu2Ti2O7 phase was obtained on the oxygen-rich one. These results suggest that oxygen migration occurs between the EuTiOx film and SrTiO3 during SPE. The electric properties of the fabricated EuTiO3 thin films also depended on the amount of oxygen vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate.

  3. Studies on solid phase synthesis,characterization and fluorescent property of the new rare earth complexes

    Jianwei SHI


    Full Text Available Rare earth-β-diketone ligand complex luminescent material has stable chemical properties and excellent luminous property. Using europium oxide and (γ-NTA as raw materials, novel rare earth-β-dione complexes are synthesized by solid state coordination chemistry. The synthesis temperature and milling time are discussed for optimization. Experimental results show that the suitable reaction situation is at 50 ℃ and 20 h for solid-phase synthesis. The compositions and structures of the complexes are characterized by means of elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR methods, and the phase stability of the complex is determined by using TG-DTA technique. It is proved that preparation of waterless binary rare earth complexes by the solid phase reaction method results in a higher product yield. The fluorescence spectra show that between Eu (Ⅲ and γ-NTA, there exists efficient energy transfer, and the rare earth complexes synthesis is an excellent red bright light-emitting material with excellent UV excited luminescence properties.

  4. Dense Pellicular Agarose-Glass Beads for Expanded Bed Application: Flow Hydrodynamics and Solid Phase Classifications

    周鑫; 史清洪; 白姝; 孙彦


    Two dense pellicular agarose-glass matrices of different sizes and densities, i.e., AG-S and AG-L, have been characterized for their bed expansion behavior, flow hydrodynamics and particle classifications in an expanded bed system. A 26 mm ID column with side ports was used for sampling the liquid-solid suspension during expanded bed operations. Measurements of the collected solid phase at different column positions yielded the particle size and density distribution data. It was found that the composite matrices showed particle size as well as density classifications along the column axis, i.e., both the size and density of each matrix decreased with increasing the axial bed height. Their axial classifications were expressed by a correlation related to both the particle size and density as a function of the dimensionless axial bed height. The correlation was found to fairly describe the solid phase classifications in the expanded bed system. Moreover, it can also be applied to other two commercial solid matrices designed for expanded bed applications.

  5. Solid phase synthesis and antiprotozoal evaluation of di- and trisubstituted 5'-carboxamidoadenosine analogues.

    Rodenko, Boris; Detz, Remko J; Pinas, Victorine A; Lambertucci, Catia; Brun, Reto; Wanner, Martin J; Koomen, Gerrit-Jan


    The rapid increase of resistance to drugs commonly used in the treatment of tropical diseases such as malaria and African sleeping sickness calls for the prompt development of new safe and efficacious drugs. The pathogenic protozoan parasites lack the capability of synthesising purines de novo and they take up preformed purines from their host through various transmembrane transporters. Adenosine derivatives constitute a class of potential therapeutics due to their selective internalisation by these transporters. Automated solid-phase synthesis can speed up the process of lead finding and we pursued the solid-phase synthesis of di- and trisubstituted 5'-carboxamidoadenosine derivatives by using a safety-catch approach. While efforts with Kenner's sulfonamide linker remained fruitless, successful application of the hydrazide safety-catch linker allowed the construction of two representative combinatorial libraries. Their antiprotozoal evaluation identified two compounds with promising activity: N(6)-benzyl-5'-N-phenylcarboxamidoadenosine with an IC(50) value of 0.91 microM against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and N(6)-diphenylethyl-5'-phenylcarboxamidoadenosine with an IC(50) value of 1.8 microM against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

  6. A comparison of methods to predict solid phase heats of formation of molecular energetic salts.

    Byrd, Edward F C; Rice, Betsy M


    In this study a variety of methods were used to compute the energies for lattice enthalpies and gas phase heats of formation of the ionic constituents used in Born-Fajans-Haber cycles to produce solid phase heats of formation of molecular ionic energetic crystals. Several quantum mechanically based or empirical approaches to calculate either the heat of formation of the ionic constituents in the gas phase (deltaH(o)f(g)) or the lattice enthalpy (deltaH(o)Lattice) were evaluated. Solid phase heats of formation calculated from combinations of deltaH(o)f(g) and deltaH(o)Lattice determined through various approaches are compared with experimental values for a series of molecular energetic salts with 1:1, 2:1 and 2:2 charge ratios. Recommendations for combinations of deltaH(o)f(g) and deltaH(o)Lattice to produce best agreement with experiment are given, along with suggestions for improvements of the methods.

  7. Matrix compatible solid phase microextraction coating, a greener approach to sample preparation in vegetable matrices.

    Naccarato, Attilio; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    This work proposes the novel PDMS/DVB/PDMS fiber as a greener strategy for analysis by direct immersion solid phase microextraction (SPME) in vegetables. SPME is an established sample preparation approach that has not yet been adequately explored for food analysis in direct immersion mode due to the limitations of the available commercial coatings. The robustness and endurance of this new coating were investigated by direct immersion extractions in raw blended vegetables without any further sample preparation steps. The PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating exhibited superior features related to the capability of the external PDMS layer to protect the commercial coating, and showed improvements in terms of extraction capability and in the cleanability of the coating surface. In addition to having contributed to the recognition of the superior features of this new fiber concept before commercialization, the outcomes of this work serve to confirm advancements in the matrix compatibility of the PDMS-modified fiber, and open new prospects for the development of greener high-throughput analytical methods in food analysis using solid phase microextraction in the near future.

  8. Solid Phase Extraction Disk Procedure to Determine 239Pu in Soils

    ZHANG Ji-qiao;ZHAO Ya-ping;DING You-qian;ZHANG Sheng-dong;YANG Jin-ling


    Full Text Available 239Pu in many soil samples should be analyzed to survey radioactive pollution level in nuclear facilities and its affinity environment efficiently. In order to input the opt conditions for column experiment, the experiments of the static adsorption coefficient of 239Pu to solid phase extraction disk with different contact time, concentration of HNO3 and different temperature were carried out. The chemical procedure for the rapid separation and determination of 239Pu in soils had been formulated, which using solid phase extraction disk (EmporeTM Anion Exchange-SR as extraction material and liquid scintillation spectrometry counting as measurement. In the procedure, soil sample usage was 10 g, and were leached by 8 mol/L HNO3, the chemical recovery of the procedure was about 78.9%, and the minimum detectable concentration was 3.7 Bq/kg. It took less than 3 hours once and the presence of 137Cs, 90Sr-90Y and natural uranium, 241Am, 99Tc did not interfere with the procedure, owning high DF of them. The procedure can be used extensively in determination of 239Pu in soils.

  9. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R


    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min).

  10. Determination of amphetamines in human urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography.

    Raikos, Nikolaos; Christopoulou, Klio; Theodoridis, Georgios; Tsoukali, Heleni; Psaroulis, Dimitrios


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is under investigation for its usefulness in the determination of a widening variety of volatile and semivolatile analytes in biological fluids and materials. Semivolatiles are increasingly under study as analytical targets, and difficulties with small partition coefficients and long equilibration times have been identified. Amphetamines were selected as semivolatiles exhibiting these limitations and methods to optimize their determination were investigated. A 100- micro m polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated SPME fiber was used for the extraction of the amphetamines from human urine. Amphetamine determination was made using gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection (FID). Temperature, time and salt saturation were optimized to obtain consistent extraction. A simple procedure for the analysis of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine was developed and another for 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-FID. Higher recoveries were obtained for amphetamine (19.5-47%) and methamphetamine (20-38.1%) than MDA (5.1-6.6%), MDMA (7-9.6%) and MDEA (5.4-9.6%).

  11. Rapid solid-phase extraction and analysis of resveratrol and other polyphenols in red wine.

    Hashim, Shima N N S; Schwarz, Lachlan J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Yang, Yuanzhong; Danylec, Basil; Hearn, Milton T W


    Red wine has long been credited as a good source of health-beneficial antioxidants, including the bioactive polyphenols catechin, quercetin, and (E)-resveratrol. In this paper, we report the application of reusable molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective and robust solid-phase extraction (SPE) and rapid analysis of (E)-resveratrol (LOD=8.87×10(-3) mg/L, LOQ=2.94×10(-2) mg/L), along with a range of other polyphenols from an Australian Pinot noir red wine. Optimization of the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) protocol resulted in the significant enrichment of (E)-resveratrol and several structurally related polyphenols. These secondary metabolites were subsequently identified by RP-HPLC and μLC-ESI ion trap MS/MS methods. The developed MISPE protocol employed low volumes of environmentally benign solvents selected according to the Green Chemistry principles, and resulted in the recovery of 99% of the total (E)-resveratrol present. These results further demonstrate the potential of generic protocols for the analysis of target compound with health beneficial properties within the food and nutraceutical industries using tailor-made MIPs.

  12. Fragment-based solid-phase assembly of oligonucleotide conjugates with peptide and polyethylene glycol ligands.

    Dirin, Mehrdad; Urban, Ernst; Noe, Christian R; Winkler, Johannes


    Ligand conjugation to oligonucleotides is an attractive strategy for enhancing the therapeutic potential of antisense and siRNA agents by inferring properties such as improved cellular uptake or better pharmacokinetic properties. Disulfide linkages enable dissociation of ligands and oligonucleotides in reducing environments found in endosomal compartments after cellular uptake. Solution-phase fragment coupling procedures for producing oligonucleotide conjugates are often tedious, produce moderate yields and reaction byproducts are frequently difficult to remove. We have developed an improved method for solid-phase coupling of ligands to oligonucleotides via disulfides directly after solid-phase synthesis. A 2'-thiol introduced using a modified nucleotide building block was orthogonally deprotected on the controlled pore glass solid support with N-butylphosphine. Oligolysine peptides and a short monodisperse ethylene glycol chain were successfully coupled to the deprotected thiol. Cleavage from the resin and full removal of oligonucleotide protection groups were achieved using methanolic ammonia. After standard desalting, and without further purification, homogenous conjugates were obtained as demonstrated by HPLC, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. The attachment of both amphiphilic and cationic ligands proves the versatility of the conjugation procedure. An antisense oligonucleotide conjugate with hexalysine showed pronounced gene silencing in a cell culture tumor model in the absence of a transfection reagent and the corresponding ethylene glycol conjugate resulted in down regulation of the target gene to nearly 50% after naked application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective fiber used for headspace solid-phase microextraction of abused drugs in human urine

    Sunanta Wangkarn


    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective fiber for simultaneous analysis of three drugs of abuse (amphetamine, methamphetamine and ephedrine in urine samples was explored using headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Several parameters affecting extraction such as extraction time, extraction temperature, pH of solution and salt concentrations were investigated. Among five commercially available fibers, divinylbenzene/carboxen/ polydimethylsiloxane is the most sensitive and selective fiber at pH 10.0, extraction temperature at 80 C for 20 min and desorption temperature at 220 C for 2 min. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed solid phase microextraction method provided good linearity in the ranges 0.1-10 µg/ml for amphetamine and methamphetamine and 0.5-20 µg/ml for ephedrine. The detection limits for amphetamine, methamphetamine and ephedrine were 9, 3 and 30 ng/ml, respectively. The recoveries of three drugs in urine samples were exceeding 85%.

  14. Improvement of multilayer graphene crystallinity by solid-phase precipitation with current stress application during annealing

    Sahab Uddin, Md.; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Sano, Shota; Ueno, Kazuyoshi


    To improve the crystallinity of multilayer graphene (MLG) films by solid-phase precipitation, a new method by which current stress is introduced during annealing of a carbon-doped cobalt (Co-C) layer using cobalt (Co) as the catalyst has been investigated. The effects of current stress on the formation and crystallinity of MLG films were investigated by comparing the characteristics of the films annealed at the same temperature with and without current by taking into account the temperature rise due to Joule heating. The characteristics obtained by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the MLG films produced were crystalline in nature and their crystallinity increased with applied current stress at the same temperature. From SEM observations, beside Joule heating, enhancement of Co grain size by agglomeration induced by current stress may be the potential reason for the improvement of the crystallinity of MLG films. We have also improved the uniformity of MLG films by depositing an additional copper (Cu) capping layer over the Co-C layer. Current stress application can lead to low-temperature fabrication of MLG with higher crystallinity by solid-phase precipitation.

  15. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in water samples.

    Castells, P; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T


    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was developed as an alternative to liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in water samples. The extraction efficiency of five different commercially available fibres was evaluated and the 100-microm polydimethylsiloxane coating was the most suitable for the absorption of the SCCPs. Optimisation of several SPME parameters, such as extraction time and temperature, ionic strength and desorption time, was performed. Quality parameters were established using Milli-Q, tap water and river water. Linearity ranged between 0.06 and 6 microg l(-1) for spiked Milli-Q water and between 0.6 and 6 microg l(-1) for natural waters. The precision of the SPME-GC-ECD method for the three aqueous matrices was similar and gave relative standard deviations (RSD) between 12 and 14%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.02 microg l(-1) for Milli-Q water and 0.3 microg l(-1) for both tap water and river water. The optimised SPME-GC-ECD method was successfully applied to the determination of SCCPs in river water samples.

  16. Isolation of genomic DNA using magnetic nanoparticles as a solid-phase support

    Saiyed, Z. M.; Ramchand, C. N.; Telang, S. D.


    In recent years, techniques employing magnetizable solid-phase supports (MSPS) have found application in numerous biological fields. This magnetic separation procedure offers several advantages in terms of subjecting the analyte to very little mechanical stress compared to other methods. Secondly, these methods are non-laborious, cheap, and often highly scalable. The current paper details a genomic DNA isolation method optimized in our laboratory using magnetic nanoparticles as a solid-phase support. The quality and yields of the isolated DNA from all the samples using magnetic nanoparticles were higher or equivalent to the traditional DNA extraction procedures. Additionally, the magnetic method takes less than 15 min to extract polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ready genomic DNA as against several hours taken by traditional phenol-chloroform extraction protocols. Moreover, the isolated DNA was found to be compatible in PCR amplification and restriction endonuclease digestion. The developed procedure is quick, inexpensive, robust, and it does not require the use of organic solvents or sophisticated instruments, which makes it more amenable to automation and miniaturization.

  17. Solid phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of palladium with 2-(2-quinolylazo-5-diethylaminobenzoic acid



    Full Text Available Asensitive, selective and rapid method for the determination of palladium based on the rapid reaction of palladium(II with 2-(2-quinolylazo-5-diethylaminobenzoic acid (QADEAB and the solid phase extraction of the Pd(II –QADEAB chelate with a reversed phase polymer-based C18 cartridge was developed. In the presence of 0.05 – 0. 5 mol/L of hydrochloric acid solution and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB medium, QADEAB reacts with palladium(II to form a violet complex with a mole ratio 1:2 (palladium to QADEAB. The chelate was enriched by solid phase extraction with a reversed phase polymer-based C18 cartridge. An enrichment factor of 200 was obtained by elution of the chelate form the cartridge with the minimal amount of isopentyl alcohol. The molar absorptivity of the chelate in the isopentyl alcohol medium was 1.43 × 105 L mol-1 cm-1 at 628 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 0.01 – 1.2 mg/mL. The relative standard deviation for eleven replicate samples at the 0.2 mg/L level was 2.18 %. The attained detection limit amounted to 0.02 mg/L in the original samples. This method was applied to the determination of palladium in environmental samples with good results.

  18. DNA display III. Solid-phase organic synthesis on unprotected DNA.

    David R Halpin


    Full Text Available DNA-directed synthesis represents a powerful new tool for molecular discovery. Its ultimate utility, however, hinges upon the diversity of chemical reactions that can be executed in the presence of unprotected DNA. We present a solid-phase reaction format that makes possible the use of standard organic reaction conditions and common reagents to facilitate chemical transformations on unprotected DNA supports. We demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy by comprehensively adapting solid-phase 9-fluorenylmethyoxycarbonyl-based peptide synthesis to be DNA-compatible, and we describe a set of tools for the adaptation of other chemistries. Efficient peptide coupling to DNA was observed for all 33 amino acids tested, and polypeptides as long as 12 amino acids were synthesized on DNA supports. Beyond the direct implications for synthesis of peptide-DNA conjugates, the methods described offer a general strategy for organic synthesis on unprotected DNA. Their employment can facilitate the generation of chemically diverse DNA-encoded molecular populations amenable to in vitro evolution and genetic manipulation.

  19. Carbon nanocones/disks as new coating for solid-phase microextraction.

    Jiménez-Soto, Juan Manuel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel


    In this article, the potential of carbon nanocones/disks as coating for solid-phase microextraction has been evaluated for the first time. The nanostructures were immobilized on a stainless steel needle by means of an organic binder. The fiber coating obtained was ca. 50 microm of thickness and 35 mm in length. The evaluation of the sorbent capacity was carried out through the determination of toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers and styrene in water samples following the headspace sampling modality (15 min, 30 degrees C). The fiber was then transferred to a 10 mL vial which was sealed and heated at 110 degrees C for 15 min in the headspace module of the instrument to achieve the thermal desorption of the analytes. Then 2.5 mL of the headspace generated were injected in the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer for analytes separation and quantitation. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for 10 mL of sample were 0.15 and 0.5 ng mL(-1) (0.6 and 2 ng mL(-1) for toluene). The optimized procedure was applied to the determination of the selected volatile compounds in waters collected from different locations. The recovery values obtained (average recovery ca. 92%) demonstrated the usefulness of the carbon nanocones/disks as sorbent material in solid-phase microextraction.

  20. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic determination of volatile monoaromatic hydrocarbons in soil.

    Zygmunt, B; Namiesnik, J


    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, three isomers of xylene, and cumene have been isolated and enriched from soil samples by a combination of water extraction at room and elevated temperature and headspace-solid-phase microextraction before their gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination. The conditions used for all stages of sample preparation and chromatographic analysis were optimized. Analytes sampled on a polydimethylsiloxane-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber were thermally desorbed in the split/splitless injector of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS). The desorption temperature was optimized. The GC separation was performed in a capillary column. Detection limits were found to be of the order of ca. 1 ng g(-1). Relative recoveries of the analytes from soils were found to be highly dependent on soil organic-matter content and on compound identity; they ranged from ca 92 to 96% for sandy soil (extraction at room temperature) and from ca 27 to 55% for peaty soil (extraction at elevated temperature). A few real-world soil samples were analyzed; the individual monoaromatic hydrocarbon content ranged from below detection limits to 6.4 ng g(-1) for benzene and 8.1 for the total of p- + m-xylene.

  1. Improved detection limits for phthalates by selective solid-phase micro-extraction

    Zia, Asif I.


    Presented research reports on an improved method and enhanced limits of detection for phthalates; a hazardous additive used in the production of plastics by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) polymer in comparison to molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) polymer. The polymers were functionalized on an interdigital capacitive sensor for selective binding of phthalate molecules from a complex mixture of chemicals. Both polymers owned predetermined selectivity by formation of valuable molecular recognition sites for Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Polymers were immobilized on planar electrochemical sensor fabricated on a single crystal silicon substrate with 500 nm sputtered gold electrodes fabricated using MEMS fabrication techniques. Impedance spectra were obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to determine sample conductance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the spiked sample solutions with various phthalate concentrations. Experimental results revealed that the ability of SPME polymer to adsorb target molecules on the sensing surface is better than that of MISPE polymer for phthalates in the sensing system. Testing the extracted samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detectors validated the results.

  2. The effect of surfactant and solid phase concentration on drug aggregates in model aerosol propellent suspensions.

    Bower, C; Washington, C; Purewal, T S


    The effect of increasing solid phase concentration on the morphology and flocculation rate of model aerosol suspensions has been investigated. Suspensions of micronized salbutamol sulphate and lactose in trichlorotrifluoroethane (P113) were studied under conditions of increasing shear stress. By use of image analysis techniques, measurement of aggregate size, fractal dimension and rate of aggregation was performed. The effect of the surfactant sorbitan monooleate on morphology and flocculation rate was also studied. Increased solid phase concentration caused an increase in the rate of aggregation and average aggregate size at a given value of shear stress. Surfactant addition retarded the aggregation rate, and caused a shift from a diffusion-limited cluster aggregation to a reaction-limited cluster aggregation mechanism. The aggregate profiles showed a corresponding change from rugged and crenellated without surfactant, to increasingly smooth and Euclidian with increasing surfactant concentration. The morphological changes were characterized by a decrease in the average boundary fractal dimension which also correlated well with the corresponding reduction in aggregation rate.

  3. Kinetic study of solid phase crystallisation of expanding thermal plasma deposited a-Si:H

    Law, F., E-mail: [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Hoex, B. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Wang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Luther, J. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sharma, K.; Creatore, M.; Van de Sanden, M.C.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    In-situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the dynamics of the solid phase crystallisation (SPC) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited by expanding thermal plasma technique. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model was used for the analysis of the dynamic data and the activation energy associated with the SPC process was 2.9 eV, which was lower than a-Si:H films deposited by other techniques. Relationships between the Avrami exponent n, the SPC process stability and the subsequent grain structure were demonstrated. Under certain conditions, the films exhibited columnar grain structure with indications of good grain quality, suggesting that these films are suitable to be further developed into solar cell devices. Structure of the grains and the SPC dynamics in this work lend support to prior work that vacancies decorated by hydrogen clusters are related to nucleation sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallisation of expanding thermal plasma (ETP) deposited a-Si:H was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model was used to model the crystallisation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energy of the solid phase crystallisation process was 2.9 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vacancies decorated by hydrogen clusters are suggested nucleation sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ETP is promising in the fabrication process of pc-Si thin film solar cells.

  4. Novel polymeric resin for solid phase extraction and determination of lead in waters

    Karaaslan, Nagihan M.; Cengiz, Emine; Yaman, Mehmet [Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Senkal, B. Filiz [Science and Arts Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Interest in preconcentration techniques for the determination of metals at ultratrace levels still continues increasingly because of some disadvantages of flameless atomic absorption spectrometry and the high costs of other sensitive methods in compared to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Among preconcentration techniques, solid-phase extraction is the most popular because of a number of advantages. In this work, thiol-containing sulfonamide resin was synthesized, characterized, and applied as a new sorption material for solid phase extraction and determination of lead in natural water samples. The optimization of experimental conditions was performed using the parameters including pH, contact time, and volumes of initial and elution solutions. After preconcentration procedure, FAAS was used for determinations. The synthesized resin exhibits the superiority in compared to the other adsorption reagents because of the fact that there is no necessity of any complexing reagent as well as high sorption capacity. Consequently, 280-fold improvement in the sensitivity of analytical scheme was achieved by combining the slotted tube atom trap-atomic absorption spectrometry (STAT-FAAS) and the developed preconcentration method. The limit of detection was found to be 0.15 ng mL{sup -1}. The Pb{sup 2+} concentrations in the studied water samples were found to be in the range of 0.9-6.7 ng mL{sup -1}. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping


    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines.

  6. The evolution of pretransfusion testing: from agglutination to solid-phase red cell adherence tests.

    Plapp, F V; Sinor, L T; Rachel, J M


    Hospital transfusion services and blood centers still use manual hemagglutination tests for most of their serological procedures. Automation of hemagglutination reactions has proven to be difficult, primarily because hemagglutination lacks an objective endpoint which can be easily interpreted by inexpensive instruments. Alternatively, solid-phase red cell adherence assays for ABO cell and serum grouping, Rh typing, red cell and platelet antibody screening, red cell and platelet crossmatching, IgA deficiency screening, hepatitis B surface antigen, and HIV antibody screening have been developed. The performance of these assays compares favorably with current hemagglutination and enzyme immunoassay methods. All of these tests share a common objective endpoint of adherence or nonadherence of indicator red cells. This uniformity allows easy interpretation of results visually, spectrophotometrically, or by image analysis. The latter technique has the potential to revolutionize the reading and interpretation of all agglutination tests. Solid-phase red cell adherence tests in microplates are ideal for batch processing large numbers of specimens. However, adherence tests are not restricted to this format. Therefore, blood grouping dipsticks have been produced, which permit testing of individual blood samples even outside of the laboratory.

  7. Titanium dioxide solid phase for inorganic species adsorption and determination: the case of arsenic.

    Vera, R; Fontàs, C; Anticó, E


    We have evaluated a new titanium dioxide (Adsorbsia As600) for the adsorption of both inorganic As (V) and As (III) species. In order to characterize the sorbent, batch experiments were undertaken to determine the capacities of As (III) and As (V) at pH 7.3, which were found to be 0.21 and 0.14 mmol g(-1), respectively. Elution of adsorbed species was only possible using basic solutions, and arsenic desorbed under batch conditions was 50 % when 60 mg of loaded titanium dioxide was treated with 0.5 M NaOH solution. Moreover, its use as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of arsenic species from well waters has been investigated, without any previous pretreatment of the sample. Solid-phase extraction was implemented by packing several minicolumns with Adsorbsia As600. The method has been validated showing good accuracy and precision. Acceptable recoveries were obtained when spiked waters at 100-200 μg L(-1) were measured. The presence of major anions commonly found in waters did not affect arsenic adsoption, and only silicate at 100 mg L(-1) level severely competed with arsenic species to bind to the material. Finally, the measured concentrations in water samples containing arsenic from the Pyrinees (Catalonia, Spain) showed good agreement with the ICP-MS results.

  8. Fixed bed reactor for solid-phase surface derivatization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    Steitz, Benedikt; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Finka, Andrija; O'Neil, Conlin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Petri-Fink, Alke


    The functionalization of nanoparticles is conditio sine qua non in studies of specific interaction with a biological target. Often, their biological functionality is achieved by covalent binding of bioactive molecules on a preexisting single surface coating. The yield and quality of the resulting coated and functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) can be significantly improved and reaction times reduced by using solid-phase synthesis strategies. In this study, a fixed bed reactor with a quadrupole repulsive arrangement of permanent magnets was assayed for SPION surface derivatization. The magnet array around the fixed bed reactor creates very high magnetic field gradients that enables the immobilization of SPIONs with a diameter as low as 9 nm. The functionalization on the surface of immobilized 25 nm 3-(aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane-coated SPIONs (APS-SPIONs) was performed using fluorescein-isothiocyanate directly, and by the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal peptide (PKKKRKVGC) conjugated to acryloylpoly(ethylene glycol)-N-hydroxysuccinimide, where the PEG reagent is conjugated first to create a functionalized nanoparticle and the peptide is added to the acryloyl group. We show that the yield of reactant grafted on the surface of the APS-coated SPIONs was higher in solid-phase within the fixed bed reactor compared to conventional liquid-phase chemistry. In summary, the functionalization of SPIONs using a magnetically fixed bed reactor was superior to the liquid-phase reaction in terms of the yield, reaction times required for derivatization, size distribution, and scalability.

  9. Rapid solid-phase immunoassay for 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha on microplates

    Schramm, W.; Smith, R.H.; Jackson, T.M.; Craig, P.A.; Grates, H.E.; Minton, L.L. (BioQuant of Ann Arbor, Inc., MI (USA))


    We describe, for the measurement of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha in biological media, a solid-phase immunoassay with immobilized antibodies that requires a total processing time of less than 2 h with hands-on time less than 30 min for 40 samples. The method combines the convenience of the microplate format with the sensitivity of radiolabeled prostaglandin derivatives as tracers in a competitive immunoassay. The intra- and interassay variations at 50% displacement of the radiolabeled prostaglandin derivative as tracer were 9.0% and 11.8%, respectively. At 50% displacement of the radiolabeled tracer, the sensitivity is about 20 pg per well. Optimal incubation time is between 60 and 90 min. Nonspecific binding was less than 1% if about 8 pg of tracer (approximately 25,000 counts/min per well) was used. Inhibition curves of samples in different dilutions were parallel to standard curves. The variation of bound radiolabeled prostaglandin derivative within the wells of one microplate (n = 96) was less than 3%. Human plasma samples and medium from tissue culture assayed for 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha correlated well with results obtained with a solid-phase assay based on use of magnetic particles (r = 0.99, n = 24) for culture-medium samples; r = 0.99; n = 26 for plasma samples.

  10. Determination of aflatoxins in rice samples by ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Manoochehri, Mahboobeh; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Safaei, Mahdi


    This work describes the application of ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion as an extraction and sample preparation approach for aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and subsequent determination of them by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. A Box-Behnken design in combination with response surface methodology was used to determine the affecting parameters on the extraction procedure. The influence of different variables including type of dispersing phase, sample-to-dispersing phase ratio, type and quantity of clean-up phase, ultrasonication time, ultrasonication temperature, nature and volume of the elution solvent was investigated in the optimization study. C18, primary-secondary amine (PSA) and acetonitrile were selected as dispersing phase, clean-up phase and elution solvent, respectively. The obtained optimized values were sample-to-dispersing phase ratio of 1 : 1, 60 mg of PSA, 11 min ultrasonication time, 30°C ultrasonication temperature and 4 mL acetonitrile. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were ranged from 0.09 to 0.14 ng g(-1) and the precisions [relative standard deviation (RSD%)] were <8.6%. The recoveries of the matrix solid-phase dispersion process ranged from 78 to 83% with RSD <10% in all cases. Finally, this method was successfully applied to the extraction of trace amounts of aflatoxins in rice samples. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Formation of (111) orientation-controlled ferroelectric orthorhombic HfO2 thin films from solid phase via annealing

    Mimura, Takanori; Katayama, Kiliha; Shimizu, Takao; Uchida, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Sakata, Osami; Funakubo, Hiroshi


    0.07YO1.5-0.93HfO2 (YHO7) films were prepared on various substrates by pulse laser deposition at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment to enable a solid phase reaction. (111)-oriented 10 wt. % Sn-doped In2O3(ITO)//(111) yttria-stabilized zirconia, (111)Pt/TiOx/SiO2/(001)Si substrates, and (111)ITO/(111)Pt/TiOx/SiO2/(001)Si substrates were employed for film growth. In this study, X-ray diffraction measurements including θ-2θ measurements, reciprocal space mappings, and pole figure measurements were used to study the films. The film on (111)ITO//(111)yttria-stabilized zirconia was an (111)-orientated epitaxial film with ferroelectric orthorhombic phase; the film on (111)ITO/(111)Pt/TiOx/SiO2/(001)Si was an (111)-oriented uniaxial textured film with ferroelectric orthorhombic phase; and no preferred orientation was observed for the film on the (111)Pt/TiOx/SiO2/(001)Si substrate, which does not contain ITO. Polarization-hysteresis measurements confirmed that the films on ITO covered substrates had saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops. A remanent polarization (Pr) of 9.6 and 10.8 μC/cm2 and coercive fields (Ec) of 1.9 and 2.0 MV/cm were obtained for the (111)-oriented epitaxial and uniaxial textured YHO7 films, respectively. These results demonstrate that the (111)-oriented ITO bottom electrodes play a key role in controlling the orientation and ferroelectricity of the phase formation of the solid films deposited at room temperature.

  12. Halogen bonding: A new retention mechanism for the solid phase extraction of perfluorinated iodoalkanes

    Yan Xiaoqing; Shen Qianjin; Zhao Xiaoran; Gao Haiyue; Pang Xue [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Jin Weijun, E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Halogen bonding (XB) is firstly utilised in solid phase extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The perfluorinated iodine alkanes can be extracted by C-I Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl{sup -} halogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C-I Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl{sup -} halogen bond is well characterised by spectroscopy methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytes with strong halogen-bonding abilities can be selectively extracted. - Abstract: For the first time, halogen-bonding interaction is utilised in the solid phase extraction of perfluorinated iodoalkane (PFI). Nine PFIs, as model analytes, were tested, and analyses by UV, {sup 19}F NMR and Raman spectroscopies demonstrate that the PFIs are extracted by a strong anion exchange (SAX) sorbent from n-hexane due to the C-I Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl{sup -} halogen-bonding interactions. The results also show that the adsorptivities of SAX for the diiodoperfluoro-alkanes (diiodo-PFIs) were much stronger than those for the perfluoroalkyl iodides (monoiodo-PFIs). Specifically, the recoveries for 1,6-diiodoperfluorohexane and 1,8-diiodoperfluorooctane were higher than 80% when 100 mL of sample spiked with a 5 ng mL{sup -1} analyte mixture was extracted. Interestingly, SAX had no adsorption for hexafluorobenzene at all, which is known to be unable to form a halogen bond with Cl{sup -}. The analytical performance of the halogen bond-based SPE-GC-MS method for the diiodo-PFIs was also examined in soil samples. The sorbent SAX enabled the selective extraction of four diiodo-PFIs successfully from soil samples. The recoveries of the diiodo-PFIs extracted from 5 g soil sample at the 100 ng g{sup -1} spike level were in the range of 73.2-93.8% except 26.8% for 1,2-diiodoperfluoroethane. The limit of detection varied from 0.02 to 0.04 ng g{sup -1} in soil samples. Overall, this work reveals the great application potential of halogen bonding in the field of solid

  13. Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction for determination of volatile constituents in tobacco flavor

    ZHONG Ke-jun; WEI Wan-zhi; GUO Fang-qiu; HUANG Lan-fang


    The volatile and semi-volatile components in tobacco flavor additives were extracted by both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Extraction conditions for solid-phase micro-extraction were optimized with information theory. Then, detection were accomplished by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Characteristic of each method was compared. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of 6# tobacco flavor sample were accomplished through both simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. The experimental results show that solid-phase micro-extraction method is the first choice for qualitative analysis and simultaneous distillation extraction is another good selection for quantitative analysis. By means of simultaneous distillation extraction, 20 components are identified, accounting for 92.77% of the total peak areas. Through solid-phase micro-extraction, there are 17 components identified accounting for 91.49% of the total peak areas. The main aromatic components in 6# tobacco flavor sample are propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester, menthol and menthyl acetate. The presented method has been successfully used for quality control of tobacco flavor.

  14. Flow cytometry: retrospective, fundamentals and recent instrumentation.

    Picot, Julien; Guerin, Coralie L; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Boulanger, Chantal M


    Flow cytometry is a complete technology given to biologists to study cellular populations with high precision. This technology elegantly combines sample dimension, data acquisition speed, precision and measurement multiplicity. Beyond the statistical aspect, flow cytometry offers the possibility to physically separate sub-populations. These performances come from the common endeavor of physicists, biophysicists, biologists and computer engineers, who succeeded, by providing new concepts, to bring flow cytometry to current maturity. The aim of this paper is to present a complete retrospective of the technique and remind flow cytometry fundamentals before focusing on recent commercial instrumentation.

  15. Solid-phase peptide synthesis: from standard procedures to the synthesis of difficult sequences.

    Coin, Irene; Beyermann, Michael; Bienert, Michael


    This protocol for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) is based on the widely used Fmoc/tBu strategy, activation of the carboxyl groups by aminium-derived coupling reagents and use of PEG-modified polystyrene resins. A standard protocol is described, which was successfully applied in our lab for the synthesis of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), >400 CRF analogs and a countless number of other peptides. The 41-mer peptide CRF is obtained within approximately 80 working hours. To achieve the so-called difficult sequences, special techniques have to be applied in order to reduce aggregation of the growing peptide chain, which is the main cause of failure for peptide chemosynthesis. Exemplary application of depsipeptide and pseudoproline units is shown for synthesizing an extremely difficult sequence, the Asn(15) analog of the WW domain FBP28, which is impossible to obtain using the standard protocol.

  16. Direct MD simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for two-component plasmas

    Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K


    We determine the liquid-solid phase diagram for carbon-oxygen plasma mixtures using two-phase MD simulations. We identified liquid, solid, and interface regions using a bond angle metric. To study finite size effects, we perform 55296 ion simulations and compare to earlier 27648 ion results. To help monitor non-equilibrium effects, we calculate diffusion constants $D_i$. We find that $D_O$ for oxygen ions in the solid is much smaller than $D_C$ for carbon ions and that both diffusion constants are 80 or more times smaller than diffusion constants in the liquid phase. There is excellent agreement between our phase diagram and that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This suggests that errors from finite size and non-equilibrium effects are small and that the carbon-oxygen phase diagram is now accurately known.

  17. Solid-phase single molecule biosensing using dual-color colocalization of fluorescent quantum dot nanoprobes

    Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Qing; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dong


    The development of solid-phase surface-based single molecule imaging technology has attracted significant interest during the past decades. Here we demonstrate a sandwich hybridization method for highly sensitive detection of a single thrombin protein at a solid-phase surface based on the use of dual-color colocalization of fluorescent quantum dot (QD) nanoprobes. Green QD560-modified thrombin binding aptamer I (QD560-TBA I) were deposited on a positive poly(l-lysine) assembled layer, followed by bovine serum albumin blocking. It allowed the thrombin protein to mediate the binding of the easily detectable red QD650-modified thrombin binding aptamer II (QD650-TBA II) to the QD560-TBA I substrate. Thus, the presence of the target thrombin can be determined based on fluorescent colocalization measurements of the nanoassemblies, without target amplification or probe separation. The detection limit of this assay reached 0.8 pM. This fluorescent colocalization assay has enabled single molecule recognition in a separation-free detection format, and can serve as a sensitive biosensing platform that greatly suppresses the nonspecific adsorption false-positive signal. This method can be extended to other areas such as multiplexed immunoassay, single cell analysis, and real time biomolecule interaction studies.The development of solid-phase surface-based single molecule imaging technology has attracted significant interest during the past decades. Here we demonstrate a sandwich hybridization method for highly sensitive detection of a single thrombin protein at a solid-phase surface based on the use of dual-color colocalization of fluorescent quantum dot (QD) nanoprobes. Green QD560-modified thrombin binding aptamer I (QD560-TBA I) were deposited on a positive poly(l-lysine) assembled layer, followed by bovine serum albumin blocking. It allowed the thrombin protein to mediate the binding of the easily detectable red QD650-modified thrombin binding aptamer II (QD650-TBA II) to

  18. Critical Regimes of Two-Phase Flows with a Polydisperse Solid Phase

    Barsky, Eugene


    This book brings to light peculiarities of the formation of critical regimes of two-phase flows with a polydisperse solid phase. A definition of entropy is formulated on the basis of statistical analysis of these peculiarities. The physical meaning of entropy and its correlation with other parameters determining two-phase flows are clearly defined. The interrelations and main differences between this entropy and the thermodynamic one are revealed. The main regularities of two-phase flows both in critical and in other regimes are established using the notion of entropy. This parameter serves as a basis for a deeper insight into the physics of the process and for the development of exhaustive techniques of mass exchange estimation in such flows. The book is intended for graduate and postgraduate students of engineering studying two-phase flows, and to scientists and engineers engaged in specific problems of such fields as chemical technology, mineral dressing, modern ceramics, microelectronics, pharmacology, po...

  19. Defect structure of erbium-doped <1 1 1> silicon layers formed by solid phase epitaxy

    Kyutt, R.N.; Sobolev, Nikolai A. E-mail:; Nikolaev, Yu. A.; Vdovin, V.I


    Erbium-doped layers have been produced on <1 1 1>-oriented silicon wafers using high-energy amorphizing Er implants and solid phase epitaxy (SPE). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, used to study the microstructure of these layers, revealed the presence of microtwins and dislocations. The twins were found to be platelets with lateral dimensions of 15-30 nm and a thickness of about 2-9 nm, and their density throughout the regrown layer was nonuniform. The dislocation densities observed in the regrown layers were very high with densities exceeding 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}. Within the implant fluence range studied, between 1x10{sup 14} and 9x10{sup 14} Er cm{sup -2}, the twin and dislocation densities were observed to increase with fluence, while the twin dimensions were found to decrease.

  20. A solid phase radioimmunoassay for free triiodothyronine in serum:assay development and validation


    A solid phase radioimmunoassay for free triiodothyroninein serum was developed based on double-antibody coated tubes.The method was turned out to be reliable with good reproducibility,higher sensitivity and easy performance.The measurable range of FT3 in serum was 1.2 to 38pmol/L.The mean coefficients of variationwithin and between assays were 1.79%~3.18% and 4.72%~9.31%,respectively.The FT3 concentrations in euthyroid serum as determined by this methodwere 2.8 to 7.8pmol/L.The FT3 values determined by this new methodcorrelated well with those measured by a commercial radioimmunoassay(r=0.853).

  1. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.


    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we...... describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds...... that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates...

  2. Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen.

    Ma, Shuangqin; Tu, Xijuan; Dong, Jiangtao; Long, Peng; Yang, Wenchao; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Wenbin; Wu, Zhenhong


    Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (SA-MSPD) method was developed to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen. Extraction parameters including the extraction solvent, the extraction time, and the solid support conditions were investigated and optimized. The best extraction yields were obtained using ethanol as the extraction solvent, silica gel as the solid support with 1:2 samples to solid support ratio, and the extraction time of one hour. Comparing with the conventional solvent extraction and Soxhlet method, our results show that SA-MSPD method is a more effective technique with clean-up ability. In the test of six different samples of rape bee pollen, the extracted content of flavonoids was close to 10mg/g. The present work provided a simple and effective method for extracting flavonoids from rape bee pollen, and it could be applied in the studies of other kinds of bee pollen.

  3. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Solids Samples

    Cooke, Gary A.; Pestovich, John A.; Huber, Heinz J.


    This report presents the results for solid phase characterization (SPC) of solid samples removed from tank 241-C-108 (C-108) on August 12-13,2012, using the off-riser sampler. Samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory on August 13 and were described and photographed. The SPC analyses that were performed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX(R)l scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku(R) 2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon(R) 3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information. Gary A. Cooke conducted the SEM analysis, John A. Pestovich performed the XRD analysis, and Dr. Heinz J. Huber performed the PLM examination. The results of these analyses are presented here.

  4. A solid-phase dot assay using silica/gold nanoshells

    Zharov Vladimir


    Full Text Available AbstractWe report on the first application of silica-gold nanoshells to a solid-phase dot immunoassay. The assay principle is based on staining of a drop (1 µl analyte on a nitrocellulose membrane strip by using silica/gold nanoshells conjugated with biospecific probing molecules. Experimental example is human IgG (hIgG, target molecules and protein A (probing molecules. For usual 15-nm colloidal gold conjugates, the minimal detectable amount of hIgG is about 4 ng. By contrast, for nanoshell conjugates (silica core diameter of 70 nm and gold outer diameter of 100 nm we have found significant increase in detection sensitivity and the minimal detectable amount of hIgG is about 0.5 ng. This finding is explained by the difference in the monolayer particle extinction.

  5. Solid phase radioimmunoassay using labelled antibodies: a conceptual framework for designing assays

    Kalmakoff, J.; Parkinson, A.J.; Crawford, A.M.; Williams, B.R.


    A simple theoretical model for the antigen-antibody reaction is presented and used to evaluate the optimum conditions for designing solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) using labelled antibodies. Both theoretical and experimental data are presented, using a wide variety of antigens and their corresponding antibodies. The types of RIA described include the direct, the indirect, and sandwich assays for detecting either antigen or antibody. The experimental results confirm in a semiquantitative manner that the greatest sensitivity of the RIA is achieved when the smallest amount of labelled antibody is used, that whenever possible the antigen/antibody ratio should be greater than unity (greater than 1), and that the formation of the antigen-antibody complex is dependent on the mass action effect.

  6. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Modified Peptides as Putative Inhibitors of Histone Modifying Enzymes

    Cohrt, Anders Emil O'Hanlon

    and purities. Libraries of histone H2B tail pieces were synthesised using both parallel and split-pool synthesis protocols. Changes in the acetylation pattern of the individual library members upon treatment with HDAC3 enzyme were measured using LCMS-MS techniques. An MSMS deconvolution strategy was employed......,2,3-triazoles were cleanly deprotected by treatment with TFA (CH2Cl2). Four different libraries of histone demethylase inhibitor candidates have been synthesised based on metal chelation, cofactor mimicking and radial stabilising inhibition strategies. The libraries have all been synthesised on solid......-phase using various handle strategies for the clean release of products. Two cofactor mimicking inhibitor candidates, which were synthesised using a safety-catch benzyl hydrazide handle, were found to inhibit the histone demethylase JMJD2C with IC50-values of 23.5µM and 24µM. Two mild and selective methods...

  7. Solid-phase synthesis, characterization, and cellular activities of collagen-model nanodiamond-peptide conjugates.

    Knapinska, Anna M; Tokmina-Roszyk, Dorota; Amar, Sabrina; Tokmina-Roszyk, Michal; Mochalin, Vadym N; Gogotsi, Yury; Cosme, Patrick; Terentis, Andrew C; Fields, Gregg B


    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have received considerable attention as potential drug delivery vehicles. NDs are small (∼5 nm diameter), can be surface modified in a controllable fashion with a variety of functional groups, and have little observed toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, most biomedical applications of NDs utilize surface adsorption of biomolecules, as opposed to covalent attachment. Covalent modification provides reliable and reproducible ND-biomolecule ratios, and alleviates concerns over biomolecule desorption prior to delivery. The present study has outlined methods for the efficient solid-phase conjugation of ND to peptides and characterization of ND-peptide conjugates. Utilizing collagen-derived peptides, the ND was found to support or even enhance the cell adhesion and viability activities of the conjugated sequence. Thus, NDs can be incorporated into peptides and proteins in a selective manner, where the presence of the ND could potentially enhance the in vivo activities of the biomolecule it is attached to.

  8. Multicomutation flow system for manganese speciation by solid phase extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Tobiasz, Anna; Sołtys, Monika; Kurys, Ewa; Domagała, Karolina; Dudek-Adamska, Danuta; Walas, Stanisław


    In the paper an application of solid phase extraction technique for speciation analysis of manganese in water samples with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Two types of sorbents, activated silica gel and Dowex 1 × 4, were used respectively for simultaneously Mn2 + and MnO42 - retention and preconcentration. The whole procedure was realized in multicomutation flow system. Different conditions like: type and concentration of eluent, sample pH and loading time were tested during the study. Under appropriate conditions, it was possible to obtained enrichment factors of 20 and 16 for Mn(II) and Mn(VII), respectively. Precision of the procedure was close to 4% (measured as relative standard deviation), whereas the detection limit (3σ) was 1.4 μg·L- 1 for Mn(II) and 4.8 μg·L- 1 for Mn(VII).

  9. Direct potentiometric quantification of histamine using solid-phase imprinted nanoparticles as recognition elements.

    Basozabal, Itsaso; Guerreiro, Antonio; Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Aranzazu Goicolea, M; Barrio, Ramón J


    A new potentiometric sensor based on molecularly imprinted nanoparticles produced via the solid-phase imprinting method was developed. For histamine quantification, the nanoparticles were incorporated within a membrane, which was then used to fabricate an ion-selective electrode. The use of nanoparticles with high affinity and specificity allowed for label-free detection/quantification of histamine in real samples with short response times. The sensor could selectively quantify histamine in presence of other biogenic amines in real wine and fish matrices. The limit of detection achieved was 1.12×10(-6)molL(-1), with a linear range between 10(-6) and 10(-2)molL(-1) and a response time below 20s, making the sensor as developed a promising tool for direct quantification of histamine in the food industry.

  10. A novel hybrid metal-organic framework-polymeric monolith for solid-phase microextraction.

    Lin, Chen-Lan; Lirio, Stephen; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya


    This study describes the fabrication of a novel hybrid metal-organic framework- organic polymer (MOF-polymer) for use as a stationary phase in fritless solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for validating analytical methods. The MOF-polymer was prepared by using ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and an imidazolium-based ionic liquid as porogenic solvent followed by microwave-assisted polymerization with the addition of 25 % MOF. This novel hybrid MOF-polymer was used to extract penicillin (penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin) under different conditions. Quantitative analysis of the extracted penicillin samples using the MOF-organic polymer for SPME was conducted by using capillary electrochromatography (CEC) coupled with UV analysis. The penicillin recovery was 63-96.2 % with high reproducibility, sensitivity, and reusability. The extraction time with the proposed fabricated SPME was only 34 min.

  11. The use of ferromagnetic dacron as solid-phase in enzyme immunoassays

    Ana Maria dos A. Carneiro Leão


    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic dacron is proposed as an alternative solid-phase for magnetic enzyme immunoassays. Human serum albumin (HSA was covalentlyimmobilized onto ferromagnetic dacron and as enzyme immunoassay was developed using anti-HSA rabbit sera. Peroxidase, o-phenylenediamine (OPD and hydrogen peroxide were used anti-HSA rabbit sera. Peroxidase, o-phenylenediamine (OPD and hydrogen peroxide were used as the enzymatic label and substrates, respectively. Best results were observed when particles of 63-100 µm (diameter and 10 µg of immobilized antigen were used. Positive reactions were detected until dilutions of1:51200 of immune sera. Its reproducibility was similar to standard ELISA. Disruption of the immunocomplexes formed and recuperation of the immobilized antigen in other immunoassays also proved to be reliable.

  12. A carbon nanotube confinement strategy to implement homogeneous asymmetric catalysis in the solid phase.

    Hashimoto, Kazuki; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu


    A readily recyclable asymmetric catalyst has been developed based on the self-assembly of a homogeneous catalyst in a fibrous network of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Dimerization of an amide-based chiral ligand with a suitable spacer allows for the efficient formation of a heterogeneous catalyst by self-assembly on addition of Er(OiPr)3. The self-assembly proceeds in the MWNT fibrous network and small clusters of assembled catalyst are confined in the MWNTs, producing an easily handled solid-phase catalyst. The resulting MWNT-confined catalyst exhibits a good catalytic performance in a catalytic asymmetric Mannich-type reaction, which can be conducted in a repeated batch system and in a continuous-flow platform.

  13. Analysis of volatiles of malt whisky by solid-phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Demyttenaere, Jan C R; Martínez, Jorge I Sánchez; Verhé, Roland; Sandra, Pat; De Kimpe, Norbert


    Blended Scotch whisky was analysed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) to study the composition of the volatiles. For SPME analysis, three different fibres were compared, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) (100 microm). poly(acrylate) (PA) (85 microm) and divinylbenzene-Carboxen on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (DVB-CAR-(PDMS) (50/30 microm). It was found that the PDMS and DVB-CAR-PDMS fibres showed a higher enrichment capacity than PA as well as a better reproducibility. The influence of sampling time, temperature and salt addition on the enrichment of volatiles as well as the difference between liquid and headspace SPME were studied. An optimum SPME method was developed. Finally a more recent sample preparation technique, namely SBSE was evaluated to extract whisky volatiles.

  14. Convenient solid phase extraction of cephalosporins in milk using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; Claude, Bérengère; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; Morin, Philippe


    In this paper, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for cephalosporin molecules (cephalexin (CFL) and cephapirin (CFP)), was prepared by non covalent molecular imprinting approach and applied to solid phase extraction (SPE). For MIP synthesis, a tributylammonium cefadroxil salt (TBA-CFD) was used as template with methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as monomer and cross-linker, respectively, in acetone-methanol 92/8 (v/v) mixture. The selectivity of MIP versus non imprinted polymer (NIP) was confirmed for CFL, CFD and CFP in standard solutions as well as in milk samples. The efficiency of the synthesized MIP was evaluated by means of the application of the proposed MIP-SPE procedure to spiked milk samples previous to the HPLC method for the detection of cephalosporins. The MIP-SPE recoveries were higher than 60% for the three target analytes in spiked milk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gaseous Products of Incense Coil Combustion Extracted by Passive Solid Phase Microextraction Samplers

    Wen-Hsi Cheng


    Full Text Available Burning incense indoors is a common behavior in Southeast Asia. In this investigation, needle trap samplers (NTS, a novel, green analytical technology is used for sampling gaseous combustion by-products from sandalwood incense coils. To extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs, two NTS are prepared, one using 60–80 mesh and the other using 100–120 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB particles packed in 22-gauge stainless steel needles. This work compares extraction efficiency of an NTS and that of a commercially available 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME fiber sampler. Experimental results indicated that the 100–120 mesh DVB-NTS performed best among all samplers during a 1 h sampling period. The main extracted compounds were toluene, ethylbenzene, propane, chloromethane, 1,3-butadiene, methanol and dichloromethane. The potential use of small badge-sized or pen-sized NTS for the indoor atmosphere and occupational hygiene applications is addressed.

  16. "Reagentless" flow injection determination of ammonia and urea using membrane separation and solid phase basification

    Akse, J. R.; Thompson, J. O.; Sauer, R. L.; Atwater, J. E.


    Flow injection analysis instrumentation and methodology for the determination of ammonia and ammonium ions in an aqueous solution are described. Using in-line solid phase basification beds containing crystalline media. the speciation of ammoniacal nitrogen is shifted toward the un-ionized form. which diffuses in the gas phase across a hydrophobic microporous hollow fiber membrane into a pure-water-containing analytical stream. The two streams flow in a countercurrent configuration on opposite sides of the membrane. The neutral pH of the analytical stream promotes the formation of ammonium cations, which are detected using specific conductance. The methodology provides a lower limit of detection of 10 microgram/L and a dynamic concentration range spanning three orders of magnitude using a 315-microliters sample injection volume. Using immobilized urease to enzymatically promote the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide, the technique has been extended to the determination of urea.

  17. Application of solid-phase microextraction combined with derivatization to the enantiomeric determination of amphetamines.

    Cháfer-Pericás, C; Campíns-Falcó, P; Herráez-Hernández, R


    The utility of combining chiral derivatization and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the enantiomeric analysis of primary amphetamines by liquid chromatography has been investigated. Different derivatization/extraction strategies have been evaluated and compared using the chiral reagent o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA)-N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and fibres with a Carbowax-templated resin coating. Amphetamine, norephedrine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) were used as model compounds. On the basis of the results obtained, a new method is presented based on the derivatization of the analytes in solution followed by SPME of the OPA-NAC derivatives formed. The proposed conditions have been applied to determine the compounds of interest at low ppm levels (urine samples. Data on the linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity and selectivity are given. The utility of the described procedure for the quantification of amphetamine, norephedrine and MDA enantiomers in different kind of samples is also discussed.

  18. Studies on solid-solid phase transitions of polyols by infrared spectroscopy

    Feng, H.; Liu, X.; He, S.; Wu, K.; Zhang, J. [Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang (China)


    This paper chiefly deals with the properties of polyols - a kind of energy storage material, by IR spectra. A series of infrared spectra at various temperatures were obtained for pentaerythritol (PE), pentaglycerine (PG), neopentylglycol (NPG) and their mixture NPG/PG. The experimental results (the shifts of -OH absorption band in IR spectra) support the solid-solid phase transition mechanism, which involves the reversible breaking of nearest-neighbor hydrogen bonds in the molecular crystals at transformation temperature. The correlation between the wave number shifts and the temperatures of phase transition is proposed in this paper. Finally, by means of infrared spectroscopy experiments, it is shown that aging has a great influence on the thermal properties of polyol mixtures.

  19. Recent developments in automatic solid-phase extraction with renewable surfaces exploiting flow-based approaches

    Miró, Manuel; Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Jakmunee, Jaroon


    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is the most versatile sample-processing method for removal of interfering species and/or analyte enrichment. Although significant advances have been made over the past two decades in automating the entire analytical protocol involving SPE via flow-injection approaches......,on-line SPE assays performed in permanent mode lack sufficient reliability as a consequence of progressively tighter packing of the bead reactor, contamination of the solid surfaces and potential leakage of functional moieties. This article overviews the current state-of-the-art of an appealing tool...... chemical-derivatization reactions, and it pinpoints the most common instrumental detection techniques utilized. We present and discuss in detail relevant environmental and bioanalytical applications reported in the past few years....

  20. Sol-Gel-Coated Calix[4]arene Fiber for Solid-Phase Microextraction

    LiXiu-juan; XiaoRui-min; LiHai-bing; ZengZhao-rui


    5, 11, 17, 23-tetra-tert-butyl-25, 27-diethoxy-26, 28-dihydroxycalix [4] arene/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil coated fiber was first prepared and applied for solid-phase microextraction with sol-gel technology. The properties of the new coating were investigated by analysis of benzene derivatives, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines.The fiber is characterized by good sensitivity and selectivity to these aromatics. The fiber has stable performance at a high temperature of 380℃ and after a long solvent immersing,thus its lifetime is very long. It shows good fiber-to-fiber and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Furthermore, broad linear ranges and low detection limits are also its characteristics.

  1. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Chih-Hsin Yeh


    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  2. Sol-Gel-Coated Calix[4]arene Fiber for Solid-Phase Microextraction

    Li Xiu-juan; Xiao Rui-min; Li Hai-bing; Zeng Zhao-rui


    5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25, 27-diethoxy-26, 28-dihydroxycalix [4] arene /hydroxy-terminated silicone oil coated fiber was first prepared and applied for solid-phase microextraction with sol-gel technology. The properties of the new coating were investigated by analysis of benzene derivatives, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. The fiber is characterized by good sensitivity and selectivity to these aromatics. The fiber has stable performance at a high temperature of 380℃ and after a long solvent immersing, thus its lifetime is very long. It shows good fiber-to-fiber and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Furthermore, broad linear ranges and low detection limits are also its characteristics.

  3. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling under turbulent conditions and for the simultaneous collecting of tracer gases

    Underwood Susanne W.; Jong Edmund C.; Luxbacher Kray D.; Sarver Emily A.; Ripepi Nino S.; McNair Harold M.


    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free method of sample collection. SPME is an appealing method for sample collection because it is designed for the sampling of trace level analytes with short sampling times in a variety of environments. Additionally, SPME can be used to directly deliver a sample to a gas chromatograph (GC) for analysis by means of thermal desorption. In this paper, the performance of SPME under dynamic conditions was investigated. Additionally, the competence of SPME sampling for the simultaneous analysis of multiple trace analytes was also evaluated. This work is discussed in the context of underground mine ventilation surveys but is applicable to any industry in which ventilation circuits must be evaluated. The results of this paper showed that the performance of the 100 lm PDMS SPME fiber was both precise and rapid under dynamic conditions. This SPME fiber was also able to simultaneously collect sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) with adequate sensitivity.

  4. Reaction Process of Chromium Slag Reduced by Industrial Waste in Solid Phase

    SHI Yu-min; DU Xing-hong; MENG Qing-jia; SONG Shi-wei; SUI Zhi-tong


    M, a particular industrial waste, was selected to detoxify chromium slag at a high temperature. The carbon remaining in M reduced Cr (Ⅵ) of Na2CrO4 borne in the chromium slag to Cr (Ⅲ) in the solid phase reaction, and its thermodynamics and kinetics were studied. The reduction process of Na2CrO4 by carbon produced CO, which was endothermic. Under the experimental condition, the apparent activation energy was 4.41 kJ·mol-1, the apparent order of reaction for Na2CrO4 was equal to one, and the partial pressure of CO was only 0.22 Pa at 1 330 ℃.

  5. Chemiluminescence Determination of Benzoic Acid Using A Solid-Phase Verdigris Reactor


    A new chemiluminescence flow system has been developed for sequential determina-tion of benzoic acid based on the reaction of the compound with copper carbonate entrapped in a solid-phase reactor. It was found that the unsaturated complex of Cu(II) and benzoic acid (1:1) has strong catalytic effect on the luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction. The calibration graph is linear over the range of 0.025 ~ 60 μg/mL of benzoic acid, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.0 %, and the detection limit is 0.01μg@mL-1. The proposed method was applied to the determination of benzoic acid content in different pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. Isolation of tetracyclines in milk using a solid-phase extracting column and water eluent.

    Furusawa, Naoto


    An isolating method using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) ISOLUTE(R) C8 endcapped syringe-column for routine monitoring of residual tetracyclines (TCs) (oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and doxycycline (DC)) in cow's milk is presented. In the simplest and most environmentally harmless method, milk samples could be applied directly to the SPE column, following which all TCs were eluted with water. No organic solvents were used at all. The purified sample was injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photo-diode array detector (PDAD). For the HPLC determination/identification, a LiChrospher(R) 100 RP-8 endcapped column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile -7% (v v(-1)) acetic acid solution (in water) (35:65, v v(-1)) with a PDAD was used. The total time required for the analysis of one sample was 80 and <5%, respectively.

  7. A digital microfluidic interface between solid-phase microextraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Choi, Kihwan; Boyacı, Ezel; Kim, Jihye; Seale, Brendon; Barrera-Arbelaez, Luis; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Wheeler, Aaron R


    We introduce a method to couple solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with HPLC-MS using digital microfluidics (DMF). In the new system, SPME fibers are used to extract analytes from complex sample solutions, after which the analytes are desorbed into solvent droplets in a DMF device. The open geometry of DMF allows straightforward insertion of SPME fibers without requiring a complicated interface, and automated droplet manipulation enables multiplexed processing of the fibers. In contrast to other multiplexed SPME elution interfaces, the low volumes inherent to DMF allow for pre-concentration of analytes prior to analysis. The new SPME-DMF-HPLC-MS method was applied to the quantification of pg/mL-level free steroid hormones in urine. We propose that this new method will be useful for a wide range of applications requiring cleanup and pre-concentration with convenient coupling to high-performance analytical techniques.

  8. Thermal desorption solid-phase microextraction inlet for differential mobility spectrometry.

    Rainsberg, Matthew R; de Harrington, Peter B


    A splitless thermal desorber unit that interfaces a differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) sensor has been devised. This device was characterized by the detection of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in water. The detection of BTX in water is important for environmental monitoring, and ion mobility measurements are traditionally difficult for hydrocarbons in water because water competes for charge and quenches the hydrocarbon signals. This paper reports the use of a DMS with a photoionization source that is directly coupled to a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) desorber. The separation and detection capabilities of the DMS were demonstrated using BTX components. Detection limits for benzene, toluene, and m-xylene were 75, 50, and 5 microg mL(-1), respectively.

  9. Solid-phase synthesis and biological evaluation of Joro spider toxin-4 from Nephila clavata.

    Barslund, Anne F; Poulsen, Mette H; Bach, Tinna B; Lucas, Simon; Kristensen, Anders S; Strømgaard, Kristian


    Polyamine toxins from orb weaver spiders are attractive pharmacological tools particularly for studies of ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors in the brain. These polyamine toxins are biosynthesized in a combinatorial manner, providing a plethora of related, but structurally complex toxins to be exploited in biological studies. Here, we have used solid-phase synthetic methodology for the efficient synthesis of Joro spider toxin-4 (JSTX-4) (1) from Nephila clavata, providing sufficient amounts of the toxin for biological evaluation at iGlu receptor subtypes using electrophysiology. Biological evaluation revealed that JSTX-4 inhibits iGlu receptors only in high μM concentrations, thereby being substantially less potent than structurally related polyamine toxins.

  10. Kinetics of liquid-solid phase transition in large nickel clusters

    Yakubovich, Alexander V; Schramm, Stefan; Solov'yov, Andrey V


    In this paper we have explored computationally the solidification process of large nickel clusters. This process has the characteristic features of the first order phase transition occurring in a finite system. The focus of our research is placed on the elucidation of correlated dynamics of a large ensemble of particles in the course of the nanoscale liquid-solid phase transition through the computation and analysis of the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the corresponding theoretical model. This problem is of significant interest and importance, because the controlled dynamics of systems on the nanoscale is one of the central topics in the development of modern nanotechnologies. MD simulations in large molecular systems are rather computer power demanding. Therefore, in order to advance with MD simulations we have used modern computational methods based on the graphics processing units (GPU). The advantages of the use of GPUs for MD simulations in comparison with the CPUs are demonstrated ...

  11. Determination of resveratrol in red wine by solid phase extraction-flow injection chemiluminescence method


    A sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the detection of resveratrol in red wine based on the fact that resveratrol can greatly enhance chemiluminescence reaction between KMnO4 and HCHO in sulfuric acid medium.Analytes were pre-concentrated on solid sorbents (C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges). Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method allows the measurement of resveratrol over the range of 1.32 × 10-s to 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.30 × 10-9 mol/L, and the relative standard deviation for 1.32 × 10-5 mol/L resveratrol (n = 11 ) is 3.8%. This method has been successfully applied for the determination of the resveratrol in red wine. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  12. Recent Developments in Solid-Phase Extraction for Near and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis

    Christian W. Huck


    Full Text Available A review with more than 100 references on the principles and recent developments in the solid-phase extraction (SPE prior and for in situ near and attenuated total reflection (ATR infrared spectroscopic analysis is presented. New materials, chromatographic modalities, experimental setups and configurations are described. Their advantages for fast sample preparation for distinct classes of compounds containing different functional groups in order to enhance selectivity and sensitivity are discussed and compared. This is the first review highlighting both the fundamentals of SPE, near and ATR spectroscopy with a view to real sample applicability and routine analysis. Most of real sample analyses examples are found in environmental research, followed by food- and bioanalysis. In this contribution a comprehensive overview of the most potent SPE-NIR and SPE-ATR approaches is summarized and provided.

  13. Simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium by first-derivative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry.

    Capitán, F; Manzano, E; Navalón, A; Luis Vilchez, J; Capitán-Vallvey, L F


    A method for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium in mixtures by first-deravative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry has been developed. Aluminium and beryllium reacted with morin to give fluorescent complexes, which were fixed on a dextran-type resin. The fluoresnce of the resin, packed in a 1-mm silica cell, was measured directly with a solid-surface attachment. The constant wavelength difference chosen to optimize the determination was Deltalambda = lambda(em) = 75 nm. Aluminium was measured at lambda(em)lambda = 445/520 nm and beryllium at lambda(em)lambda(em) = 430/505 nm. The range of application is between 0.5 and 5.0 ng/ml for both aluminium and beryllium. The accuracy and precision of the method are reported. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of aluminium and beryllium in synthetic mixtures and natural waters.

  14. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Han, Dandan; Row, Kyung Ho


    A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998) for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1) was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction. PMID:21673926

  15. Lanthanide-Mediated Dephosphorylation Used for Peptide Cleavage during Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis

    Byunghee Yoo


    Full Text Available Lanthanide(III ions can accelerate the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in neutral aqueous solution. In this paper, lanthanide-mediated dephosphorylation has been applied in aqueous media as an orthogonal cleavage condition that can be employed in conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS. A phosphorylated polymeric support for SPPS was developed using Boc chemistry. The cleavage of resin-bound phosphates was investigated with the addition of Eu(III, Yb(III, acid or base, a mixture of solvents or different temperatures. To demonstrate the utility of this approach for SPPS, a peptide sequence was synthesized on a phosphorylated polymeric support and quantitatively cleaved with lanthanide ions in neutral aqueous media. The protecting groups for side chains were retained during peptide cleavage using lanthanide ions. This new methodology provides a mild orthogonal cleavage condition of phosphoester as a linker during SPPS.

  16. A simple and safe method for single HLA-antigen-typing by a solid phase assay.

    Häcker-Shahin, B; Giannitsis, D J


    A rapid solid phase assay for detection of single HLA-antigens on platelets was developed. The platelets were attached to the surface of polystyrene microtitre plate wells by means of a sodium carbonate buffer and centrifugation. Uncovered areas were blocked by a gelatin blocking buffer. After incubation with commercially available anti-HLA-sera the bound anti-HLA-specific antibodies directed against HLA-antigens present on the platelets were made visible by anti-IgG-coated indicator red cells and a brief centrifugation. A positive result, meaning the presence of an HLA-antigen, was indicated by a slight red cell adherence over the reaction surface. In the absence of the HLA-antigen no binding occurred and the indicator red cells formed a small red disc-like pellet.

  17. High-Quality Single Crystalline Ge(111) Growth on Si(111) Substrates by Solid Phase Epitaxy

    SUN Bing; CHANG Hu-Dong; LU Li; LIU Hong-Gang; WU De-Xin


    Heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on cleaned and H-terminated Si(111) substrates are demonstrated by employing a combination of e-beam evaporation and solid phase epitaxy techniques. High-quality single crystalline Ge(111) layers on Si(111) substrates with a smooth Ge surface and an abrupt interface between Ge and Si are obtained.An XRD rocking curve scan of the Ge(111) diffraction peak shovs a FWHM of only 260 arcsec for a 50-nm-thick Ge layer annealed at 600℃ with a ramp-up rate of 20℃/s and a holding time of 1 min. The AFM images exhibit that the rms surface roughness of all the crystalline Ge layers are less than 2.1 nm.

  18. Biomonitoring of benzene and toluene in human blood by headspace-solid-phase microextraction

    Schimming, E.; Levsen, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung (ITA), Hannover (Germany); Koehme, C.; Schuermann, W. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Pneumologie


    A simple and rapid method for the determination of benzene and toluene in whole blood by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is described. Using SPME fibres coated with 65 {mu}m carboxene/polydimethylsiloxane, limits of quantification (LOQ) of 5 ng/L for benzene and 25 ng/L for toluene are achieved. As a result of its large linear range (i.e. 5-5000 ng/L for benzene) the method is suitable for biomonitoring of both occupationally and environmentally exposed people. The reproducibility of the determination of benzene is {<=} 8%. An interlaboratory comparison demonstrated that the method proposed here compares favorably with existing methods (dynamic headspace, purge and trap). (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  19. Separation and Purification of Sulforaphane from Broccoli by Solid Phase Extraction

    Kyung Ho Row


    Full Text Available A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the determination of sulforaphane in broccoli has been developed. The optimal conditions were found to be use of a silica SPE cartridge, and ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as washing and eluting solvents, respectively, which could eliminate interferences originating from the broccoli matrix. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.05 to 200 μg/mL (r = 0.998 for sulforaphane with the relative standard deviations less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of sulforaphane from broccoli were more than 90.8% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1 was 0.02 μg/mL. The SPE method provides a higher yield of sulforaphane from crude extracts compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction.

  20. Headspace Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fenthion in Human Serum

    Kyriaki Machera


    Full Text Available A simple and effective analytical procedure was developed for the determination of fenthion residues in human serum samples. The sample treatment was performed using the headspace solid-phase micro extraction with polyacrylate fiber, which has the advantage to require low amount of serum (1 mL without tedious pre-treatment. The quantification of fenthion was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the recoveries ranged from 79 to 104% at two spiking levels for 6 replicates. Detection and quantification limits were calculated as 1.51 and 4.54 ng/mL of serum respectively. Two fenthion metabolites − fenoxon and fenthion–sulfoxide − were also identified.

  1. Solid Phase Luminescence of Several Rare Earth Ions on Ion-Exchange Films

    Tanner, Stephen P.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.


    The development and characterization of a novel ion-exchange film for solid-phase fluorometry and phosphorimetry is reported. This new cation-exchange material is suitable for spectroscopic applications in the ultraviolet and visible regions. It is advantageous because it, as a single entity, is easily recovered from solution and mounted in the spectrofluorometers. After preconcentration on the film, the luminescence intensity of lanthanide ions is several orders of magnitude greater than that of the corresponding solution, depending on the volume of solution and the amount of film. This procedure allows emission spectral measurements and determination of lanthanide ions at solution concentrations of < 5 (micro)g/L. The film may be stored for subsequent reuse or as a permanent record of the analysis. The major drawback to the use of the film is slow uptake of analyte due to diffusion limitations.

  2. Density-functional theory for fluid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions

    Bharadwaj, Atul S.; Singh, Yashwant


    We develop a theory to describe solid-solid phase transitions. The density functional formalism of classical statistical mechanics is used to find an exact expression for the difference in the grand thermodynamic potentials of the two coexisting phases. The expression involves both the symmetry conserving and the symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function. The theory is used to calculate phase diagram of systems of soft spheres interacting via inverse power potentials u (r ) =ɛ "close="1 /n )">σ /r n , where parameter n measures softness of the potential. We find that for 1 /n ≥0.154 the body-centred-cubic (bcc) structure is preferred. The bcc structure transforms into the fcc structure upon increasing the density. The calculated phase diagram is in good agreement with the one found from molecular simulations.

  3. [Solid phase coordination synthesis and characterization of polymimide and Sm ion-under microwave radiation].

    Lu, Jian-mei; Dai, Wei-quan; Ji, Shun-jun; Wang, Li-hua; Zhu, Xiu-lin


    Solid phase coordination reaction of Sm3+ and the resultant of the imidization of polycondensor of polycondensation and imidization of benzoguanamine(BGA) and 2, 4-tolylenediisocyanate (TDI) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMIDA) under microwave irradiation were synthesized and studied. The effect of microwave irradiation time (power), the composition of reactants and the reaction temperature on the yield and Sm content in complexes were studied. The complex was determined by Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), Fourier transform Roman spectrum (FTRS), scanning electric minor (SEM), 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction. The fluorescence intensity was measured by fluorescent emission spectrum and compared with thermal coordination. The magnetic susceptibilities were measured by magnetic curve. The results showed that the complex had not characteristic fluorescence of Sm3+, which illustrated that the first excitation level of Sm3+ and polymer could not match at all. But the complex showed good magnetic property of the ion.

  4. Solid phase extraction of iron and lead in environmental matrices on amberlite xad-1180/pv

    Mustafa Soylak


    Full Text Available A solid phase extraction procedure using Amberlite XAD-1180/Pyrocatechol violet (PV chelating resin for the determination of iron and lead ions in various environmental samples was established. The procedure is based on the sorption of lead(II and iron(III ions onto the resin at pH 9, followed by elution with 1 mol/L HNO3 and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metals, as interferents, are discussed. The recoveries for the spiked analytes were greater than 95%. The detection limits for lead and iron by FAAS were 0.37 µg/L and 0.20 µg/L, respectively. Validation of the method described here was performed by using three certified reference materials (SRM 1515 Apple Leaves, SRM 2711 Montana Soil and NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine Water. The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and human hair.

  5. Colorimetric monitoring of solid-phase aldehydes using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.

    Shannon, Simon K; Barany, George


    A simple and rapid method to achieve colorimetric monitoring of resin-bound aldehydes, based on ambient temperature reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in the presence of dilute acid, has been developed as an adjunct to solid-phase organic synthesis and combinatorial chemistry. By this test, the presence of aldehydes is indicated by a red to dark-orange appearance, within a minute. Alternatively, resins that are free of aldehydes or in which aldehyde functions have reacted completely retain their original color. The DNPH test was demonstrated for poly(ethylene glycol)-polystyrene (PEG-PS), aminomethyl polystyrene (AMP), cross-linked ethoxylate acrylate resin (CLEAR), and acryloylated O,O'-bis(2-aminopropyl)poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGA) supports and gave results visible to the naked eye at levels as low as 18 micromol of aldehyde per gram of resin.

  6. Solid-phase synthesis of lidocaine and procainamide analogues using backbone amide linker (BAL) anchoring.

    Shannon, Simon K; Peacock, Mandy J; Kates, Steven A; Barany, George


    New solid-phase strategies have been developed for the synthesis of lidocaine (1) and procainamide (2) analogues, using backbone amide linker (BAL) anchoring. Both sets were prepared starting from a common resin-bound intermediate, followed by four general steps: (i) attachment of a primary aliphatic or aromatic amine to the solid support via reductive amination (as monitored by a novel test involving reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with residual aldehyde groups); (ii) acylation of the resultant secondary amine; (iii) displacement of halide with an amine; and (iv) trifluoroacetic acid-mediated release from the support. A manual parallel strategy was followed to provide 60 novel compounds, of which two dozen have not been previously described. In most cases, initial crude purities were >80%, and overall isolated yields were in the 40-88% range.

  7. Indigenous microbial capability in solid manure residues to start-up solid-phase anaerobic digesters.

    Yap, S D; Astals, S; Jensen, P D; Batstone, D J; Tait, S


    Batch solid-phase anaerobic digestion is a technology for sustainable on-farm treatment of solid residues, but is an emerging technology that is yet to be optimised with respect to start-up and inoculation. In the present study, spent bedding from two piggeries (site A and B) were batch digested at total solids (TS) concentration of 5, 10 and 20% at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures, without adding an external inoculum. The results showed that the indigenous microbial community present in spent bedding was able to recover the full methane potential of the bedding (140±5 and 227±6L CH4 kgVSfed(-1) for site A and B, respectively), but longer treatment times were required than for digestion with an added external inoculum. Nonetheless, at high solid loadings (i.e. TS level>10%), the digestion performance was affected by chemical inhibition due to ammonia and/or humic acid. Thermophilic temperatures did not influence digestion performance but did increase start-up failure risk. Further, inoculation of residues from the batch digestion to subsequent batch enhanced start-up and achieved full methane potential recovery of the bedding. Inoculation with liquid residue (leachate) was preferred over a solid residue, to preserve treatment capacity for fresh substrate. Overall, the study highlighted that indigenous microbial community in the solid manure residue was capable of recovering full methane potential and that solid-phase digestion was ultimately limited by chemical inhibition rather than lack of suitable microbial community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy)


    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented.

  9. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the screening of antihyperglycemic biguanides.

    Feng, Sherry Y; Lai, Edward P C; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Sadeghi, Susan


    A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was specifically synthesized as a smart material for the recognition of metformin hydrochloride in solid-phase extraction. Particles of this MIP were packed into a stainless-steel tubing (50 mm x 0.8 mm i.d.) equipped with an exit frit. This micro-column was employed in the development of a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method for metformin determination. The MISPE instrumentation consisted of a micrometer pump, an injector valve equipped with a 20-microl sample loop, a UV detector, and an integrator. With CH3CN as the mobile phase flowing at 0.5 ml/min, 95 +/- 2% binding could be achieved for 1200 ng of metformin from one injection of a phosphate-buffered sample solution (pH 2.5). Methanol + 3% trifluoroacetic acid was good for quantitative pulsed elution (PE) of the bound metformin. The MISPE-PE method, with UV detection at 240 nm, afforded a detection limit of 16 ng (or 0.8 microg/ml) for metformin. However, the micro-column interacted indiscriminately with phenformin with a 49 +/- 2% binding. A systematic investigation of binding selectivity was conducted with respect to sample composition (including the solvent, matrix, pH, buffer and surfactant effects). An intermediate step of differential pulsed elution used acetonitrile with 5% picric acid to remove phenformin and other structural analogues. A final pulsed elution of metformin for direct UV detection was achieved using 3% trifluoroacetic acid in methanol.

  10. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M


    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.

  11. Development of a Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry Cartridge with Integrated Solid Phase Extraction for Bioanalysis.

    Zhang, Chengsen; Manicke, Nicholas E


    A novel paper spray cartridge with an integrated solid phase extraction (SPE) column is described. The cartridge performs extraction and pre-concentration, as well as sample ionization by paper spray, from complex samples such as plasma. The cartridge allows for selective enrichment of target molecules from larger sample volumes and removal of the matrix, which significantly improved the signal intensity of target compounds in plasma samples by paper spray ionization. Detection limits, quantitative performance, recovery, ionization suppression, and the effects of sample volume were evaluated for five drugs: carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethazine, diazepam, and alprazolam. Compared with direct paper spray analysis of dried plasma spots, paper spray analysis using the integrated solid phase extraction improved the detection limits significantly by a factor of 14-70, depending on the drug. The improvement in detection limits was, in large part, due to the capability of analyzing larger sample volumes. In addition, ionization suppression was found to be lower and recovery was higher for paper spray with integrated SPE, as compared to direct paper spray analysis. By spiking an isotopically labeled internal standard into the plasma sample, a linear calibration curve for the drugs was obtained from the limit of detection (LOD) to 1 μg/mL, indicating that this method can be used for quantitative analysis. The paper spray cartridge with integrated SPE could prove valuable for analytes that ionize poorly, in applications where lower detection limits are required, or on portable mass spectrometers. The improved performance comes at the cost of requiring a more complex paper spray cartridge and requiring larger sample volumes than those used in typical direct paper spray ionization.

  12. Cold fiber solid-phase microextraction device based on thermoelectric cooling of metal fiber.

    Haddadi, Shokouh Hosseinzadeh; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    A new cold fiber solid-phase microextraction device was designed and constructed based on thermoelectric cooling. A three-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) was used for cooling a copper rod coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) hollow fiber, which served as the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The copper rod was mounted on a commercial SPME plunger and exposed to the cold surface of the TEC, which was enclosed in a small aluminum box. A heat sink and a fan were used to dissipate the generated heat at the hot side of the TEC. By applying an appropriate dc voltage to the TEC, the upper part of the copper rod, which was in contact to the cold side of the TEC, was cooled and the hollow fiber reached a lower temperature through heat transfer. A thermocouple was embedded in the cold side of the TEC for indirect measurement of the fiber temperature. The device was applied in quantitative analysis of off-flavors in a rice sample. Hexanal, nonanal, and undecanal were chosen as three off-flavors in rice. They were identified according to their retention times and analyzed by GC-flame ionization detection instrument. Headspace extraction conditions (i.e., temperature and time) were optimized. Standard addition calibration graphs were obtained at the optimized conditions and the concentrations of the three analytes were calculated. The concentration of hexanal was also measured using a conventional solvent extraction method (697+/-143ng/g) which was comparable to that obtained from the cold fiber SPME method (644+/-8). Moreover, the cold fiber SPME resulted in better reproducibility and shorter analysis time. Cold fiber SPME with TEC device can also be used as a portable device for field sampling.

  13. A metal organic framework-polyaniline nanocomposite as a fiber coating for solid phase microextraction.

    Bagheri, Habib; Javanmardi, Hasan; Abbasi, Alireza; Banihashemi, Solmaz


    A metal organic framework-polyaniline (MOF/PANI) nanocomposite was electrodeposited on a stainless steel wire and used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The electropolymerization process was carried out under a constant deposition potential and applied to the corresponding aqueous electrolyte containing aniline and MOF particles. The employment of MOFs with their large and small cages and 3-D structures in synthesizing a nanocomposite was assumed to be efficient constitutes to induce more non-smooth and porous structures, approved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Three different MOFs were incorporated to synthesize the desired nanocomposites and the preliminary experiments showed that all of them, particularly the one containing MOF2, have higher extraction performances in compared with PANI. The applicability of the new fiber coating was examined by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some chlorobenzenes (CBs) from aqueous samples. Influencing parameters on the synthesize and extraction processes including the electrodeposition voltage and its duration time, the weight ratio of PANI and MOF, the ionic strength, desorption temperature and time, and extraction time and temperature were optimized. The developed method was validated by analyzing the spiked distilled water and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under optimum condition, the relative standard deviation (RSD%) values for a double distilled water spiked with the selected CBs at 20ngL(-1) were 5-8% (n=3) and the detection limits were below 0.2ngL(-1). The linear dynamic range (LDR) of the method was in the concentration range of 0.5-1000ngL(-1) (R(2)>0.9994). The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was found to be in the range of 4-7%. Eventually, various real-water samples were analyzed by the MOF/PANI-based HS-SPME and GC-MS and the relative recovery values were found to be in the range of 92-98%.

  14. Determination of colloidal and dissolved silver in water samples using colorimetric solid-phase extraction.

    Hill, April A; Lipert, Robert J; Porter, Marc D


    The increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to resurgence in the use of silver as a biocidal agent in applications ranging from washing machine additives to the drinking water treatment system on the International Space Station (ISS). However, growing concerns about the possible toxicity of colloidal silver to bacteria, aquatic organisms and humans have led to recently issued regulations by the US EPA and FDA regarding the usage of silver. As part of an ongoing project, we have developed a rapid, simple method for determining total silver, both ionic (silver(I)) and colloidal, in 0.1-1mg/L aqueous samples, which spans the ISS potable water target of 0.3-0.5mg/L (total silver) and meets the US EPA limit of 0.1mg/L in drinking water. The method is based on colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) and involves the extraction of silver(I) from water samples by passage through a solid-phase membrane impregnated with the colorimetric reagent DMABR (5-[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]rhodanine). Silver(I) exhaustively reacts with impregnated DMABR to form a colored compound, which is quantified using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Total silver is determined by first passing the sample through a cartridge containing Oxone, which exhaustively oxidizes colloidal silver to dissolved silver(I). The method, which takes less than 2 min to complete and requires only approximately 1 mL of sample, has been validated through a series of tests, including a comparison with the ICP-MS analysis of a water sample from ISS that contained both silver(I) and colloidal silver. Potential earth-bound applications are also briefly discussed.

  15. Evaluation of single-walled carbon nanohorns as sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction

    Jimenez-Soto, Juan Manuel; Cardenas, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of single walled carbon nanohorns in dispersive solid phase microextraction has been evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was characterized for the extraction of PAHs from waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single walled carbon nanohorns were better extractant than carbon nanotubes and carbon nanocones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limits of detection were adequate for the target analytes in environmental waters. - Abstract: A new dispersive micro solid-phase extraction method which uses single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) as sorbent is proposed. The procedure combines the excellent sorbent properties of the nanoparticles with the efficiency of the dispersion of the material in the sample matrix. Under these conditions, the interaction with the analytes is maximized. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was selected as model analytical problem. Two dispersion strategies were evaluated, being the functionalization via microwave irradiation better than the use of a surfactant. The extraction was accomplished by adding 1 mL of oxidized SWHNs (o-SWNHs) dispersion to 10 mL of water sample. After extraction, the mixture was passed through a disposable Nylon filter were the nanoparticles enriched with the PAHs were retained. The elution was carried out with 100 {mu}L of hexane. The limits of detection achieved were between 30 and 60 ng L{sup -1} with a precision (as repeatability) better than 12.5%. The recoveries obtained for the analytes in three different water samples were acceptable in all instances. The performance of o-SWNHs was favourably compared with that provided by carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and thermally treated carbon nanocones.

  16. Combined liquid and solid-phase extraction improves quantification of brain estrogen content

    Andrew eChao


    Full Text Available Accuracy in quantifying brain-derived steroid hormones (‘neurosteroids’ has become increasingly important for understanding the modulation of neuronal activity, development, and physiology. Relative to other neuroactive compounds and classical neurotransmitters, steroids pose particular challenges with regard to isolation and analysis, owing to their lipid solubility. Consequently, anatomical studies of the distribution of neurosteroids have relied primarily on the expression of neurosteroid synthesis enzymes. To evaluate the distribution of synthesis enzymes vis-à-vis the actual steroids themselves, traditional steroid quantification assays, including radioimmunoassays (RIA, have successfully employed liquid extraction methods (e.g., ether, dichloromethane or methanol to isolate steroids from microdissected brain tissue. Due to their sensitivity, safety and reliability, the use of commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA for laboratory quantification of steroids in plasma and brain has become increasingly widespread. However, EIAs rely on enzymatic reactions in vitro, making them sensitive to interfering substances in brain tissue and thus producing unreliable results. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol for combined, two-stage liquid/solid phase extraction as compared to conventional liquid extraction alone for the isolation of estradiol (E2 from brain tissue. We employ the songbird model system, in which brain steroid production is pronounced and linked to neural mechanisms of learning and plasticity. This study outlines a combined liquid-solid phase extraction protocol that improves the performance of a commercial EIA for the quantification of brain E2 content. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our optimized method for evaluating the region specificity of brain E2 content, compare these results to established anatomy of the estrogen synthesis enzyme and estrogen receptor, and discuss the nature of potential EIA interfering

  17. Synthesis of Orthogonally Protected Muramic Acid Building Blocks for Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis

    Kristina Vlahoviček-Kahlina


    Full Text Available Muramic acid is found in many peptide natural products containing oligo(polysaccharide moieties. Taking into consideration that the Fmoc methodology is routinely used for solid-phase peptide synthesis, preparation of orthogonally protected muramic acid building blocks for total solid-phase synthesis of these natural products is of particular practical importance. Herein a simple and efficient synthesis of benzyl 2-amino-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-[(R-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-N-9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (6 from N-acetylglucosamine (1 is described. Important improvements over previous synthetic approaches to glucopyranosides 2 (benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside and 3 (benzyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside, key building blocks in preparation of 6, include synthesis simplification and efficient isolation and purification. Optically pure (S-2-chloropropionic acid 7 was prepared and introduced to the positon 3-O of sugar moiety to give compound 4 (benzyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-[(R-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside with the (R-configuration of the lactyl side-chain in excellent overall yield and optical purity. Deacetylation of amino group gave compound 5 (benzyl 2-amino-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-[(R-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside suitable for incorporation of the Fmoc protecting group to give protected muramic acid derivative 6, a useful building block in peptide synthesis.

  18. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Freeze, Ronald [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 μl injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few μl of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  19. Determination of phenolic compounds in wines by novel matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Minuti, Lucio; Pellegrino, Roberto


    A novel matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction method was developed to extract simultaneously 23 phenolic compounds from wine samples prior to determination by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode. Different parameters of the MSPD technique such as dispersant solid-phase, eluting solvent, and sample ionic strength and pH were optimized. The optimized MSPD procedure requires a small volume of wine (1 mL), commercial silica gel (1.5 g) as dispersant solid-phase and a small volume of ethyl acetate (5 mL) as eluting solvent. Under these conditions, the extraction of the studied compounds was almost complete (mean values of recoveries between 87 and 109%) in a short time (15 min). Moreover, satisfactory standard deviations of repeatability (RSD0.993) and detection limits (wines. Application was illustrated by analysis of different wine samples.

  20. Hydrophilic solid-phase extraction of melamine with ampholine-modified hybrid organic-inorganic silica material.

    Wang, Tingting; Zhu, Yiming; Ma, Junfeng; Xuan, Rongrong; Gao, Haoqi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui


    In this work, an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was successfully used to extract melamine from a milk formula sample by a hydrophilic interaction solid-phase extraction protocol. Primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the material such as extraction solvent, elution solvent, sample loading volume, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. Under the optimized hydrophilic solid-phase extraction conditions, the recoveries of melamine spiked in milk formula samples ranged from 86.2 to 101.8% with relative standard deviations of 4.1-9.4% (n = 3). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.32 μg/g. The adsorption capacity toward melamine was 30 μg of melamine per grams of sorbent. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, the newly developed hydrophilic solid-phase extraction method should provide a promising tool for daily monitoring of doped melamine in milk formula.

  1. Solid-phase Synthesis of Combinatorial 2,4-Disubstituted-1,3,5-Triazine via Amine Nucleophilic Reaction

    Moon, Sung Won [KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jungyeob [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Tae [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Jae Wook [University of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In combinatorial chemistry, solid-phase synthesis is a popular approach formass production of small molecules. Compared to solution-phase synthesis, it is easy to prepare and purify a large number of heterocyclic small molecules via solid-phase chemistry; the overall reaction time is decreased as well. 1,3,5-Triazine is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic scaffold that was shown to be a druggable scaffold in recent studies. These structures have been reported as anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiretroviral compounds, as CDKs and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, as estrogen receptor modulators, and as inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. we designed and synthesized disubstituted triazine compounds as an analog of disubstituted pyrimidine compounds. These disubstituted triazine compounds possess a linear structure which may have biological activity similar to that of disubstituted pyrimidine. Here we report the solid-phase synthesis of disubstituted triazine compounds.

  2. Solid Phase Reactions of Ni-GaAs Alloys for High Mobility Ⅲ-Ⅴ MOSFET Applications

    LU Li; CHANG Hu-Dong; SUN Bing; WANG Hong; XUE Bai-Qing; ZHAO We; LIU Hong-Gang


    The solid phase reactions of Ni with GaAs substrates are investigated.The experimental results reveal that the Ni-GaAs solid phase reaction forms a ternary phase of Ni2GaAs when annealing temperatures are in the range 250 300℃.As the annealing temperature increases to 400℃,the Ni2GaAs phase starts to decompose due to NiAs phase precipitation.Ni-GaAs alloys processed at 400℃ with a 3min annealing time demonstrate a sheet resistance of 30Ω/square after unreacted Ni removal in hot diluted-HCl solutions.Therefore,Ni-GaAs alloys formed by solid phase reaction could be promising metallic source/drain structures with significant low series resistance for high mobility Ⅲ-Ⅴ metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) applications.%The solid phase reactions of Ni with GaAs substrates are investigated. The experimental results reveal that the Ni-GaAs solid phase reaction forms a ternary phase of Ni2GaAs when annealing temperatures are in the range 250-300℃. As the annealing temperature increases to 400℃, the Ni2GaAs phase starts to decompose due to NiAs phase precipitation. Ni-GaAs alloys processed at 400℃ with a 3 min annealing time demonstrate a sheet resistance of 30Ω/square after unreacted Ni removal in hot diluted-HCl solutions. Therefore, Ni-GaAs alloys formed by solid phase reaction could be promising metallic source/drain structures with significant low series resistance for high mobility III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) applications.

  3. Carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction sorbents prior to atomic spectrometric determination of metal species: A review

    Herrero Latorre, C., E-mail: [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Alfonso X el Sabio s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Alvarez Mendez, J.; Barciela Garcia, J.; Garcia Martin, S.; Pena Crecente, R.M. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Alfonso X el Sabio s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of CNTs as sorbent for metal species in solid phase extraction has been described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical strategies for functionalization of carbon nanotubes have been discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Published analytical methods concerning solid phase extraction and atomic spectrometric determination have been reviewed. - Abstract: New materials have significant impact on the development of new methods and instrumentation for chemical analysis. From the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes - due to their high adsorption and desorption capacities - have been employed as sorption substrates in solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of metal species from diverse matrices. Looking for successive improvements in sensitivity and selectivity, in the past few years, carbon nanotubes have been utilized as sorbents for solid phase extraction in three different ways: like as-grown, oxidized and functionalized nanotubes. In the present paper, an overview of the recent trends in the use of carbon nanotubes for solid phase extraction of metal species in environmental, biological and food samples is presented. The determination procedures involved the adsorption of metals on the nanotube surface, their quantitative desorption and subsequent measurement by means of atomic spectrometric techniques such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, among others. Synthesis, purification and types of carbon nanotubes, as well as the diverse chemical and physical strategies for their functionalization are described. Based on 140 references, the performance and general properties of the applications of solid phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for metal species atomic spectrometric determination are discussed.

  4. Synthesis of a highly hydrophobic cyclic decapeptide by solid-phase synthesis of linear peptide and cyclization in solution


    A general method was described to synthesize a highly hydrophobic cyclic peptide,cyclo[LWLWLWLWLQ]where underlines indicate D-configuration of the amino acid,by a two-step solid-phase/solution synthesis strategy.The linear decapeptide was assembled by standard Boc chemistry on solid-phase and subsequently cyclized in solution with high efficiency and reproducibility. In subsequent purification by semi-preparative HPLC,50%(v/v) DMF/H_2O was employed as the solvent to overcome the difficulty of solubilizat...

  5. Novel solid – solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Wojda Marta


    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  6. Flow cytometry: basic principles and applications.

    Adan, Aysun; Alizada, Günel; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf; Nalbant, Ayten


    Flow cytometry is a sophisticated instrument measuring multiple physical characteristics of a single cell such as size and granularity simultaneously as the cell flows in suspension through a measuring device. Its working depends on the light scattering features of the cells under investigation, which may be derived from dyes or monoclonal antibodies targeting either extracellular molecules located on the surface or intracellular molecules inside the cell. This approach makes flow cytometry a powerful tool for detailed analysis of complex populations in a short period of time. This review covers the general principles and selected applications of flow cytometry such as immunophenotyping of peripheral blood cells, analysis of apoptosis and detection of cytokines. Additionally, this report provides a basic understanding of flow cytometry technology essential for all users as well as the methods used to analyze and interpret the data. Moreover, recent progresses in flow cytometry have been discussed in order to give an opinion about the future importance of this technology.

  7. Rapid analyses of proteomes and interactomes using an integrated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-MS/ms system

    Binai, Nadine A.; Marino, Fabio; Soendergaard, Peter; Bache, Nicolai; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R


    Here, we explore applications of a LC system using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and very short LC-MS/MS gradients that allows for rapid analyses in less than 10 min analysis time. The setup consists of an autosampler harboring two sets of 96 STAGE tips that function as precolum

  8. Experimental Method Development for Estimating Solid-phase Diffusion Coefficients and Material/Air Partition Coefficients of SVOCs

    The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material-air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to es...

  9. Use of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective clean-up of clenbuterol from calf urine

    Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Sherrington, D; Ensing, K


    A feasibility study was performed in order to study the possibilities in using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbent material in solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for clean-up of clenbuterol from urine. A binding study of clenbuterol in several solvents was performed on a clenbuterol imprint

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers based on SBA-15 for selective solid-phase extraction of baicalein from plasma samples.

    He, Hongliang; Gu, Xiaoli; Shi, Liying; Hong, Junli; Zhang, Hongjuan; Gao, Yankun; Du, Shuhu; Chen, Lina


    Highly selective molecularly imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@MIP) for baicalein (BAI) extraction was synthesized using a surface molecular imprinting technique on the SBA-15 supporter. Computational simulation was used to predict the optimal functional monomer for the rational design of SBA-15@MIP. Meanwhile, high adsorption capacity was obtained when a suitable yield of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) layer was grafted onto the surface of SBA-15. Characterization and performance tests of the obtained polymer revealed that SBA-15@MIP possessed a highly ordered mesoporous structure, reached saturated adsorption within 60 min, and exhibited higher sorption capacity to the target molecule BAI compared with non-imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@NIP) and SBA-15. Finally, SBA-15@MIP was successfully applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for the determination of trace BAI in plasma samples. Mean recoveries of BAI through the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) sorbent, non-imprinted solid-phase extraction (NISPE) sorbent, and SBA-15 solid-phase extraction (SBA-15-SPE) sorbent were 94.4, 22.7, and 10.7 %, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 2.9, 2.6, and 3.6 %, respectively. These results reveal that SBA-15@MIP as a SPE sorbent has good applicability to selectively separate and enrich trace BAI from complex samples.

  11. Novel restricted access materials combined to molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from honey.

    He, Juan; Song, Lixin; Chen, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Hongliang; Zhao, Dongxin; Gu, Keren; Zhang, Shusheng


    A novel restricted access materials (RAM) combined to molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), using malathion as template molecule and glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as pro-hydrophilic co-monomer, were prepared for the first time. RAM-MIPs with hydrophilic external layer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and recognition and selectivity properties were compared with the restricted access materials-non-molecularly imprinted polymers (RAM-NIPs) and unmodified MIPs. RAM-MIPs were used as the adsorbent enclosed in solid phase extraction column and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized to evaluate the extraction performance. Under the optimum extraction conditions, RAM-MIPs exhibited comparable or even higher selectivity with greater extraction capacity toward six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides (including malathion, ethoprophos, phorate, terbufos, dimethoate, and fenamiphos) compared with the MIPs and commercial solid phase extraction columns. The RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneously determine six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides from honey sample. The new established method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1), low limits of detection (0.0005-0.0019 μg mL(-1)), acceptable reproducibility (RSD, 2.26-4.81%, n = 6), and satisfactory relative recoveries (90.9-97.6%). It was demonstrated that RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction with excellent selectivity and restricted access function was a simple, rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment method.

  12. Direct solid-phase microextraction combined with gas and liquid chromatography for the determination of lidocaine in human urine

    Koster, E.H M; Hofman, N.S K; de Jong, G.J.


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been combined with gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) for the determination of lidocaine in human urine. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated fibre was directly immersed into buffered urine. Extraction conditions such as time, pH, ionic stre

  13. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids

    Schellen, A.; Ooms, B.; Lagemaat, D. van de; Vreeken, R.; Dongen, W.D. van


    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS sys

  14. Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis of Aromatic Oligoamides: A Research-Based Laboratory Module for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    Fuller, Amelia A.


    A five-week, research-based experiment suitable for second-semester introductory organic laboratory students is described. Each student designs, prepares, and analyzes a combinatorial array of six aromatic oligoamides. Molecules are prepared on solid phase via a six-step synthetic sequence, and purities and identities are determined by analysis of…

  15. Solid Phase Synthesis of 1, 4-Disubstituted 1, 2, 3-Triazole from Polystyrene-supported Selenium Resin

    Wei Ming XU; Lu Ling WU; Xian HUANG


    We report here a solid-phase synthesis of 1, 4-disubstituted 1, 2, 3-triazole using polystyrene-supported selenium resin. The resin used here not only works as a simple linker, but also assists the crucial α-alkylation reaction and selenoxide syn-elimination, which ensures the purity of the products.

  16. Enhanced kinetics of solid-phase microextraction and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of dissolved organic matter

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.


    The uptake kinetics of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene by solid-phase microextraction fibers was studied in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from sediment pore water and resulted in increased fiber absorption and desorption rate coefficients. C

  17. Solid-Phase Organic Chemistry: Synthesis of 2β-(HeterocyclylthiomethylPenam Derivatives on Solid Support

    Ernesto G. Mata


    Full Text Available The synthesis of 2β-(heterocyclylthiomethylpenam derivatives on solid support has been developed. Compounds are obtained in good to high yields (based on loading of the original resin. The key step is the solid-phase double rearrangement of the corresponding penicillin sulfoxide.

  18. Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay▿

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Garcia, John Paul


    The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay.

  19. Identification of Toxic 2,4-Decadienal in Oxidized, Low-Density Lipoprotein by Solid-Phase Microextraction.

    Spiteller; Spiteller


    The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro was studied by a combination of solid-phase microextraction and GC/MS. 2-trans,4-cis-2,4-Decadienal, which is strongly toxic in vitro, was detected as the early oxidation product. This compound is degraded further to hexanal and (by cyclization of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) to 2-pentylfuran.

  20. Sensing dissolved sediment porewater concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative poolutants using disposable solid-phase microextraction fibers

    Mayer, P.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Wijnker, F.; Legierse, K.C.H.M.; Kraaij, R.H.; Tolls, J.; Hermens, J.L.M.


    Polymer coated glass fibers were applied as disposable samplers to measure dissolved concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants (PBPs) in sediment porewater. The method is called matrix solid-phase microextraction (matrix-SPME), because it utilizes the entire sediment matrix as a re

  1. Application of head-space solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of volatile metabolites emitted by Penicillium species

    Nilsson, Torben; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Montanarella, Luca


    Head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been used to collect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from fungi of the genus Penicillium. Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed for the analysis of the profiles of volatile metabolites characteristic ...

  2. Quantification of Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) in Various Food Matrices by Solid Phase Extraction Liquid ChromatographyIon Trap Mass Spectrometry


    used to deliberately contaminate food or water . TETS is not absorbed through the skin; the most common route of exposure is ingestion of...TETS in various complex food matrices. TETS is a relatively persistent environmental contaminant due to its high stability in water . This extraction...QUANTIFICATION OF TETRAMETHYLENEDISULFOTETRAMINE (TETS) IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION

  3. Solid-Phase Synthesis of New Trp(Nps-Containing Dipeptide Derivatives as TRPV1 Channel Blockers

    Rosario González-Muñiz


    Full Text Available Trp(Nps-Lys-NH2 derivatives, bearing alkyl or guanidine groups either at the N–terminus or on the Lys side-chain or at both positions were conveniently prepared on solid-phase and evaluated as TRPV1 channel antagonists.

  4. Analyzing freely dissolved concentrations of cationic surfactant utilizing ion-exchange capability of polyacrylate coated solid-phase microextraction fibers

    Chen, Y.; Droge, S.T.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.


    A 7-μm polyacrylate (PA) coated fiber was successfully employed to determine freely dissolved concentrations of cationic surfactants by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and utilizing the capability of the PA-coating to sorb organic cations via ion-exchange at carboxylic groups. Measured fiber-wate


    Three types of solid phase chemical exposure sampling media: cellulose, polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2, were analyzed for 2,4-D and the amine salts of 2,4-D. Individual samples were extracted into acidified methanol and the extracts were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using electrospra...

  6. Determination of Scopolamine in Human Saliva Using Solid Phase Extraction and LC/MS/MS

    Wang, Zuwei; Vaksman, Zalman; Boyd, Jason; Putcha, Lakshmi


    Purpose: Scopolamine is the preferred treatment for motion sickness during space flight because of its quick onset of action, short half-life and favorable side-effect profile. The dose administered depends on the mode of administration and usually ranges between 0.1 and 0.8 mg. Such small doses make it difficult to detect concentrations of scopolamine in biological fluids by using conventional HPLC methods. To measure scopolamine in saliva and thereby to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of scopolamine, we developed an LC/MS/MS method using off-line solid phase extraction. Method: Samples (0.5mL) were loaded onto Waters Oasis HLB co-polymer cartridges (10 mg, 1 mL) and eluted with 0.5 mL methanol without evaporation and reconstitution. HPLC separation of the eluted sample was performed using an Agilent Zorbax SB-CN column (50 x 2.1 mm) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 4 minutes. The mobile phase for separation was 90:10 (v/v) methanol: ammonium acetate (2 mM) in water, pH 5.0 +/- 0.1. Concentrations of scopolamine were determined using a Micromass Quattro Micro(TM) mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI). ESI mass spectra were acquired in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring for the determination of scopolamine m/z = 304.2 yields 138.1 and internal standard (IS) hyoscyamine m/z = 290.2 yields 124.1. Results: The method is rapid, reproducible, specific and has the following parameters: scopolamine and the IS are eluted at 1.7 and 3.2 min respectively. The linear range is 50-5000 pg/mL for scopolamine in saliva with correlation coefficients > 0.99 with a CV saliva. Conclusion: Solid phase extraction allows more rapid sample preparation and greater precision than liquid extraction. Furthermore, we increased the sensitivity and specificity by adjusting the LC mobile phase and using an MS/MS detector.

  7. Direct molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for two-component plasmas.

    Schneider, A S; Hughto, J; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K


    We determine the liquid-solid phase diagram for carbon-oxygen and oxygen-selenium plasma mixtures using two-phase molecular dynamics simulations. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions using a bond angle metric. To study finite-size effects, we perform 27,648- and 55,296-ion simulations. To help monitor nonequilibrium effects, we calculate diffusion constants D(i). For the carbon-oxygen system we find that D(O) for oxygen ions in the solid is much smaller than D(C) for carbon ions and that both diffusion constants are 80 or more times smaller than diffusion constants in the liquid phase. There is excellent agreement between our carbon-oxygen phase diagram and that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This suggests that errors from finite-size and nonequilibrium effects are small and that the carbon-oxygen phase diagram is now accurately known. The oxygen-selenium system is a simple two-component model for more complex rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis ash compositions for an accreting neutron star. Diffusion of oxygen, in a predominantly selenium crystal, is remarkably fast, comparable to diffusion in the liquid phase. We find a somewhat lower melting temperature for the oxygen-selenium system than that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This is probably because of electron screening effects.

  8. [Determination of polyphenols in tobacco by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Wang, L; Fang, R B; Li, Z; Jiang, C Q; Yang, G Y


    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of polyphenols in tobacco was studied. Polyphenols can be extracted from tobacco sample by refluxing with 80% (volume fraction) methanol, then subjected to degrease by solid phase extraction with Sep-Pak-C18 column. Chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin, caffeic acid, scopolin and other polyphenols can be separated on a Nova-Pak-C18 column (3.9 mm i.d. x 150 mm) gradiently eluted with methanol and 0.05 mol.L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution as mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.5 mL.min-1. Polyphenols were determined at the maximum wavelength of each polyphenol, for chlorogenic acid 326.1 nm, rutin 354.8 nm, scopoletin 344.0 nm, caffeic acid 323.7 nm and scopolin 365.2 nm by photodiode array detector. The main polyphenols in tobacco can be identified with UV spectroscopy. The recoveries of tobacco polyphenols were 94%-105%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.28%-1.49%. This method can be applied to the determination of polyphenols in tobacco with satisfactory results.

  9. Solid Phase Microextraction and Related Techniques for Drugs in Biological Samples

    Mohammad Mahdi Moein


    Full Text Available In drug discovery and development, the quantification of drugs in biological samples is an important task for the determination of the physiological performance of the investigated drugs. After sampling, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Because of the low concentration levels of drug in plasma and the variety of the metabolites, the selected extraction technique should be virtually exhaustive. Recent developments of sample handling techniques are directed, from one side, toward automatization and online coupling of sample preparation units. The primary objective of this review is to present the recent developments in microextraction sample preparation methods for analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Microextraction techniques allow for less consumption of solvent, reagents, and packing materials, and small sample volumes can be used. In this review the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME, microextraction in packed sorbent (MEPS, and stir-bar sorbtive extraction (SBSE in drug analysis will be discussed. In addition, the use of new sorbents such as monoliths and molecularly imprinted polymers will be presented.

  10. Development of a monolithic polymer pipette for solid-phase extraction of liquiritigenin in rat plasma

    Hong Wu Zhang; Kang Li; Zhi Xian Liang; Feng Yang Wang; Qi Wen Lu


    A monolithic polymer column with mixed-mode interaction was prepared by in situ polymerization in a 1000 μ,L pipette.Two kinds of monomers,butyl methacrylate (BMA) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAM) were applied to constructing the mixed-mode interaction of monolithic polymer column.Its solid-phase extraction properties for liquiritigenin (LQG) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient elution procedure.After the extraction procedure was optimized,the maximum binding capacity and extraction recovery following the optimal extraction procedure were investigated.Calibration curve was expressed as A =65.9C + 4.53 (r2 =0.998) with a linear range of 0.151-1.80 μg/mL.The experimental results indicate that the monolithic polymer pipette presents good extraction efficiency for LQG.It can be envisaged that the developed monolithic polymer pipette possesses the potential for its application to the enrichment of other flavonoids compounds being siniilar to the structure of LQG.

  11. Insight into the extraction mechanism of polymeric ionic liquid sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction.

    Ho, Tien D; Cole, William T S; Augusto, Fabio; Anderson, Jared L


    An investigation into the mechanism of extraction for polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based solid phase microextraction sorbent coatings is described. Four PIL-based coatings, namely, a poly(1-4-vinylbenzyl)-3-hexadecylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl] imide (poly([VBHDIM][NTf2])) PIL produced through 2,2'-azo-bis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) initiated free-radical polymerization, a UV-initiated poly(1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium) chloride (poly([VHIM][Cl])) PIL, and two crosslinked PILs containing the same IL monomers copolymerized with dicationic IL crosslinkers, were investigated. Calibration curves of 1-octanol were plotted in the presence of naphthalene, a model interfering compound, to observe changes in the linear range, sensitivity, and amount of analytes extracted. Results were compared with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) coating and a polyacrylate (PA) coating which are known to extract analytes primarily through adsorption and partitioning mechanisms, respectively. All PIL-based coatings extracted analytes via a non-competitive partitioning mechanism regardless of the extent of crosslinking.

  12. Crosslinked polymeric ionic liquids as solid-phase microextraction sorbent coatings for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Yu, Honglian; Merib, Josias; Anderson, Jared L


    Neat crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) compatible with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported for the first time. Six structurally different PILs were crosslinked to nitinol supports and applied for the determination of select pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, and insecticides. Sampling conditions including sample solution pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption time, and desorption solvent volume were optimized using design of experiment (DOE). The developed PIL sorbent coatings were stable when performing extractions under acidic pH and remained intact in various organic desorption solvents (i.e., methanol, acetonitrile, acetone). The PIL-based sorbent coating polymerized from the IL monomer 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl) imidazolium chloride [VC10OHIM][Cl] and IL crosslinker 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane dichloride [(VBIM)2C12] 2[Cl] exhibited superior extraction performance compared to the other studied PILs. The extraction efficiency of pharmaceutical drugs and phenolics increased when the film thickness of the PIL-based sorbent coating was increased while many insecticides were largely unaffected. Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2 μg L(-1) for the target analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recovery of analytes in real water samples, including tap water and lake water, with recoveries varying from 50.2% to 115.9% and from 48.8% to 116.6%, respectively.

  13. A new interface for coupling solid phase microextraction with liquid chromatography.

    Chen, Yong; Sidisky, Leonard M


    A modified Rheodyne 7520 microsample injector was used as a new solid phase microextraction (SPME)-liquid chromatography (LC) interface. The modification was focused on the construction of a new sample rotor, which was built by gluing two sample rotors together. The new sample rotor was further reinforced with 3 pieces of stainless steel tubing. The enlarged central flow passage in the new sample rotor was used as a desorption chamber. SPME fiber desorption occurred in static mode. But all desorption solvent in the desorption chamber was injected into LC system with the interface. The analytical performance of the interface was evaluated by SPME-LC analysis of PAHs in water. At least 90% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were desorbed from a polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/C18 bonded fuse silica fiber in 30s. And injection was completed in 20s. About 10-20% total carryovers were found on the fiber and in the interface. The carryover in the interface was eliminated by flushing the desorption chamber with acetonitrile at 1mL min(-1) for 2min. The repeatability of the method was from 2% to 8%. The limit of detection (LOD) was in the mid pg mL(-1) range. The linear ranges were from 0.1 to 100ng mL(-1). The new SPME-LC interface was reliable for coupling SPME with LC for both qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  14. Solid-phase extraction with metal-organic frameworks for the analysis of chiral compounds.

    Tang, Bo; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xian; Yuan, Li-Ming


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are excellent porous materials with nanoscale cavities and high surface areas, which make them promising as novel adsorbents in solid-phase extraction (SPE). In this article we report a new application of the chiral MOF [Zn2 (D-Cam)2 (4,4'-bpy)]n in SPE used for the measurement of the enantiomeric excess (ee) of (±)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol. Several important experimental parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity (R(2)  > 0.999) was found between the ee value and the reciprocal of the peak areas. When compared with the actual ee measured using chiral HPLC, the SPE-based assay also showed good accuracy and precision. The results showed that SPE based on chiral MOFs as adsorbents is a simple and effective method for the determination of the ee values of chiral compounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cholesterol transport via ABCA1: new insights from solid-phase binding assay.

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Dyka, Frank M; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S


    It is now well established that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a pivotal role in HDL metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport and net efflux of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids. We aimed to resolve some uncertainties related to the putative function of ABCA1 as a mediator of lipid transport by using a methodology developed in the laboratory to isolate a protein and study its interactions with other compounds. ABCA1 was tagged with the 1D4 peptide at the C terminus and expressed in human HEK 293 cells. Preliminary experiments showed that the tag modified neither the protein expression/localization within the cells nor the ability of ABCA1 to promote cholesterol cellular efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. ABCA1-1D4 was then purified and reconstituted in liposomes. ABCA1 displayed an ATPase activity in phospholipid liposomes that was significantly decreased by cholesterol. Finally, interactions with either cholesterol or apolipoprotein A-I were assessed by binding experiments with protein immobilized on an immunoaffinity matrix. Solid-phase binding assays showed no direct binding of cholesterol or apolipoprotein A-I to ABCA1. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that ABCA1 is able to mediate the transport of cholesterol from cells without direct interaction and that apo A-I primarily binds to membrane surface or accessory protein(s).

  16. Mixed micelle cloud point-magnetic dispersive μ-solid phase extraction of doxazosin and alfuzosin.

    Gao, Nannan; Wu, Hao; Chang, Yafen; Guo, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Lizhen; Du, Liming; Fu, Yunlong


    Mixed micelle cloud point extraction (MM-CPE) combined with magnetic dispersive μ-solid phase extraction (MD-μ-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for the extraction of doxazosin (DOX) and alfuzosin (ALF) prior to fluorescence analysis. The mixed micelle anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and non-ionic polyoxyethylene(7.5)nonylphenylether was used as the extraction solvent in MM-CPE, and diatomite bonding Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles were used as the adsorbent in MD-μ-SPE. The method was based on MM-CPE of DOX and ALF in the surfactant-rich phase. Magnetic materials were used to retrieve the surfactant-rich phase, which easily separated from the aqueous phase under magnetic field. At optimum conditions, a linear relationship between DOX and ALF was obtained in the range of 5-300 ng mL(-1), and the limits of detection were 0.21 and 0.16 ng mL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical preparations, urine samples, and plasma samples.

  17. Determination of fipronil by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Vílchez, J L; Prieto, A; Araujo, L; Navalón, A


    A method for the determination of trace amounts of the insecticide fipronil was developed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring. Fipronil was extracted with a fused-silica fiber coated with 85 microm polyacrylate. The effects of pH, ionic strength, sample volume, extraction and desorption times as well as the extraction temperature were studied. Lindane was used as an internal standard. The linear concentration range of application was 0.3-100 ng ml(-1) of fipronil, with a relative standard deviation of 9.5% (for a level of 50 ng ml(-1)) and a detection limit of 0.08 ng ml(-1). The method was applied to check the eventual existence of fipronil above this limit in water and soil samples from Granada (Spain) as well as in human urine samples. The method validation was completed with spiked matrix samples. The method can be applied as a monitoring tool for water, soil and urine, in the investigation of environmental and occupational exposure to fipronil.

  18. Spectral and thermal studies of solid-phase thermochromism of Co(II) double metal complexes

    AL-Sha'alan, Noura H.


    Tetrahedral solid state structures of the blue potassium tris(aryloxo)cobaltate(II)-tetrahydrofurane complexes of the formula KCo(OAr) 3·2thf (OAr = o-chloro-, o-bromo-, m-chloro-, p-bromo, 2,6-dichloro-, 2,4-dichloro- or 2,4-dimethylphenoxide) undergo solid-phase thermal tetrahedral to octahedral transformation accompanied by change in their colours from blue to rose (one-step thermochromism). Magnetic moments, electronic and infrared spectral studies supported these results. Thermal treatment of theses complexes leads to the loss of the crystallized thf molecule yielding also blue tetrahedral complexes. However, further heating leads to the loss of the coordinated thf molecule and the formation of rose octahedral trimeric products. TG-DTA results showed that the, two solvated thf molecules were eliminated in two steps. Mass spectral studies and IR intensity measurements confirmed the trimeric behaviour of the rose octahedral geometry of thermal products. Conductance measurements of solutions of these complexes in thf indicated that they behave as non-electrolytes.

  19. Organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors by ion chromatography after solid-phase extraction

    ZHONG Fu-jin; CHEN Xiao-qing; ZHANG Shu-chao; LI Yue-ping


    A method for the simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids and inorganic anions in Bayer liquors was developed by gradient ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, succinate,glutarate, fluoride, chloride and sulfate were separated and determined in 33 min. The samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction, which has high selectivity for removing a large number of metallic ions in the Bayer liquors, and filtered with a 0.45 μm filter membrane before being injected into the ion chromatographic system. The separation of six organic acids and three inorganic anions was achieved on an IonPac AS11-HC column with KOH as the eluent, and the detection was performed by a conductivity detection mode. No interference is found in the presence of fluorate, chlorate and sulphate when organic acids are determined. The calibration graphs of peak area for all the analytes are linear over a wide range. The relative standard derivation of the peak area of analytes is less than 2.14%. Under optimum conditions the detection ranges from 0.2 to 100.0 mg/L. The average recoveries of the added standards are between 94.3% and 102.8%.

  20. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G


    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymers-curcuminoids and its application for solid phase extraction

    Wulandari, Meyliana; Amran, M. B.; Lopez, A. B. Descalzo; Urraca, J. L.; Moreno-Bondi, M. C.


    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition properties of curcumin (CUR), a cancer chemopreventive agent were obtained by a non-covalent imprinting approach with bisdemetoxycurcumin (BDMC) as the template molecule. The double bond of BDMC has been reduced in order not to be involved in polymerization and make the template molecules easy to be eluted. Several functional monomers have been evaluated to maximize the interactions with the template molecule during polymerization. MIPs prepared by bulk of N-(2-aminoethyl) metacrylamid hydrochlorideas functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker, 2,2'-azobis (2'4-dimethyl valeronitril) as initiator and acetonitrile as porogen. Non-imprinted polymer (NIP) have been also synthesized for reference purposes. UV-vis spectroscopy has been used to predict the template to functional monomer ratio which indicates the formation of 2:1 complexes between monomer and curcumin and the association constants (K11 = 2529 μM and K12 = 1960.75 μM in acetonitrile). The capacity and imprinting factor have been evaluated as stationary phases in high-pressure liquid chromatography to CUR and BDMC. The binding properties and the homogeneity of the binding sites of the different polymers have been studied by Freundlich isotherm modeling and weight average affinity and number of binding sites. One of the foremost applications of molecular imprinting has been in molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction and it has the ability to separate and preconcentrate between closely related compounds in curcuminoids.

  2. Sol-gel molecularly imprinted polymer for selective solid phase microextraction of organophosphorous pesticides.

    Wang, Yu-Long; Gao, Yuan-Li; Wang, Pei-Pei; Shang, Huan; Pan, Si-Yi; Li, Xiu-Juan


    A sol-gel technique was applied for the preparation of water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for solid phase microextraction (SPME) using diazinon as template and polyethylene glycol as functional monomer. The MIP-coated fiber demonstrated much better selectivity to diazinon and its structural analogs in aqueous cucumber sample than in distilled water, indicating its potential in real samples. Thanks to its specific adsorption as well as rough and porous surface, the coating revealed rather larger extraction capability than the non-imprinted polymer and commercial fibers. In addition, the fiber exhibited excellent thermal (about 350°C) and chemical stability (organic and inorganic). After optimization of several parameters affecting extraction efficiency, a method based on MIP-SPME combined with gas chromatography was developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in vegetable samples. The limits of detection for the tested OPPs were in the range of 0.017-0.77 μg kg(-1). The proposed method was applied to evaluate OPPs in spiked cucumber, green pepper, Chinese cabbage, eggplant and lettuce samples, and recoveries of 81.2-113.5% were obtained by the standard addition method with three spiking levels in each kind of vegetable.

  3. Evaluation of electrochemically synthesized sulfadimethoxine-imprinted polymer for solid-phase microextraction of sulfonamides.

    Díaz-Álvarez, Myriam; Mazzotta, Elisabetta; Malitesta, Cosimino; Martín-Esteban, Antonio


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is widely used in analytical laboratories for the analysis of organic compounds, thanks to its simplicity and versatility. In the present work, the synthesis and evaluation of imprinted films for SPME by electropolymerisation of pyrrole alone or in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate is proposed. Sulfadimethoxine (SDM), a sulfonamide antibiotic, was used as template molecule. Initially, a molecularly imprinted polymer film was prepared by electropolymerisation of pyrrole onto a platinum foil, using SDM as template. The SDM template was removed by overoxidation. The behaviour of SDM on imprinted and non-imprinted polymers was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry, and a clear imprinting effect was observed, which was confirmed by rebinding experiments using both conventional and electrochemically enhanced-SPME. However, in general, the extraction efficiency was rather low (<6%) and unspecific interactions are too high. Attempts to increase extraction efficiency were unsuccessful, but the incorporation of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate to the films reduced unspecific interactions to a certain extent.

  4. Selective Separation of Fe-Concentrates in EAF Slags Using Mechanical Dissimilarity of Solid Phases

    Jung, Sung Suk; Jung, Keeyoung; Sohn, Il


    We sought to develop an optimized particle size-dependent separation method to lower the Fe content of pulverized glass-ceramic electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for its improved reclamation as construction materials by considering the structures and the mechanical behavior of the discrete solid phases. After an isothermal crystallization process to enhance the spinel growth, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured on the spinel and amorphous phases separately from the solidified slag using indentation methods. The characteristic differences in the hardness of the phases were magnified when this glass-ceramic composite was isothermally crystallized. The hardness of the spinel was observed to be lower in slags with higher FetO/Al2O3 mass ratios due to the triclinic unit cell expansion of the spinel, whereas the hardness of the amorphous phase decreased with increasing isothermal period because of the structural transformation into a silicate-dominant network. Fracture toughness could be calculated based on the hardness and crack length, where the Young's modulus was determined using nanoindentation. The amorphous phase with a lower Fe content and lower fracture toughness resulted in finer powder distribution after pulverization, allowing better separation of the primary crystalline spinel containing higher Fe content from the Fe-deficient amorphous phase according to the particle size.

  5. Laboratory investigation of aluminum solubility and solid-phase properties following alum treatment of lake waters.

    Berkowitz, Jacob; Anderson, Michael A; Graham, Robert C


    Water samples from two southern California lakes adversely affected by internal nutrient loading were treated with a 20 mg/L dose of Al3+ in laboratory studies to examine Al solubility and solid-phase speciation over time. Alum [Al2(SO4)3 . 18 H2O] applications to water samples from Big Bear Lake and Lake Elsinore resulted in a rapid initial decrease in pH and alkalinity followed by a gradual recovery in pH over several weeks. Dissolved Al concentrations increased following treatment, reaching a maximum of 2.54 mg/L after 17 days in Lake Elsinore water and 0.91 mg/L after 48 days in Big Bear Lake water; concentrations in both waters then decreased to Lake Elsinore water. Surface areas also decreased over time as crystals reordered to form gibbsite/microcrystalline gibbsite species. DSC-TGA results suggested that the initially formed amorphous Al(OH)3 underwent transformation to >45% gibbsite. These results were supported by geochemical modeling using Visual MINTEQ, with Al solubility putatively controlled by amorphous Al(OH)3 shortly after treatment and approaching that of microcrystalline gibbsite after about 150 days. These findings indicate that Al(OH)3 formed after alum treatment undergoes significant chemical and mineralogical changes that may alter its effectiveness as a reactive barrier to phosphorus release from lake sediments.

  6. Enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk after magnetic solid phase extraction

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Rashidi, Somayeh


    A simple and sensitive method using magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by spectrofluorimetric detection has been developed for separation and determination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in liquid milk. The method is based on the extraction of AFM1 on the modified magnetic nanoparticles (MMNPs) and subsequent derivatization of extracted AFM1 to AFM1 hemi-acetal derivative (AFM2a) by reaction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) for spectrofluorimetric detection. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated by 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propantiol (TMSPT) and modified with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AMT) were used as adsorbent in MSPE procedure. Influential parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions the calibration curve for AFM1 determination showed good linearity in the range 0.030-10.0 μg L-1 (R2 = 0.9991). The repeatability and reproducibility (RSD%) for 0.050 μg L-1 of AFM1 were 4.5% and 5.3%, respectively and limit of detection limit (S/N = 3) was estimated to be 0.010 μg L-1. The developed method was successfully applied for extraction of AFM1 from spiked liquid milk and natural contaminated liquid milk. The good spiked recoveries ranging from 91.6% to 96.1% were obtained. The results demonstrated that the developed method is simple, inexpensive, accurate and remarkably free from interference effects.

  7. Chromium speciation in environmental samples using a solid phase spectrophotometric method

    Amin, Alaa S.; Kassem, Mohammed A.


    A solid phase extraction technique is proposed for preconcentration and speciation of chromium in natural waters using spectrophotometric analysis. The procedure is based on sorption of chromium(III) as 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol complex on dextran-type anion-exchange gel (Sephadex DEAE A-25). After reduction of Cr(VI) by 0.5 ml of 96% concentrated H2SO4 and ethanol, the system was applied to the total chromium. The concentration of Cr(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr and the Cr(III) content. The influences of some analytical parameters such as: pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol (BTABD), and sample volumes were investigated. The absorbance of the gel, at 628 and 750 nm, packed in a 1.0 mm cell, is measured directly. The molar absorptivities were found to be 2.11 × 107 and 3.90 × 107 L mol-1 cm-1 for 500 and 1000 ml, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.05-1.45 μg L-1 with RSD of waters and total chromium preconcentration in microwave digested tobacco, coffee, tea, and soil samples. The results were simultaneously compared with those obtained using an ET AAS method, whereby the validity of the method has been tested.

  8. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Li, Wei; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei


    This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  9. Altering the interfacial activation mechanism of a lipase by solid-phase selective chemical modification.

    López-Gallego, Fernando; Abian, Olga; Guisán, Jose Manuel


    This study presents a combined protein immobilization, directed mutagenesis, and site-selective chemical modification approach, which was used to create a hyperactivated semisynthetic variant of BTL2. Various alkane chains were tethered at three different positions in order to mimic the lipase interfacial activation exogenously triggered by detergents. Optimum results were obtained when a dodecane chain was introduced at position 320 by solid-phase site-selective chemical modification. The resulting semisynthetic variant showed a 2.5-fold higher activity than the wild-type nonmodified variant in aqueous conditions. Remarkably, this is the maximum hyperactivation ever observed for BTL2 in the presence of detergents such as Triton X-100. We present evidence to suggest that the endogenous dodecane chain hyperactivates the enzyme in a similar fashion as an exogenous detergent molecule. In this way, we also observe a faster irreversible enzyme inhibition and an altered detergent sensitivity profile promoted by the site-selective chemical modification. These findings are also supported by fluorescence studies, which reveal that the structural conformation changes of the semisynthetic variant are different to those of the wild type, an effect that is more pronounced in the presence of detergent. Finally, the optimal immobilized semisynthetic variant was successfully applied to the selective synthesis of oxiran-2-yl butyrate. Significantly, this biocatalyst is 12-fold more efficient than the immobilized wild-type enzyme, producing the S-enantiomer with higher enantiospecificity (ee = 92%).

  10. Water-carbon dioxide solid phase equilibria at pressures above 4 GPa.

    Abramson, E H; Bollengier, O; Brown, J M


    A solid phase in the mixed water-carbon dioxide system, previously identified as carbonic acid, was observed in the high-pressure diamond-anvil cell. The pressure-temperature paths of both its melting and peritectic curves were measured, beginning at 4.4 GPa and 165 °C (where it exists in a quadruple equilibrium, together with an aqueous fluid and the ices H2O(VII) and CO2(I)) and proceeding to higher pressures and temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed a triclinic crystal with unit cell parameters (at 6.5 GPa and 20 °C) of a = 5.88 Å, b = 6.59 Å, c = 6.99 Å, α = 88.7°, β = 79.7°, and γ = 67.7°. Raman spectra exhibit a major line at ~1080 cm(-1) and lattice modes below 300 cm(-1).

  11. Polarization effects on the electric properties of urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase

    Santos, O. L.; Fonseca, T. L.; Sabino, J. R.; Georg, H. C.; Castro, M. A.


    We present theoretical results for the dipole moment, linear polarizability, and first hyperpolarizability of the urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase. The in-crystal electric properties were determined by applying a supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic scheme, in which the surrounding molecules are represented by point charges. It is found for both urea and thiourea molecules that the influence of the polarization effects is mild for the linear polarizability, but it is marked for the dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability. The replacement of oxygen atoms by sulfur atoms increases, in general, the electric responses. Our second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory based iterative scheme predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment of urea and thiourea the values of 7.54 and 9.19 D which are, respectively, increased by 61% and 58%, in comparison with the corresponding isolated values. The result for urea is in agreement with the available experimental result of 6.56 D. In addition, we present an estimate of macroscopic quantities considering explicit unit cells of urea and thiourea crystals including environment polarization effects. These supermolecule calculations take into account partially the exchange and dispersion effects. The results illustrate the role played by the electrostatic interactions on the static second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the urea crystal.

  12. Polysiloxane/PVA-glutaraldehyde hybrid composite as solid phase for immunodetections by ELISA

    A.E. Lima Barros


    Full Text Available We developed an efficient method to prepare a hybrid inorganic-organic composite based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and polysiloxane using the sol-gel disc technique. Antigen obtained from Yersinia pestis was covalently immobilized onto these discs with glutaraldehyde and used as solid phase in ELISA for antibody detection in serum of rabbits experimentally immunized with plague. Using 1.25 µg antigen per disc, a peroxidase conjugate dilution of 1:4,000 and a serum dilution of 1:200 were adequate for the establishment of the procedure. These values are similar to those used for PVA-glutaraldehyde discs, plasticized filter paper discs and the polyaniline-Dacron composite discs. This procedure is comparable to that which utilizes the adsorption of the antigen to conventional PVC plates, with the amount of antigen being one fourth that employed in conventional PVC plates (5 µg/well. In addition to the performance of the polysiloxane/PVA-glutaraldehyde disc as a matrix for immunodetection, its easy synthesis and low cost are additional advantages for commercial application.

  13. Molecularly imprinted calixarene fiber for solid-phase microextraction of four organophosphorous pesticides in fruits.

    Li, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yu-Long; Yan, Shan; Li, Xiu-Juan; Pan, Si-Yi


    Calixarene was used as a functional monomer to fabricate a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) by sol-gel technique for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of parathion-methyl and its structural analogs. The MIP-coated fiber possessed excellent thermal and chemical stability as well as high extraction capacity. Its selectivity and possible recognition mechanism were investigated. The similarities in molecular shape and functional group play a key role in the selective recognition of the imprinted material. Any changes to the structure of the template would decrease the imprinting factor. A comparison of MIP-SPME was made with liquid-liquid extraction coupled with gas chromatography for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in fruits. Much lower limits of detection and better recoveries were achieved by SPME in spiked apple and pineapple samples. The experiment demonstrates that the proposed method using the calixarene MIP fiber was more suitable for selective determination of trace OPPs in those fruit samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Facile preparation and applications of graphitic carbon nitride coating in solid-phase microextraction.

    Xu, Na; Wang, Yiru; Rong, Mingcong; Ye, Zhifeng; Deng, Zhuo; Chen, Xi


    In this study, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was used as a coating material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) applications. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the extraction ability of the SPME fiber was investigated and compared with the commercial fibers of 100 μm PDMS and 85 μm CAR/PDMS using six target analytes including deltamethrin, nerolidol, amphetamine, dodecane, ametryn and acrylamide. The g-C3N4 coating revealed excellent extraction ability and durability comparing with those of the commercial fibers due to its loose structure and unique physicochemical properties. The repeatability for each single fiber was found to be 3.46% and reproducibility for fiber to fiber was 8.53%. The g-C3N4 SPME fiber was applied to the determination of acrylamide in potato chips, the linearity and detection limit was 0.5-250 μg g(-1) and 0.018 μg g(-1), respectively.

  15. Solid-phase synthesis of huwentoxin-I and its structure and bioactivity analysis

    梁宋平; 夏赞贤; 谢锦云


    Huwentoxin-I, a neurotoxic peptide from the spider Selenocosmia huwena, was synthesized by sol-id-phase method with Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl amino acid pentafluorophenyl esters (Fmoc-AA-OPfp). The carboxyl and the hydroxy groups were protected by tBu; the side chains of Lys and His were protected by Roc; the guanidine group of Arg was protected by Mtr and the mercaptan group of Cys was protected by Trt. The solid-phase carrier was ethylene diamine-polyethylene-polystyrene (DEA-PEG-PS) resin. The synthetic peptide was cleaved from the resin and deprotected by a 90% TFA solution containing 5% thioanisole, 3% ethanedithiol and 2% anisole. The product was reduced with DTT and then incubated with GSSG and GSH to form the correct disulfide bond linkages. The syn-thetic peptide was purified by HPLC and then characterized by amino acid composition and sequence analysis, peptide mapping and NMR. The biological activity of the synthetic product was tested by electrophysiological method using the isolated mouse ph

  16. Germanium ion implantation to Improve Crystallinity during Solid Phase Epitaxy and the effect of AMU Contamination

    Lee, K. S.; Yoo, D. H.; Son, G. H.; Lee, C. H.; Noh, J. H.; Han, J. J.; Yu, Y. S.; Hyung, Y. W.; Yang, J. K.; Song, D. G.; Lim, T. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, H. D.; Moon, J. T.


    Germanium ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPE) using high current implantation equipment. Electron back-scatter diffraction(EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19 percent of signal, which might be due to pre-amorphization effect on silicon layer deposited by LPCVD process with germanium ion implantation. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of NMOS transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers, which implied non-uniform distribution of donor-type impurities into channel area. It was confirmed that arsenic atoms were incorporated into silicon layer during germanium ion implantation. Since the equipment for germanium pre-amorphization implantation(PAI) was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit(AMU) contamination during PAI of germanium with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of arsenic with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use germanium isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination, however it led serious reduction of productivity because of decrease in beam current by 30 percent as known to be difference in isotope abundance. It was effective to use enriched germanium source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity. Spatial distribution of arsenic impurities in wafers was closely related to hardware configuration of ion implantation equipment.

  17. Determination of volatile organic compounds in river water by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography

    M. A. Mottaleb; M. Z. Abedin; M. S. Islam


    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method is described employing solid-phase extraction(SPE) using dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography(GC) with flame ionization detection(FID) for determination of volatile organic compound(VOC) from the Buriganga River water of Bangladesh. The method was applied to detect the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and cumene(BTEXC) in the sample collected from the surface or 15 cm depth of water. Two-hundred ml of n-hexane-pretreated and filtered water samples were applied directly to a C18 SPE column. BTEXC were extracted with dichloromethane and average concentrations were obtained as 0.104 to 0.372 (g/ml. The highest concentration of benzene was found as 0.372 (g/ml with a relative standard deviation(RSD) of 6.2%, and cumene was not detected. Factors influencing SPE e.g., adsorbent types, sample load volume, eluting solvent, headspace and temperatures, were investigated. A cartridge containing a C18 adsorbent and using dichloromethane gave better performance for extraction of BTEXC from water.Average recoveries exceeding 90% could be achieved for cumene at 4℃with a 2.7%RSD

  18. Solid phase extraction of uranium(VI) onto benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon.

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunxia; Feng, Miao; Chen, Zhen; Li, Shuqiong; Tian, Gan; Wang, Li; Huang, Jingbo; Li, Shoujian


    A new solid phase extractant selective for uranium(VI) based on benzoylthiourea anchored to activated carbon was developed via hydroxylation, amidation and reaction with benzoyl isothiocyanate in sequence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and total element analysis proved that benzoylthiourea had been successfully grafted to the surface of the activated carbon, with a loading capacity of 1.2 mmol benzoylthiourea per gram of activated carbon. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) sorption, such as contact time, solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature, have been investigated. Results have been analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm; the former was more suitable to describe the sorption process. The maximum sorption capacity (82 mg/g) for uranium(VI) was obtained at experimental conditions. The rate constant for the uranium sorption by the as-synthesized extractant was 0.441 min(-1) from the first order rate equation. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(0)=-46.2 kJ/mol; DeltaS(0)=-98.0 J/mol K; DeltaG(0)=-17.5 kJ/mol) showed the adsorption of an exothermic process and spontaneous nature, respectively. Additional studies indicated that the benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon (BT-AC) selectively sorbed uranyl ions in the presence of competing ions, Na(+), Co(2+), Sr(2+), Cs(+) and La(3+).

  19. Selective solid-phase extraction of uranium by salicylideneimine-functionalized hydrothermal carbon.

    Wang, Hang; Ma, Lijian; Cao, Kecheng; Geng, Junxia; Liu, Jun; Song, Qiang; Yang, Xiaodan; Li, Shoujian


    A new salicylideneimine-functionalized hydrothermal-carbon-based solid-phase extractant was developed for the purpose of separating uranium selectively for sustainability of uranium resources. The resulting adsorption material was obtained via hydrothermal carbonization, calcination at mild temperature (573.15K), amination, and grafting with salicylaldehyde in sequence. Both Fourier transform infrared spectra and elemental analysis proved the successful grafting of salicylideneimine onto hydrothermal carbon matrix. Adsorption behaviors of the extractant on uranium(VI) were investigated by varying pH values of solution, adsorbent amounts, contact times, initial metal concentrations, temperatures, and ionic strengths. An optimum adsorption capacity of 1.10 mmol g(-1) (261 mg g(-1)) for uranium(VI) was obtained at pH 4.3. The present adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH=+8.81 kJ mol(-1), ΔS=+110 J K(-1)mol(-1), ΔG=-23.0 kJ mol(-1)) indicated the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Results from batch adsorption test in simulated nuclear industrial effluent, containing Cs(+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), La(3+), Ce(3+), Nd(3+), Sm(3+), and Gd(3+), showed the adsorbent could separate uranium(VI) from those competitive ions with high selectivity. The adsorbent might be promising for use in certain key steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle.

  20. Electrodeposited apatite coating for solid-phase microextraction and sensitive indirect voltammetric determination of fluoride ions.

    Mao, Yuehong; Chen, Yufei; Chu, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoli


    Electrodeposition was used to prepare a new solid phase microextraction (SPME) coatings. Two apatite SPME coatings, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD or brushite) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were validly and homogeneously one-step electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) under different conditions. The coatings were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, CV and EIS. The apatite SPME coatings showed excellent and selective adsorbability to fluoride ions. A novel indirect voltammetric strategy for sensitive detection of fluoride was proposed using K3Fe(CN)6 as indicating probe. The detection principle of fluoride ions was based on the increment of steric hindrance after fluoride adsorption, which resulting in the decrease of the amperometric signal to Fe(CN)6(3-). The liner ranges were 0.5-20.0 μmol/L for n-DCPD/GCE with the limit of detection of 0.14 μmol/L and 0.1-50.0 μmol/L for n-HAP/GCE with the limit of detection of 0.069 μmol/L, respectively. The developed method was applied to the analysis of water samples (lake, spring and tap water) and the recovery values were found to be in the range of 90-106%.

  1. Carbon nanotube-coated solid-phase microextraction metal fiber based on sol-gel technique.

    Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Hong; Ouyang, Gangfeng; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    A novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on sol-gel technique. Commonly used fragile fused silica fiber was replaced with stainless steel wire, which made the fiber unbreakable. An approach was also proposed for batch producing, and good reproducibilities for fiber to fiber and between fibers were achieved. Experiments showed that the sol-gel-CNT fiber exhibited high thermal stability to resist 350 degrees C and excellent solvent durability in methanol and acetonitrile. Compared to commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber, the sol-gel-CNT fiber represented significantly improved extraction efficiencies for both polar (phenols) and non-polar (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene) compounds. Meanwhile, no replacement effect, low carry-over and wide linear range demonstrated that the newly prepared sol-gel-CNT coating has liquid properties, which allow a relatively easy quantification procedure. Moreover, the characterization of the sol-gel-CNT coating was also evaluated with McReynold probe solutes. The results showed that the coating has better affinity for all the five types of solutes compared to commercial 7microm PDMS fiber, which suggested that the coating has the potential to be developed as GC stationary phase.

  2. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon material-coated solid-phase microextraction metal fibers.

    Zhu, Fang; Guo, Jiaming; Zeng, Feng; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Tongbu; Ouyang, Gangfeng


    Two kinds of porous carbon materials, including carbon aerogels (CAs), wormhole-like mesoporous carbons (WMCs), were synthesized and used as the coatings of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. By using stainless steel wire as the supporting core, six types of fibers were prepared with sol-gel method, direct coating method and direct coating plus sol-gel method. Headspace SPME experiments indicated that the extraction efficiencies of the CA fibers are better than those of the WMC fibers, although the surface area of WMCs is much higher than that of CAs. The sol-gel-CA fiber (CA-A) exhibited excellent extraction properties for non-polar compounds (BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene), while direct-coated CA fiber (CA-B) presented the best performance in extracting polar compounds (phenols). The two CA fibers showed wide linear ranges, low detection limits (0.008-0.047μgL(-1) for BTEX, 0.15-5.7μgL(-1) for phenols) and good repeatabilities (RSDs less than 4.6% for BTEX, and less than 9.5% for phenols) and satisfying reproducibilities between fibers (RSDs less than 5.2% for BTEX, and less than 9.9% for phenols). These fibers were successfully used for the analysis of water samples from the Pearl River, which demonstrated the applicability of the home-made CA fibers.

  3. Determination of amphetamines in biological samples using electro enhanced solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    Zeng, Jingbin; Chen, Jingjing; Li, Min; Subhan, Fazle; Chong, Fayun; Wen, Chongying; Yu, Jianfeng; Cui, Bingwen; Chen, Xi


    In this work, an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)/Nafion coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was prepared and used as the working electrode for electro-enhanced SPME (EE-SPME) of amphetamines. The EE-SPME strategy is primarily based on the electro-migration and complementary charge interaction between fiber coating and ionic compounds. Compared with traditional SPME, EE-SPME exhibited excellent extraction efficiency for amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) with an enhancement factor of 7.8 and 12.1, respectively. The present strategy exhibited good linearity for the determination of AP and MA in urine samples in the range of 10-1000ngmL(-1) and 20-1000ngmL(-1), respectively. The detection limits were found to be 1.2ngmL(-1) for AP and 4.8ngmL(-1) for MA. The relative standard deviations were calculated to be 6.2% and 8.5% for AP and MA, respectively. Moreover, the practical application of the proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing the amphetamines in urine and serum samples with satisfactory results.

  4. [Application of solid-phase microextraction technique to the detection of amphetamines in urine by GC].

    Liu, W; Shen, M


    A simple and rapid detection of nine amphetamines co-existing in urine was described. In the test, the method of solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) by GC technique was used. Urine (1.0 ml), NaCl (0.3 g) and 4-phenylbutylamine (internal standard) were added into a vial (1.5 ml), then the sample was adjusted to pH 12 with 10% NaOH and sealed with a teflon-coated septum. After immersion of the SPME fiber (100 PDME) in the sample for 15 min, the SPME needle was inserted into the injection port of the GC and extruded for 3 min. The result showed that each peak from nine amphetamines compounds and internal standard was clearly separated. The calibration curves were linear from 0.2 to 15 micrograms/ml for most of five amphetamines with r between 0.9928-0.9995. The CV were less 10%. It is concluded that the method is simple, quick, accurate and useful for the practical detection of urine concentration of amphetamines.

  5. Solid phase stability of a double-minimum interaction potential system

    Suematsu, Ayumi; Yoshimori, Akira, E-mail:; Saiki, Masafumi; Matsui, Jun [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Odagaki, Takashi [School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan)


    We study phase stability of a system with double-minimum interaction potential in a wide range of parameters by a thermodynamic perturbation theory. The present double-minimum potential is the Lennard-Jones-Gauss potential, which has a Gaussian pocket as well as a standard Lennard-Jones minimum. As a function of the depth and position of the Gaussian pocket in the potential, we determine the coexistence pressure of crystals (fcc and bcc). We show that the fcc crystallizes even at zero pressure when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the first or third nearest neighbor site of the fcc crystal. The bcc crystal is more stable than the fcc crystal when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the second nearest neighbor sites of the bcc crystal. The stable crystal structure is determined by the position of the Gaussian pocket. These results show that we can control the stability of the solid phase by tuning the potential function.

  6. Solid-phase microextraction and chiral HPLC analysis of ibuprofen in urine.

    de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes; Cesarino, Evandro José; Bonato, Pierina Sueli


    A simple and rapid solid-phase microextraction method was developed for the enantioselective analysis of ibuprofen in urine. The sampling was made with a polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene coated fiber immersed in the liquid sample. After desorptioning from the fiber, ibuprofen enantiomers were analyzed by HPLC using a Chiralpak AD-RH column and UV detection. The mobile phase was made of methanol-pH 3.0 phosphoric acid solution (75:25, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.45 mL/min. The mean recoveries of SPME were 19.8 and 19.1% for (-)-R-ibuprofen and (+)-(S)-ibuprofen, respectively. The method was linear at the range of 0.25-25 microg/mL. Within-day and between-day assay precision and accuracy were below 15% for both ibuprofen enantiomers at concentrations of 0.75, 7.5 and 20 microg/mL. The method was tested with urine quality control samples and human urine fractions after administration of 200 mg rac-ibuprofen.

  7. Solid phase extraction and determination of carbamate pesticides in water samples by reverse-phase HPLC

    Moreno-Tovar, J.; Santos-Delgado, M.J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)


    Solid phase extraction. SPE. using C{sub 1}8 bonded silica cartridges for trace amounts determination of carbaryl, propoxur, thiram, propham and methiocarb in water samples was studied and the breakthrough volume of the cartridges was established. The high enrichment factor and large injection volume admissible in the isocratic reverse-phase HPLC system allows pesticides determination with UV detection at 22o nm even at a concentration lower than 0.05 mug/L. Purified tap natural and underground water samples were spiked with carbamate pesticides in the concentration range 0.16-16.0 mug/L. Large volumes of samples (up to 2L) were passed through available C{sub 1}8, cartridges and eluted with acetonitrile. The preconcentrated samples were analyzed by HPLC using a Spherisorb ODS column with a 42.58 acetonitrile-water mobile phase. From replicate samples, recovery for the pesticides ranged from 79.0 to 103.7% except for thiran which is not retained. Tehe relative standard deviation (n=4 at 0.16 to 1.61 mug/L concetration level) range from 1.1 to 6.8%. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. Graphenized pencil lead fiber: facile preparation and application in solid-phase microextraction.

    Liu, Qian; Cheng, Mengting; Long, Yanmin; Yu, Miao; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Guibin


    Graphenized pencil lead fiber was facilely prepared by in situ chemical exfoliation of graphite in pencil lead fiber to few-layered graphene sheets via a one-pot, one-step pressurized oxidation reaction for the first time. This new fiber was characterized and demonstrated to be a highly efficient but low-cost solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The extraction performance of the fiber was evaluated with four bisphenol analogs [bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] as model analytes in direct SPME mode. Unlike commercially available fibers, the graphenized pencil lead fiber showed an excellent chemical stability in highly saline, acidic, alkaline and organic conditions due to its coating-free configuration. The fiber also showed a very long lifespan. Furthermore, high extraction efficiency and good selectivity for the analytes with a wide polarity range could be obtained due to the exceptional properties of graphene. The detection limits (LODs) for the analytes were in the range of 1.1-25ng/L. The fiber was successfully applied in the analysis of tap water and effluent samples from a waste water treatment plant with spike recoveries ranging from 68.5 to 105.1%. Therefore, the graphenized pencil lead fiber provides a high performance, cheap, robust, and reliable tool for SPME.

  9. A solid-phase extraction approach for the identification of pharmaceutical-sludge adsorption mechanisms

    Laurence Berthod; Gary Roberts; Graham A. Mills


    It is important to understand the adsorption mechanism of chemicals and active pharmaceu-tical ingredients (API) on sewage sludge since wastewater treatment plants are the last barrier before the release of these compounds to the environment. Adsorption models were developed considering mostly hydrophobic API-sludge interaction. They have poor predictive ability, especially with ionisable compounds. This work proposes a solid-phase extraction (SPE) approach to estimate rapidly the API-sludge interaction. Sludge-filled SPE cartridges could not be percolated with API spiked mobile phases so different powders were tested as SPE sludge supports. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was selected and tested at different PTFE/sludge ratios under eight different adsorption conditions with three API ionisable compounds. The PTFE/sludge mixtures with 50% or less sludge could be used in SPE mode for API sorption studies with methanol/water liquid phases. The results gave insights into API-sludge interactions. It was found that π-π, hydrogen-bonding and charge-charge interactions were as important as hydrophobicity in the adsorption mechanism of charged APIs on sludge.

  10. Solid-phase extraction of antioxidant compounds from commercial cranberry extract and its antiradical activity

    Tumbas Vesna T.


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the fractionation and determination of major antioxidant compounds (phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C in commercial cranberry extract. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids and total and monomers of anthocyanins, determined spectrophotometrically, was 1.67 mg/g, 0.41 mg/g, 5.12 mg/g and 3.32 mg/g. The content of vitamin C, determined volumetrically, was 121.74 mg/g. Commercial cranberry extract was dissolved in 80 % acetone and the solution was fractionated using solid phase extraction (SPE in order to abstract vitamin C, neutral and acidic phenols. The free radical scavenging activity of the cranberry extract and its fractions was investigated on stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals employing electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The most effective fractions were those containing vitamin C (AADPPH= AAOH=100%, neutral (AADPPH=89.50% and AAOH=43.11% and acidic (AADPPH=83.98% and AAOH=38.58% phenols. The presence of vitamin C, abstracted from cranberry extract, was determined by Fe(III-mediated ascorbate oxidation which yields characteristic ESR doublet spectrum of ascorbyl radical.

  11. Determination of organic acids in Salicornia herbacea by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography.

    Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Park, Dong Wha; Row, Kyung Ho


    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the determination of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in Salicornia herbacea L. (Hamcho) has been developed. The optimal conditions were obtained by using a C18 SPE cartridge. By using ethanol and acetonitrile /water/ trifluoracetic acid as washing and eluting solvents, most interfering compounds originating from the hamcho matrix were eliminated. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into the HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.1 to 200 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for procatechuic acid, 0.2 to 400 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for caffeic acid and 0.3 to 600 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for ferulic acid, with the relative standard deviations being less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from hamcho were more than 79.2% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1) was 0.02 microg/mL for procatechuic acid, 0.01 microg/mL for caffeic acid and 0.04 microg/mL for ferulic acid. This method is a viable alternative to the existing HPLC methods for analyzing the content of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in hamcho.

  12. A method for controlling hydrogen sulfide in water by adding solid phase oxygen.

    Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Jien


    This work evaluates the addition of solid phase oxygen, a magnesium peroxide (MgO(2)) formulation manufactured by Regenesis (oxygen-releasing compounds, ORC), to inhibit the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in an SRB-enriched environment. The initial rate of release of oxygen by the ORC was determined over a short period by adding sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), which was a novel approach developed for this study. The ability of ORCs to control H(2)S by releasing oxygen was evaluated in a bench-scale column containing cultured sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). After a series of batch tests, 0.4% ORC was found to be able to inhibit the formation of H(2)S for more than 40 days. In comparison, the concentration of H(2)S dropped from 20 mg S/L to 0.05 mg S/L immediately after 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was added, but began to recover just four days later. Thus, H(2)O(2) does not seem to be able to inhibit the production of sulfide for an extended period of time. By providing long-term inhibition of the SRB population, ORC provides a good alternative means of controlling the production of H(2)S in water.

  13. Robust aptamer sol-gel solid phase microextraction of very polar adenosine from human plasma.

    Mu, Li; Hu, Xiangang; Wen, Jianping; Zhou, Qixing


    Conventional solid phase microextraction (SPME) has a limited capacity to extract very polar analytes, such as adenosine. To solve this problem, aptamer conjugating sol-gel methodology was coupled with an SPME fiber. According to the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported use of aptamer SPME. The fiber of aptamer sol-gel SPME with a mesoporous structure has high porosity, large surface area, and small water contact angle. Rather than employing direct entrapment, covalent immobilization was the dominant method of aptamer loading in sol-gel. Aptamer sol-gel fiber captured a specified analyte from among the analog molecules, thereby, exhibiting an excellent selective property. Compared with commercial SPME fibers, this aptamer fiber was suitable for extracting adenosine, presenting an extraction efficiency higher than 20-fold. The values of repeatability and reproducibility expressed by relative standard deviation were low (9.4%). Interestingly, the sol-gel network enhanced the resistance of aptamer SPME to both nuclease and nonspecific proteins. Furthermore, the aptamer sol-gel fiber was applied in human plasma with LOQ 1.5 μg/L, which is an acceptable level. This fiber also demonstrates durability and regeneration over 20-cycles without significant loss of efficiency. Given the various targets (from metal ions to biomacromolecules and cells) of aptamers, this methodology will extend the multi-domain applications of SPME.

  14. A numerical investigation into the solids phase chromatography using a combined continuous and discrete approach


    Solids phase chromatography for particle classification is based on different retention times of particles with different properties when they are elutriated through a confined geometry.This work aims at a fundamental understanding of such a technology by using the combined continuous and discrete method.A packed bed is employed as the model confined geometry.The numerical method is compared first with experimental observations,followed by a parametric analysis of the effects on the flow hydrodynamics and solids behaviour of various parameters including the number of injected particles,the superficial gas velocity,the contact stiffness and the diameter ratio of the packed column to the packed particles.The results show that the modelling captures some important features of the flow of an injected pulse of fine particles in a packed bed. An increase in the number of injected particles or the superficial gas velocity reduces the retention time,whereas the contact stiffness does not show much effect over the range of 5×102 to5×104 N/m.It is also found that the effect on the retention time of the diameter ratio of the packed column to the packed particles seems complex showing a non-monotonous dependence.

  15. [Determination of aflatoxins in hot chilli products by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography].

    Zheng, Ping; Sheng, Xuan; Yu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yanyun


    A new method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction with neutral alumina and co-column purification with graphitized carbon black has been developed to determine aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in hot chilli products. The method includes liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection with on-line post-column derivatization with bromine. Optimization of different parameters, such as the type of solid supports for matrix dispersion and co-column clean-up was carried out. The recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were 95.4%, 87.3%, 91.5% and 92.6%, respectively, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.3% to 6.1%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.10 ng/g (B2, G2) to 0.25 ng/g (B1, G1). In addition, the comparison of the extraction and purification effect of MSPD with immunity affinity column showed that, MSPD is a valid method to analyze aflatoxins in hot chilli products.

  16. Combinatorial Libraries on Rigid Scaffolds: Solid Phase Synthesis of Variably Substituted Pyrazoles and Isoxazoles

    Eduard R. Felder


    Full Text Available The synthesis of combinatorial compound libraries has become a powerful lead finding tool in modern drug discovery. The ability to synthesize rapidly, in high yield, new chemical entities with low molecular weight on a solid support has a recognized strategic relevance (“small molecule libraries”. We designed and validated a novel solid phase synthesis scheme, suitable to generate diversity on small heterocycles of the pyrazole and isoxazole type. Appropriate conditions were worked out for each reaction, and a variety of more or less reactive agents (building blocks was utilized for discrete conversions, in order to exploit the system’s breadth of applicability. Four sequential reaction steps were validated, including the loading of the support with an acetyl bearing moiety, a Claisen condensation, an a-alkylation and a cyclization of a b-diketone with monosubstituted hydrazines. In a second stage, the reaction sequence was applied in a split and mix approach, in order to prepare a combinatorial library built-up from 4 acetyl carboxylic acids (R1, 35 carboxylic esters (R2 and 41 hydrazines (R4 (and 1 hydroxylamine to yield a total of 11,760 compounds divided into 41 pyrazole sublibraries with 140 pairs of regioisomers and 1 isoxazole sublibrary of equal size.

  17. Graphene-coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction of triazine herbicides in water samples.

    Wu, Qiuhua; Feng, Cheng; Zhao, Guangying; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi


    Graphene is a novel and interesting carbon material that could be used for the separation and purification of some chemical compounds. In this investigation, graphene was used as a novel fiber-coating material for the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of four triazine herbicides (atrazine, prometon, ametryn and prometryn) in water samples. The main parameters that affect the extraction and desorption efficiencies, such as the extraction time, stirring rate, salt addition, desorption solvent and desorption time, were investigated and optimized. The optimized SPME by graphene-coated fiber coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was successfully applied for the determination of the four triazine herbicides in water samples. The linearity of the method was in the range from 0.5 to 200 ng/mL, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9998. The limits of detection of the method were 0.05-0.2 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations varied from 3.5 to 4.9% (n=5). The recoveries of the triazine herbicides from water samples at spiking levels of 20.0 and 50.0  ng/mL were in the range between 86.0 and 94.6%. Compared with two commercial fibers (CW/TPR, 50 μm; PDMS/DVB, 60 μm), the graphene-coated fiber showed higher extraction efficiency.

  18. Determination of particulate-bound formaldehyde from burning incense by solid phase microextraction.

    Liou, S W; Chen, C Y; Yang, T T; Lin, J M


    This work studied the feasibility of using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for sampling and analysis of gaseous formaldehyde as well as particulate-bound formaldehyde from burning Chinese incense. The SPME fiber with PDMS/DVB coating were partially coated with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA), and used for sampling formaldehyde. The sampling rate for formaldehyde and its dependence on temperature, relative humidity and sampling time were observed. The same PFBHA treated fibers were, in parallel, exposed to incense burning smoke with pre-filtration and without pre- filtration for 0.5-1 min. The NIOSH method 2541 using an XAD-2 tube at a flow rate of 0.1 Lpm was also applied for sampling simultaneously. The results demonstrate that commercially available PDMS/DVB fibers partially coated with PFBHA are capable of sampling the gas phase of formaldehyde as well as particulate-bound formaldehyde. The determined level of formaldehyde was close to the result obtained by the NIOSH method 2541. However, a reduction of the fiber's formaldehyde loading capacity in the aerosol sampling in comparison with gas sampling was noticed. This indicates that the particulate characteristics, and their bound chemicals other than formaldehyde may influence the maximum loading capacity of formaldehyde, and some characteristic particulates in high concentrations may even deteriorate the fiber coating.

  19. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem

    Hai-Shan Chi


    Full Text Available The volatile components in single-flowered and double-flowered Chinese narcissus were identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with GC and GC/MS. Changes in aroma during the vase-life (days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of two samples were also studied. A total of 35 compounds were identified, of which all were present in single-flowered and 26 in double-flowered samples. The main aroma components were (E-β-ocimene, and benzyl acetate. Single-flowered narcissus have a higher percentage of benzyl acetate, while double-flowered narcissus have a higher percentage of 1,8-cineole. In vase-life, the total volatile component content peaked on day 2 for single-flowered and day 3 for the double-flowered narcissus. For both single-flowered and double-flowered narcissus flowers, the total content of volatile components had decreased significantly by day 4.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Decomposition Odour in Soil Using Sorbent Tubes and Solid Phase Microextraction

    Katelynn A. Perrault


    Full Text Available Odour profiling of decomposed remains is important for understanding the mechanisms that cadaver dogs and forensically-relevant insects use to locate decomposed remains. The decomposition odour profile is complex and has been documented in outdoor terrestrial environments. The purpose of this study was to perform longitudinal analysis of the volatile organic compound (VOC profile in soils associated with decomposed remains across all stages of decomposition. Two VOC collection techniques (sorbent tubes and solid phase microextraction were used to collect a wider analyte range and to investigate differences in collection techniques. Pig carcasses were placed in an outdoor research facility in Australia to model the decomposition process and VOCs were collected intermittently over two months. VOCs of interest were identified over the duration of the trial, showing distinct trends in compound evolution and disappearance. The collection techniques were complementary, representing different subsets of VOCs from the overall profile. Sorbent tubes collected more decomposition-specific VOCs and these compounds were more effective at characterising the matrix over an extended period. Using both collection techniques improves the likelihood of identifying the complete VOC profile of decomposition odour. Such information is important for the search and recovery of victim remains in various stages of decomposition.

  1. Determination of Trichloroethylene in Water by Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Assisted Solid Phase Microextraction

    Mengliang Zhang


    Full Text Available A method for the determination of trichloroethylene (TCE in water using portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS was developed. A novel sample preparation method, liquid–liquid microextraction assisted solid phase microextraction (LLME–SPME, is introduced. In this method, 20 µL of hexane was added to 10 mL of TCE contaminated aqueous samples to assist headspace SPME. The extraction efficiency of SPME was significantly improved with the addition of minute amounts of organic solvents (i.e., 20 µL hexane. The absolute recoveries of TCE at different concentrations were increased from 11%–17% for the samples extracted by SPME to 29%–41% for the samples extracted by LLME–SPME. The method was demonstrated to be linear from 10 to 1000 ng mL−1 for TCE in water. The improvements on extraction efficiencies were also observed for toluene and 1, 2, 4-trichlorobenzene in water by using LLME–SPME method. The LLME–SPME method was optimized by using response surface modeling (RSM.

  2. Volatile profile of yellow passion fruit juice by static headspace and solid phase microextraction techniques

    Gilberto Costa Braga


    Full Text Available The profile of volatile compounds of yellow passion fruit juice was analyzed by solid phase microextraction headspace (HS-SPME and optimized static headspace (S-HS extraction techniques. Time, temperature, NaCl concentration and sample volume headspace equilibrium parameters was adjusted to the S-HS technique. The gaseous phase in the headspace of samples was collected and injected into a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. In the HS-SPME technique was identified 44 volatile compounds from the yellow passion fruit juice, but with S-HS only 30 compounds were identified. Volatile esters were majority in both techniques, being identified ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (3z-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, hexyl butanoate and hexyl hexanoate. Aldehydes and ketones were not identified in S-HS, but were in HS-SPME. β-Pinene, p-cymene, limonene, (Z-β-ocimene, (E-β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinolene and (E -4,8-dimethyl-1, 3,7 - nonatriene terpenes were identified in both techniques. This study showed that the S-HS optimized extraction technique was effective to recovery high concentrations of the major volatile characteristics compounds in the passion fruit, such as ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate, which can be advantageous due to the simplicity of the method.

  3. Study of complex matrix effect on solid phase microextraction for biological sample analysis.

    Jiang, Ruifen; Xu, Jianqiao; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Zeng, Feng; Shen, Yong; Ouyang, Gangfeng


    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has become a useful tool for in vivo monitoring the behavior of environmental organic pollutants in biological species due to its simplicity, relatively non-invasive, and cost-effective manner. However, the complex matrices in biological samples could significantly influence the extraction kinetic, and bias the quantification result. In this study, we investigated the effect of complex matrix on the extraction kinetic of SPME for biological sample analysis. Two sample matrices, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agarose gel with BSA were used to simulate the biological fluid and tissue. Results showed that the addition of BSA significantly enhanced the mass transfer of organic compounds onto SPME fiber in both PBS buffer and gel sample. Enhancement factors ranging from 1.3 to 27, and 2.0 to 80 were found for all selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PBS buffer and agarose gel with BSA concentration of 0.1-5%, respectively. Then, an improved theoretical model was applied to quantify the observed enhancement effect, and the result showed that the predicted sampling time constant agreed well with the experimental one in complex matrix. Furthermore, a simplified equation was proposed for the real biological sample analysis.

  4. Magnetism-Enhanced Monolith-Based In-Tube Solid Phase Microextraction.

    Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia; Luo, Qing; Yuan, Dongxin


    Monolith-based in-tube solid phase microextraction (MB/IT-SPME) has received wide attention because of miniaturization, automation, expected loading capacity, and environmental friendliness. However, the unsatisfactory extraction efficiency becomes the main disadvantage of MB/IT-SPME. To overcome this circumstance, magnetism-enhanced MB/IT-SPME (ME-MB/IT-SPME) was developed in the present work, taking advantage of magnetic microfluidic principles. First, modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles were mixed with polymerization solution and in situ polymerized in the capillary to obtain a magnetic monolith extraction phase. After that, the monolithic capillary column was placed inside a magnetic coil that allowed the exertion of a variable magnetic field. The effects of intensity of magnetic field, adsorption and desorption flow rate, volume of sample, and desorption solvent on the performance of ME-MB/IT-SPME were investigated in detail. The analysis of six steroid hormones in water samples by the combination of ME-MB/IT-SPME with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was selected as a paradigm for the practical evaluation of ME-MB/IT-SPME. The application of a controlled magnetic field resulted in an obvious increase of extraction efficiencies of the target analytes between 70% and 100%. The present work demonstrated that application of different magnetic forces in adsorption and desorption steps can effectively enhance extraction efficiency of MB/IT-SPME systems.

  5. Determination of Metamizole Sodium and Chlorphenamine Maleate in Zhongganling Tablets by Solid-Phase Extracting HPLC

    HANG Yiying; ZHU Binghui; LU Huiwen; YU Jinxiong; DEN Zhihua


    Objective To establish a method for the determination of metamizole sodium and chlorphenamine maleate in Zhongganling tablets. Methods The sample was determined by ion - pair HPLC after it was purified on Sep- Pak C18 microcolumn. The chromatographic conditions included: Hypersil DBS C18 chromatographic column(250mm × 4.6mm, i.d. 5μm) as an analytical column, methanolmixed solution of sodium heptanesulfonate and glacial acetic acid(600:400) as a mobile phase, the demetamizole sodium and chlorphenamine malcate were 99.6% (RSD was 2.1% and n was 6) and 98.0%(RSD was 1.5% and n was 6), respectively. Conclusion Metamizole sodium and chlorphenamine malcate can be determined respectively by HPLC with the same mobile phase when Sep - Pak C18 microcolumn solid- phase extraction method is used to substitute for the traditional sample pretreatment methods - refluxing, extracting and concentrating, and sodim heptanesulfonate ion - pair reagent in acid condition is selected.

  6. Determination of rhodamine B in soft drink, waste water and lipstick samples after solid phase extraction.

    Soylak, Mustafa; Unsal, Yunus Emre; Yilmaz, Erkan; Tuzen, Mustafa


    A new solid phase extraction method is described for sensitive and selective determination of trace levels of rhodamine B in soft drink, food and industrial waste water samples. The method is based on the adsorption of rhodamine B on the Sepabeads SP 70 resin and its elution with 5 mL of acetonitrile in a mini chromatographic column. Rhodamine B was determined by using UV visible spectrophotometry at 556 nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, amount of rhodamine B, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, resin amount, and sample volume were investigated. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of rhodamine B were investigated. The preconcentration factor was found 40. The detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the reagent blank for rhodamine B was 3.14 μg L⁻¹. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were found as 5% in 1×10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ rhodamine B. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including soft drink, food and industrial waste water and lipstick samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed micelle cloud point-magnetic dispersive μ-solid phase extraction of doxazosin and alfuzosin

    Gao, Nannan; Wu, Hao; Chang, Yafen; Guo, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Lizhen; Du, Liming; Fu, Yunlong


    Mixed micelle cloud point extraction (MM-CPE) combined with magnetic dispersive μ-solid phase extraction (MD-μ-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for the extraction of doxazosin (DOX) and alfuzosin (ALF) prior to fluorescence analysis. The mixed micelle anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and non-ionic polyoxyethylene(7.5)nonylphenylether was used as the extraction solvent in MM-CPE, and diatomite bonding Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were used as the adsorbent in MD-μ-SPE. The method was based on MM-CPE of DOX and ALF in the surfactant-rich phase. Magnetic materials were used to retrieve the surfactant-rich phase, which easily separated from the aqueous phase under magnetic field. At optimum conditions, a linear relationship between DOX and ALF was obtained in the range of 5-300 ng mL-1, and the limits of detection were 0.21 and 0.16 ng mL-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical preparations, urine samples, and plasma samples.

  8. Advanced Si solid phase crystallization for vertical channel in vertical NANDs

    Sangsoo Lee


    Full Text Available The advanced solid phase crystallization (SPC method using the SiGe/Si bi-layer structure is proposed to obtain high-mobility poly-Si thin-film transistors in next generation vertical NAND (VNAND devices. During the SPC process, the top SiGe thin film acts as a selective nucleation layer to induce surface nucleation and equiaxial microstructure. Subsequently, this SiGe thin film microstructure is propagated to the underlying Si thin film by epitaxy-like growth. The initial nucleation at the SiGe surface was clearly observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM when heating up to 600 °C. The equiaxial microstructures of both SiGe nucleation and Si channel layers were shown in the crystallized bi-layer plan-view TEM measurements. Based on these experimental results, the large-grained and less-defective Si microstructure is expected to form near the channel region of each VNAND cell transistor, which may improve the electrical characteristics.

  9. Electrospun composite of polypyrrole-polyamide as a micro-solid phase extraction sorbent.

    Bagheri, Habib; Aghakhani, Ali; Akbari, Maryam; Ayazi, Zahra


    A micro-solid phase extraction technique was developed using a novel polypyrrole-polyamide nanofiber sheet, fabricated by electrospinning method. The applicability of the new nanofiber sheet was examined as an extracting medium to isolate malathion as a model pesticide from aqueous samples. Solvent desorption was subsequently performed in a microvial, and an aliquot of extractant was injected into gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various parameters affecting the electrospinning process including monomer concentration, polyamide content, applied voltage, and electrospinning time were examined. After fabricating the most suitable preparation conditions, influential parameters on the extraction and desorption processes were optimized. The developed method proved to be rather convenient and offers sufficient sensitivity and good reproducibility. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (S/N = 10) of the method under optimized conditions were 50 and 100 ng L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation at concentration level of 1 ng mL(-1) was 2% (n = 3). The calibration curve of analyte showed linearity in the range of 0.1-1 ng mL(-1) (R (2) = 0.9975). The developed method was successfully applied to tap and Zayanderood river water samples, while the relative recovery percentages of 98% and 96% were obtained, respectively. The whole procedure showed to be conveniently applicable and quite easy to be manipulated.

  10. Solid Phase Extraction for Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Cr (III

    S.J. Shahtaheri


    Full Text Available Chromium is an important constituent widely used in different industrial processes for production of various synthetic materials. For evaluation of workers’ exposure to trace toxic metal of Cr (III, environmental and biological monitoring are essential processes, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE. SPE using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized regarding to sample pH, ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume, elution volume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences. Chromium was retained on solid sorbent and was eluted with 2 M HNO3 followed by simple determination of analytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of metal ion were more than 92%. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. Through this study, suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation, therefore, it is concluded that, this optimized method can be considered to be successful in simplifying sample preparation for trace residue analysis of Cr in different matrices for evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures. To evaluate occupational exposure to chromium, 16 urine samples were taken, prepared, and analyzed based on optimized procedure.

  11. [Preparation and application of solid phase extraction packing of zirconia microsphere coated with sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene].

    Shen, Shuchang; Liu, Yuhui; Xiao, Xiaoxing


    Zirconia microsphere was prepared by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation (PICA) method and carbon-carbon double bond was grafted onto its surface by titanic acid ester coupling reagent. Poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) was synthesized by free radical polymerization by using styrene, divinylbenzene and carbon-carbon double bond on the microsphere surface in solution system, so the polymer was coated on the microsphere surface. After the benzene ring of the polymer was sulfonated, the cation exchange packing for solid phase extraction (SPE) was obtained. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Three herbicides of mesotrione, atrazine and acetochlor in water were determined by the SPE cartridge coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the range of 0.5 - 3.0 mg/L, the relationships between the peak areas and mass concentrations of mesotrione, atrazine and acetochlor were linear with the correlation coefficients of 0.9936, 0.9925, 0.9919, respectively. The limits of detection were 5.41, 6.72 and 13.4 microg/L for mesotrione, atrazine and acetochlor, respectively. The results showed that the zirconium dioxide microspheres coated with polymer have diameters in the range of about 6 to 8 microm, the SPE cartridges of which have high adsorption rate for the targets.

  12. Ordered mesoporous carbon/Nafion as a versatile and selective solid-phase microextraction coating.

    Zeng, Jingbin; Zhao, Cuiying; Chen, Jingjing; Subhan, Fazle; Luo, Liwen; Yu, Jianfeng; Cui, Bingwen; Xing, Wei; Chen, Xi; Yan, Zifeng


    In this study, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with large surface area (1019m(2)g(-1)), uniform mesoporous structure (pore size distribution centering at 4.2nm) and large pore volume (1.46cm(3)g(-1)) was synthesized using 2D hexagonally mesoporous silica MSU-H as the hard template and sucrose as the carbon precursor. The as-synthesized OMC was immobilized onto a stainless steel wire using Nafion as a binder to prepare an OMC/Nafion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating. The extraction characteristics of the OMC/Nafion coating were extensively investigated using a wide range of analytes including non-polar (light petroleum and benzene homologues) and polar compounds (amines and phenols). The OMC/Nafion coating exhibited much better extraction efficiency towards all selected analytes than that of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion coating with similar length and thickness, which is ascribed to its high surface area, well-ordered mesoporous structure and large pore volume. When the OMC/Nafion coating was used to extract a mixture containing various kinds of analytes, it possessed excellent extraction selectivity towards aromatic non-polar compounds. In addition, the feasibility of the OMC/Nafion coating for application in electrochemically enhanced SPME was demonstrated using protonated amines as model analytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polarization effects on the electric properties of urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase

    Santos, O. L.; Fonseca, T. L., E-mail:; Sabino, J. R.; Georg, H. C.; Castro, M. A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus Samambaia, 74.690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil)


    We present theoretical results for the dipole moment, linear polarizability, and first hyperpolarizability of the urea and thiourea molecules in solid phase. The in-crystal electric properties were determined by applying a supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic scheme, in which the surrounding molecules are represented by point charges. It is found for both urea and thiourea molecules that the influence of the polarization effects is mild for the linear polarizability, but it is marked for the dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability. The replacement of oxygen atoms by sulfur atoms increases, in general, the electric responses. Our second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory based iterative scheme predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment of urea and thiourea the values of 7.54 and 9.19 D which are, respectively, increased by 61% and 58%, in comparison with the corresponding isolated values. The result for urea is in agreement with the available experimental result of 6.56 D. In addition, we present an estimate of macroscopic quantities considering explicit unit cells of urea and thiourea crystals including environment polarization effects. These supermolecule calculations take into account partially the exchange and dispersion effects. The results illustrate the role played by the electrostatic interactions on the static second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the urea crystal.

  14. Plasma mitomycin C concentrations determined by HPLC coupled to solid-phase extraction.

    Paroni, R; Arcelloni, C; De Vecchi, E; Fermo, I; Mauri, D; Colombo, R


    The aim of this study was to set up a method for quantification of plasma mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations during intravesical chemotherapy delivered in the presence of local bladder hyperthermia (HT). In comparison with existing methods, this assay, characterized by relative simplicity and efficiency, resulted in the facilitation of performance with nondedicated instrumentation or nonspecialized staff. Purification from plasma matrix was carried out by solid-phase extraction under vaccuum. The purified drug was then collected directly into the vials of the HPLC autosampler. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with water:acetonitrile (85:15 by vol) as the mobile phase and the UV detector set at 365 nm. The use of porfiromycin as internal standard provided a method with good within-day precision (CV 6.0% at 5 micrograms/L, n = 6), linearity (0.5-50 micrograms/L), and specificity. The lower limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microgram/L) proved to be suitable for plasma pharmacokinetics monitoring in two tested patients treated with MMC + HT for superficial bladder cancer.

  15. Sampling of benzene in tar matrices from biomass gasification using two different solid-phase sorbents.

    Osipovs, Sergejs


    Biomass tar mainly consists of stable aromatic compounds such as benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene being the biggest tar component in real biomass gasification gas. For the analysis of individual tar compounds, the solid-phase adsorption method was chosen. According to this method, tar samples are collected on a column with an amino-phase sorbent. With a high benzene concentration in biomass tar, some of the benzene will not be collected on the amino-phase sorbent. To get over this situation, we have installed another column with activated charcoal which is intended for collection of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, after the column with the amino-phase sorbent. The study of maximal adsorption amounts of various compounds on both adsorbents while testing different sampling volumes led to the conclusion that benzene is a limiting compound. The research proved that the use of two sorbents (500 mg + 100 mg) connected in series allows for assessment of tar in synthesis gas with a tar concentration up to 30-40 g m(-3), which corresponds to the requirements of most gasifiers.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of large-grain solid-phase crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Kumar, Avishek, E-mail:, E-mail: [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Law, Felix; Widenborg, Per I. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Dalapati, Goutam K., E-mail:, E-mail:; Subramanian, Gomathy S.; Tan, Hui R. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)


    n-type polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films with very large grains, exceeding 30 μm in width, and with high Hall mobility of about 71.5 cm{sup 2}/V s are successfully prepared by the solid-phase crystallization technique on glass through the control of the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio. The effect of this gas flow ratio on the electronic and structural quality of the n-type poly-Si thin film is systematically investigated using Hall effect measurements, Raman microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. The poly-Si grains are found to be randomly oriented, whereby the average area weighted grain size is found to increase from 4.3 to 18 μm with increase of the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio. The stress in the poly-Si thin films is found to increase above 900 MPa when the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio is increased from 0.025 to 0.45. Finally, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high angle annular dark field-scanning tunneling microscopy, and EBSD are used to identify the defects and dislocations caused by the stress in the fabricated poly-Si films.

  17. Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE: Principles and Applications in Food Samples

    Semih Ötles


    Full Text Available Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE is a sample preparation method that is practised on numerous application fields due to its many advantages compared to other traditional methods. SPE was invented as an alternative to liquid/liquid extraction and eliminated multiple disadvantages, such as usage of large amount of solvent, extended operation time/procedure steps, potential sources of error, and high cost. Moreover, SPE can be ap- plied to the samples combined with other analytical methods and sample preparation techniques optionally. SPE technique is a useful tool for many purposes through its versatility. Isolation, concentration, purification and clean-up are the main approaches in the practices of this method. Food structures represent a complicated matrix and can be formed into different physical stages, such as solid, viscous or liquid. Therefore, sample preparation step particularly has an important role for the determination of specific compounds in foods. SPE offers many opportunities not only for analysis of a large diversity of food samples but also for optimization and advances. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on basic principles of SPE and its applications for many analytes in food matrix.

  18. Determination of Three Tanshinones from Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza by Molecularly Imprinted Solid-phase Extraction

    YAN, Hongyuan; TIAN, Minglei; ROW, Kyung Ho


    A selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the selective separation of tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone from Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza samples. Tanshinone ⅡA imprinted polymers (MIP) synthesized in ethanol-dodecanol system show high affinity to tanshinone ⅡA and its structure analogs in aqueous environment and the affinity can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the eluents. By using 60% water-40% methanol (volume ratio) and 99.5% methanol-0.5% trifluoroacetic acid (volume ratio) as washing and eluting solvents, most interferences originating from the salvia matrix were eliminated. The extracts were sufficiently clean enough to be directly injected into HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.4 to 500.0 mg·L~(-1) (r~2=0.999) with the relative standard deviations less than 4.2%. The mean recoveries of tanshinone ⅡA in Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza were more than 85.6% at three different concentrations and the limits of detection were 0.06-0.09 mg·L~(-1). This method is a viable alternative tool to the existing HPLC methods for analyzing the content of the three tanshinones in Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza samples.

  19. Determination of quinolones in plasma samples by capillary electrophoresis using solid-phase extraction.

    Hernández, M; Borrull, F; Calull, M


    The potential of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) have been investigated for the separation and quantitative determination of 10 quinolone antibiotics. The influence of different conditions, such as the buffer and pH of the electrolyte, the surfactant and the ion-pairing agents added to the electrolyte and the organic modifier were studied. A buffer consisting of 40 mM sodium tetraborate at pH 8.1 containing 10% (v/v) methanol was found to be a highly efficient electrophoretic system for separating lomefloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, pipemidic acid, ofloxacin, piromidic acid, flumequine, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin and nalidixic acid. A solid-phase extraction method to remove the sample matrix (pig plasma samples) was developed on a C(18) cartridge using a mixture of methanol-water (70:30, v/v). The method is specific and reproducible and mean recoveries were in the range 94.0+/-4.2% and 123.3+/-4.1% for pig plasma samples over the range used. A linear relationship between concentration and peak area for each compound in pig plasma samples was obtained in the concentration range 5-20 mg l(-1) and detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.4 mg l(-1).

  20. Sampling gaseous compounds from essential oils evaporation by solid phase microextraction devices

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Lai, Chin-Hsing


    Needle trap samplers (NTS) are packed with 80-100 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles to extract indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study compared extraction efficiency between an NTS and a commercially available 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane-solid phase microextration (PDMS-SPME) fiber sampler used to sample gaseous products in heated tea tree essential oil in different evaporation modes, which were evaporated respectively by free convection inside a glass evaporation dish at 27 °C, by evaporation diffuser at 60 °C, and by thermal ceramic wicks at 100 °C. The experimental results indicated that the NTS performed better than the SPME fiber samplers and that the NTS primarily adsorbed 5.7 ng ethylbenzene, 5.8 ng m/p-xylenes, 11.1 ng 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 12.4 ng 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 9.99 ng 1,4-diethylbenzene when thermal ceramic wicks were used to evaporate the tea tree essential oil during a 1-hr evaporation period. The experiment also indicated that the temperature used to heat the essential oils should be as low as possible to minimize irritant VOC by-products. If the evaporation temperature does not exceed 100 °C, the concentrations of main by-products trimethylbenzene and diethylbenzene are much lower than the threshold limit values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

  1. Continuum simulation of solid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphized silicon including most advanced physical interactions

    Delalleau, Julien; Simola, Roberto [STMicroelectronics, ZI de Rousset, BP 2, 13106 Rousset (France); Pakfar, Ardechir; Tavernier, Clement [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bazizi, El-Medhi [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)


    Solid-phase-epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of Si amorphized by ion implantation is considered as a potential solution for the fabrication of highly-activated ultra-shallow junctions for future technology nodes of Si CMOS devices. In the frame of 32 and 22 nm technologies node development, SPER occurs after amorphizing implantations used in source/drain regions. To get an accurate simulation of dopant activation and junction depth position, a suitable continuum SPER model, implemented into a commercial simulator, is now mandatory. This TCAD model must consider the different physical effects associated with SPER: silicon regrowth rate, dopants redistribution snow plough effect, and interaction with silicon point defects. In this work, using a previously established model, we have implemented an improved physically based model for SPER and, several formulations have been developed to enable a robust/accurate modeling of the recrystallization velocity. It takes into account the direct interaction between amorphous/crystalline interface kinetics and point defects, and a regrowth rate dependent on temperature. Simulation results of dopant concentration profiles are in good agreement with experimental data and can provide important insight for optimizing the bulk silicon process as well in one dimension as two dimensions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Cadmium Extraction from Solutions by Solid-Phase and its Trace Determination

    Ashrafi, F.; Attaran, A. M. [Payame Noor University, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermani, N. Memar [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A new sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of cadmium using a polyvinyl chloride membrane containing bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as a solid phase extraction medium was investigated. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate has used as a plasticizer. Cd(II) in an aqueous solution was trapped on the membrane in the form of colorful Cd (II)-I{sup -} - MG complexes (which MG is malachite green) and the cadmium complex was concentrated in the membrane. The absorbance of the green membrane was measured at 629 nm using a spectrophotometer, and then, the concentration of the cadmium was calculated using a calibration curve, which expressed the relationship between the Cd(II) concentration and the membrane absorbance after coloring for 25 min. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10-760 μgL{sup -1} cadmium in the test solution. The detection limit based on the 3S{sub bl} criterion was 1.8199 μgL{sup -1} and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 4 % (n=5). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of cadmium in the Tadjan River water sample (Sari-Iran), and the mean value of 28.7 μgL{sup -1} was obtained.

  3. Methylation and Release of Mercury From the Solid Phase. What Comes First?

    Regnell, O.


    It is a well-known fact that methylation leads to a dramatic increase in the bioavailability of mercury (Hg). All recent observations support the notion that Hg methylation is almost exclusively an anaerobic process. According to the reigning paradigm, methylation of Hg takes place in the cytoplasm of anaerobic bacteria, notably sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that certain forms of inorganic divalent Hg (Hg(II)), can readily diffuse across the cell membrane. In addition, a recent study suggested that active uptake may occur when Hg is bound to low weight organic molecules. In the cytoplasm, cobalamin-dependent biochemical pathways, designed to methylate substrates other than Hg(II), are held responsible for the methylation of Hg(II). However, recent results from studies in a Swedish wetland (within the project "Svartsjoprojektet", aiming at understanding Hg dynamics in a Hg-polluted river-lake system) have led us to question whether Hg methylation does occur exclusively within cells. A provocative interpretation of our results is that methylation preceded the release of Hg from the solid phase, e.g. that Hg(II) sorbed to solid surfaces was methylated and subsequently released as methyl Hg to the sulfidic water. I will discuss this possibility in light of existing evidence that Hg methylation is an intra cellular process.

  4. Diffusion relaxation times of nonequilibrium isolated small bodies and their solid phase ensembles to equilibrium states

    Tovbin, Yu. K.


    The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).

  5. Solid-phase cloning for high-throughput assembly of single and multiple DNA parts.

    Lundqvist, Magnus; Edfors, Fredrik; Sivertsson, Åsa; Hallström, Björn M; Hudson, Elton P; Tegel, Hanna; Holmberg, Anders; Uhlén, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan


    We describe solid-phase cloning (SPC) for high-throughput assembly of expression plasmids. Our method allows PCR products to be put directly into a liquid handler for capture and purification using paramagnetic streptavidin beads and conversion into constructs by subsequent cloning reactions. We present a robust automated protocol for restriction enzyme based SPC and its performance for the cloning of >60 000 unique human gene fragments into expression vectors. In addition, we report on SPC-based single-strand assembly for applications where exact control of the sequence between fragments is needed or where multiple inserts are to be assembled. In this approach, the solid support allows for head-to-tail assembly of DNA fragments based on hybridization and polymerase fill-in. The usefulness of head-to-tail SPC was demonstrated by assembly of >150 constructs with up to four DNA parts at an average success rate above 80%. We report on several applications for SPC and we suggest it to be particularly suitable for high-throughput efforts using laboratory workstations.

  6. Rapid microfluidic solid-phase extraction system for hyper-methylated DNA enrichment and epigenetic analysis.

    De, Arpita; Sparreboom, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin T


    Genetic sequence and hyper-methylation profile information from the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes are important for cancer disease investigation. Since hyper-methylated DNA (hm-DNA) is typically present in ultra-low concentrations in biological samples, such as stool, urine, and saliva, sample enrichment and amplification is typically required before detection. We present a rapid microfluidic solid phase extraction (μSPE) system for the capture and elution of low concentrations of hm-DNA (≤1 ng ml(-1)), based on a protein-DNA capture surface, into small volumes using a passive microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform. All assay steps have been qualitatively characterized using a real-time surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, and quantitatively characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. The hm-DNA capture/elution process requires less than 5 min with an efficiency of 71% using a 25 μl elution volume and 92% efficiency using a 100 μl elution volume.

  7. Knitting aromatic polymers for efficient solid-phase microextraction of trace organic pollutants.

    Liu, Shuqin; Hu, Qingkun; Zheng, Juan; Xie, Lijun; Wei, Songbo; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Liu, Yuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng


    A series of knitting aromatic polymers (KAPs) were successfully synthesized using a simple one-step Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic monomers and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then, as-synthesized KAPs with large surface areas, unique pore structures and high thermal stability were prepared as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coatings that exhibited good extraction abilities for a series of benzene compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene, which are referred to as BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Under the optimized conditions, the methodologies established for the determination of BTEX and PAHs using the KAPs-triPB and KAPs-B coatings, respectively, possessed wide linear ranges, low limits of detection (LODs, 0.10-1.13ngL(-1) for BTEX and 0.05-0.49ngL(-1) for PAHs) and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of BTEX and PAHs in environmental water samples, and satisfactory recoveries (93.6-124.2% for BTEX and 77.2-113.3% for PAHs) were achieved. This study provides a benchmark for exploiting novel microporous organic polymers (MOPs) for SPME applications.

  8. Carbonized polydopamine as coating for solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides.

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Chua, Pey Ee; Lee, Hian Kee


    A facile preparation route for coating a stainless steel fiber with carbonaceous material derived from polydopamine is reported in this work. The self-oxidation induced polymerization of dopamine in alkaline solution enables growth of polydopamine on the inert surface of the fiber. The robust adhesion of dopamine to metal oxides ensured sufficient stability of the polymer coating. After carbonization of the polymer coating, the obtained carbon coated fiber was utilized for solid-phase microextraction and exhibited effectiveness in the extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from aqueous solution. Extraction time, agitation speed and salt addition were optimized. The possible interference of humic acid on the extraction of these analytes was also investigated. The results showed that most of the analytes could be detected efficiently in the presence of humic acid at a concentration of 20mg/L. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors of 102-757 were obtained for the selected OCPs in aqueous solution. The proposed method provided low limits of detection (1.4-15 ng/L), good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9971) and acceptable precision (relative standard deviations<16.3%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Pyrazine and Volatile Compounds in Cocoa Beans Using Solid Phase Microextraction

    Misnawi Jati


    Full Text Available Analisis pirazin dan senyawa volatil pada biji kakao dilakukan dengan perangkat mikroekstraksi fase padat (solid phase micro extraction, SPME, untuk mengembangkan metode ekstraksi tanpa pelarut yang efisien. Perangkat SPME dilengkapi fiber stableflex dengan polimer DVB/Carboxen/PDMS yang menjerap senyawa volatil di area headspace. Biji kakao terfermentasi disangrai dan diambil lemaknya untuk ditempatkan dalam botol bertutup septa. Sampel dipanaskan pada suhu 70OC dan serat SPME ditusukkan menembus septa untuk mengekstrak senyawa volatil dari lemak kakao selama 30 menit. Senyawa volatil lemak kakao akan dijerap oleh serat SPME dan dilepaskan kembali untuk analisis kromatografi gas. Penelitian menunjukkan pirazin dan senyawa volatil yang diekstrak oleh serat SPME dapat terdeteksi dengan baik oleh kromatografi gas. Area puncak yang dihasilkan SPME meliputi 2,83–5,35% dari area puncak yang dihasilkan syringe, kendati demikian kemampuan ekstraksi SPME dapat disetarakan dengan syringe. Lima jenis pirazin yang sering terdapat di biji kakao telah diidentifikasi, meliputi metil pirazin (2MP; 2,3 dan 2,5-dimetilpirazin (DMP; dan 2,3,5 trimetilpirazin (TrMP dan tetrametil pirazin (TMP. Senyawa lainnya juga terdeteksi meliputi alkohol, asam karboksilat, aldehida, keton, ester, pirazin, amin dan senyawa volatil lainnya, dan diketahui erat kaitannya dengan aroma khas cokelat. Keberhasilan SPME dalam ekstraksi pirazin dan senyawa volatilsemi volatil yang berperan penting dalam pembentukan aroma cokelat menandakan SPME dapat digunakan lebih lanjut untuk analisis citarasa.

  10. Determination of Atrazine, Acetochlor, Clomazone, Pendimethalin and Oxyfluorfen in Soil by a Solid Phase Microextraction Method

    Rada Đurović


    Full Text Available A solid phase microextraction (SPME method for simultaneous determination of atrazine, acetochlor, clomazone, pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen in soil samples was developed. The method is based on a combination of conventional liquid-solid procedure and a following SPME determination of the selected pesticides. Initially, various microextraction conditions, such as the fibre type, desorption temperature and time, extraction time and NaCl content, were investigated and optimized. Then, extraction efficiencies of severalsolvents (water, hexane, acetonitrile, acetone and methanol and the optimum number of extraction steps within the sample preparation step were optimized. According to the results obtained in these two sets of experiments, two successive extractions with methanol as the extraction solvent were the optimal sample preparation procedure, while the following conditions were found to be most efficient for SPME measurements: 100 μm PDMS fibre, desorption for 7 min at 2700C, 30 min extraction time and 5% NaCl content (w/v. Detection and quantification were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS. Relative standard deviation (RSD values for multiple analysis of soil samples fortified at 30 μg/kg of each pesticide were below 19%. Limits of detection (LOD for all the compounds studied were less than 2 μg/kg.

  11. Evaluation of Antibacterial Enrofloxacin in Eggs by Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion-Flow Injection Chemiluminescence

    Xiaocui Duan


    Full Text Available The study based on the chemiluminescence (CL reaction of potassium ferricyanide and luminol in sodium hydroxide medium, enrofloxacin (ENRO could dramatically enhance CL intensities and incorporated with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD technique (Florisil used as dispersant, dichloromethane eluted the target compounds. A simple flow injection chemiluminescence (FL-CL method with MSPD technique for determination of ENRO in eggs was described. Under optimal conditions, the CL intensities were linearly related to ENRO concentration ranging from 4.0×10-8 g.L−1 to 5.0×10-5 g.L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989 and detection limit of 5.0×10-9 g.L−1. The relative standard deviation was 3.6% at an ENRO concentration of 2.0×10-6 g.L−1. Our testing technique can help ensure food safety, and thus, protect public health.

  12. Developments in coupled solid-phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis 2013-2015.

    Ramautar, Rawi; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J


    An overview of the design and application of coupled solid-phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-CE) systems reported in the literature between July 2013 and June 2015 is provided in this paper. The present article is a continuation of our previous review papers on this topic which covered the time period 2000-2013 (Electrophoresis 2008, 29, 108-128; Electrophoresis 2010, 31, 44-54; Electrophoresis 2012, 33, 243-250; Electrophoresis 2014, 35, 128-137). The use of in-line and on-line SPE-CE approaches is treated and outlined in this review. Recent advancements, such as, for example, the use of aptamers as affinity material for in-line SPE-CE, the use of a bead string design for in-line fritless SPE-CE, and new interfacing techniques for the on-line coupling of SPE to CE, are outlined. Selected examples demonstrate the applicability of the coupled SPE-CE systems for biomedical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food studies. A complete overview of the recent SPE-CE studies is given in table format, providing information on sample type, SPE sorbent, coupling mode, detection mode, and LOD. Finally, some general conclusions and perspectives are provided.

  13. Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene film with manganese oxide OMS-2

    Liu, Guanglong; Liao, Shuijiao; Zhu, Duanwei; Cui, Jingzhen; Zhou, Wenbing


    Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene (PE) film with cryptomelane-type manganese oxide (OMS-2) as photocatalyst was investigated in the ambient air under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The properties of the composite films were compared with those of the pure PE film through performing weight loss monitoring, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoinduced degradation of PE-OMS-2 composite films was higher than that of the pure films, while there has been little change under the visible light irradiation. The weight loss of PE-OMS-2 (1.0 wt%) composite films steadily decreased and reached 16.5% in 288 h under UV light irradiation. Through SEM observation there were some cavities on the surface of composite films, but few change except some surface chalking phenomenon occurred in pure PE film. The degradation rate with ultraviolet irradiation is controllable by adjusting the content of OMS-2 particles in PE plastic. Finally, the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of the composite films was briefly discussed.

  14. Solid phase studies and geochemical modelling of low-cost permeable reactive barriers

    Bartzas, Georgios, E-mail: [Laboratory of Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Komnitsas, Kostas [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)


    A continuous column experiment was carried out under dynamic flow conditions in order to study the efficiency of low-cost permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove several inorganic contaminants from acidic solutions. A 50:50 w/w waste iron/sand mixture was used as candidate reactive media in order to activate precipitation and promote sorption and reduction-oxidation mechanisms. Solid phase studies of the exhausted reactive products after column shutdown, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), confirmed that the principal Fe corrosion products identified in the reactive zone are amorphous iron (hydr)oxides (maghemite/magnetite and goethite), intermediate products (sulfate green rust), and amorphous metal sulfides such as amFeS and/or mackinawite. Geochemical modelling of the metal removal processes, including interactions between reactive media, heavy metal ions and sulfates, and interpretation of the ionic profiles was also carried out by using the speciation/mass transfer computer code PHREEQC-2 and the WATEQ4F database. Mineralogical characterization studies as well as geochemical modelling calculations also indicate that the effect of sulfate and silica sand on the efficiency of the reactive zone should be considered carefully during design and operation of low-cost field PRBs.

  15. Oxysterols in cosmetics-Determination by planar solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Schrack, S; Hohl, C; Schwack, W


    Sterol oxidation products (SOPs) are linked to several toxicological effects. Therefore, investigation of potential dietary uptake sources particularly food of animal origin has been a key issue for these compounds. For the simultaneous determination of oxysterols from cholesterol, phytosterols, dihydrolanosterol and lanosterol in complex cosmetic matrices, planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) was applied as clean-up tool. SOPs were first separated from more non-polar and polar matrix constituents by normal phase thin-layer chromatography and then focussed into one target zone. Zone extraction was performed with the TLC-MS interface, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. pSPE showed to be effective for cleaning up cosmetic samples as sample extracts were free of interferences, and gas chromatographic columns did not show any signs of overloading. Recoveries were between 86 and 113% with relative standard deviations of below 10% (n=6). Results of our market survey in 2016 showed that some cosmetics with ingredients of plant origin contained phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) in the low ppm range and therefore in line with levels reported for food. In lanolin containing products, total SOPs levels (cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), lanosterol oxidation products (LOPs), dihydrolanosterol oxidation products (DOPs)) being in the low percent range exceeded reported levels for food by several orders of magnitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Case report: solid-phase platelet crossmatching to support the alloimmunized patient.

    O'Connell, B A


    Platelet crossmatching by a solid-phase red cell adherence assay was used to provide compatible platelets for two alloimmunized patients with leukemia. In this study, a successful platelet transfusion was defined as giving a corrected count increment (CCI) of >7,500 in a posttransfusion sample. For patient A, a total of 205 random platelet concentrates (PCs) were crossmatched. Eleven were considered compatible. These 11 PCs were transfused during five transfusion episodes. Four of the five transfusions produced CCIs of >7,500 and were considered successful. Individually, eight of the eleven units were considered in vivo compatible, and five of the eight donors of these units agreed to become apheresis donors. Platelets from three of these five apheresis donors gave CCIs of >7,500. For patient B, 1,074 random PCs were crossmatched, and 332 were considered compatible. These units were administered during 78 different transfusions. Seventy-one of these transfusion episodes resulted in CCIs of >7,500. In addition, 19 apheresis donors were identified by platelet crossmatching, and they provided platelets for 38 of 39 successful transfusions for Patient B. Platelet crossmatching should therefore be considered when a blood bank is called upon to support a refractory thrombocytopenic patient.

  17. CMOS-compatible method for doping of buried vertical polysilicon structures by solid phase diffusion

    Turkulets, Yury; Silber, Amir; Ripp, Alexander; Sokolovsky, Mark; Shalish, Ilan


    Polysilicon receives attention nowadays as a means to incorporate 3D-structured photonic devices into silicon processes. However, doping of buried layers of a typical 3D structure has been a challenge. We present a method for doping of buried polysilicon layers by solid phase diffusion. Using an underlying silicon oxide layer as a dopant source facilitates diffusion of dopants into the bottom side of the polysilicon layer. The polysilicon is grown on top of the oxide layer, after the latter has been doped by ion implantation. Post-growth heat treatment drives in the dopant from the oxide into the polysilicon. To model the process, we studied the diffusion of the two most common silicon dopants, boron (B) and phosphorus (P), using secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles. Our results show that shallow concentration profiles can be achieved in a buried polysilicon layer using the proposed technique. We present a quantitative 3D model for the diffusion of B and P in polysilicon, which turns the proposed method into an engineerable technique.

  18. Characterisation of volatile organic compounds in stemwood using solid-phase microextraction.

    Wajs, A; Pranovich, A; Reunanen, M; Willför, S; Holmbom, B


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), hydrodistillation and dynamic headspace combined with GC and GC-MS were applied and compared for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coniferous wood. The SPME conditions (type of fibre, size of wood sample, temperature and exposure time) were optimised, and more than 100 VOCs and semi-volatile compounds extracted and identified from the sapwood and heartwood of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The total number of mono- and sesquiterpenes eluted and identified was similar for the SPME and hydrodistillation methods, but more semi-volatile compounds were released by hydrodistillation. By applying dynamic headspace at room temperature, it was possible to analyse only the most volatile compounds. The qualitative composition of VOCs was similar in spruce sapwood and heartwood, although Z-beta-ocimene occurred only in sapwood while fenchol was present only in heartwood. SPME sampling coupled with GC, applied here to the analysis of VOCs released from stemwood of firs for the first time, is a convenient, sensitive, fast, solvent-free and simple method for the determination of wood volatiles. The technique requires much smaller sample amounts compared with hydrodistillation, and the total amount of VOCs extracted and identified is higher than that obtained by hydrodistillation or dynamic headspace. The relative ratios of the main mono- and sesquiterpenes and -terpenoids were similar using the SPME-GC and hydrodistillation methods.

  19. Mechanisms of Neutral and Anionic Surfactant Sorption to Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibers.

    Haftka, Joris J-H; Hammer, Jort; Hermens, Joop L M


    Octanol-water partitioning (Kow) is considered a key parameter for hydrophobicity and is often applied in the prediction of the environmental fate and exposure of neutral organic compounds. However, surfactants can create difficulties in the determination of Kow because of emulsification of both water and octanol phases. Moreover, not only is sorption behavior of ionic surfactants related to hydrophobicity, but also other interactions are relevant in sorption processes. A different approach to develop parameters that can be applied in predictive modeling of the fate of surfactants in the environment is therefore required. Distribution between solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and water was used in this study to measure the affinity of surfactants to a hydrophobic phase. Fiber-water sorption coefficients of alcohol ethoxylates, alkyl carboxylates, alkyl sulfates, and alkyl sulfonates were determined at pH 7 by equilibration of the test analytes between fiber and water. Distribution between fiber and water of anionic compounds with pKa ∼ 5 (i.e., alkyl carboxylates) was dominated by the neutral fraction. Anionic surfactants with pKa ≤ 2 (i.e., alkyl sulfates and alkyl sulfonates) showed strong nonlinear distribution to the fiber. The fiber-water sorption coefficients for alcohol ethoxylates and alkyl sulfates showed a linear trend with bioconcentration factors from the literature. Fiber-water sorption coefficients are promising as a parameter to study the effects of hydrophobicity and other potential interactions on sorption behavior of neutral and anionic surfactants.

  20. Antioxidative properties of defatted dabai pulp and peel prepared by solid phase extraction.

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah


    Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C₁₈ cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.