WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid-liquid slurries revision

  1. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, L.W.; Brodsky, A.M.; Panetta P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics and in ultrasonics, provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today's technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines

  2. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics (University of Washington) and in ultrasonics (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)) provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today's technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines.

  3. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Case, Sean; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified...... solid fractions, but also increased N2O and CO2 emissions in soil amended with the liquid fraction. Finally, the biochar production from the solid fraction of pig slurry resulted in a very recalcitrant material, which reduced N and C mineralisation in soil compared to the raw solid fractions....

  4. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  5. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  6. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin; Akbulut, Sezen

    2008-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient (Γ), solid-liquid interfacial energy (σ SL ) and grain boundary energy (σ gb ) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 ± 0.5) x 10 -8 K m, (8.5 ± 1.3) x 10 -3 J m -2 and (16.5 ± 2.8) x 10 -3 J m -2 , respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature

  7. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Akbulut, Sezen [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: marasli@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-03-21

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ({gamma}), solid-liquid interfacial energy ({sigma}{sub SL}) and grain boundary energy ({sigma}{sub gb}) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -8} K m, (8.5 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2} and (16.5 {+-} 2.8) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2}, respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature.

  8. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  10. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  11. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  12. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  13. Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S; Cook, J; Juratovac, J; Goodwillie, J; Burke, T

    2011-10-25

    Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities

  14. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  15. Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Riis-Nielsen, Torben

    This report is a revised analysis of the Danish data on CO2 emissions from forest, afforestation and deforestation for the period 1990 - 2008 and a prognosis for the period until 2020. Revision have included measurements from 2009 in the estimations. The report is funded by the Ministry of Climate...

  16. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of solid-liquid separation process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu, koeki bunriho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among researches on solvent extraction and liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in development of a solid-liquid separation technology. In the research of operation of a centrifugal separation device, a solid-liquid separation test was performed on slurry extracted from the Australian Wandoan coal being sub-bituminous coal. The deliming rate has reached 99% equilibrium at an addition rate of 20% by weight of anti-solvent (a kind of normal paraffin, which reduces solubility of part of coal extracts and enhances removal rates of ash and solids by utilizing coagulating action of the extracts). Asphaltene among the liquefaction formed materials may be recovered nearly completely, but the recovery rate for pre-asphaltene was lower. An operation test was also carried out by using slurry extracted in a 1 t/d experimental plant. In the study on operation of a 5-l/h continuous sedimentation and separation device, a maximum effect was derived with addition of anti-solvent at 25% by weight and at a stirring rate of 700 rpm. The solid-liquid separability changes depending on the kind of slurry. The low conversion rate slurry becomes difficult of separation because its viscosity is high and the difference in density between solids and liquid is small. Furthermore, the high conversion rate slurry has become difficult of separation due to small particle size of the solids. (NEDO)

  17. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  18. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  19. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting tempera...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume.......We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...

  20. Solid-liquid separation in the mining industry

    CERN Document Server

    Concha A , Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This book covers virtually all of the engineering science and technological aspects of separating water from particulate solids in the mining industry. It starts with an introduction to the field of mineral processing and the importance of water in mineral concentrators. The consumption of water in the various stages of concentration is discussed, as is the necessity of recovering the majority of that water for recycling. The book presents the fundamentals under which processes of solid-liquid separation are studied, approaching mixtures of discrete finely divided solid particles in water as a basis for dealing with sedimentation in particulate systems. Suspensions, treated as continuous media, provide the basis of sedimentation, flows through porous media and filtration. The book also considers particle aggregations, and thickening is analyzed in depth. Lastly, two chapters cover the fundamentals and application of rheology and the transport of suspensions.  This work is suitable for researchers and profess...

  1. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  2. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters...... and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors...... for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40...

  3. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  4. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  5. Wastewater Triad Project: Solid-Liquid Separator FY 2000 Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The Wastewater Triad Project (WTP) consists of three operational units: the cesium removal (CsR) system, the out-of-tank evaporator (OTE) system, and the solid/liquid separation (SLS) system. These systems were designed to reduce the volume and radioactivity of low-level liquid waste (LLLW) stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and are operated independently or in series in order to accomplish the treatment goals. Each is a modular, skid-mounted system that is self-contained, individually shielded, and designed to be decontaminated and removed once the project has been completed. The CsR and OTE systems are installed inside Building 7877; the SLS system is installed adjacent to the east side of the MVST 7830 vault cover. The CsR, which consists of ion-exchange equipment for removing 137 Cs from LLLW, was demonstrated in 1997. During the Cesium Removal Demonstration, 30,853 gal of radioactive supernate was processed and 1142 Ci of 137 Cs was removed from the supernate and loaded onto 70 gal of a crystalline silicotitanate sorbent manufactured by UOP, Inc. The OTE system is a subatmospheric single-stage evaporator system designed to concentrate LLLW to smaller volumes. It was previously demonstrated in 1996 and was operated in 1998 to process about 80,000 gal of LLLW. The SLS system was designed to filter and remove suspended solids from LLLW in order to minimize further accumulation of sludge in new storage tanks or to prevent fouling of CsR and OTE systems. The SLS was installed and demonstrated in 1999; ∼45,000 gal of radioactive supernate was processed during the demonstration

  6. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  7. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  8. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  9. Overview of slurry pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, R L

    1982-01-01

    Slurry pipelines have proven to be a technically feasible, environmentally attractive and economic method of transporting finely divided particles over long distances. A pipeline system normally consists of preparation, pipeline and utilization facilities and requires optimization of all three components taken together. A considerable amount of research work has been done to develop hydraulic design of a slurry pipeline. Equipment selection and estimation of corrosion-erosion are considered to be as important as the hydraulic design. Future applications are expected to be for the large-scale transport of coal and for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits such as iron ore and copper. Application of slurry pipelines for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits is illustrated by the Kudremukh iron concentrate slurry pipeline in India.

  10. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Invariance of the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting probed via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Olivier, Gloria K; Frechette, Joelle

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation is employed to probe the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting on dielectric. The height of an annular water meniscus formed via capillary condensation inside the surface force apparatus is measured as a function of the potential applied across the meniscus and the dielectric stack where the meniscus is formed. According to the Kelvin equation, a decrease in the solid-liquid interfacial energy at constant temperature and relative humidity should lead to an increase in the meniscus height. Our experimental results on nanometer-sized meniscus are in agreement with the work of Mugele [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2007, 19, 375112] and unequivocally demonstrate that the real contact angle (or the solid-liquid interfacial energy) remains unaltered in electrowetting on dielectric.

  12. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  13. Numerical simulation analysis of four-stage mutation of solid-liquid two-phase grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Liu, Yang; Hou, Jikun; Hu, Jinglei; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase abrasive grain polishing and abrupt change tube, in this paper, the fourth order abrupt change tube was selected as the research object, using the fluid mechanics software to simulate,based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow dynamics, study on the mechanism of AFM micromachining a workpiece during polishing.Analysis at different inlet pressures, the dynamic pressure distribution pipe mutant fourth order abrasive flow field, turbulence intensity, discuss the influence of the inlet pressure of different abrasive flow polishing effect.

  14. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  15. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Formamide-Acetophenone System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevská, I.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Řehák, K.; Vrbka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, 9 (2006) , s. 1350-1358 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibria * liquid-liquid equilibria * metastable Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  16. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, AF; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, Damien; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P; Boshoven, JG; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D

    2017-01-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2–ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the

  17. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  18. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  19. All about Solids, Liquids & Gases. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In All About Solids, Liquids and Gases, young students will be introduced to the three common forms of matter. They'll learn that all things are made up of tiny particles called atoms and that the movement of these particles determines the form that matter takes. In solids, the particles are packed tightly together and move very little. The…

  20. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2001-10-01

    In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the

  1. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2000-11-01

    In the first year of the project, solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Progress was also made in analyzing the gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is being developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian particle tracking procedure to analyze the particle motions. Progress was also made in developing a rate dependent thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows in a state of turbulent motion. The new model includes the effect of phasic interactions and leads to anisotropic effective phasic stress tensors. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The formulation of a thermodynamically consistent model for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid flows in a turbulent state of motion was also initiated. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also to establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and

  2. System and method for slurry handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  3. Engineering evaluation of solids/liquids separation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study looks at the solids/liquids separation unit operations after the acid dissolution of the K Basin sludge treatment. Unit operations considered were centrifugation, filtration (cartridge, cross flow, and high shear filtration) and gravity settling. The recommended unit operations for the solids/liquids separations are based upon the efficiency, complexity, and off-the-shelf availability and adaptability. The unit operations recommended were a Robatel DPC 900 centrifuge followed by a nuclearized 31WM cartridge filter. The Robatel DPC 900 has been successfully employed in the nuclear industry on a world wide scale. The 31WM cartridge filter has been employed for filtration campaigns in both the government and civilian nuclear arenas

  4. Solid-Liquid equilibrium of n-alkanes using the Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a solid phase in liquid mixtures with large paraffinic molecules is a phenomenon of interest in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological industries among onters. Efforts to model the solid-liquid equilibrium in these systems have been mainly empirical and with different...... degrees of success.An attempt to describe the equilibrium between the high temperature form of a paraffinic solid solution, commonly known as rotator phase, and the liquid phase is performed. The Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model (CDLP) is developed allowing a successful description of the solid-liquid...... equilibrium of n-alkanes ranging from n-C_20 to n-C_40.The model is further modified to achieve a more correct temperature dependence because it severely underestimates the excess enthalpy. It is shown that the ratio of excess enthalpy and entropy for n-alkane solid solutions, as happens for other solid...

  5. Homogeneous nucleation ahead of the solid-liquid interface during rapid solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; Elmer, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    In recent rapid solidification experiments on Al-5%Be alloys, a Liquid Phase Nucleation (LPN) model was developed to explain the formation of periodic arrays of randomly-oriented Be-rich particles in an Al-rich matrix. In the LPN model, Be droplets were assumed to nucleate in the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface, but no justification for this was given. Here the authors present a model which considers the geometric constraints (imposed by proximity to the interface) on the number of solute atoms available to form a nucleus. Calculations based on this model predict that nucleation of second-phase particles can be most likely a short distance ahead of the interface in immiscible binary systems such as Al-Be. As part of the nucleation calculations, a semi-empirical method of calculating solid-liquid surface tensions in binary systems was developed, and is presented in the Appendix

  6. Numerical simulation of polishing U-tube based on solid-liquid two-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-ye; Meng, Wen-qing; Wu, Gui-ling; Hu, Jing-lei; Wang, Bao-zuo

    2018-03-01

    As the advanced technology to solve the ultra-precision machining of small hole structure parts and complex cavity parts, the abrasive grain flow processing technology has the characteristics of high efficiency, high quality and low cost. So this technology in many areas of precision machining has an important role. Based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow coupling, a solid-liquid two-phase MIXTURE model is used to simulate the abrasive flow polishing process on the inner surface of U-tube, and the temperature, turbulent viscosity and turbulent dissipation rate in the process of abrasive flow machining of U-tube were compared and analyzed under different inlet pressure. In this paper, the influence of different inlet pressure on the surface quality of the workpiece during abrasive flow machining is studied and discussed, which provides a theoretical basis for the research of abrasive flow machining process.

  7. In situ scanning probe spectroscopy at nanoscale solid/liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, W.; Hugelmann, M.; Hugelmann, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry provides unique features for the preparation of low-dimensional structures, but in situ spectroscopy with atomic/molecular resolution at such structures is at present not well established yet. This paper shows that in situ scanning probe spectroscopy at solid/liquid interfaces can be utilized to study electronic properties at nanoscale, if appropriate conditions are applied. Tunneling spectroscopy provides information about tunneling barrier heights and electronic states in the tunneling gap, as shown on Au(1 1 1) substrates, contact spectroscopy allows for transport measurements at single nanostructures, as shown at Au/n-Si(1 1 1) nanodiodes. The influence of the electrolytic environment on spectroscopic investigations is not a principal limitation, but offers additional degrees of freedom, which allow, for example, spectroscopic studies of potential dependent surface phenomena at solid/liquid interfaces

  8. Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Systems with an Ionic Liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Sauton, H.; Hynek, V.; Malijevská, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), s. 657-664 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0444; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : experimental data * solid-liquid equlibrium * 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  9. Solid-Liquid Equilibria in Systems [Cxmim][Tf2N] with Diethylamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotrekl, Jan; Vrbka, P.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Wagner, Zdeněk; Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2015), s. 453-460 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Symposium on Solubility Phenomena 2014. Karlsruhe, 20.07.2014-24.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094; GA MŠk LG13060 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * solid-liquid equilibria * COSMO-RS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  10. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  11. Distribution functions to estimate radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils: the case of Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Mart i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the revision of the IAEA TRS 364 (Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments), a database of radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in soils was compiled with data coming from field and laboratory experiments, from references mostly from 1990 onwards, including data from reports, reviewed papers, and grey literature. The K{sub d} values were grouped for each radionuclide according to two criteria. The first criterion was based on the sand and clay mineral percentages referred to the mineral matter, and the organic matter (OM) content in the soil. This defined the 'texture/OM' criterion. The second criterion was to group soils regarding specific soil factors governing the radionuclide-soil interaction ('cofactor' criterion). The cofactors depended on the radionuclide considered. An advantage of using cofactors was that the variability of K{sub d} ranges for a given soil group decreased considerably compared with that observed when the classification was based solely on sand, clay and organic matter contents. The K{sub d} best estimates were defined as the calculated GM values assuming that K{sub d} values were always log-normally distributed. Risk assessment models may require as input data for a given parameter either a single value (a best estimate) or a continuous function from which not only individual best estimates but also confidence ranges and data variability can be derived. In the case of the K{sub d} parameter, a suitable continuous function which contains the statistical parameters (e.g. arithmetical/geometric mean, arithmetical/geometric standard deviation, mode, etc.) that better explain the distribution among the K{sub d} values of a dataset is the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). To our knowledge, appropriate CDFs has not been proposed for radionuclide K{sub d} in soils yet. Therefore, the aim of this works is to create CDFs for

  12. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect; La structure de l'interface solide-liquide: effet de taille atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique

    2002-09-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size ({sigma}) and energy ({epsilon}) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites ({chi}={sigma}{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 2}) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the {chi} value. (authors)

  13. (Liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid), and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria of systems containing cyclic ether (tetrahydrofuran or 1,3-dioxolane), water, and a biological buffer MOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altway, Saidah; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MOPS buffer induced liquid phase splitting for mixtures of water with THF or 1,3-dioxolane. • Phase boundaries of LLE, SLE, and SLLE were determined experimentally. • Tie-lines at LLE and at SLLE were also measured. • Phase diagrams of MOPS + water + THF or 1,3-dioxolane are prepared. • LLE tie-line data are correlated satisfactorily with the NRTL model. - Abstract: Two liquid phases were formed as the addition of a certain amount of biological buffer 3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) in the aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-dioxolane. To evaluate the feasibility of recovering the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions with the aid of MOPS, we determined experimentally the phase diagrams of the ternary systems of {cyclic ether (THF or 1,3-dioxolane) + water + MOPS} at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. In this study, the solubility data of MOPS in water and in the mixed solvents of water/cyclic ethers were obtained from the results of a series of density measurements, while the (liquid + liquid) and the (solid + liquid + liquid) phase boundaries were determined by visually inspection. Additionally, the tie-line results for (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and for (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (SLLE) were measured using an analytical method. The reliability of the experimental LLE tie-line results data was validated by using the Othmer–Tobias correlation. These LLE tie-line values were correlated well with the NRTL model. The phase diagrams obtained from this study reveal that MOPS is a feasible green auxiliary agent to recover the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions, especially for 1,3-dioxolane

  14. Simulation of Reynolds number influence on heat exchange in turbulent flow of medium slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with the numerical simulation of mass and heat exchange in turbulent flow of solid-liquid mixture in the range of averaged solid particle diameter from 0.10mm to 0.80mm, named further as the medium slurry. Physical model assumes that dispersed phase is fully suspended and a turbulent flow is hydro-dynamically, and thermally developed in a straight horizontal pipeline. Taking into account the aforementioned assumptions the slurry is treated as a single-phase flow with increased density, while viscosity is equals to a carrier liquid viscosity. The mathematical model constitutes time averaged momentum equation in which the turbulent stress tensor was designated using a two-equation turbulence model, which makes use of the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity hypothesis. Turbulence damping function in the turbulence model was especially designed for the medium slurry. In addition, an energy equation has been used in which a convective term was determined from the energy balance acting on a unit pipe length, assuming linear changes of temperature in main flow direction. Finally, the mathematical model of non-isothermal medium slurry flow comprises four partial differential equations, namely momentum and energy equations, equations of kinetic energy of turbulence and its dissipation rate. Four partial differential equations were solved by a finite difference scheme using own computer code. The objective of the paper is to examine the influence of Reynolds number on temperature profiles and Nusselt number in turbulent flow of medium slurry in the range of solids concentration from 0% to 30% by volume. The effect of influential factors on heat transfer between the pipe and slurry is analysed. The paper demonstrates substantial impact of Reynolds number and solids volume fraction on the Nusselt number. The results of numerical simulation are reviewed.

  15. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  16. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  17. Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    or effective viscosity of the slurry being transferred to some more readily obtainable variable, such as slurry density or solids concentration. No universally recognized model exists to accomplish this, and there is great uncertainty among results from those models that do exist. Following this analysis of critical velocity correlations, a recommendation is made to revise the waste transfer compatibility program criteria relating to solids transport. The new criteria states that a special engineering evaluation is required for any waste transfer that involves particulate solid transport. This evaluation is needed to gain a measure of confidence that the critical velocity for a given slurry composition is within the capabilities of the transfer system

  18. Solid-liquid phase equilibria of Fe-Cr-Al alloys and spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, J. W.; Hu, R.; Ushakov, S. V.; Shin, D.; Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-08-01

    Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are candidate accident tolerant cladding materials. There is a paucity of data concerning the melting behavior for FeCrAl and its oxides. Analysis tools have therefore had to utilize assumptions for simulations using FeCrAl cladding. The focus of this study is to examine in some detail the solid-liquid phase equilibria of FeCrAl alloys and spinels with the aim of improving the accuracy of severe accident scenario computational studies.

  19. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL; Oras, John [Des Plaines, IL; Son, HyunJin [Naperville, IL

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  20. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses

  1. Rheology of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, I.D.; Martin, H.D.; McLain, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obtained in this study was applied in the design of slurry pumps, transfer pumps, transfer lines, and vessel agitation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and other High Level Waste treatment projects. The precipitate slurry behaves as a Bingham plastic. The yield stress is directly proportional to the concentration of insoluble solids over the range of concentrations studied. The consistency is also a linear function of insoluble solids over the same concentration range. Neither the yield stress nor the consistency was observed to be affected by the presence of the soluble solids. Temperature effects on flow properties of the slurry were also examined: the yield stress is inversely proportional to temperature, but the consistency of the slurry is independent of temperature. No significant time-dependent effects were found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments have been reviewed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic framework. This framework is based on the premise that radiocaesium is almost exclusively and highly-selectively bound to the frayed particle edges of illitic clay minerals in the sediments. Several processes with distinctly different rates can be distinguished in radiocaesium sorption to sediments. 2- and 3-box kinetic models can describe both the overall solid/liquid partitioning in sediments and the reversible (exchangeable) and irreversible (nonexchangeable or 'fixed') fractions of radiocaesium in sediments over time scales relevant for natural aquatic systems. The obtained rate parameters indicate that reversible partitioning of radiocaesium dominates over the first few days following a contamination event, whereas irreversible kinetics becomes important over time scales of weeks to months. The slow process, which reduces the exchangeability of sediment-bound radiocaesium over time, is believed to result from a migration of radiocaesium from exchangeable sites on the frayed edges of illite towards less-exchangeable interlayer sites. Long-term extraction of radiocaesium from historically contaminated sediments has given evidence for a reverse (remobilization) process with a half-life of the order of tens of years. These findings suggest that the long-term exchangeability of radiocaesium in sediments may be higher than the few % which is generally assumed. (orig.)

  3. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  4. Optical fingerprints of solid-liquid interfaces: a joint ATR-IR and first principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Niu, F.; Tecklenburg, S.; Pander, M.; Nayak, S.; Erbe, A.; Wippermann, S.; Gygi, F.; Galli, G.

    Despite the importance of understanding the structural and bonding properties of solid-liquid interfaces for a wide range of (photo-)electrochemical applications, there are presently no experimental techniques available to directly probe the microscopic structure of solid-liquid interfaces. To develop robust strategies to interpret experiments and validate theory, we carried out attenuated total internal reflection (ATR-IR) spectroscopy measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the vibrational properties of interfaces between liquid water and well-controlled prototypical semiconductor substrates. We show the Ge(100)/H2O interface to feature a reversible potential-dependent surface phase transition between Ge-H and Ge-OH termination. The Si(100)/H2O interface is proposed as a model system for corrosion and oxidation processes. We performed AIMD calculations under finite electric fields, revealing different pathways for initial oxidation. These pathways are predicted to exhibit unique spectral signatures. A significant increase in surface specificity can be achieved utilizing an angle-dependent ATR-IR experiment, which allows to detect such signatures at the interfacial layer and consequently changes in the hydrogen bond network. Funding from DOE-BES Grant No. DE-SS0008939 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (RESOLV, EXC 1069) are gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  6. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCadbe, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing

  7. Effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lichun; Malfliet, Annelies; Wollants, Patrick; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel was studied by adding Te to liquid steel before Al deoxidation at 1873 K. After water-quenching, the spatial distribution homogeneity of alumina inclusions in the steel matrix was characterized using the Dirichlet tessellation method. The deterioration of this homogeneity with increasing the addition of Te indicates that Te facilitates pushing of alumina inclusions. This phenomenon was discussed based on the thermodynamics of an asymmetric thin liquid film confined by an advancing solid-liquid interface and a particle. The surface excesses of Te at the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfaces were theoretically demonstrated to decrease when an alumina inclusion moves towards the solid-liquid interface, thereby weakening the effect of Te on the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfacial energies. Based on this, effect of surfactants was incorporated in the models predicting the critical velocity V_C.

  8. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2004-01-01

    In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established

  9. Increased mineral oil bioavailability in slurries by monovalent cation-induced dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, H. de; Verstraten, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bioavailability of apolar contaminants is an important limiting factor for microbial reclamation of polluted soils. This paper describes a laboratory study of the relation between microaggregate stability and bioavailability of mineral oil in soil-water slurries. The stability of microaggregates in slurries is regulated by the valence and surface affinity of the cations in the system, and by the complexing anion P 2 O 7 4- (metaphosphate). A silt loam, contaminated with a weathered gas oil, was collected from an oil refinery site. Degradation rates were monitored in small-scale incubations at solid:liquid ratios of 1:5 (w/w). The solution contained Ca, Na, or K as the dominant cation. The levels of nutrients and metaphosphate were varied. Biodegradation rates increased with the sequence Ca 2 treatment. Measurements of the particle size distribution the slurry showed that an increase in the finer fractions qualitatively correlated with enhanced biodegradation. This is a strong indication that dispersion of the microaggregates increased bioavailability of the contaminant

  10. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha D.

    2016-01-01

    sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71......% in spring and autumn experiments, and by 44% in the summer experiment. Regression models were used to investigate sources and controls of NH3 emissions. There was a strong relationship between NH3 emissions and ventilation rate during spring and autumn, but less so during summer where ventilation rates were...

  11. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  12. Neutron reflectivity as method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutberlet, Thomas; Klösgen, Beate Maria; Krastev, Rumen

    2004-01-01

    variation. It was observed that the method was capable of visualizing the adsorption of phospholipid layers to different solid-liquid interfaces and to resolve structural details at Angstroem resolution. The results depended strongly on a sufficiently good signal-to-noise ratio of the specific measurements......The use of neutron reflectivity as a method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces was analyzed. The most important advantage of neutron reflectometry is the possibility to very the refractive index of the specific sample by isotope exchange, called contrast...

  13. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  14. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size (σ) and energy (ε) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites (χ=σ 1 /σ 2 ) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the χ value. (authors)

  15. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...... out from the proces and usually dewatered before further handling. The separation process is costly. Moreover, the separation process depends on the composition and the properties of the sludge. The best separation is obtained for sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells...... and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Polyvalent ions improve the floc strangth and improve the separation whereas monovalent ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion and industry) reduces impair the separation. Further high pH impairs the separation process due to floc disintegration...

  16. Transport of Tank 241-SY-101 Waste Slurry: Effects of Dilution and Temperature on Critical Pipeline Velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KP Recknagle; Y Onishi

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the methods and results of calculations performed to predict the critical velocity and pressure drop required for the two-inch pipeline transfer of solid/liquid waste slurry from underground waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY- 102 at the Hanford Site. The effects of temperature and dilution on the critical velocity were included in the analysis. These analyses show that Tank 241-SY-101 slurry should be diluted with water prior to delivery to Tank 241-SY-102. A dilution ratio of 1:1 is desirable and would allow the waste to be delivered at a critical velocity of 1.5 ft/sec. The system will be operated at a flow velocity of 6 ft/sec or greater therefore, this velocity will be sufficient to maintain a stable slurry delivery through the pipeline. The effect of temperature on the critical velocity is not a limiting factor when the slurry is diluted 1:1 with water. Pressure drop at the critical velocity would be approximately two feet for a 125-ft pipeline (or 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline). At 6 ft/sec, the pressure drop would be 20 feet over a 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline

  17. ATR-IR spectroscopic cell for in situ studies at solid-liquid interface at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koichumanova, Kamila; Visan, Aura; Geerdink, Bert; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Mojet, Barbara; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2017-01-01

    An in situ ATR-IR spectroscopic cell suitable for studies at solid-liquid interface is described including the design and experimental details in continuous flow mode at elevated temperatures (230 °C) and pressures (30 bar). The design parameters considered include the cell geometry, the procedure

  18. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of solid-liquid heat transfer and passive liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudasan Daisy, Sumith

    equilibrium canonical ensemble (NVT) is simulated using thermostat algorithms. For research in heat transfer involving solid liquid interaction, we need to perform non equilibrium MD (NEMD) simulations. In such NEMD simulations, the methods used for simulating heating from a surface is very important and must capture proper physics and thermodynamic properties. Development of MD simulation techniques to simulate solid-liquid heating and the study of fundamental mechanism of passive flow is the main focus of this thesis. An accurate surface-heating algorithm was developed for water which can now allow the study of a whole new set of fundamental heat transfer problems at the nanoscale like surface heating/cooling of droplets, thin-films, etc. The developed algorithm is implemented in the in-house developed C++ MD code. A direct two dimensional local pressure estimation algorithm is also formulated and implemented in the code. With this algorithm, local pressure of argon and platinum interaction is studied. Also, the surface tension of platinum-argon (solid-liquid) was estimated directly from the MD simulations for the first time. Contact angle estimation studies of water on platinum, and argon on platinum were also performed. A thin film of argon is kept above platinum plate and heated in the middle region, leading to the evaporation and pressure reduction thus creating a strong passive flow in the near surface region. This observed passive liquid flow is characterized by estimating the pressure, density, velocity and surface tension using Eulerian mapping method. Using these simulation, we have demonstrated the fundamental nature and origin of surface-driven passive flow. Heat flux removed from the surface is also estimated from the results, which shows a significant improvement can be achieved in thermal management of electronic devices by taking advantage of surface-driven strong passive liquid flow. Further, the local pressure of water on silicon di-oxide surface is

  20. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    There are two mechanisms by which heavy settling particles may be suspended in a horizontal slurry flow: (1) by particle-particle interactions (e.g. Bagnold dispersive stresses) and (2) by particle-fluid interactions (e.g. entrainment of the particles by turbulent eddies.) The purpose of this investigation is to determine to what extent each fluidization mechanism is active and the effect of the fluidization mechanism on the global properties of the slurry. The technique employs the understanding that the particles entrained in the turbulence of the fluid will appear as an increased hydrostatic head across the channel. This may be directly measured and can be related to the fraction of the mass of particles that are supported by fluid-particle forces. (The rest must therefore be supported by particle-particle forces.) 17 refs., 26 figs.

  1. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  2. Enhanced mass transfer during solid-liquid extraction of gamma-irradiated red beetroot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Chetan A.; Chethana, S.; Rastogi, N.K.; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure to gamma-irradiation pretreatment increases cell wall permeabilization, resulting in loss of turgor pressure, which led to the increase of extractability of betanin from red beetroot. The degree of extraction of betanin was investigated using gamma irradiation as a pretreatment prior to the solid-liquid extraction process and compared with control beetroot samples. The beetroot subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kGy) and control was dipped in an acetic acid medium (1% v/v) to extract the betanin. The diffusion coefficients for betanin as well as ionic component were estimated considering Fickian diffusion. The results indicated an increase in the diffusion coefficient of betanin (0.302x10 -9 -0.463x10 -9 m 2 /s) and ionic component (0.248x10 -9 -0.453x10 -9 m 2 /s) as the dose rate increased (from 2.5 to 10.0 kGy). The degradation constant was found to increase (0.050-0.079 min -1 ) with an increase gamma-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy), indicating lower stability of the betanin as compared to control sample at 65 deg. C

  3. Solid/liquid extraction equilibria of phenolic compounds with trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated in polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-06-01

    Trioctylphosphine oxide based extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) were used for extraction of phenol and its methyl, hydroxyl and chloride substituted derivatives. The distribution coefficients of the phenols varied from 2 to 234, in the order of 1-napthol > p-chlorophenol > m-cresol > p-cresol > o-cresol > phenol > catechol > pyrogallol > hydroquinone, when initial phenols loadings was varied in 100-2000 mg/L. An extraction model, based on the law of mass action, was formulated to predict the equilibrium distribution of the phenols. The model was in excellent agreement (R(2) > 0.97) with the experimental results at low phenols concentrations ( 0.95), which signified high mass transfer resistance in the EIMs. Examination of the effects of ring substitution on equilibrium, and bivariate statistical analysis between the amounts of phenols extracted into the EIMs and factors affecting phenols interaction with TOPO, indicated the dominant role of hydrophobicity in equilibrium determination. These results improve understanding of the solid/liquid equilibrium process between phenols and the EIMs, and these will be useful in designing phenol recovery process from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal by solid-liquid casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solid-liquid method was used to prepare the continuous casting of copper cladding aluminium by liquid aluminum alloy and solid copper, and the interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal at different pouring temperatures (700, 750, 800 oC was investigated by means of metallograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS methods. The results showed that the pouring temperature of aluminum melt had an important influence on the element diffusion of Cu from the solid Cu to Al alloy melt and the reactions between Al and Cu, as well as the morphology of the Al-Cu interface. When the pouring temperature was 800 oC, there were abundant Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs near the interface. However, a lower pouring temperature (700 oC resulted in the formation of cavities which was detrimental to the bonding and mechanical properties. Under the conditions in this study, the good metallurgical bonding of Al-Cu was achieved at a pouring temperature of 750 oC.

  5. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  6. In situ reflectivity investigations of solid/liquid interface during laser backside etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.; Otto, T.; Zimmer, K.

    2006-01-01

    In situ reflectivity measurements of the solid/liquid interface with a pump-probe setup were performed during laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) of fused silica with KrF excimer laser using toluene as absorbing liquid. The intensity, the temporal shape, and the duration of the reflected light measured in dependence on the laser fluence are discussed referring to the surface modification and the bubble formation. The vaporisation of the superheated liquid at the solid interface causes a considerable increase of the reflectivity and gives information about the bubble lifetime. The alterations of the reflectivity after bubbles collapse can be explained with the changed optical properties due to surface modifications of the solid surface. Comparative studies of the reflectivity at different times and the etch rate behaviour in dependence on the laser fluence show that the in situ measured surface modification begins just at the etch threshold fluence and correlates further with etch rate behaviour and the etched surface appearance. The already observed surface modification at LIBWE due to a carbon deposition and structural changes of the near surface region are approved by the changes of the interface reflectivity and emphasizes the importance of the modified surface region in the laser-induced backside wet etching process

  7. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  8. The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can de- crease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.

  9. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  10. Dynamic covalent chemistry of bisimines at the solid/liquid interface monitored by scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; El Garah, Mohamed; Haar, Sébastien; Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic covalent chemistry relies on the formation of reversible covalent bonds under thermodynamic control to generate dynamic combinatorial libraries. It provides access to numerous types of complex functional architectures, and thereby targets several technologically relevant applications, such as in drug discovery, (bio)sensing and dynamic materials. In liquid media it was proved that by taking advantage of the reversible nature of the bond formation it is possible to combine the error-correction capacity of supramolecular chemistry with the robustness of covalent bonding to generate adaptive systems. Here we show that double imine formation between 4-(hexadecyloxy)benzaldehyde and different α,ω-diamines as well as reversible bistransimination reactions can be achieved at the solid/liquid interface, as monitored on the submolecular scale by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging. Our modular approach enables the structurally controlled reversible incorporation of various molecular components to form sophisticated covalent architectures, which opens up perspectives towards responsive multicomponent two-dimensional materials and devices.

  11. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  12. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-01

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: P m 3 ¯ m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic "Na" potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of "Na" potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Moreover, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  13. Determination of the solid-liquid-vapor triple point pressure of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed experimental study of the triple point pressure of carbon using laser heating techniques has been completed. Uncertainties and conflict in previous investigations have been addressed and substantial data presented which places the solid-liquid-vapor carbon triple point at 107 +- 2 atmospheres. This is in agreement with most investigations which have located the triple point pressure between 100 and 120 atmospheres, but is in disagreement with recent low pressure carbon experiments. The absence of any significant polymorphs of carbon other than graphite suggests that the graphite-liquid-vapor triple point has been measured. Graphite samples were melted in a pressure vessel using a 400 W Nd:YAG continuous-wave laser focused to a maximum power density of approximately 80 kW/cm 2 . Melt was confirmed by detailed microstructure analysis and x-ray diffraction of the recrystallized graphite. Experiments to determine the minimum melt pressure of carbon were completed as a function of sample size, type of inert gas, and laser power density to asure that laser power densities were sufficient to produce melt at the triple point pressure of carbon, and the pressure of carbon at the surface of the sample was identical to the measured pressure of the inert gas in the pressure vessel. High-speed color cinematography of the carbon heating revealed the presence of a laser-generated vapor or particle plume in front of the sample. The existence of this bright plume pevented the measurement of the carbon triple point temperature

  14. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  15. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Ternary System Acetic Acid-Propanoic Acid-Formamide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Malijevská, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 261, 1-2 (2007) , s. 129-132 ISSN 0378-3812. [International Conference on Properties and Phase Equilibria for Product and Process Design PPEPPD 2007 /11./. Hersonissos, Crete, 20.05.2007-25.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibrium * ternary system * solid adduct Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2007

  16. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  17. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2002-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  18. ZnO nanoneedle/H2O solid-liquid heterojunction-based self-powered ultraviolet detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays were grown vertically on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by hydrothermal method at a relatively low temperature. A self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector was fabricated using the ZnO nanoneedles as the active photoanode and H2O as the electrolyte. This solid-liquid heterojunction offers an enlarged ZnO/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. High photosensitivity, excellent spectral selectivity, and fast photoresponse at zero bias are observed in this UV detector. The self-powered behavior can be well explained by the formation of a space charge layer near the interface of the solid-liquid heterojunction, which results in a built-in potential and makes the solid-liquid heterojunction work in photovoltaic mode. PMID:24103153

  19. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O2+y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, A.; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, D.; Scheinost, A.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P.; Boshoven, J.; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M.; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D.

    2017-10-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2sbnd ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the only study available in the literature on the whole pseudo-binary system. In addition, a minimum melting point is identified here for compositions near (U0.6Zr0.4)O2+y, around 2800 K. The solidus line is rather flat on a broad range of compositions around the minimum. It increases for compositions closer to the pure end members, up to the melting point of pure UO2 (3130 K) on one side and pure ZrO2 (2970 K) on the other. Solid state phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-monoclinic) have also been observed in the ZrO2-rich compositions X-ray diffraction. Investigations under 0.3 MPa air (0.063 MPa O2) revealed a significant decrease in the melting points down to 2500 K-2600 K for increasing uranium content (x(UO2)> 0.2). This was found to be related to further oxidation of uranium dioxide, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For example, a typical oxidised corium composition U0.6Zr0.4O2.13 was observed to solidify at a temperature as low as 2493 K. The current results are important for assessing the thermal stability of the system fuel - cladding in an oxide based nuclear reactor, and for simulating the system behaviour during a hypothetical severe accident.

  20. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabnikova, O.; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment

  1. Accelerated Metastable Solid-liquid Interdiffusion Bonding with High Thermal Stability and Power Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Smet, Vanessa; Kawamoto, Satomi; Pulugurtha, Markondeya R.; Tummala, Rao R.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging high-performance systems are driving the need for advanced packaging solutions such as 3-D integrated circuits (ICs) and 2.5-D system integration with increasing performance and reliability requirements for off-chip interconnections. Solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding resulting in all-intermetallic joints has been proposed to extend the applicability of solders, but faces fundamental and manufacturing challenges hindering its wide adoption. This paper introduces a Cu-Sn SLID interconnection technology, aiming at stabilization of the microstructure in the Cu6Sn5 metastable phase rather than the usual stable Cu3Sn phase. This enables formation of a void-free interface yielding higher mechanical strength than standard SLID bonding, as well as significantly reducing the transition time. The metastable SLID technology retains the benefits of standard SLID with superior I/O pitch scalability, thermal stability and current handling capability, while advancing assembly manufacturability. In the proposed concept, the interfacial reaction is controlled by introducing Ni(P) diffusion barrier layers, designed to effectively isolate the metastable Cu6Sn5 phase preventing any further transformation. Theoretical diffusion and kinetic models were applied to design the Ni-Cu-Sn interconnection stack to achieve the targeted joint composition. A daisy chain test vehicle was used to demonstrate this technology as a first proof of concept. Full transition to Cu6Sn5 was successfully achieved within a minute at 260°C as confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) analysis. The joint composition was stable through 10× reflow, with outstanding bond strength averaging 90 MPa. The metastable SLID interconnections also showed excellent electromigration performance, surviving 500 h of current stressing at 105 A/cm2 at 150°C.

  2. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  3. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  4. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  6. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yanlin [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249 (China); Wang, Mi [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (China); Yao, Jun [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-04-11

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases system involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal particles

  7. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  8. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  9. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  10. Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwo, Isaac K [Murrysville, PA; Gidaspow, Dimitri [Northbrook, IL; Jung, Jonghwun [Naperville, IL

    2009-11-17

    A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

  11. Biogas slurry utilization in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asser, C. [Ministry of Mines and Energy, Accra (Ghana)

    1999-07-01

    The biogas Technology Programme developed for villages remote from the national grid relies solely on cow-dung and human waste as raw materials for electricity generation. The technology helps control deforestation and desertification and reduces the long hours spent looking for fuelwood for cooking and the health risk that smoke from fuelwood poses. Rural electricity generation also supplies pipe-borne water, community toilets and organic fertilizer for farmers. The slurry, which is the by-product of the biogas, is an odourless, pathogen free organic fertilizer that is high in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. It is useful for crop production, fish farming and mushroom cultivation. Farmers now realize that energy can be extracted from cowdung, human waste, agricultural residue and other biomass resources and the biomass can still maintain its function as good organic manure. (author)

  12. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  13. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  14. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for Many-component Mixtures Using Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fettouhi, André; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    In the creation of liquefied natural gas the formation of solids play a substantial role, hence detailed knowledge is needed about solid-liquid equilibria (SLE). In this abstract we shortly summarize the work we have carried out at CERE over the past year with SLE for many-component mixtures usin...... the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state. Components used in this work are highly relevant to the oil and gas industry and include light and heavy hydrocarbons, alcohols, water and carbon dioxide....

  15. Density of Ni-Al Alloys in Liquid and Solid-Liquid Coexistence State Measured by a Modified Pycnometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Feng XIAO; Zushu LI; Zainan TAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of Ni-Al alloys in both liquid state and solid-liquid coexistence state was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It was found that the density of NI-Al alloys decreases with increasing temperature and Al concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Al binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and Al concentration. The partial molar volume of Al in NI-Al binary alloy was calculated approximately. The molar volume of liquid NI-Al alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear molar volume.

  16. Bubble Induced Disruption of a Planar Solid-Liquid Interface During Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.

    2013-01-01

    Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiments were conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station with the intent of better understanding the role entrained porosity/bubbles play during controlled directional solidification. The planar interface in a slowing growing succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% water alloy was being observed when a nitrogen bubble traversed the mushy zone and remained at the solid-liquid interface. Breakdown of the interface to shallow cells subsequently occurred, and was later evaluated using down-linked data from a nearby thermocouple. These results and other detrimental effects due to the presence of bubbles during solidification processing in a microgravity environment are presented and discussed.

  17. Probing alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures of peptides at solid/liquid interfaces with SFG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jie; Sniadecki, Jason J; Even, Mark A; Chen, Zhan

    2005-03-29

    We demonstrated that sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy can distinguish different secondary structures of proteins or peptides adsorbed at solid/liquid interfaces. The SFG spectrum for tachyplesin I at the polystyrene (PS)/solution interface has a fingerprint peak corresponding to the B1/B3 mode of the antiparallel beta-sheet. This peak disappeared upon the addition of dithiothreitol, which can disrupt the beta-sheet structure. The SFG spectrum indicative of the MSI594 alpha-helical structure was observed at the PS/MSI594 solution interface. This research validates SFG as a powerful technique for revealing detailed secondary structures of interfacial proteins and peptides.

  18. Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Neville J; Peel, Louise L; Swann, Marcus J; Cross, Graham H; Reeves, Andrew; Brand, Stuart; Lu, Jian R

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for the analysis of thin biological films, called dual polarization interferometry (DPI), is described. This high resolution (<1 A), laboratory-based technique allows the thickness and refractive index (density) of biological molecules adsorbing or reacting at the solid-liquid interface to be measured in real time (up to 10 measurements per second). Results from the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on to a silicon oxynitride chip surface are presented to demonstrate how time dependent molecular behaviour can be examined using DPI. Mechanistic and structural information relating to the adsorption process is obtained as a function of the solution pH

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...... of technologies) having the largest potential for reducing the overall environmental impacts....

  20. Non-aqueous slurries used as thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, J C

    1982-04-07

    A non-aqueous slurry is described that is suitable for use as a thickener or viscosifier in oil or gas drilling, fracturing, flow diversion completion or workover fluids. The slurry comprises a water-soluble cellulose ether polymer, a water-insoluble liquid hydrocarbon, a non-ionic surfactant having an HLB of from 7 to 14, and an organo modified clay. There also is described a process for thickening or viscosifying a drilling, fracturing, flow diversion, completion or workover fluid. The use of the slurry prevents bumping during addition to aqueous fluids. (27 claims)

  1. Numerical Simulation of 3D Solid-Liquid Turbulent Flow in a Low Specific Speed Centrifugal Pump: Flow Field Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Shi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For numerically simulating 3D solid-liquid turbulent flow in low specific speed centrifugal pumps, the iteration convergence problem caused by complex internal structure and high rotational speed of pump is always a problem for numeral simulation researchers. To solve this problem, the combination of three measures of dynamic underrelaxation factor adjustment, step method, and rotational velocity control means according to residual curves trends of operating parameters was used to improve the numerical convergence. Numeral simulation of 3D turbulent flow in a low specific speed solid-liquid centrifugal pump was performed, and the results showed that the improved solution strategy is greatly helpful to the numerical convergence. Moreover, the 3D turbulent flow fields in pumps have been simulated for the bottom ash-particles with the volume fraction of 10%, 20%, and 30% at the same particle diameter of 0.1 mm. The two-phase calculation results are compared with those of single-phase clean water flow. The calculated results gave the main region of the abrasion of the impeller and volute casing and improve the hydraulic design of the impeller in order to decrease the abrasion and increase the service life of the pump.

  2. Atomic simulations for configurations and solid-liquid interface of Li-Fe and Li-Cu icosahedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianyu, E-mail: hnieyjy@aliyun.com [Hunan Institute of Engineering (China); Hu, Wangyu [Hunan University, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Dai, Xiongying [Hunan Institute of Engineering, College of Science (China)

    2017-04-15

    The melting point of Li is lower than that of Fe (or Cu); thus, solid-liquid interfaces can be easily formed on Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys. In this work, the configurations and solid-liquid interfaces of Li-Fe and Li-Cu icosahedra are studied using Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods. The atomic interactions are described by the analytic embedded-atom method. The dependence of composition, temperature, and nanoparticle size on the configurations and thermal stabilities of nanoalloys is discussed. The behavior of the Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys in segregation, configuration, and thermal stability is investigated. A different behavior of surface segregation of Li atoms is observed for the two types of nanoalloys. The interface between the Li and Fe atoms is clear. Mixing of Li with Cu at larger nanoparticle sizes is found because of low heat of formation in the system. The configurations of the Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys are related to the competition between surface segregation and alloying. The thermal stability of Li in the two types of nanoalloys is enhanced by the support of the Fe (or Cu) solid substrate.

  3. Numerical Thermodynamic Analysis of Two-Phase Solid-Liquid Abrasive Flow Polishing in U-Type Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available U-type tubes are widely used in military and civilian fields and the quality of the internal surface of their channel often determines the merits and performance of a machine in which they are incorporated. Abrasive flow polishing is an effective method for improving the channel surface quality of a U-type tube. Using the results of a numerical analysis of the thermodynamic energy balance equation of a two-phase solid-liquid flow, we carried out numerical simulations of the heat transfer and surface processing characteristics of a two-phase solid-liquid abrasive flow polishing of a U-type tube. The distribution cloud of the changes in the inlet turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, and dynamic pressure near the wall of the tube were obtained. The relationships between the temperature and the turbulent kinetic energy, between the turbulent kinetic energy and the velocity, and between the temperature and the processing velocity were also determined to develop a theoretical basis for controlling the quality of abrasive flow polishing.

  4. A critical compilation and review of default soil solid/liquid partition coefficients, Kd, for use in environmental assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, D.H.; Sheppard, M.I.; Smith, P.A.

    1990-03-01

    Environmental assessments of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analyses of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the geosphere, unconsolidated overburden and soil use models requiring solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the solid materials. This report presents element-specific soil solid/liquid partition coefficients based on a detailed survey of the literature. Values for clays, silt, sand and organic soils are summarized. Partition coefficients for the following elements are presented: americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, curium, europium, iodine, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, phosphorus, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, tellurium, terbium, thorium, tin, tritium, uranium, zinc, and zirconium. The values compiled in this study are compared with earlier K d value compendiums and are the values recommended for the use in the soil, deep sediment and overburden models for the Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

  5. Rotary drum dryers for coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baunack, F

    1983-04-01

    The suitability, sizing and internal equipment of rotary drum dryers for high-ash coal slurries are discussed. Rotary dryers will handle also difficult slurries; by suitable drum sizes, lifter blades and chains not only high specific evaporation capacities can be achieved but also very high throughputs of up to 400 tons/h of finished product and high evaporation capacities of 60 tons/h.

  6. The differences between soil grouting with cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingting; Sui, Haitong; Yang, Honglu

    2018-01-01

    Cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry are the most widely applied for soil grouting reinforcement project. The viscosity change of cement slurry is negligible during grouting period and presumed to be time-independent while the viscosity of cement-water glass slurry increases with time quickly and is presumed to be time-dependent. Due to the significantly rheology differences between them, the grouting quality and the increasing characteristics of grouting parameters may be different, such as grouting pressure, grouting surrounding rock pressure, i.e., the change of surrounding rock pressure deduced by grouting pressure. Those are main factors for grouting design. In this paper, a large-scale 3D grouting simulation device was developed to simulate the surrounding curtain grouting for a tunnel. Two series of surrounding curtain grouting experiments under different geo-stress of 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200 kPa were performed. The overload test on tunnel was performed to evaluate grouting effect of all surrounding curtain grouting experiments. In the present results, before 240 seconds, the grouting pressure increases slowly for both slurries; after 240 seconds the increase rate of grouting pressure for cement-water glass slurry increases quickly while that for cement slurry remains roughly constant. The increasing trend of grouting pressure for cement-water glass is similar to its viscosity. The setting time of cement-water glass slurry obtained from laboratory test is less than that in practical grouting where grout slurry solidifies in soil. The grouting effect of cement-water glass slurry is better than that of cement slurry and the grouting quality decreases with initial pressure.

  7. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Effect of Direct Current on Solid-Liquid Interfacial Tension and Wetting Behavior of Ga–In–Sn Alloy Melt on Cu Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of direct current (DC on the wetting behavior of Cu substrate by liquid Ga–25In–13Sn alloy at room temperature is investigated using a sessile drop method. It is found that there is a critical value for current intensity, below which the decrease of contact angle with increasing current intensity is approximately linear and above which contact angle tends to a stable value from drop shape. Current polarity is a negligible factor in the observed trend. Additionally, the observed change in contact angles is translated into the corresponding change in solid-liquid interfacial tension using the equation of state for liquid interfacial tensions. The solid-liquid interfacial tension decreases under DC. DC-induced promotion of solute diffusion coefficient is likely to play an important role in determining the wettability and solid-liquid interfacial tension under DC.

  9. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  10. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  11. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  12. Conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 slurry in the lithium slurry battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caimei; Chen, Yongchong; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Lithium slurry battery is a new type of energy storage technique which uses the slurry of solid active materials, conductive additions and liquid electrolyte as the electrode. The proportion of conductive addition and the active material has significant influence on the conductivity and electrochemical performance of the slurry electrode. In the present work, slurries with different volume ratios of LiFePO4 (LFP) and Ketjenblack (KB) were investigated by the electrochemical workstation and charge-discharge testing system (vs. Li/Li+). Results show that the conductivity of the slurry increases linearly with the addition of KB, and the measured specific capacity of the slurry reaches its theoretical value when the volume ratio of KB to LFP is around 0.2. Based on this ratio, a slurry battery with higher loading of LFP (19.1 wt.% in the slurry) was tested, and a specific capacity of 165 mAh/g at 0.2 mA/cm2 and 102 mAh/g at 5 mA/cm2 was obtained for LFP.

  13. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  14. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  15. Experimental investigation on TBAB clathrate hydrate slurry flows in a horizontal tube: Forced convective heat transfer behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenji, Song [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Rui, Xiao; Chong, Huang; Shihui, He; Kaijun, Dong; Ziping, Feng [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Tetra-n-butyl-ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) is one kind of secondary refrigerants, which is promising to be applied into air-conditioning or latent-heat transportation systems as a thermal storage or cold carrying medium for energy saving. It is a solid-liquid two phase mixture which is easy to produce and has high latent heat and good fluidity. In this paper, the heat transfer characteristics of TBAB slurry were investigated in a horizontal stainless steel tube under different solid mass fractions and flow velocities with constant heat flux. One velocity region of weakened heat transfer was found. Moreover, TBAB CHS was treated as a kind of Bingham fluids, and the influences of the solid particles, flow velocity and types of flow on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients of TBAB CHS were investigated. At last, criterial correlations of Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flows in the form of power function were summarized, and the error with experimental results was within {+-}20%. (author)

  16. Phosphorus recovery from biogas slurry by ultrasound/H2O2 digestion coupled with HFO/biochar adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemeng; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Hongqiang; Li, Guoxue; Ding, Lili; Pawlowski, Lucjan

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from biogas slurry has recently attracted considerable interest. In this work, ultrasound/H 2 O 2 digestion coupled with ferric oxide hydrate/biochar (HFO/biochar) adsorption process was performed to promote P dissolution, release, and recovery from biogas slurry. The results showed that the optimal total phosphorus release efficiency was achieved at an inorganic phosphorus/total phosphorus ratio of 95.0% at pH 4, 1mL of added H 2 O 2 , and ultrasonication for 30min. The P adsorption by the HFO/biochar followed pseudo second-order kinetics and was mainly controlled by chemical processes. The Langmuir-Freundlich model matched the experimental data best for P adsorption by HFO/biochar at 298 and 308K, whereas the Freundlich model matched best at 318K. The maximum amount of P adsorbed was 220mg/g. The process was endothermic, spontaneous, and showed an increase in disorder at the solid-liquid interface. The saturated adsorbed HFO/biochar continually releases P and is most suitable for use in an alkaline environment. The amount of P released reached 29.1mg/g after five extractions. P mass balance calculation revealed that 11.3% of the total P can be made available. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Detection of different oxidation states of individual manganese porphyrins during their reaction with oxygen at a solid/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Duncan; Li, Min; Habets, Thomas; Iavicoli, Patrizia; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M; Speller, Sylvia; Amabilino, David B; De Feyter, Steven; Elemans, Johannes A A W

    2013-07-01

    Manganese porphyrins have been extensively investigated as model systems for the natural enzyme cytochrome P450 and as synthetic oxidation catalysts. Here, we report single-molecule studies of the multistep reaction of manganese porphyrins with molecular oxygen at a solid/liquid interface, using a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) under environmental control. The high lateral resolution of the STM, in combination with its sensitivity to subtle differences in the electronic properties of molecules, allowed the detection of at least four distinct reaction species. Real-space and real-time imaging of reaction dynamics enabled the observation of active sites, immobile on the experimental timescale. Conversions between the different species could be tuned by the composition of the atmosphere (argon, air or oxygen) and the surface bias voltage. By means of extensive comparison of the results to those obtained by analogous solution-based chemistry, we assigned the observed species to the starting compound, reaction intermediates and products.

  18. Multifilamentary superconducting (NbTa)-Sn composite wire by solid-liquid reaction for possible application above 20 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Hull, G.W. Jr.; Fuchs, E.O.; Holthuis, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nb alloyed with Ta was employed in fabricating multifilamentary composite wires of (NbTa)-Sn using the liquid-infiltration process. The superconducting A15 phase was formed with subsequent heat treatments at 800-950 0 C by the solid-liquid reaction. High inductive Tsub(c)'s of 18.2 K with sharp transition width ( 4 A/cm 2 at 2O T and 4.2 K were obtained. It was found that 2 wt.% Ta in the Nb was sufficient in the enhancement of the overall Jsub(c) at the high fields and in increasing the Hsub(c2) (4.2 K) to 25 T. (Auth.)

  19. Multifilamentary superconducting (NbTa)-Sn composite wire by solid-liquid reaction for possible application above 20 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Hull, G.W. Jr.; Fuchs, E.O.; Holthuis, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nb alloyed with Ta was employed in fabricating multifilamentary composite wires of (NbTa)-Sn using the liquid-infiltration process. The superconducting A15 phase was formed with subsequent heat treatments at 800-950 0 C by the solid-liquid reaction. High inductive Tsub(c)'s of 18.2 K with sharp transition width ( 4 A/cm 2 at 20 T and 4.2 K were obtained. It was found that 2 wt.% Ta in the Nb was sufficient in the enhancement of the overall Jsub(c) at the high fields and in increasing the Hsub(c2) (4.2 K) to 25 T. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of solid-liquid interfacial energy in the In-Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasli, N; Akbulut, S; Ocak, Y; Keslioglu, K; Boeyuek, U; Kaya, H; Cadirli, E

    2007-01-01

    The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) x 10 -7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) x 10 -3 J m -2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) x 10 -3 J m -2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 deg. C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus

  1. An in-plane solid-liquid-solid growth mode for self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linwei; Alet, Pierre-Jean; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2009-03-27

    We report an in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mode for obtaining self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires (SiNW) in a reacting-gas-free annealing process, where the growth of SiNWs is guided by liquid indium drops that transform the surrounding a-SiratioH matrix into crystalline SiNWs. The SiNWs can be approximately mm long, with the smallest diameter down to approximately 22 nm. A high growth rate of >10(2) nm/s and rich evolution dynamics are revealed in a real-time in situ scanning electron microscopy observation. A qualitative growth model is proposed to account for the major features of this IPSLS SiNW growth mode.

  2. Temperature and compositional dependence of solid-liquid interfacial energy: application of the Cahn-Hilliard theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, I.; Takei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic method to estimate the solid-liquid interfacial energy (or interfacial tension) is proposed, based on the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In the model, the liquid is treated as a regular solution, and the interfacial layers are assumed to have liquid-like thermodynamic properties. In eutectic systems, interfacial adsorption occurs within a few atomic layers, and interfacial energy monotonously increases with decreasing concentration of the solid species in the liquid phase. If non-ideal atomic interaction is strong and the liquid immiscibility region appears in the phase diagrams (this is the case of monotectic systems), the interfacial thickness drastically increases and the interfacial energy is reduced around the immiscibility gap

  3. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel 718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, were investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  4. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Esterina

    2017-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a

  6. The influence of protruding filamentous bacteria on floc stability and solid-liquid separation in the activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Wilhelm; Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Scales, Peter J; Martin, Gregory J O; Stickland, Anthony D; Gras, Sally L

    2017-10-15

    Filamentous bacteria can impact on the physical properties of flocs in the activated sludge process assisting solid-liquid separation or inducing problems when bacteria are overabundant. While filamentous bacteria within the flocs are understood to increase floc tensile strength, the relationship between protruding external filaments, dewatering characteristics and floc stability is unclear. Here, a quantitative methodology was applied to determine the abundance of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants. An automated image analysis procedure was applied to identify filaments and flocs and calculate the length of the protruding filamentous bacteria (PFB) relative to the floc size. The correlation between PFB and floc behavior was then assessed. Increased filament abundance was found to increase interphase drag on the settling flocs, as quantified by the hindered settling function. Additionally, increased filament abundance was correlated with a lower gel point concentration leading to poorer sludge compactability. The floc strength factor, defined as the relative change in floc size upon shearing, correlated positively with filament abundance. This influence of external protruding filamentous bacteria on floc stability is consistent with the filamentous backbone theory, where filamentous bacteria within flocs increase floc resistance to shear-induced breakup. A qualitative correlation was also observed between protruding and internal filamentous structure. This study confirms that filamentous bacteria are necessary to enhance floc stability but if excessively abundant will adversely affect solid-liquid separation. The tools developed here will allow quantitative analysis of filament abundance, which is an improvement on current qualitative methods and the improved method could be used to assist and optimize the operation of waste water treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design

  8. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1990-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  9. Physico-chemical principles of slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiber, C.O.

    1984-12-01

    Spectacular accidents have occurred in mining with products considered non-explosive. In view of the disastrous consequences of these accidents, the old 'Anfo' idea has been revived (= ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). Experiments in wet wells have led to the development of a new type of non-explosive blasting agents, i.e. the so-called slurries. Detonation of these slurries is divided into an energy release process and an energy conversion process. The basic mechanisms are described with a view to practical problems, e.g. detonation control, temperature dependence of the blasting characteristics, pressure dependence of the ignition process, critical diameter, slurry state problems, and sensitivity.

  10. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  11. Impact of Strontium Nitrate and Sodium Permanganate Addition on Solid-Liquid Separation of SRS High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    As a pretreatment step for the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet, the process contacts the incoming salt solution containing entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and actinides. An operation filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. Previous work for the River Protection Program at Hanford suggests that addition of strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate for strontium and actinide removal, rather than MST, improves the filtration rate for comparable waste streams

  12. Study on the degradation of chitosan slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Martini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we measured the degradation rate of different chitosan slurries. Several parameters were monitored such as temperature (25 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C; chitosan concentration (1% and 2% (w/V; and polymer molecular weight. The samples were tested in dynamic sweep test mode. This test is able to provide a reliable estimation of viscosity variations of the slurries; in turn, these variations could be related to degradation rate of the system in the considered conditions. The resulting information is particularly important especially in applications in which there is a close relationship between physical properties and molecular structure.

  13. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  14. A modified free-volume-based model for predicting vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for size asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to present a free-volume combinatorial term in predicting vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of polymer/solvent and light and heavy hydrocarbon/hydrocarbon mixtures. The proposed term is based on a modification of the original Freed ...

  15. Pre-Service Primary Science Teachers' Understandings of the Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore pre-service primary teachers' understandings of the effect of temperature and pressure on the solid-liquid phase transition of water. In the study a survey approach was used, and the sample consisted of one-hundred and three, third year pre-service primary science teachers. As a tool for data collection, a test…

  16. Solid-liquid phase equilibrium in the systems of LiBr-H2O and LiCl-H2O

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Jaroslav; Klomfar, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 250, - (2006), s. 138-149 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : salt-water system * solubility * solid-liquid system * lithium bromide * litthium chloride Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.680, year: 2006

  17. Surface composition variation and high-vacuum performance of DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings: Influence of space irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiufang; Wang Liping; Pu Jibin; Xue Qunji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a DLC/ionic liquid (DLC/ILs) solid-liquid lubricating coating and investigated the effect of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV), proton and electron irradiations on composition, structure, morphology and tribological properties of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings. A ground-based simulation facility was employed to carry out the irradiation experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), Raman spectra, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyzed the structure and composition changes of DLC film and IL lubricant before and after irradiations. The tribological behavior of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coating before and after irradiations was investigated by a vacuum tribometer with the pressure of 10 -5 Pa. The experimental results revealed that irradiations induced the structural changes, including oxidation, bond break and crosslinking reactions of DLC film and IL lubricant. The damage of proton and AO irradiations to lubricating materials were the most serious, and UV irradiation was the slightest. After irradiations, the friction coefficient of the solid-liquid lubricating coatings decreased (except for AO irradiation), but the disc wear rate increased compared with non-irradiation coatings.

  18. Molecular dynamics analysis of the influence of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions on the work of adhesion at the solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surblys, Donatas; Leroy, Frédéric; Yamaguchi, Yasutaka; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the solid-liquid work of adhesion of water on a model silica surface by molecular dynamics simulations, where a methodology previously developed to determine the work of adhesion through thermodynamic integration was extended to a system with long-range electrostatic interactions between solid and liquid. In agreement with previous studies, the work of adhesion increased when the magnitude of the surface polarity was increased. On the other hand, we found that when comparing two systems with and without solid-liquid electrostatic interactions, which were set to have approximately the same total solid-liquid interfacial energy, former had a significantly smaller work of adhesion and a broader distribution in the interfacial energies, which has not been previously reported in detail. This was explained by the entropy contribution to the adhesion free energy; i.e., the former with a broader energy distribution had a larger interfacial entropy than the latter. While the entropy contribution to the work of adhesion has already been known, as a work of adhesion itself is free energy, these results indicate that, contrary to common belief, wetting behavior such as the contact angle is not only governed by the interfacial energy but also significantly affected by the interfacial entropy. Finally, a new interpretation of interfacial entropy in the context of solid-liquid energy variance was offered, from which a fast way to qualitatively estimate the work of adhesion was also presented.

  19. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  20. Radio-frequency slurry-density measurement for dredging pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeten, M.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic dredgers make use of a density meter to measure the instantaneous density in the slurry transport pipeline, primarily for process control and production calculation. the current ‘golden’ standard for slurry density measurement is the radioactive density meter. It is based on a slurry

  1. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  3. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  4. Bio-slurry as fertilizer : is bio-slurry from household digesters a better fertilizer than manure? : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Zwart, K.B.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Postma, R.; Haas, de M.J.G.; Nysingh, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries manure is anaerobically digested to produce biogas. The residue of manure digestion, bio-slurry, can be used as fertilizer for crop production and aquaculture. This study compared bio-slurry and manure as fertilizers. Nutrients in bio-slurry, especially nitrogen, are

  5. Improvements in the CHART D radiation-hydrodynamic code III: revised analytic equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.L.; Lauson, H.S.

    1974-03-01

    A revised set of in-line equation-of-state subroutines for the CHART D hydrodynamic code is described. The information generated is thermodynamically complete and self-consistent. The temperature and density range of validity is large. Solids, liquids, vapors, plasmas, and all types of phase mixtures are treated. Energy transport properties are calculated. The set of subroutines form a package which can easily be included in other hydrodynamic codes. (20 figures) (U.S.)

  6. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  7. Micro-focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (muFUSLE) combined with HPLC and fluorescence detection for PAHs determination in sediments: optimization and linking with the analytical minimalism concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, J L; Galesio, M M; Felisberto, G M; Vaz, C; Pessoa, J Costa

    2005-06-15

    Analytical minimalism is a concept that deals with the optimization of all stages of an analytical procedure so that it becomes less time, cost, sample, reagent and energy consuming. The guide-lines provided in the USEPA extraction method 3550B recommend the use of focused ultrasound (FU), i.e., probe sonication, for the solid-liquid extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs, but ignore the principle of analytical minimalism. The problems related with the dead sonication zones, often present when high volumes are sonicated with probe, are also not addressed. In this work, we demonstrate that successful extraction and quantification of PAHs from sediments can be done with low sample mass (0.125g), low reagent volume (4ml), short sonication time (3min) and low sonication amplitude (40%). Two variables are here particularly taken into account for total extraction: (i) the design of the extraction vessel and (ii) the solvent used to carry out the extraction. Results showed PAHs recoveries (EPA priority list) ranged between 77 and 101%, accounting for more than 95% for most of the PAHs here studied, as compared with the values obtained after soxhlet extraction. Taking into account the results reported in this work we recommend a revision of the EPA guidelines for PAHs extraction from solid matrices with focused ultrasound, so that these match the analytical minimalism concept.

  8. Predicting transport requirements for radioactive-waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, T.; Randall, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the transport requirements of radioactive waste slurries was developed. This method involved preparing nonradioactive sludge slurries chemically similar to the actual high-level waste. The rheological and settling characteristics of these synthetic waste slurries were measured and found to compare favorably with data on actual defense waste slurries. Pressure drop versus flow rate data obtained fom a 2-in. slurry test loop confirmed the Bingham plastic behavior of the slurry observed during viscometry measurements. The pipeline tests, however, yielded friction factors 30 percent lower than those predicted from viscometry data. Differences between the sets of data were attributed to inherent problems in interpreting accurate yield-stress values of slurry suspensions with Couette-type viscometers. Equivalent lengths of fittings were also determined and found to be less than that of water at a specified flow rate

  9. Electrochemical determination of the glass transition temperature of thin polyelectrolyte brushes at solid-liquid interfaces by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-García, Teodoro; Rodríguez-Presa, María José; Gervasi, Claudio; Moya, Sergio; Azzaroni, Omar

    2013-07-16

    Devising strategies to assess the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyelectrolyte assemblies at solid-electrolyte interfaces is very important to understand and rationalize the temperature-dependent behavior of polyelectrolyte films in a wide range of settings. Despite the evolving perception of the importance of measuring Tg under aqueous conditions in thin film configurations, its straightforward measurement poses a challenging situation that still remains elusive in polymer and materials science. Here, we describe a new method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to estimate the glass transition temperature of planar polyelectrolyte brushes at solid-liquid interfaces. To measure Tg, the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of a redox probe diffusing through the polyelectrolyte brush was measured, and the temperature corresponding to the discontinuous change in Rct was identified as Tg. Furthermore, we demonstrate that impedance measurements not only facilitate the estimation of Tg but also enable a reliable evaluation of the transport properties of the polymeric interface, i.e., determination of diffusion coefficients, close to the thermal transition. We consider that this approach bridges the gap between electrochemistry and the traditional tools used in polymer science and offers new opportunities to characterize the thermal behavior of complex polymeric interfaces and macromolecular assemblies.

  10. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mass Transfer Process by Magneto-convection at a Solid-liquid Interface in a Heterogeneous Vertical Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Morisaki, Shigeyoshi; Aogaki, Ryoichi

    2003-08-01

    When an external magnetic field is vertically imposed on a solid-liquid interface, the mass transfer process of a solute dissolving from or depositing on the interface was theoretically examined. In a heterogeneous vertical magnetic field, a material receives a magnetic force in proportion to the product of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetic flux density B and its gradient (dB/dz). As the reaction proceeds, a diffusion layer of the solute with changing susceptibility is formed at the interface because of the difference of the the magnetic susceptibility on the concentration of the solute. In the case of an unstable condition where the dimensionless number of magneto-convection S takes a positive value, the magnetic force is applied to the layer and induces numerous minute convection cells. The mass transfer of the solute is thus accelerated, so that it is predicted that the mass flux increases with the 1/3rd order of B(dB/dz) and the 4/3rd order of the concentration. The experiment was then performed by measuring the rate of the dissolution of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal in water.

  12. Simulation of solid-liquid flows in a stirred bead mill based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, S.; Widiyastuti, W.; Septiani, E. L.; Nurtono, T.

    2018-05-01

    The selection of simulation model is an important step in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain an agreement with experimental work. In addition, computational time and processor speed also influence the performance of the simulation results. Here, we report the simulation of solid-liquid flow in a bead mill using Eulerian model. Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) was also used to model the interaction between moving (shaft and disk) and stationary (chamber exclude shaft and disk) zones. Bead mill dimension was based on the experimental work of Yamada and Sakai (2013). The effect of shaft rotation speed of 1200 and 1800 rpm on the particle distribution and the flow field was discussed. For rotation speed of 1200 rpm, the particles spread evenly throughout the bead mill chamber. On the other hand, for the rotation speed of 1800 rpm, the particles tend to be thrown to the near wall region resulting in the dead zone and found no particle in the center region. The selected model agreed well to the experimental data with average discrepancies less than 10%. Furthermore, the simulation was run without excessive computational cost.

  13. Digital microfluidics platform for interfacing solid-liquid extraction column with portable capillary electropherograph for analysis of soil amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsova, Jelena; Jaanus, Martin; Vaher, Merike; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the concept of a field-portable analyzer is proposed that operates with milliliter amounts of solvents and samples. The need to develop such an analyzer is not only driven by specific extraterrestrial analysis but also, for example, by forensics applications where the amount of liquid that can be taken to the field is severely limited. The prototype of the proposed analyzer consists of a solid-liquid extractor, the output of which is connected to the micropump, which delivers droplets of extracts to digital microfluidic platform (DMFP). In this way, world-to-chip interfacing is established. Further, the sample droplets are transported to CE capillary inlet port, separated and detected via a contactless conductivity detector. Working buffers and other solvents needed to perform CE analysis are also delivered as droplets to the DMFP and transported through the CE capillary. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by analysis of amino acids in sand matrices. The recovery of the spiked amino acids from the inert sand sample was from 34 to 51% with analysis LOD from 0.2 to 0.6 ppm and migration time RSD from 0.2 to 6.0%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides isoproturon and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Cindy M; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14C-isoproturon and 14C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (Kd range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (Kd range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography.

  15. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Cindy M.; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D.

    2004-01-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14 C-isoproturon and 14 C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K d values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K d range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K d range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances

  16. Study on solid-liquid two-phase unsteady flow characteristics with different flow rates in screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R N; Wang, H Y; Han, W; Shen, Z J; Ma, W

    2013-01-01

    The screw centrifugal pump is used as an object, and the unsteady numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase flow is carried out under different flow rate conditions in one circle by choosing the two-phase flow of sand and water as medium, using the software FLUENT based on the URANS equations, combining with sliding mesh method, and choosing the Mixture multiphase flow model and the SIMPLE algorithm. The results show that, with the flow rate increasing, the change trends for the pressure on volute outlet are almost constant, the fluctuation trends of the impeller axial force have a little change, the pressure and the axial force turn to decrease on the whole, the radial force gradually increases when the impeller maximum radius passes by half a cycle near the volute outlet, and the radial force gradually decreases when the maximum radius passes by the other half a cycle in a rotation cycle. The distributions of the solid particles are very uneven under a small flow rate condition on the face. The solid particles under a big flow rate condition are distributed more evenly than the ones under a small flow rate condition on the back. The theoretical basis and reference are provided for improving its working performance

  17. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage locations), and processed to stable waste forms. The sludge wastes will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the respective supernatants to create slurries that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, these slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important for the transfers to be made without plugging a pipeline. To reduce such a risk, the relevant properties of the slurry (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, and particle size distribution) should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be continuously monitored and controlled within specified limits while the transfer is in progress. The baseline method for determining the transport properties of slurries involves sampling and analysis; however, this method is time-consuming, and costly, and it does not provide real-time information. In addition, personnel who collect and analyze the samples are exposed to radiation. It is also questionable as to whether a laboratory analyst can obtain representative aliquots from the sample jar for these solid-liquid mixtures. The alternative method for determining the transport properties is in-line analysis. An in-line instrument is one that is connected to the process, analyzes the slurry as it flows through or by the instrument, and provides the results within seconds. This instrument can provide immediate feedback to operators so that, when necessary, the operators can respond

  18. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...... technology, or co-substrate for anaerobic digestion). With respect to odorous emissions, an LCIA method was developed, but due to a lack of data it proved difficult to include odour in LCA. Regulations appear to have an influence on the environmental impacts of slurry treatment. A decrease in N application...

  19. Pump transients in FGD slurry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Campos, C.D., Thoy, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the start-up transient of a limestone slurry system used for a power plant scrubber is discussed. Particular characteristics of these kind of systems are pointed out and incorporated into an ad-hoc numerical model. Three possible start-up scenarios are discussed and compared with field experimental data. The results illustrate well the importance of air pocket purging prior to system start-up

  20. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  1. Mathematical model to analyze the dissolution behavior of metastable crystals or amorphous drug accompanied with a solid-liquid interface reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Daiki; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-04-30

    Metastable crystals and the amorphous state of poorly water-soluble drugs in solid dispersions (SDs), are subject to a solid-liquid interface reaction upon exposure to a solvent. The dissolution behavior during the solid-liquid interface reaction often shows that the concentration of drugs is supersaturated, with a high initial drug concentration compared with the solubility of stable crystals but finally approaching the latter solubility with time. However, a method for measuring the precipitation rate of stable crystals and/or the potential solubility of metastable crystals or amorphous drugs has not been established. In this study, a novel mathematical model that can represent the dissolution behavior of the solid-liquid interface reaction for metastable crystals or amorphous drug was developed and its validity was evaluated. The theory for this model was based on the Noyes-Whitney equation and assumes that the precipitation of stable crystals at the solid-liquid interface occurs through a first-order reaction. Moreover, two models were developed, one assuming that the surface area of the drug remains constant because of the presence of excess drug in the bulk and the other that the surface area changes in time-dependency because of agglomeration of the drug. SDs of Ibuprofen (IB)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared and their dissolution behaviors under non-sink conditions were fitted by the models to evaluate improvements in solubility. The model assuming time-dependent surface area showed good agreement with experimental values. Furthermore, by applying the model to the dissolution profile, parameters such as the precipitation rate and the potential solubility of the amorphous drug were successfully calculated. In addition, it was shown that the improvement in solubility with supersaturation was able to be evaluated quantitatively using this model. Therefore, this mathematical model would be a useful tool to quantitatively determine the supersaturation

  2. Engineering properties of nuclear waste slurries - 16378

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Fairweather, Michael; Hunter, Timothy; Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Peakall, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The type of particulate systems encountered in legacy nuclear waste slurries is highly complicated, with the aggregation and flow behaviour being at times very variable. However, deconstructing the complex overall slurry activity to singular particle-particle interactions can lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved with particle aggregation, and so to predictions of their settling and flow in nuclear systems. Of particular importance to legacy waste is the role of salts in controlling the attraction of particles (and so in dictating the rheological properties of the system) as sludge may contain a variety of specific ions and generally have high ionic conductivity [1]. In this paper, particle-particle interactions are characterised using a number of complimentary methods, and their influence on resulting flow and bed compression is measured. The methods used to characterise the particle-particle interactions under various salt and pH conditions were electro-acoustic analysis (zeta potential) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following on from the analysis of particle-particle properties, bulk sediment behaviour was investigated using shear and compressive yield stress measurements, vital parameters in dictating flow and dewatering performance, respectively. Together, these techniques enable the characterisation of a range of particulate systems that may be encountered in legacy wastes, and results point to a number of important factors that can help explain the observed variability in industrial slurry behaviour. (authors)

  3. Slurry explosive containing an improved thickening agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakazono, Y.; Otsuka, Y.

    1970-08-18

    A slurry explosive having stable physical properties and a thickening agent which when blended with a slurry explosive, maintains it in a uniform and stable state as a good suspended dispersion condition over a long period of time, are described. The slurry explosive has a composition consisting essentially of ammonium nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels, and water, 0.1 to 2.0% guar gum, not more than 0.3% of a borate or borates, and/or not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine, and 0.02 to 2.0% of an antimony compound or compounds, all percents being by weight. (6 claims)

  4. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  5. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency

  6. Studies on the interactions between bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin and chitosan at the solid-liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campina, Jose M., E-mail: jpina@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Souza, Hileia K.S., E-mail: hsouza@fe.up.p [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Borges, Joao, E-mail: jborges@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Martins, Ana, E-mail: amartins@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Goncalves, Maria Pilar, E-mail: pilarg@fe.up.p [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Silva, Fernando, E-mail: afssilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-12-01

    Chitosan ultrathin films have been formed on polycrystalline Au substrates using the LbL technique with the purpose of studying its interaction with bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin ({beta}-LG) at the solid-liquid interface. The immobilization of chitosan was followed by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with energy dissipation (QCM-D), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of the chitosan films in the presence of {beta}-LG solutions with different bulk concentrations ([{beta}-LG]), ionic strength (I), and pH has been investigated using the same techniques plus Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results showed that for pHs lower than protein's pI, weak intermolecular forces (H bonding, Van der Waals, hydrophobic, etc.) are established between {beta}-LG and chitosan (especially close to the pI) leading to low coverage nonspecific adsorption. On the contrary when pH > pI, strong ionic bonding through attractive electrostatic interactions lead to high coverage adsorbed phases composed of large {beta}-LG aggregates. The adsorption process was shown to consist of a relatively fast step (in which these interactions are predominant) which is followed, once the {beta}-LG monolayer is exceeded, by the slow formation of thicker and increasingly viscoelastic films through {beta}-LG self-aggregation. QCM-D and AFM experiments unveiled the role of [{beta}-LG] and I on the formation of these aggregates. The adsorption isotherm built from impedance data in the medium-low [{beta}-LG] range (0.001-0.3 mg mL{sup -1}), showed good fitting to the Langmuir model confirming that the formation of one {beta}-LG monolayer is achieved in this concentration range.

  7. Studies on the interactions between bovine β-lactoglobulin and chitosan at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campina, Jose M.; Souza, Hileia K.S.; Borges, Joao; Martins, Ana; Goncalves, Maria Pilar; Silva, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan ultrathin films have been formed on polycrystalline Au substrates using the LbL technique with the purpose of studying its interaction with bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) at the solid-liquid interface. The immobilization of chitosan was followed by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with energy dissipation (QCM-D), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of the chitosan films in the presence of β-LG solutions with different bulk concentrations ([β-LG]), ionic strength (I), and pH has been investigated using the same techniques plus Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results showed that for pHs lower than protein's pI, weak intermolecular forces (H bonding, Van der Waals, hydrophobic, etc.) are established between β-LG and chitosan (especially close to the pI) leading to low coverage nonspecific adsorption. On the contrary when pH > pI, strong ionic bonding through attractive electrostatic interactions lead to high coverage adsorbed phases composed of large β-LG aggregates. The adsorption process was shown to consist of a relatively fast step (in which these interactions are predominant) which is followed, once the β-LG monolayer is exceeded, by the slow formation of thicker and increasingly viscoelastic films through β-LG self-aggregation. QCM-D and AFM experiments unveiled the role of [β-LG] and I on the formation of these aggregates. The adsorption isotherm built from impedance data in the medium-low [β-LG] range (0.001-0.3 mg mL -1 ), showed good fitting to the Langmuir model confirming that the formation of one β-LG monolayer is achieved in this concentration range.

  8. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb [ECOMatters Inc., Pinawa (Canada); Sohlenius, Gustav [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  9. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2009-03-01

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  10. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH 3 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m 3 of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m 3  h -1 ), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH 3 , CH 4 , carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and N 2 O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH 3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions were 40% lower in the aerated tanks (2.04 vs. 3.39 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions remained after the aeration phase had finished. No effect was detected for CO 2 , and no relevant N 2 O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH 3 emissions.

  11. Availability of phosphorus in cow slurry using isotopic labelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsakul, P.; Bertelsen, F.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1988-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of cow slurry on P uptake by corn and to estimate the readily available P in the slurry by using an isotopic labelling techique. Water-soluble P in soil was increased and isotopic equilibrium of available P was attained after labelled slurry was mixed thoroughly throughout the soil. Labelled slurry applied at planting increased the P uptake by corn, whereas the same amount applied one week before harvest did not affect the P uptake. It was estimated that 46-54% of the total P uptake in plants is derived from the slurry. The readily available P (the L-value) in the slurry was at least 26 mg/kg which equals 3.7% of the total P. (author)

  12. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  13. Heterogeneous ice slurry flow and concentration distribution in horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jihong; Zhang, Tengfei; Wang, Shugang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Mixture CFD model is applied to describe heterogeneous ice slurry flow. • The ice slurry rheological behavior is considered piecewise. • The coupled flow and concentration profiles in heterogeneous slurry flow is acquired. • The current numerical model achieves good balance between precision and universality. -- Abstract: Ice slurry is an energy-intensive solid–liquid mixture fluid which may play an important role in various cooling purposes. Knowing detailed flow information is important from the system design point of view. However, the heterogeneous ice slurry flow makes it difficult to be quantified due to the complex two phase flow characteristic. The present study applies a Mixture computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on different rheological behavior to characterize the heterogeneous ice slurry flow. The Mixture CFD model was firstly validated by three different experiments. Then the validated Mixture CFD model was applied to solve the ice slurry isothermal flow by considering the rheological behavior piecewise. Finally, the numerical solutions have displayed the coupled flow information, such as slurry velocity, ice particle concentration and pressure drop distribution. The results show that, the ice slurry flow distribution will appear varying degree of asymmetry under different operating conditions. The rheological behavior will be affected by the asymmetric flow distributions. When mean flow velocity is high, Thomas equation can be appropriate for describing ice slurry viscosity. While with the decreasing of mean flow velocity, the ice slurry behaves Bingham rheology. As compared with experimental pressure drop results, the relative errors of numerical computation are almost within ±15%. The Mixture CFD model is validated to be an effective model for describing heterogeneous ice slurry flow and could supply plentiful flow information

  14. Method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K; Yusa, H; Sugimoto, Y

    1975-06-30

    The object is to prevent blockage of a transporting tube to positively and effectively transport radioactive slurry wastes. A method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes produced in an atomic power plant, wherein liquid wastes produced in the power plant are diluted to form into a driving liquid, by which said radioactive slurry-like wastes are transported within the pipe, and said driving liquid is recovered as the liquid waste.

  15. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  16. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  17. State of the art on phase change material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ziad; Delahaye, Anthony; Huang Li; Trinquet, François; Fournaison, Laurence; Pollerberg, Clemens; Doetsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bibliographic study on PCM slurries. ► Clathrate Hydrate slurry, Microencapsulated PCM Slurry, shape-stabilized PCM slurries and Phase Change Material Emulsions. ► Formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfers properties and applications of these four PCS systems. ► The use of thermal energy storage and distribution based on PCM slurries can improve the refrigerating machine performances. - Abstract: The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications.

  18. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  19. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  20. Technical Development of Slurry Three-Dimensional Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Hsu, Huang-Jan; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the technical development of slurry three-dimensional printer (3DP) which based on photo-polymerization and constrained surface method. Basically, slurry consists of ceramic powder, resin and photo-initiator. The light engines for solidifying the photo-curable slurry can be classified as laser, liquid crystal panel (LCD), digital light processing (DLP). The slurry can be reacted and solidified by selective ray according to the reaction spectrum of photo-initiator. Ceramic powder used in this study is zirconia oxide. Experimental results show that ceramic particle size affects the viscosity of slurry severely resulting in low accuracy and the occurrence of micro crack in the layer casting procedure. Therefore, the effect of particle size on the curability and accuracy of built green part is discussed. A single dental crown is proposed to be fabricated by these three light engines as a benchmark for comparison. In addition, the cost and the limitation are compared in the aspect of dental crown fabrication. Consequently, the lowest cost is LCD-type slurry 3DP system. DLP-type slurry 3DP can produce green body with the fastest fabrication time. The volumetric error of sintered part that made by these three fabrication methods is similar because the composition of slurry is the same.

  1. Drag reduction of dense fine-grained slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Štern, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 261-270 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : kaolin slurry * drag reduction * experimental investigation * peptization * slurry rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  2. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  3. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes

  4. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  5. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  6. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  7. A technical review of liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation equipment in the field of nuclear-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid/liquid extraction is generally accepted as the preferred method in nuclear-fuel reprocessing. However, although many types of liquid/liquid contactors are available, only a few meet the stringent specifications set by the nuclear industry. This report discusses the criteria for contactor selection and then reviews the most important types, namely packed columns, pulsed columns, mixer-setters and centrifugal contactors. Finally, a short section concerned with solid/liquid separations is included because of the possible deleterious effects caused by solids in liquid/liquid contactors

  8. Heat and Mass Transfer during Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of n-Alkanes in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Rune

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this project has been to study heat and mass transfer during solid-liquid phase transition of n-alkanes in the in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} range. Phase transitions of both mixtures and pure components have been investigated. All experiments and simulations have been performed without any convection. Thermal conductivities have been determined at the melting point for solid and liquid unbranched alkanes ranging from C{sub 16} to C{sub 19}. An assessment of the error of the method has been performed. The measurements of solid conductivities are in accordance with measurements reported previously and confirm the applicability of the method. Liquid conductivities are higher than extrapolated values from the literature. The enhanced conductivity is believed to be caused by structural changes close to the melting point which is not taken into account when extrapolating values from the literature. Experiments have been performed for the purpose of investigating the freezing of mixtures of n-alkanes in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 19} range. The positions of the solid-liquid interfaces have been measured as freezing occurred. Calculations of the ratio of liquid and solid conductivities show that the solid structure of mixtures of the investigated n-alkanes is predominantly in a rotator structure at the temperatures investigated. There are indications of a transformation into an orthorhombic structure at lower temperatures. The temperatures on the solid-liquid interface have been measured, and compared with calculated values from chapter 4. The temperature of the interface is represented better by the measured interfacial temperatures than by the calculated interfacial temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion of heat is the limiting mechanism of phase transition. This result in a homogeneous liquid composition. A numerical model has been developed in order to simulate the experimental freezing of mixtures. The model represents the results

  9. Redox process at solid-liquid interfaces: studies with thin layers of green rusts electrodeposited on inert substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peulon, S.; Taghdai, Y.; Mercier, F.; Barre, N.; Legrand, L.; Chauss, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The redox reactions which can occur between radioelements and natural phases in the environment are taken still little into account although their importance is established on natural sites; the consequences are significant since they can modify radically the behaviour of the species by increasing or decreasing their migration. The iron compounds are very implicated in these redox processes because iron is one of the most abundant element on earth; moreover, it is also present in the containers used for the storage of the nuclear waste. We exhibited in previous works that electrochemistry is a convenient way to generate the main iron oxidation compounds as thin layers on different inert substrates. The electrochemical behaviour of these deposits that are adherent, homogeneous and well crystallized [1-3], was investigated with the principle advantage that iron metal and its reactivity is eliminate. Moreover, they could be analysed directly by techniques like IRRAS, XRD, SEM, EDS and XPS without any preparation. In the present study, we develop an original way to investigate redox processes at solid-liquid interfaces based on the utilisation of these thin layers; the samples are more commonly powders and/or pieces of corroded steel in the literature. Results obtained with two different systems, chromate and uranyl ions, in interaction with thin layers of sulfated green rusts are presented. Green rusts is chosen because it is a mixed Fe(II-III) compound which could be formed in anoxic conditions like in the case of the storage of the nuclear waste. After various contact times with the solutions containing the reactive species, the thin layers are characterised by different ex-situ methods. The results show clearly the oxidation of the green rust into a Fe(III) compound and the formation of a new solid phase on the electrode due to the reduction and the precipitation of the reactive species present initially in solution. Because thin

  10. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  11. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  12. Ice slurries; Les coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The safety and environmental problems linked with the use of refrigerants (toxicity, flammability, ozone layer, greenhouse effect) are the object of numerous research works in order to reduce their harmful impact in the case of accidental situation. The use of 'coldness carriers' is particularly justified in the case of industrial refrigerating facilities involving long loops and important quantities of refrigerating fluids. The use of single-phase 'coldness carriers' is a very old technique which encounters a revival today with researches in progress about the use of two-phase (liquid-solid) compounds named ice-slurries. This book takes stock of the status of this research work in a practical and exhaustive way. (J.S.)

  13. Regulatory controls and slurry fracture injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M. B.; Bilak, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The technological and regulatory framework necessary for the safe operation of solid waste disposal using slurry fracture injection (SFI) in Saskatchewan and Alberta was studied. Seven current SFI sites were used as the source of experience. Regular audits of volumes, continuous pressure recording, careful deformation monitoring and analysis, and repeated evaluation of reservoir properties were considered to be the essential features. In the case of toxic wastes, microseismic monitoring and regular well interference or tracer tests might be additional measures used to increase confidence in the containment method. Given the recent introduction of SFI technology, guarding against over-regulation was recommended to allow SFI to operate under the most effective operating conditions, and to preserve its attractiveness as an environmentally attractive and safe waste disposal alternative. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Drilling mud and cement slurry rheology manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This book is not primarily concerned with theory. Its basic approach is practical. It has attempted to present a logical treatment which will be easy to apply in practice. As a result, certain computing methods were omitted, and precision sometimes has to be sacrificed to simplicity. However, no apology is made for the use of such approximations; in fact, any attempt at rigor would be doomed to failure, in view of the many inherent factors which do not lend themselves to quantitative treatment. Chapter 1: deals with fundamental concepts. Chapter 2: refers to the general principles involved in determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and cement slurries. Chapter 3: relates to practical methods for using the results obtained in the first two Chapters, in units employed on the worksite. It is primarily intended for technicians called upon to make ''hydraulic'' computations during drilling. Chapter 4: contains several examples.

  15. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  16. Microanalytical techniques applied to phase identification and measurement of solute redistribution at the solid/liquid interface of frozen Fe-4.3Ni doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Faryna, M; Okane, T

    2002-01-01

    A Fe-4.3M alloy has been solidified directionally by using the Bridgman system. The solidification conditions were chosen to obtain an oriented cellular structure of delta-ferrite. These are: a positive temperature gradient of about 60 K/cm and a growth rate of 6.6 mu m/s. A change in these conditions can lead either to the formation of austenite or to the competitive growth of delta-ferrite/gamma-austenite. The solid/liquid interface of delta-ferrite cells has been frozen and double instability has been revealed at the tip of the cells. The instability is described as the first harmonic wave of fundamental undulation, which appeared at the formerly planar solid/liquid interface. This means that a doublet structure is formed only with the imposed specific conditions of solidification. The Ni-solute redistribution after back-diffusion has been measured across the delta-ferrite doublet. Results of energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) measurements on the distribution of Ni and Fe correspond well to the theoretical pred...

  17. A high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experimental method for characterization of solid-liquid interfaces demonstrated with a Li-ion battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maibach, Julia; Xu, Chao; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Edström, Kristina [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Susanna K. [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Åhlund, John [VG Scienta AB, Box 15120, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Siegbahn, Hans; Rensmo, Håkan; Hahlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.hahlin@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    We report a methodology for a direct investigation of the solid/liquid interface using high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS). The technique was demonstrated with an electrochemical system represented by a Li-ion battery using a silicon electrode and a liquid electrolyte of LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) cycled versus metallic lithium. For the first time the presence of a liquid electrolyte was realized using a transfer procedure where the sample was introduced into a 2 mbar N{sub 2} environment in the analysis chamber without an intermediate ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) step in the load lock. The procedure was characterized in detail concerning lateral drop gradients as well as stability of measurement conditions over time. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the solid substrate and the liquid electrolyte can be observed simultaneously. The results show that the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition for the wet electrode is stable within the probing time and generally agrees well with traditional UHV studies. Since the methodology can easily be adjusted to various high pressure photoelectron spectroscopy systems, extending the approach towards operando solid/liquid interface studies using liquid electrolytes seems now feasible.

  18. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of PMMA/n-heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCM for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization and thermal properties of microencapsulated n-heptadecane with polymethylmethacrylate shell. The PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules were synthesized as novel solid-liquid microencapsulated phase change material (microPCMs) by emulsion polymerization method. The chemical and thermal characterization of the microPCMs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The diameters of microPCMs were found in the narrow range (0.14-0.40 μm) under the stirring speed of 2000 rpm. The spherical surfaces of microPCMs were smooth and compact. The DSC results show that microPCMs have good energy storage capacity. Thermal cycling test showed that the microPCMs have good thermal reliability with respect to the changes in their thermal properties after repeated 5000 thermal cycling. TGA analyses also indicated that the microPCMs degraded in three steps and have good thermal stability. Based on all results, it can be considered that the PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCMs have good energy storage potential.

  19. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid-Liquid Interface Thermal Resistance Affects the Evaporation Rate of Droplets from a Surface: A Study of Perfluorohexane on Chromium Using Molecular Dynamics and Continuum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoxue; Schlawitschek, Christiane; Katyal, Naman; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2017-05-30

    We study the role of solid-liquid interface thermal resistance (Kapitza resistance) on the evaporation rate of droplets on a heated surface by using a multiscale combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical continuum theory. We parametrize the nonbonded interaction potential between perfluorohexane (C 6 F 14 ) and a face-centered-cubic solid surface to reproduce the experimental wetting behavior of C 6 F 14 on black chromium through the solid-liquid work of adhesion (quantity directly related to the wetting angle). The thermal conductances between C 6 F 14 and (100) and (111) solid substrates are evaluated by a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics approach for a liquid pressure lower than 2 MPa. Finally, we examine the influence of the Kapitza resistance on evaporation of droplets in the vicinity of a three-phase contact line with continuum theory, where the thermal resistance of liquid layer is comparable with the Kapitza resistance. We determine the thermodynamic conditions under which the Kapitza resistance plays an important role in correctly predicting the evaporation heat flux.

  1. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  2. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  3. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  4. Evaluation of plant available nitrogen in concentrated pig slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.; Comas, J.; Pujola, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Northeast Spin the expansion of the pig industry has brought as a result the production of vast amounts of pig slurry that exceeds field crops fertilization needs and consequently has contributed to the environmental deterioration of the region particularly ground water with NO 3 pollution. Under such circumstances, it is needed to treat and/or export pig slurry. During the last year the implantation of cogeneration plants that take advantage of the surplus of energy to produce concentrate pig slurry by water evaporation that could easily transported. (Author)

  5. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...... physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil...

  6. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  7. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  8. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  9. Properties of sodium lignosulfonate as dispersant of coal water slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dongjie; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhou, Mingsong; Lou, Hongming

    2007-01-01

    In order to use lignosulfonates (a by-product of pulp and paper processes) as an effective dispersant of coal water slurry five purified sodium lignosulfonate (SL) samples with different molecular weights were prepared by fractionation using ultrafiltration and dialysis. The effect of SL on the apparent viscosity of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The adsorption behavior of the SL on the coal water interface has much greater effect on the viscosity of coal water slurry. The higher adsorption amount and compact adsorption film of SL on the coal surface help reduce the viscosity of CWS, and the zeta potential is also an important factor, which is influenced by the sulfonic and carboxyl group contents of the lignosulfonate molecule. Furthermore, the SL with its molecular weight ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 has both a higher adsorbed amount and zeta potential on the coal surface and the best effect on reducing the viscosity of the coal water slurry

  10. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  11. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises...

  12. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  13. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  14. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake.

  15. Improved system for pumping slurry of gel explosives into boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T K; Clay, R B; Udy, L L

    1967-05-16

    A method is described for injecting an explosive slurry into a borehole containing water. The slurry is heavier than water and is pumped through the tubing to a depth close to the bottom of the well. Injection is continued until all water has been displaced above the lower end of the tubing. This type of immiscible displacement results in substantially no mixing between the water and the explosive. (15 claims)

  16. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different properties and extremely different reaction behaviour even if the same Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalyst is used? Generally, it is known that the reason can be found in the differences of local condition...

  17. Investigation of aqueous slurries as fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using an aqueous slurry, with lithium in its solid component, to meet the tritium breeding, cooling, and shielding requirements of a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR). The numerical studies were designed to demonstrate the theoretical ability of a conceptual slurry blanket to breed adequate tritium to sustain the CTR. The experimental studies were designed to show that the tritium retention characteristics of likely solid components for the slurry were conducive to adequate tritium recovery without the need for isotopic separation. The numerical portion of this work consisted in part of using ANISN, a one-dimensional finite difference neutron transport code, to model the neutronic performance of the slurry blanket concept. The parameters governing tritium production and retention in a slurry were computed and used to modify the results of the ANISN computer runs. The numerical work demonstrated that the slurry blanket was only marginally capable of breeding sufficient tritium without the aid of a neutron multiplying region. The experimental portion of this work consisted of several neutron irradiation experiments, which were designed to determine the retention abilities of LiF particles

  18. Environmental consequences of future biogas technologies based on separated slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn M

    2011-07-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises the whole slurry life cycle, including the flows bypassing the biogas plant. This study includes soil carbon balances and a method for quantifying the changes in yield resulting from increased nitrogen availability as well as for quantifying mineral fertilizers displacement. Soil carbon balances showed that between 13 and 50% less carbon ends up in the soil pool with the different biogas alternatives, as opposed to the reference slurry management.

  19. Effect of lapping slurry on critical cutting depth of spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhan-kui; Wang, Zhuan-kui; Zhu, Yong-wei; Su, Jian-xiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Measured spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different slurries. • Evaluated the softened layer thickness in different slurries. • Discussed the effect of slurries on critical cutting depth of spinel. - Abstract: The critical cutting depth for lapping process is very important because it influences the mode of material removal. In this paper, a serial of microscopic indentation experiments were carried out for measuring spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different lapping slurries. Their critical cutting depth and fracture toughness were calculated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also employed to study the surface chemical composition and softened layer thickness of wafers in different slurries. Experimental results indicate that the softened layers of spinel wafers are formed due to the corrosion of lapping slurries, which leads to a lower hardness and a larger fracture toughness of samples, and increases the critical cutting depth. Among them, the critical cutting depth in ethylene glycol solution is the largest and up to 21.8 nm. The increase of critical cutting depth is helpful to modify the surface quality of the work-piece being lapped via ductile removal mode instead of brittle fracture mode

  20. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  1. Effect of ageing on the gastro-intestinal transit of a lactulose-supplemented mixed solid-liquid meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M; Börsch, G; Schaffstein, J; Lüth, I; Rickels, R; Ricken, D

    1988-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal transit of a mixed solid-liquid meal containing wheat bread, scrambled eggs, coffee labelled with 99mTc, orange juice with lactulose and indigocarmine was evaluated in 21 young control (mean age 33.5 years) and 25 elderly subjects (mean age 81.7 years) without gastrointestinal complaints or severe medical illness. The rate of gastric emptying was determined by an anterior gamma camera technique, mouth-to-caecum transit by the hydrogen breath test and whole-gut transit by the first stool passage of indigocarmine. Gastric emptying was significantly prolonged in older subjects: t1/2 = 136 +/- (SEM) 13 versus 81 +/- 4 min; p less than 0.001. Concerning mouth-to-caecum or whole-gut transit time, significant differences between the two study groups were not detected.

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of niobium oxides by solid/liquid state oxygen source and lithium assisted metal-halide chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Greenlee, Jordan D.; Shank, Joshua C.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-09-01

    In order to consistently grow high quality niobium oxides and lithium niobium oxides, a novel solid/liquid state oxygen source, LiClO4, has been implemented in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. LiClO4 is shown to decompose into both molecular and atomic oxygen upon heating. This allows oxidation rates similar to that of molecular oxygen but at a reduced overall beam flux, quantified by in situ Auger analysis. LiClO4 operation is decomposition limited to less than 400 °C, and other material limitations are identified. The design of a custom near-ambient NbCl5 effusion cell is presented, which improves both short and long term stability. Films of Nb oxidation state +2, +3, and +5 are grown using these new tools, including the multi-functional sub-oxide LiNbO2.

  3. Comparison between 2 methods of solid-liquid extraction for the production of Cinchona calisaya elixir: an experimental kinetics and numerical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Formato, Andrea; Gallo, Monica

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the extraction process for the production of China elixir starting from the same vegetable mixture, as performed by conventional maceration or a cyclically pressurized extraction process (rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction) using the Naviglio Extractor. Dry residue was used as a marker for the kinetics of the extraction process because it was proportional to the amount of active principles extracted and, therefore, to their total concentration in the solution. UV spectra of the hydroalcoholic extracts allowed for the identification of the predominant chemical species in the extracts, while the organoleptic tests carried out on the final product provided an indication of the acceptance of the beverage and highlighted features that were not detectable by instrumental analytical techniques. In addition, a numerical simulation of the process has been performed, obtaining useful information about the timing of the process (time history) as well as its mathematical description. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 3: miscellany of radionuclides (Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, I, Se, Sb, Pu, Am, and others)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Garcia, C.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.

    2009-01-01

    New best estimates for the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) for a set of radionuclides are proposed, based on a selective data search and subsequent calculation of geometric means. The K d best estimates are calculated for soils grouped according to the texture and organic matter content. For a limited number of radionuclides this is extended to consider soil cofactors affecting soil-radionuclide interaction, such as pH, organic matter content, and radionuclide chemical speciation. Correlations between main soil properties and radionuclide K d are examined to complete the information derived from the best estimates with a rough prediction of K d based on soil parameters. Although there are still gaps for many radionuclides, new data from recent studies improve the calculation of K d best estimates for a number of radionuclides, such as selenium, antimony, and iodine.

  5. The solid-liquid extraction separation of lithium isotopes by porous composite materials doped with ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Ling Gu; Dan Qiu; Dong-Hong Ren; Zaijun Li; Zhi-Guo Gu; Jiangnan University, Wuxi

    2015-01-01

    A green and efficient solid-liquid extraction method of lithium isotopes separation by porous composite materials doped with imidazolium ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5 has been reported in this paper. The composite materials of mesoporous silica and impregnated resin were synthesized by sol-gel and direct impregnation process, respectively. Various extraction parameters such as the concentration of lithium salt, anion of lithium salt, initial pH, time and temperature were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the maximum single-stage separation factor of 6 Li/ 7 Li was 1.048 ± 0.002, the maximum extraction efficiency was 15.86 %. The sorbents can be regenerated easily with HCl solution and reused repeatedly. (author)

  6. THE PROCESS OF MASS TRANSFER ON THE SOLID-LIQUID BOUNDARY LAYER DURING THE RELEASE OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE FROM TABLETS IN A PADDLE APPARATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina; Zimmer, Lukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The release study of diclofenac sodium (DIC) and papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from two formulations of the tablets in the paddle apparatus using different rotation speeds to characterize the process of mass transfer on the solid-liquid boundary layer was carried out. The dissolution process of active substances was described by values of mass transfer coefficients, the diffusion boundary layer thickness and dimensionless numbers (Sh and Re). The values of calculated parameters showed that the release of DIC and PAP from tablets comprising potato starch proceeded faster than from tablets containing HPMC and microcrystalline cellulose. They were obtained by direct dependencies between Sh and Re in the range from 75 rpm to 125 rpm for both substances from all tablets. The description of the dissolution process with the dimensionless numbers make it possible to plan the drug with the required release profile under given in vitro conditions.

  7. Numerical investigation of solid-liquid two phase flow in a non-clogging centrifugal pump at off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, B J; Chen, H L; Hou, D H; Huang, Z F

    2012-01-01

    The solid-liquid two-phase flow fields in the non-clogging centrifugal pump with a double-channel impeller have been investigated numerically for the design condition and also off-design conditions, in order to study the solid-liquid two-phase flow pattern and non-clogging mechanism in non-clogging centrifugal pumps. The main conclusions include: The sand volume fraction distribution is extremely inhomogeneous in the whole flow channel of the pump at off-design conditions. In the impeller, particles mainly flow along the pressure surface and hub; In the volute, particles mainly accumulate in the region near to the exit of volute, the largest sand volume fraction is observed at the tongue, and a large number of particles collide with volute wall and exit the volute after circling around the volute for several times. When the particle diameter increases, particles tend to accumulate on the pressure side of the impeller, and more particles crash with the pressure side of the blade. And larger sand volume fraction gratitude is also observed in the whole flow channel of the pump. With the decrease of the inlet sand volume fraction, particles tend to accumulate on the suction side of the blade. Compared with the particle diameter, the inlet sand volume fraction has less influence on the sand volume fraction gratitude in the whole channel of the pump. At the large flow rate, the minimum and maximum sand volume fraction in the whole flow channel of the model pump tends to be smaller than that at the small flow rate. Thus, it is concluded that the water transportation capacity increases with the flow rate. This research will strengthen people's understanding of the multiphase flow pattern in non-clogging centrifugal pumps, thus provides a theoretical basis for the optimal design of non-clogging centrifugal pumps.

  8. A simple biofilter for treatment of pig slurry in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S G; Mathanpaal, G; Dass, G T

    2005-03-01

    On commercial pig production farms in South East (SE) Asia, the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers. The discharge is a hazard to the environment and to the health of people using water from the river either for consumption or for irrigation. Therefore, a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed. Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material, thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material. The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" (EM) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined. Slurry treatment in the test-biofilters indicated that rice straw was better than coconut husks, wood shavings, rattan strips and oil palm fronds in reducing BOD. Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material, respectively, had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry. The BOD of slurry treated in test biofilters is reduced to between 80 and 637 mg O2 I(-1) and in the demo biofilter to between 3094 and 3376 mg O2 l(-1). The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters. The demo biofilter can reduce BOD to between 52 an 56% of the original value, and TSS, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonium (NH4+) to 41-55% of the original slurry. The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers. The composted biofilter material has a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus; consequently, the fertilizer value of the compost is high. The investments costs were 123 US dollar per SPP which has to be reduced if this method should be a treatment option

  9. Predicting wear of hydrotransport pipelines in oil sand slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, J.; Lu, B.; Wolodko, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kiel, D. [Coanda Research and Development Corp., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of erosion and corrosion methods and techniques was presented. Wear to pipelines is influenced by slurry flow and chemistry; solids loading; and electrochemical interactions. While several experimental techniques have been developed to rank the performance of different pipeline materials, experiments do not currently provide accurate quantitative prediction of pipeline wear in the field. Rotating cylinder electrodes (RCE) and jet impingement methods are used to study the effect of flow velocity on corrosion rate. Slurry pot erosion-corrosion testers are used to rank materials for use in more dilute, less turbulent slurries. Coriolois slurry erosion testers are used to rank the erosion resistance of different pipeline materials. A pilot-scale flow loop is now being constructed by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) in order to replicate wet erosion phenomena in oil sands applications. The flow loop will be used to simulate the field conditions of oil sands pipelines and develop predictive wear data and models. Coulombic shear stress and characteristic wall velocities have been determined using a 2-layer model designed to represent flow as 2 distinct layers. To date, the flow loop pilot study has demonstrated that wear rates in smaller diameter flow loops are not significantly different than larger diameter field installations. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated that the flow loop can be used to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics and wear typically experienced in field slurry flows. 67 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Methane Fermentation of Slurry with Chemical and Biological Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smurzyńska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of proper slurry management is primarily present in intensive livestock production. Industrialized livestock farms generate enormous quantities of manure droppings in a livestock-litter-free system. The traditional management of slurry is made by using it as a fertilizer. Alternative techniques used for neutralizing the detrimental effect of slurry are based on the use of chemical and biological additives, as well as by introducing aerobic environment through aerobic or anaerobic digestion, leading to methane fermentation. In the experiment, cattle manure was used, which came from the Przybroda farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Poznan. The aim of the study was to determine the biogas yield of slurry using the chemical and biological additive available on the Polish market. Mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation was used for the indication of the effectiveness of the employed fermentation process. The slurry was supplemented by a biological and chemical additive, i.e. effective microorganisms and – PRP, respectively. The experiment allowed to achieve a higher biogas yield during the use of effective microorganisms.

  11. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Ice Slurry Flow in a Horizontal Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, K. S.; Pratihar, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, phase changing material slurry (PCMS) gained much attention as a cooling medium due to its high energy storage capacity and transportability. However the flow of PCM slurry is a complex phenomenon as it affected by various parameters, i.e. fluid properties, velocity, particle size and concentration etc.. In the present work ice is used as a PCM and numerical investigation of heterogeneous slurry flow has been carried out using Eulerian KTGF model in a horizontal pipe. Firstly the present model is validated with existing experiment results available in the literature, and then model is applied to the present problem. Results show that, flow is almost homogeneous for ethanol based ice slurry with particle diameter of 0.1 mm at the velocity of 1 m/s. It is also found that ice particle distribution is more uniform at higher velocity, concentration of ice and ethanol in slurry. Results also show that ice concentration increases on the top of the pipe, and the effect of particle wall collision is more significant at higher particle diameter.

  13. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  14. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  15. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  16. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer

  17. Radioactive waste slurry dehydrating and drum filling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Toshio; Abe, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for simultaneously filling and dehydrating radioactive waste in a waste can without the necessity of a special device for dehydration. Constitution: This device includes a radioactive waste storage tank, a pump for supplying the waste from the tank to a can, a drain tube having a filter at the lower end and installed displaceable in the axial direction of the can, and a drain pump. The slurry stored in the radioactive waste storage tank is supplied by the pump to the can, and the feedwater in the slurry is removed by another pump through a drain pipe having a filter which does not pass solid content from the can. Accordingly, as the slurry is filled in the can, the feedwater contained therein is removed. Consequently, it can simultaneously dehydrate and fill the dehydrated waste in the can. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter with a graphite slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.L.; Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical equations and physical and electrical property data of various graphite slurries for starting up a glass melter. An application test is also included to demonstrate the graphite slurry startup technique

  20. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions. Liquid chromatograhy-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was not...

  1. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  2. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  3. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  4. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  5. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  6. Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry was studied as a function of the microstructure developed by austempering at 380 and 300°C for different exposure time in the slurry. The corrosion rates of the ADI balls immersed in the iron ore slurry was determined using weight loss method.

  7. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    and feces were collected separately from twenty-four pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl2, +BA+CaCl2) in metabolic cages, and mixed as slurry. During 103 days of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 - 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry...

  8. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective

  9. Draught requirement of trailing foot and shallow injection equipment for applying slurry to grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Hendriks, J.L.G.; Vermeulen, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Surface spreading of slurry leads to the inevitable emission of ammonia into the environment. Injection of slurry on grassland reduces these emissions. However, injection of slurry by deep working injector tines with goose foot chisels (wings) requires high draught forces. This type of injection has

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of fructans from agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul at different ultrasound powers and solid-liquid ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel SÁNCHEZ-MADRIGAL

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE at different ultrasound power densities (UPDs; 40, 80, and 120 mW/mL and solid:liquid (S:L ratio (1:2, 1:3, and 1:6 on the extraction of carbohydrates from Agave tequilana plant of different ages were evaluated. Extracts obtained (6- and 7-year-old plant were analyzed in the yield of carbohydrates (YC, fructan (FRU content, simple sugars, fructan profile and the average degree of polymerization (DPn. UPD, S:L ratio, and plant age all affected YC, FRU, and DPn. Maximum YC and FRU were obtained from the older agave with UPD and S:L ratio of 120 mW/mL and 1:6, respectively; while glucose, fructose, and sucrose were highly released from the younger plant. Agave of 7-year-old presented the highest DPn. Fructan degradation occurred at high UPD, increasing the simple sugars and decreasing the DPn. Thermal-traditional extraction without sonication caused more fructan degradation; and overall, ultrasound enhanced fructan extraction and minimized fructan damage, representing a technological alternative for fructan extraction from agave.

  11. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of (Pb, Sn)Te Thermoelectric Modules with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film Sn Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. H.; Lin, H. J.; Chuang, C. H.; Yeh, W. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    A (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element plated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer has been joined with a Cu electrode coated with Ag and Sn thin films using a solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding method. This method allows the interfacial reaction between Ag and Sn such that Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds form at low temperature and are stable at high temperature. In this study, the bonding strength was about 6.6 MPa, and the specimens fractured along the interface between the (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element and the Ni barrier layer. Pre-electroplating a film of Sn with a thickness of about 1 μm on the thermoelectric element and pre-heating at 250°C for 3 min ensures the adhesion between the thermoelectric material and the Ni barrier layer. The bonding strength is thus increased to a maximal value of 12.2 MPa, and most of the fractures occur inside the thermoelectric material. During the bonding process, not only the Ag3Sn intermetallics but also Cu6Sn5 forms at the Ag3Sn/Cu interface, which transforms into Cu3Sn with increases in the bonding temperature or bonding time.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of carotenoids and tocopherols in botanical species using one step solid-liquid extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, Izaskun; Bustamante, María Ángeles; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; Nájera, Ana Isabel; de Renobales, Mertxe; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2015-04-15

    Carotenoids and tocopherols from botanical species abundant in Atlantic mountain grasslands were simultaneously extracted using one-step solid-liquid phase. A single n-hexane/2-propanol extract containing both types of compounds was injected twice under two different sets of HPLC conditions to separate the tocopherols by normal-phase chromatography and carotenoids by reverse-phase mode. The method allowed reproducible quantification in plant samples of very low amounts of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols (LOD from 0.0379 to 0.0720 μg g(-1) DM) and over 15 different xanthophylls and carotene isomers. The simplified one-step extraction without saponification significantly increased the recovery of tocopherols and carotenoids, thereby enabling the determination of α-tocopherol acetate in plant samples. The two different sets of chromatographic analysis provided near baseline separation of individual compounds without interference from other lipid compounds extracted from plants, and a very sensitive and accurate detection of tocopherols and carotenoids. The detection of minor individual components in botanical species from grasslands is nowadays of high interest in searching for biomarkers for foods derived from grazing animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  14. Pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction combined with anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of lead and cadmium in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Es’haghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is presented for the determination of low concentrations of lead and cadmium in water samples. Ligand assisted pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction using sol–gel sorbent reinforced with carbon nanotubes was combined with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in tap water, and Darongar river water samples. In the present work, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE was used in order to determine the ultra trace level of lead and cadmium ions in real samples. This method is based on accumulation of lead and cadmium ions on the electrode using different ligands; Quinolin-8-ol, 5,7-diiodo quinoline-8-ol, 4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2(3H-one and 2-{[2-(2-Hydroxy-ethylamino-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenol as the complexing agent. The optimized conditions were obtained. The relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 0.05–500 ng mL−1 for Cd (II and Pb (II. The limits of detection for lead and cadmium were 0.015 ng mL−1 and 0.012 ng mL−1, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the pre-concentration factors are 2440 and 3710 for Cd (II and Pb (II in 5 mL of water sample, respectively.

  15. Microstructure and transport current characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-x thick films prepared by modified solid-liquid melt growth and powder melt process routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhorn, J.; McGinn, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    From the characterization of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thick films processed by melt texturing on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates from YBCO precursors it is clear that the properties are highly dependent on the precursor powder. Increased YBCO grain sizes have been induced in thick films processed from by modified solid-liquid melt growth (SLMG) and powder melt (PMP) processes with respect to those processed from pre-reacted YBCO materials. The SLMG and PMP routes utilize precursors consisting of BaCuO 2 -CuO flux material mixed with Y 2 O 3 and Y 2 BaCuO 5 respectively. Cross-sectional analysis of films textured by these routes shows a decreased Y 2 BaCuO 5 size and an increased homogeneity within the matrix with respect to films processed from YBCO powder. Such microstructural improvements lead to an improvement of both the flux pinning and current-carrying characteristics of the processed YBCO films. (author)

  16. The existence of a plastic phase and a solid-liquid dynamical bistability region in small fullerene cluster (C60)7: molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatek, A; Dawid, A; Gburski, Z

    2006-01-01

    We have simulated (by the molecular dymanics (MD) method) the dynamics of fullerenes (C 60 ) in an extremely small cluster composed of only as many as seven C 60 molecules. The interaction is taken to be the full 60-site pairwise additive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential which generates both translational and anisotropic rotational motions of each molecule. Our atomically detailed MD simulations discover the plastic phase (no translations but active reorientations of fullerenes) at low energies (temperatures) of the (C 60 ) 7 cluster. We provide the in-depth evidence of the dynamical solid-liquid bistability region in the investigated cluster. Moreover, we confirm the existence of the liquid phase in (C 60 ) 7 , the finding of Gallego et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 5258) obtained earlier on the basis of Girifalco's model, which assumes single-site only and spherically symmetrical interaction between C 60 molecules. We have calculated the translational and angular velocity autocorrelation functions and estimated the diffusion coefficient of fullerene in the liquid phase

  17. [Gastric emptying of a solid-liquid meal in normal subjects: validity of the labeling (99mTc) of chicken liver by a multipuncture technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostein, J; Capony, P; Busquet, G; Bost, R; Fournet, J

    1985-04-01

    For gastric emptying studies of a solid-liquid meal by the scintigraphic method, a valid isotope labeling method for each phase of the meal must be obtained. The aim of this study was to validate a simple chicken liver labeling method in normal subjects by multipuncture technic with 99mtechnetium. Labeling according to Meyer's method was chosen as a reference. Simultaneously, a study of the quality of liquid phase labeling by 111indium was done. The labeling process quality for each phase of the meal was assessed: a) in vitro, after incubation of the meal with human gastric juice (n = 12); b) in vivo, after meal ingestion and sequential collection of gastric contents by aspiration (n = 4). Furthermore, in 8 healthy volunteers, gastric emptying curves of the solid and liquid phases of the meal were determined scintigraphically and compared. Our results showed: a) for the solid phase: a good specificity of the marker, which was assessed in vitro and in vivo, after liver labeling with multipuncture technique (89 p. 100 and 92 p. 100 after 180 min, respectively); b) for the liquid phase: a good specificity of the marker in vitro and a poor specificity in vivo (82 p. 100 and 27 p. 100 after 180 min, respectively); c) similar half-gastric emptying times and cumulative percentages for the solid and liquid phases with both liver labeling methods. In conclusion, the multipuncture technique for chicken liver labeling may be used for gastric emptying studies in humans.

  18. A validated solid-liquid extraction method for the HPLC determination of polyphenols in apple tissues Comparison with pressurised liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Barranco, Alejandro; Corta, Edurne; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2005-02-15

    A solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (DAD) for the determination of polyphenols in freeze-dried apple peel and pulp is reported. The extraction step consists in sonicating 0.5g of freeze-dried apple tissue with 30mL of methanol-water-acetic acid (30:69:1, v/v/v) containing 2g of ascorbic acid/L, for 10min in an ultrasonic bath. The whole method was validated, concluding that it is a robust method that presents high extraction efficiencies (peel: >91%, pulp: >95%) and appropriate precisions (within day: R.S.D. (n = 5) <5%, and between days: R.S.D. (n = 5) <7%) at the different concentration levels of polyphenols that can be found in apple samples. The method was compared with one previously published, consisting in a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by RP-HPLC-DAD determination. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed.

  19. Experimental Quantification of Pore-Scale Flow Phenomena in 2D Heterogeneous Porous Micromodels: Multiphase Flow Towards Coupled Solid-Liquid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 within saline aquifers is a viable technology for reducing CO2 emissions. Central to this goal is accurately predicting both the fidelity of candidate sites pre-injection of CO2 and its post-injection migration. Moreover, local fluid pressure buildup may cause activation of small pre-existing unidentified faults, leading to micro-seismic events, which could prove disastrous for societal acceptance of CCS, and possibly compromise seal integrity. Recent evidence shows that large-scale events are coupled with pore-scale phenomena, which necessitates the representation of pore-scale stress, strain, and multiphase flow processes in large-scale modeling. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions, over a range of wettability conditions in 2D heterogeneous micromodels that reflect the complexity of a real sandstone. High-speed fluorescent microscopy, complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A flexible micromodel is also designed and fabricated, to be used in conjunction with the micro-PIV technique, enabling the quantification of coupled solid-liquid interactions.

  20. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Cindy M. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cindy.cooke@imperial.ac.uk; Shaw, George [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of {sup 14}C-isoproturon and {sup 14}C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d} values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K{sub d} range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K{sub d} range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances.

  1. Numerical research on the effects of impeller pump-out vanes on axial force in a solid-liquid screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X R; Li, R N; Gao, Y; Guo, W L

    2013-01-01

    A commercial CFD code has been used to predict the performance of a screw centrifugal pump with pump-out vanes, especially when changing regularity of impeller axial force based on the solid-liquid two-phase flow. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach has been applied to solve the unsteady, incompressible, three-dimensional turbulent. The SIMPLEC algorithm, standard wall functions and mix two-phase flow model were applied. The RNG k ε-model was used to account the turbulence effects. By changing the number of impeller pump-out vanes and width, six different screw centrifugal pump numerical simulation projects were given, and each scheme in the different solid volume fraction were calculated respectively. The change rules of axial force, velocity and pressure distribution of flow field were obtained on the different condition and different volume fraction. The results showed that the axial forces values based solid-fluid two-phase greater than based single-phase clear water, but both changing regularity of the axial force were consistent; as same condition, the same solid-phase volume concentration, with the increase of pump-out vanes number or width, the impeller axial force increased as well. Meanwhile the number of the pump-out vanes and the width of pump-out vanes in balancing the impeller axial force, there are the most optimal value

  2. Kinetics, morphology and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition of non-metals. Progress report, March 1, 1979-February 28, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekerka, R.F.

    1979-08-01

    Some previous work on Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth was documented. New calculations have been made to show that for large rf skin depths, the temperature of the sample depends in a systematic way on only three dimensionless parameters; these characterize the rf power level, the surface heat transfer coefficient, and the ambient temperature. Critical values are given for the ambient temperature below which curves of sample temperature versus RF power level are S-shaped. Based on this improvement in understanding, our previous numerical results, valid for arbitrary skin depths, are being prepared for publication. Work continues toward the measurement of the solid-liquid surface tensions of non-metallic materials via the grain-boundary groove technique. Degassed samples of GeO 2 have been obtained, but the necessary temperature caused damage to the quartz tube in our present apparatus, necessitating a new design. While the new apparatus is under construction, sodium sulfate will be used as a prototype material to enable work on the optical system. Use of an astronomical telescope in conjunction with the optical viewpoint leads to poor image quality so we are considering the substitution of a microscope with a large working distance. Previous difficulties with numerical calculation of the temperature profiles in the system have been alleviated by using finer grid sizes for the finite difference scheme. Further effort has been expended to form the basis of new work on the application of Onsager's theory of reciprocity to transport phenomena in solids

  3. Multiphase flow towards coupled solid-liquid interactions in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels: a fluorescent microscopy and micro-PIV measurement at pore scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth; Kenneth Christensen, Notre Dame Team

    2017-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is relevant to a range of applications in the energy and environmental sectors. Recently, the interest has been renewed by geological storage of CO2 within saline aquifers. Central to this goal is predicting the fidelity of candidate sites pre-injection of CO2 and its post-injection migration. Moreover, local pressure buildup may cause micro-seismic events, which could prove disastrous, and possibly compromise seal integrity. Evidence shows that the large-scale events are coupled with pore-scale phenomena, necessitating the understanding of pore-scale stress, strain, and flow processes and their representation in large-scale modeling. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions over a range of wettability conditions in 2D heterogeneous micromodels that reflect the complexity of real sandstone. High-speed fluorescent microscopy, complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A flexible micromodel is also designed, to be used in conjunction with the micro-PIV technique, enabling the quantification of coupled solid-liquid interactions. This work was supported as part of the GSCO2, an EFRC funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, and partially supported by WPI-I2CNER.

  4. Sludge Batch 5 Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace Test with Frits 418 and 550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Donald; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Based on Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) testing for the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) projected composition and assessments of the potential frits with reasonable operating windows, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) testing with Frits 418 and 550. DWPF is currently using Frit 418 with SB5 based on SRNL's recommendation due to its ability to accommodate significant sodium variation in the sludge composition. However, experience with high boron containing frits in DWPF indicated a potential advantage for Frit 550 might exist. Therefore, SRNL performed SMRF testing to assess Frit 550's potential advantages. The results of SMRF testing with SB5 simulant indicate that there is no appreciable difference in melt rate between Frit 418 and Frit 550 at a targeted 34 weight % waste loading. Both batches exhibited comparable behavior when delivered through the feed tube by the peristaltic pump. Limited observation of the cold cap during both runs showed no indication of major cold cap mounding. MRF testing, performed after the SMRF runs due to time constraints, with the same two Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) dried products led to the same conclusion. Although visual observations of the cross-sectioned MRF beakers indicated differences in the appearance of the two systems, the measured melt rates were both ∼0.6 in/hr. Therefore, SRNL does not recommend a change from Frit 418 for the initial SB5 processing in DWPF. Once the actual SB5 composition is known and revised projections of SB5 after the neptunium stream addition and any decants is provided, SRNL will perform an additional compositional window assessment with Frit 418. If requested, SRNL can also include other potential frits in this assessment should processing of SB5 with Frit 418 result in less than desirable melter throughput in DWPF. The frits would then be subjected to melt rate testing at SRNL to determine any potential advantages

  5. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  6. Agronomic valuing of slurry for management in common

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.; Estevez, M. D.; Faz, A.; Olivares, A. B.; Climent, V.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the intensification of livestock production and the concentration of holdings in specific areas, has disrupted the balance between production and utilization of swine waste in agriculture. given the volume of slurry generated in Murcia, and the total cultivable area and considering the legislation, RD 261/1996, which allows a maximum application of 170 kg N/ha year in areas designated as vulnerable, it is estimated that to implement the slurry generated in the region in a year, would require only half the arable land devoted to irrigation. In this way, this study has included detailed monitoring of the effect of the application of ping slurry at a concentration recommended on the properties and chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, water and plant to determine the influence of slurry on the reserve of organic matter in each of these crops, as well as contaminated soils, through the creation of a pilot system for managing livestock waste in accordance with preventive measures that allow for their optimal use, without risk of contamination for the system water-soil-plant. (Author 6 refs.

  7. Mineralenconcentraten uit dierlijke mest = Mineral concentrates from animal slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, P.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 6 pilot production plants of mineral concentrates from animal manure were monitored, with the aim of gathering additional data on the chemical composition of the raw slurry and the end products. Beside that a literature review was executed to reveal the biological degradability of

  8. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects

  9. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (2) - surfactants dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  10. Developing Archetypal Machines for a Sequence of Food- Slurry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This current work is targeted at developing various archetypal machines for the improvement of the production of these food slurries. Three prototype machines have been developed and discussed in this paper, namely, the suction sieving machine, the vibration sieving machine and the continuous flow multi-stage milling ...

  11. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  12. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  13. The effect of slurry rheology on cold cap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, D.D.; Hrma, P.

    1991-01-01

    Yield stress, viscosity, and flow distance were measured on three simulated nuclear waste feeds at different temperatures and oxide loadings. Hydroxide, formate, and frit feeds, to produce glass of identical composition, were tested. Application of the results to a slurry fed waste glass melter is discussed

  14. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  15. Debris flow rheology: Experimental analysis of fine-grained slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The rheology of slurries consisting of ≤2-mm sediment from a natural debris flow deposit was measured using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The influence of sediment concentration and size and distribution of grains on the bulk rheological behavior of the slurries was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 0.66. The slurries exhibit diverse rheological behavior. At shear rates above 5 s−1 the behavior approaches that of a Bingham material; below 5 s−1, sand exerts more influence and slurry behavior deviates from the Bingham idealization. Sand grain interactions dominate the mechanical behavior when sand concentration exceeds 0.2; transient fluctuations in measured torque, time-dependent decay of torque, and hysteresis effects are observed. Grain rubbing, interlocking, and collision cause changes in packing density, particle distribution, grain orientation, and formation and destruction of grain clusters, which may explain the observed behavior. Yield strength and plastic viscosity exhibit order-of-magnitude variation when sediment concentration changes as little as 2–4%. Owing to these complexities, it is unlikely that debris flows can be characterized by a single rheological model.

  16. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  17. Slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization of bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiulin; Wu, Jili; Pi, Jinghong; Cheng, Jiangbo; Shan, Yiping; Zhang, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure evolution and phase transformation of metallic glasses (MGs) could occur under heating condition or mechanical deformation. The cross-section of as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 MG rod was impacted by the solid particles when subjected to erosion in slurry flow. The surface microstructure was observed by XRD before and after slurry erosion. And the stress-driven de-vitrification increases with the increase of erosion time. A microstructure evolution layer with 1-2 μm thickness was formed on the topmost eroded surface. And a short range atomic ordering prevails in the microstructure evolution layer with crystalline size around 2-3 nm embedded in the amorphous matrix. The XPS analysis reveals that most of the metal elements in the MG surface, except for Cu, were oxidized. And a composite layer with ZrO2 and Al2O3 phases were formed in the topmost surface after slurry erosion. The cooling rate during solidification of MG has a strong influence on the slurry erosion induced nanocrystallization. And a lower cooling rate favors the surface nanocrystallization because of lower activation energy and thermo-stability. Finally, the slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization and microstructure evolution result in surface hardening and strengthening. Moreover, the microstructure evolution mechanisms were discussed and it is related to the cooling rate of solidification and the impact-induced temperature rise, as well as the combined effects of the impact-induced plastic flow, inter-diffusion and oxidation of the metal elements.

  18. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 μm, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0

  19. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  1. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil–slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size...... fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used....... Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid–liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon...

  2. Leaf absorption of atmospheric ammonia emitted from pig slurry applied beneath the canopy of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjedde Sommer, S.; Jensen, E.S.; Kofoed Schjoerring, J.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of volatilized ammonia after application of slurry onto the soil surface (sand) between rows of a wheat crop was studied in two experiments. The slurry was labelled with 15 N-NH 4 . During seven days the accumulated gaseous N loss from the slurry varied from 6.9 to 11.1 g N m -2 . In April ammonia losses from slurry applied beneath a 5 cm high wheat crop were equal to losses from slurry applied to a fallow, but 2.2% of the lost atmospheric ammonia was taken up by the leaves. In May ammonia loss from slurry applied between the rows of a 43 cm high crop was reduced by 6% compared to the loss from fallow, because of a reduced transfer of ammonia from the slurry to the air. Of the emitted ammonia 3.3% was absorbed by the canopy. (au)

  3. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  4. Amino acids separation with the tetracarboxylic derived of the para-ter-butylcalix[4]arene by means of solid-liquid extraction assisted with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal R, R. del C.

    2014-01-01

    The tetracarboxylic derived of the para-ter-butylcalix[4]arene (B 4 ACEbL 4 ) does not exist commercially for what was synthesized and characterized at laboratory level. The separation of the L-tyrosine amino acid was studied by means of a solid-liquid extraction system with the B 4 ACEbL 4 as solid phase, in function of ph (2.5-7.5) and contact time (5 and 15 hours) to temperature of 15-17 grades C. Resulted that the ph and the contact time were decisive in the extraction percentage of water tyrosine. The lowest percentage was 49% to ph 4 and the highest percentage was 61% to ph 7.5 with 15 hours of contact. In a contact time of 5 hours the extraction was inferior to 32% (ph 4) and of 47% to ph 6.5. The europium effect (Eu (III)) was studied to ph acid in the tyrosine separation and was found that the tyrosine extraction is not increased neither decomposes in europium presence, this is simultaneously extracted by the calixarene but it does not enter in competition for the calixarene with the amino acid. The separate solid phases: calixarene-tyrosine was analyzed by Far infrared radiation (Fir), Mid-Infrared (Mir) spectroscopy and luminescence to check the tyrosine presence in the separate solids as well as the nature of the connection calixarene-tyrosine. In this way was possible to check the tyrosine presence and to propose the formed molecular species tyrosine-calixarene, those which interact mainly by means of hydrogen connections and Van der Waals forces. The liquid phases before and after the extraction were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and luminescence. The Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the europium content in the solid and liquid phases of extractions in europium presence. The tyrosine degradation also shows dependence with the ph, obtaining 88% degradation to the 24 hours to ph 7.5, while to ph 3 is degraded the 54% of tyrosine present in the sample. The europium presence does not affect the tyrosine extraction but if its photo

  5. Structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface of dispersed triglyceride nanocrystals with small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiele, Martin; Schindler, Torben; Unruh, Tobias; Busch, Sebastian; Morhenn, Humphrey; Westermann, Martin; Steiniger, Frank; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Schweins, Ralf; Boesecke, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Dispersions of crystalline nanoparticles with at least one sufficiently large unit cell dimension can give rise to Bragg reflections in the small-angle scattering range. If the nanocrystals possess only a small number of unit cells along these particular crystallographic directions, the corresponding Bragg reflections will be broadened. In a previous study of phospholipid stabilized dispersions of β-tripalmitin platelets [Unruh, J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR0021-889810.1107/S0021889807044378 40, 1008 (2007)], the x-ray powder pattern simulation analysis (XPPSA) was developed. The XPPSA method facilitates the interpretation of the rather complicated small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) curves of such dispersions of nanocrystals. The XPPSA method yields the distribution function of the platelet thicknesses and facilitates a structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface between the nanocrystals and the dispersion medium from the shape of the broadened 001 Bragg reflection. In this contribution an improved and extended version of the XPPSA method is presented. The SAXS and small-angle neutron scattering patterns of dilute phospholipid stabilized tripalmitin dispersions can be reproduced on the basis of a consistent simulation model for the particles and their phospholipid stabilizer layer on an absolute scale. The results indicate a surprisingly flat arrangement of the phospholipid molecules in the stabilizer layer with a total thickness of only 12 Å. The stabilizer layer can be modeled by an inner shell for the fatty acid chains and an outer shell including the head groups and additional water. The experiments support a dense packing of the phospholipid molecules on the nanocrystal surfaces rather than isolated phospholipid domains.

  6. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of graphene layer thickness and mechanical compliance on interfacial heat flow and thermal conduction in solid-liquid phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzoha, Ronald J; Fleischer, Amy S

    2014-08-13

    Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs) are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage and electronics cooling applications but have limited applicability in state-of-the-art technologies due to their low intrinsic thermal conductivities. Recent efforts to incorporate graphene and multilayer graphene into PCMs have led to the development of thermal energy storage materials with remarkable values of bulk thermal conductivity. However, the full potential of graphene as a filler material for the thermal enhancement of PCMs remains unrealized, largely due to an incomplete understanding of the physical mechanisms that govern thermal transport within graphene-based nanocomposites. In this work, we show that the number of graphene layers (n) within an individual graphene nanoparticle has a significant effect on the bulk thermal conductivity of an organic PCM. Results indicate that the bulk thermal conductivity of PCMs can be tuned by over an order of magnitude simply by adjusting the number of graphene layers (n) from n = 3 to 44. Using scanning electron microscopy in tandem with nanoscale analytical techniques, the physical mechanisms that govern heat flow within a graphene nanocomposite PCM are found to be nearly independent of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the graphene nanoparticle itself and are instead found to be dependent on the mechanical compliance of the graphene nanoparticles. These findings are critical for the design and development of PCMs that are capable of cooling next-generation electronics and storing heat effectively in medium-to-large-scale energy systems, including solar-thermal power plants and building heating and cooling systems.

  8. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  9. High temperature investigation of the solid/liquid transition in the PuO2-UO2-ZrO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaini, A.; Guéneau, C.; Gossé, S.; Sundman, B.; Manara, D.; Smith, A. L.; Bottomley, D.; Lajarge, P.; Ernstberger, M.; Hodaj, F.

    2015-12-01

    The solid/liquid transitions in the quaternary U-Pu-Zr-O system are of great interest for the analysis of core meltdown accidents in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) fuelled with uranium-dioxide and MOX. During a severe accident the Zr-based cladding can become completely oxidised due to the interaction with the oxide fuel and the water coolant. In this framework, the present analysis is focused on the pseudo-ternary system UO2-PuO2-ZrO2. The melting/solidification behaviour of five pseudo-ternary and one pseudo-binary ((PuO2)0.50(ZrO2)0.50) compositions have been investigated experimentally by a laser heating method under pre-set atmospheres. The effects of an oxidising or reducing atmosphere on the observed melting/freezing temperatures, as well as the amount of UO2 in the sample, have been clearly identified for the different compositions. The oxygen-to-metal ratio is a key parameter affecting the melting/freezing temperature because of incongruent vaporisation effects. In parallel, a detailed thermodynamic model for the UO2-PuO2-ZrO2 system has been developed using the CALPHAD method, and thermodynamic calculations have been performed to interpret the present laser heating results, as well as the high temperature behaviour of the cubic (Pu,U,Zr)O2±x-c mixed oxide phase. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data points. This work enables an improved understanding of the major factors relevant to severe accident in nuclear reactors.

  10. Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): a New Rapid and Greener Method for Extracting Two Steviol Glycosides (Stevioside and Rebaudioside A) from Stevia Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Vitulano, Manuela; Andolfi, Anna; DellaGreca, Marina; Conte, Esterina; Ciaravolo, Martina; Naviglio, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main diterpene glycosides present in the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana plant, which is used in the production of foods and low-calorie beverages. The difficulties associated with their extraction and purification are currently a problem for the food processing industries. The objective of this study was to develop an effective and economically viable method to obtain a high-quality product while trying to overcome the disadvantages derived from the conventional transformation processes. For this reason, extractions were carried out using a conventional maceration (CM) and a cyclically pressurized extraction known as rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) by the Naviglio extractor (NE). After only 20 min of extraction using the NE, a quantity of rebaudioside A and stevioside equal to 1197.8 and 413.6 mg/L was obtained, respectively, while for the CM, the optimum time was 90 min. From the results, it can be stated that the extraction process by NE and its subsequent purification developed in this study is a simple, economical, environmentally friendly method for producing steviol glycosides. Therefore, this method constitutes a valid alternative to conventional extraction by reducing the extraction time and the consumption of toxic solvents and favouring the use of the extracted metabolites as food additives and/or nutraceuticals. As an added value and of local interest, the experiment was carried out on stevia leaves from the Benevento area (Italy), where a high content of rebaudioside A was observed, which exhibits a sweet taste compared to stevioside, which has a significant bitter aftertaste.

  11. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High temperature investigation of the solid/liquid transition in the PuO{sub 2}–UO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaini, A. [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guéneau, C., E-mail: christine.gueneau@cea.fr [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gossé, S. [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sundman, B. [INSTN, CEA Saclay (France); Manara, D.; Smith, A.L.; Bottomley, D.; Lajarge, P.; Ernstberger, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hodaj, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Grenoble INP, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-15

    The solid/liquid transitions in the quaternary U-Pu-Zr-O system are of great interest for the analysis of core meltdown accidents in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) fuelled with uranium-dioxide and MOX. During a severe accident the Zr-based cladding can become completely oxidised due to the interaction with the oxide fuel and the water coolant. In this framework, the present analysis is focused on the pseudo-ternary system UO{sub 2}–PuO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2}. The melting/solidification behaviour of five pseudo-ternary and one pseudo-binary ((PuO{sub 2}){sub 0.50}(ZrO{sub 2}){sub 0.50}) compositions have been investigated experimentally by a laser heating method under pre-set atmospheres. The effects of an oxidising or reducing atmosphere on the observed melting/freezing temperatures, as well as the amount of UO{sub 2} in the sample, have been clearly identified for the different compositions. The oxygen-to-metal ratio is a key parameter affecting the melting/freezing temperature because of incongruent vaporisation effects. In parallel, a detailed thermodynamic model for the UO{sub 2}–PuO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} system has been developed using the CALPHAD method, and thermodynamic calculations have been performed to interpret the present laser heating results, as well as the high temperature behaviour of the cubic (Pu,U,Zr)O{sub 2±x}-c mixed oxide phase. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data points. This work enables an improved understanding of the major factors relevant to severe accident in nuclear reactors.

  13. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Sohlenius, Gustav; Omberg, Lars-Gunnar; Borgiel, Mikael; Grolander, Sara; Norden, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K d data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K d values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K d resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K d values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K d values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K d values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  14. Study of solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces in Cu–isoleucine complex by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Pilar; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.

    2013-01-01

    The enzymes could be understood like structures formed by amino acids bonded with metals, which act as active sites. The research on the coordination of metal–amino acid complexes will bring light on the behavior of metal enzymes, due to the close relation existing between the atomic structure and the functionality. The Cu–isoleucine bond is considered as a good model system to attain a better insight into the characteristics of naturally occurring copper metalloproteins. The surface structure of metal–amino acid complex could be considered as a more realistic model for real systems under biologic working conditions, since the molecular packing is decreased. In the surface, the structural constrains are reduced, keeping the structural capability of surface complex to change as a function of the surrounding environment. In this work, we present a surface X-ray diffraction study on Cu–isoleucine complex under different ambient conditions. Cu(Ile) 2 crystals of about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm have been growth, by seeding method in a supersaturated solution, presenting a surface of high quality. The sample for the surface diffraction study was mounted on a cell specially designed for solid/liquid or solid/gas interface analysis. The Cu–isoleucine crystal was measured under a protective dry N 2 gas flow and in contact with a saturated metal amino acid solution. The bulk and the surface signals were compared, showing different atomic structures. In both cases, from surface diffraction data, it is observed that the atomic structure of the top layer undergoes a clear structural deformation. A non-uniform surface relaxation is observed producing an inhomogeneous displacement of the surface atoms towards the surface normal.

  15. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  16. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  17. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    with this interaction mechanism mainly give a geometrical protection against oxidation by blocking oxygen access at the surface of the oxide scale. The protecting effect is gradually reduced as the oxide scale grows thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. Interaction mechanism B entails a chemical reaction...... scale. The incorporated coating particles create a geometrical protection against oxidation that should not loose their effect after the oxide scale has grown thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. The two single layer coatings consisting of (La0.85Sr0.15)MnO3 + 10% excess Mn, LSM, and (La0......In this project, high temperature oxidation experiments of slurry coated ferritic alloys in atmospheres similar to the atmosphere found at the cathode in an SOFC were conducted. From the observations possible interaction mechanisms between the slurry coatings and the growing oxide scale...

  18. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  19. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  20. Design of a new abrasive slurry jet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. C.; Shi, L. L.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the advantages of a low system working pressure, good jet convergence and high cutting quality, abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) has broad application prospects in material cutting and equipment cleaning. Considering that the generator plays a crucial role in ASJ system, the paper designed a new type ASJ generator using an electric oil pump, a separate plunger cylinder, and a spring energized seal. According to the determining of structure shape, size and seal type, a new ASJ generator has been manufactured out and tested by a series of experiments. The new generator separates the abrasive slurry from the dynamic hydraulic oil, which can improve the service life of the ASJ system. And the new ASJ system can reach 40 MPa and has good performance in jet convergence, which deserves to popularization and application in materials machining.

  1. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.; Karagoz, A.; Ozdemir, Z.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chen, Long

    2013-01-01

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  2. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO 2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14 CO 2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH) 2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH) 2 . Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  3. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties

  4. An oilwell cement slurry additivated with bisphenol diglycidil ether/isophoronediamine-Kinetic analysis and multivariate modelings at slurry/HCl interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, Antonio R.; Vieira, Eunice F.S.; Tavares, Andrea M.G.; Andrade, Marcos A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of zonal isolation in oilwell cementing operations leads to safety and environmental problems. The use of new cement slurries can help to solve this problem. In this paper, an epoxy-modified cement slurry was synthesized and characterized. The features of the modified slurries were evaluated in relation to a standard cement slurry (w/c = 0.50). A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the slurries was carried out using cubic molds. The Avrami kinetic model appears to be the most efficient in describing kinetic isotherms obtained from 25 to 55 deg. C. Type of slurry, HCl concentration and temperature effects were also evaluated in HCl adsorption onto cement slurries considering a 2 3 full factorial design. From the statistical analysis, it is inferred that the factor 'HCl concentration' has shown a profound influence on the numerical values of the Avrami kinetic constants. However, the best statistical fits were found using binary and tertiary interactive effects. It was found that the epoxy-modified cement slurry presents a good potential to be used in environmental-friendly oilwell operations.

  5. Slurry growth: the characterization of a unique phenomenon at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Slurry growth, unique to the Hanford Site, is a significant increase in the volume of waste contained in a waste storage tank without the addition of new waste. Slurry growth is caused by gas entrapment within waste slurries which causes the slurry to swell, like bread dough. The surface of the slurry rises until either gas pressure is great enough or the weight of the slurry over the gases is great enough to cause the surface of the slurry to collapse. The gases causing slurry growth are generated from decomposition of organics present in high-level nuclear waste (HEDTA, EDTA, GLY). Predominant gases are H 2 , N 2 , N 2 O, NO/sub x/, and CO 2 . More gas is generated, and at a faster rate, as the temperature increases. Slurry growth, although not completely eliminated, is being safely and effectively controlled. The parameters affecting slurry growth have been defined, and predictive equations have been established. The knowledge gained through laboratory experiments contributes to continued safe and efficient high-level waste management practices at the Hanford Site

  6. Rheological properties of concentrated alumina slurries: influence of ph and dispersant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewais, E.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the ph, the electrolyte concentrations and the rheological properties of high concentrated alumina slurries in aqueous medium is of great importance because it is considered to be the key to control the stability of the slurries from flocculation. Zeta potential of alumina slurries with and without Duramax C (dispersant agent) as a function of ph was studied. Two ph around the zero point of charge of alumina slurries were selected for the investigation of rheological properties. The rheological properties of aqueous alumina slurries with respect to different parameters, e.g.: viscosity, elastic modulus (storage modulus G) and viscous modulus (loss modulus G), were investigated. Viscosity measurements of the slurries as a function of Duramax C content at both ph 8.4 and 9.4) were used to determine the state of slurries. Three states of slurries, termed flocculated, partially de flocculated and fully de flocculated, were selected for further investigation. The viscosity of the three slurries at both ph as a function of shear rate was determined. Fully de flocculated slurry shows Newtonian behavior at all shear rates at both tested ph compared by the partial de flocculated and flocculated system. Results of investigation of G and G at ph of 9.4 as a function of applied stress explored the critical stress

  7. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative...... indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw...

  8. Effect of alkaline slurry on the electric character of the pattern Cu wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yi; Liu Yuling; Liu Xiaoyan; He Yangang; Wang Liran; Zhang Baoguo

    2011-01-01

    For process integration considerations, we will investigate the impact of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) on the electrical characteristics of the pattern Cu wafer. In this paper, we investigate the impacts of the CMP process with two kinds of slurry, one of which is acid slurry of SVTC and the other is FA/O alkaline slurry purchased from Tianjin Jingling Microelectronic Material Limited. Three aspects were investigated: resistance, capacitance and leakage current. The result shows that after polishing by the slurry of FA/O, the resistance is lower than the SVTC. After polishing by the acid slurry and FA/O alkaline slurry, the difference in capacitance is not very large. The values are 0.1 nF and 0.12 nF, respectively. The leakage current of the film polished by the slurry of FA/O is 0.01 nA, which is lower than the slurry of SVTC. The results show that the slurry of FA/O produced less dishing and oxide loss than the slurry of SVTC. (semiconductor technology)

  9. Piston membrane pumps for slurries transport; Kolbenmembranpumpen fuer den Schlammtransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, F. [Abel GmbH und Co. KG, Buechen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    As raw materials prices are rising, ore and coal mines in remote parts of the world have become profitable. Local infrastructures in these regions are not comparable with Europe. There are no rods or railways, and pipelines must be constructed parallel to rivers through deserts, mountains and rainforests. As a rule, pipelines do not follow favourable geological conditions but are constructed along the shortest possible rout to the nearest port or the nearest processing plant. Slurries are transported by pumping. (orig.)

  10. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (1) - flucculant dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    During the past four decades, the radioactive slurry liquid waste(RSLW) is produced by operation of TRIGA Mark - II and III research reactors, producing radioisotopes and studying on RI utilization. Vacuum filtration of RSLW and flocculated RSLW with cationic, anionic and nonionic flocculants has been investigated. Test results show that critical dose of flocculant is obtained by the estimation of settling rate, cake moisture content and specific cake residence

  11. Putting the coal slurry pipelines to the test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauermann, H B

    1978-03-01

    This paper deals with the advantages and disadvantages of coal slurry pipelines and describes coal slurry tests undertaken in three test circuits with 100, 200 and 250 mm diameter pipes. The test results from the test circuits were used to scale-up pressure gradients to larger pipe diameters. The construction and installation of hydraulic transport pipelines is simple and requires a minimum of space. The crossing of rivers, roads, railways or any other obstacles is comparatively easy. The operation, supervision and maintenance of a pipeline is simple since any pipeline can be easily adapted for fully automatic control. For this reason manpower requirements are small resulting in only small increases in operating costs during the life of a pipeline. This is an attractive feature in any economy troubled by inflationary trends. In transporting a commodity such as coal the quantities handled are usually large and the distances are long. The profitability of hydraulic transportation systems benefits from such operating conditions. Even though the various components of a slurry transport system, such as the slurrying facilities at the mine end and the dewatering facilities at the utilization end, are complex, their reliability is high. Against the advantages, the following limitations can be visualized: It is practically impossible to transport solids other than those for which the pipeline was designed; in this regard, road and rail transportation is more versatile. The solids throughput through a pipeline cannot be economically increased beyond its design throughput. Pipelining involves the use of fluids, in most cases water, which in some instances may not be readily available.

  12. Process for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A process is described for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry, substantially aqueous. The composition consists essentially of a suspension of an inorganic oxygen salt for furnishing oxygen in a fluid matrix. This fluid matrix consists of a lower aliphatic glycol (ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene) thickened with one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) or mixtures of them. The composition should have a density below 1.8 g per cu cm. (5 claims)

  13. Atomization of JP-10/B4C gelled slurry fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmi, John David

    1992-01-01

    The atomization of a gelled boron slurry fuel using two commercially available airblast atomizers was studied at atmospheric pressure in non-reacting flow. The atomization of water was also characterized for comparison. Each atomizer was operated at two different liquid mass flow rates and several air/ fuel ratios. Drop size distribution was measured using a Malvern 2600 HSD Laser Diffraction Particle Sizer, Drop sizes acceptable for use in ramjet combustors could be obtained f...

  14. Design of agitation systems in Bingham slurries by pilot simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method was required to determine the optimum agitator speed needed to produce overall motion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high-level waste slurries in remote process cell vessels. Project schedule and limited process space required an accurate determination of agitator horsepower and size without the benefit of full-scale testing. The small scale testing of unique clear rheologically similar fluid is described along with tests and scale-up procedures. 2 refs., 3 figs

  15. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  16. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  17. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  18. Automation of the second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Juliana M.; Fonseca, Mario L.; Drumond, Pablo P.; Barbosa, Sylvio [IHM Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco was build to attend the Third Pellet Plant Project, which includes a new Concentration Plant at Germano-MG and a third Pellet Plant at Ubu-ES. It has 396km of extension and links the two plants by pulping the iron ore slurry prepared at Germano Unit. This works aims to present the iron ore slurry pipeline with emphasis on the automation architecture for the supervision and control system, interconnect throughout the pipe extension by fiber optics. The control system is composed of ControlLogix CLP's at the pulping and valve station and Micrologix CLP's at the pressure and cathodic protection monitoring points, totalizing 19 PLC's. The supervisory system was developed using the Wonderware IAS 3.0 suite, including the supervisory software InTouch 9.5 and the integrated ArchestrA IDE, and is composed of two data servers in redundancy and nine operation stations. The control and supervision system is interconnect through and Ethernet network using fiber optics and multiplexer modules (GE JungleMux) for voice, data and video. Among the expected results, it can be highlighted the sequence automation, greater process data availability (real and historical) and greater facility for the operation and detection of failures. (author)

  19. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  20. Very low conductivity self-hardening slurry for permanent enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, G.

    1997-01-01

    Attapulgite clay and ground blast furnace slag cement can form a low solids slurry which, after setting and curing, exhibits very low permeability and substantial strength. Compared to better known cement bentonite slurries, the conductivity is 3 orders of magnitude lower and the strength is four times higher at a similar solids content. Coefficients of permeability have been measured in the 10 -10 cm/sec. range. As a containment barrier, no chemical compound has had detrimental effects on the integrity of the material. Compatibility with leachates at a pH under 2 has been demonstrated. Compared to leachable Ordinary Portland Cement and to bentonite gel shrinkage in the presence of certain organic compounds, the attapulgite clay and the selected slag cement behave as remarkably inert. A number of successful applications as vertical barriers, trenched and by the vibrated beam method, have been installed at remedial sites. Applications by jet grouting have been implemented under utilities to provide continuity. The potential for placement of such materials to form horizontal barriers by jet grouting or frac-grouting/mud jacking techniques, offers the possibility of creating complete enclosures in soils. The purely mineral nature of these slurries ensures long term chemical stability necessary for permanent containment

  1. Binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium for the systems formed by succinic acid, urea and diethylene glycol: Determination and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanxun; Li, Congcong; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was determined. • Solubility of succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol was determined. • Three ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the ternary system. • The ternary phase diagrams were correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solid-liquid phase equilibrium for binary system of succinic acid + diethylene glycol at the temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 333.15) K and ternary system of (succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol) at 298.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K was built by using the isothermal saturation method under atmospheric pressure (101.2 kPa), and the solubilities were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography. The solid-phases formed in the ternary system of ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) were confirmed by Schreinemaker’s method of wet residue, which corresponded to urea, succinic acid, and adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid (mole ratio). Three isothermal phase diagrams for the ternary system were constructed based on the measured mutual solubility. Each isothermal phase diagram included six crystallization fields, three invariant curves, two invariant points and two co-saturated points. The crystalline region of adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid is larger than those of the other two solids. The solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was correlated with the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation and NRTL model; and the mutual solubility of the ternary ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) system was correlated and calculated by the NRTL model. The interaction parameters’ values of succinic acid-urea were acquired. The value of RMSD was 7.11 × 10 −3 for the ternary system. The calculation results had good agreement with the experiment values. Furthermore, the densities of equilibrium liquid phase were acquired. The phase diagrams and the thermodynamic model of the ternary system could provide the basis for design of

  2. Form-stable paraffin/high density polyethylene composites as solid-liquid phase change material for thermal energy storage: preparation and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites as form-stable, solid-liquid phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage and with determination of their thermal properties. In such a composite, the paraffin (P) serves as a latent heat storage material and the HDPE acts as a supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin because of providing structural strength. Therefore, it is named form-stable composite PCM. In this study, two kinds of paraffins with melting temperatures of 42-44 deg. C (type P1) and 56-58 deg. C (type P2) and latent heats of 192.8 and 212.4 J g -1 were used. The maximum weight percentage for both paraffin types in the PCM composites without any seepage of the paraffin in the melted state were found as high as 77%. It is observed that the paraffin is dispersed into the network of the solid HDPE by investigation of the structure of the composite PCMs using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The melting temperatures and latent heats of the form-stable P1/HDPE and P2/HDPE composite PCMs were determined as 37.8 and 55.7 deg. C, and 147.6 and 162.2 J g -1 , respectively, by the technique of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, to improve the thermal conductivity of the form-stable P/HDPE composite PCMs, expanded and exfoliated graphite (EG) by heat treatment was added to the samples in the ratio of 3 wt.%. Thereby, the thermal conductivity was increased about 14% for the form-stable P1/HDPE and about 24% for the P2/HDPE composite PCMs. Based on the results, it is concluded that the prepared form-stable P/HDPE blends as composite type PCM have great potential for thermal energy storage applications in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties and improved thermal conductivity. Furthermore, these composite PCMs added with EG can be considered cost effective latent heat storage materials since they do not require encapsulation and extra cost to enhance

  3. In-situ study of the thermal properties of hydrate slurry by high pressure DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Brun, F.; Erbeau, N. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is possible to deliver the hydrate slurry to the high pressure DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) directly from the production tank or pipes. Thermal data acquisition will be performed afterwards by DSC. The investigated conditions were at pressure of 30 bar and temperature of {approx}+7 {sup o}C. The dissociation enthalpy of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was about 54 kJ/kg, corresponding 10.8% of solid fraction. The on-line measurement results for CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry give a good tendency to apply this phase change slurry to the industrial refrigeration process. (author)

  4. Analysis of high-level radioactive slurries as a method to reduce DWPF turnaround times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Hay, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) samples as slurries rather than as dried or vitrified samples is an effective way to reduce sample turnaround times. Slurries can be dissolved with a mixture of concentrated acids to yield solutions for elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Slurry analyses can be performed in eight hours, whereas analyses of vitrified samples require up to 40 hours to complete. Analyses of melter feed samples consisting of the DWPF borosilicate frit and either simulated or actual DWPF radioactive sludge were typically within a range of 3--5% of the predicted value based on the relative amounts of sludge and frit added to the slurry. The results indicate that the slurry analysis approach yields analytical accuracy and precision competitive with those obtained from analyses of vitrified samples. Slurry analyses offer a viable alternative to analyses of solid samples as a simple way to reduce analytical turnaround times

  5. Enhancing protein to extremely high content in photosynthetic bacteria during biogas slurry treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anqi; Zhang, Guangming; Meng, Fan; Lu, Pei; Wang, Xintian; Peng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This work proposed a novel approach to achieve an extremely high protein content in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) using biogas slurry as a culturing medium. The results showed the protein content of PSB could be enhanced strongly to 90% in the biogas slurry, which was much higher than reported microbial protein contents. The slurry was partially purified at the same time. Dark-aerobic was more beneficial than light-anaerobic condition for protein accumulation. High salinity and high ammonia of the biogas slurry were the main causes for protein enhancement. In addition, the biogas slurry provided a good buffer system for PSB to grow. The biosynthesis mechanism of protein in PSB was explored according to theoretical analysis. During biogas slurry treatment, the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase were increased by 26.55%, 46.95% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Animal slurries are stored for a variable period of time before application in the field. The effect of cattle slurry storage time and temperature on the subsequent mineralization of C and N in soil was studied under laboratory conditions. Urine and faeces from a dairy cow were sampled separately...... and mixed to a slurry. After 4 weeks of storage under anaerobic conditions at 15 degrees C, the NH4+ N content exceeded the original urinary N content of the slurry; the NH4+ content increased only slightly during the following 16 weeks of storage. After 4 weeks of storage, the proportion of slurry C...... in volatile fatty acids (VFA) amounted to 10% and increased to 15% after 20 weeks. Straw addition to the slurry caused an increase of VFA-C in stored slurry, but had a negligible influence on the proportion of slurry N in the form of NH4+. Slurries subjected to different storage conditions were added...

  7. The effect of particle size and concentration on the flow properties of a homogeneous slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.A.; Crowe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the effects of particle size and concentration on the velocity distribution in the fully developed flow of a homogeneous slurry. The slurry consisted of chloroform and silica gel with matched index of refraction to enable Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements through the mixture. Slurries with two particle sizes and solids concentration up to 30% by volume were studied. Measurements were made over a Reynolds number range of 1,200 to 30,000

  8. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  9. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  10. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  11. Anaerobic digestion as a slurry management strategy : a consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H.; Petersen, B.M. [Southern Denmark Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of slurry represents an environmental opportunity for both slurry management and renewable energy production in countries with high animal density. This study evaluated the environmental impacts of 4 biogas production alternatives in which slurry was the only input in the process, without supplementary addition of easily degradable carbon. This was achieved by exposing the slurry to different separation technologies. The biomass mixture input for biogas production included solid fraction from slurry separation as well as raw slurry, proportioned in order to achieve economical methane yield. The separation processes considered in this study were mechanical separation; mechanical separation combined with the addition of flocculants; and mechanical separation combined with a thermal treatment. Four biogas alternatives were compared to a reference slurry management scenario, notably to use the slurry as a fertilizer without prior treatment. The modelling was based on Danish conditions and used the consequential life cycle assessment methodology. The produced biogas was used for production of heat and power and the degassed slurry was used as an organic fertilizer.

  12. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  13. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  14. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs

  16. Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages and disadvantages of slurry feeding along with experimental studies indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste

  17. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  18. A simple and rapid technique for recovery of 99mTc from low specific activity (n,γ)99Mo based on solid-liquid extraction and column chromatography methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Das, Sujata Saha; Barua, Luna

    2010-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method has been developed for the separation of 99m Tc from 99 Mo produced from the neutron activation of 98 Mo by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo nuclear reaction. The recovery of 99m Tc was performed by solid-liquid extraction based on alumina column chromatography. The overall radiochemical yield for the complete separation of 99m Tc was 85-97% (n=5). The separated Na[ 99m Tc]TcO 4 was of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities. The method can be adopted for routine processing and use of 99m Tc in radiopharmacy operations.

  19. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha -1 and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h -1 after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO 3 -N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO 3 -N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly

  20. It's sensible to mix your own slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1990-05-01

    Slurry explosives have not made the gains in the market expected of them, possibly due to the extra handling required at the mine site. One Peabody Coal Co. mine has built its own inexpensive setup that blends emulsions with Anfo to the desired ratio before loading the blend into Anfo trucks. Another mine is using a salvaged cement mixer to mix up its own batches of water gels, which are then mixed with Anfo. Both approaches result in blends that can be specialized for different areas of a mine to expand drill patterns, increase fragmentation and gain additional movements for blast casting. 2 figs.

  1. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  2. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  3. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  4. The CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry; Le coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Brun, F. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Sari, O.; Hu, J. [Clean Cooling Solutions, spin off of University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec Ltd, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2007-12-15

    A new, very promising refrigerant was developed, which could be used in industrial processes as well as air conditioners: the CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry. Replacing hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC refrigerants has a high priority, due to the strong negative environmental impact of these fluids. New refrigerants have to be environment friendly, non-inflammable, cheap and made of natural materials. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries and/or a mixture of ice slurry and CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry meet these requirements. The University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in Yverdon, together with industrial partners, investigated the properties of such slurries. The slurries were created using the Coldeco process: the refrigerating fluid is directly injected into the liquid brine. The evaporation of the refrigerating fluid cools the liquid down to its freezing point and homogeneously distributed small crystals appear in the liquid. A test rig was built to measure the physical and chemical properties of the slurries obtained in this way. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries have a higher energy storage capacitance (500 kJ/kg) than ice slurries (333 kJ/kg). The production of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries in large quantities in a continuous process was demonstrated. The solid particle concentration was 10%, the pressure amounted to 30 bar and the temperature 2 to 4 {sup o}C. Such slurries can be pumped and circulated in pipe networks. Stainless steel is the appropriate material for such networks. However, the main advantage of the new refrigerant will be, according to the authors, a reduced energy consumption compared to traditional refrigerating cycles: the difference between the temperature required by the user and the refrigerant temperature is reduced, thanks to the use of the latent heat in the new process.

  5. Modelling coupled sedimentation and consolidation of fine slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This article presented a model to simulate and successfully predict the essential elements of sedimentation and consolidation as a coupled process, bringing together separately developed models from chemistry and geology/geotechnical engineering, respectively. The derived model is for a 1-dimensional simultaneous sedimentation and consolidation of a solid-liquid suspension that uses permeability as the unifying concept for the hydrodynamic interaction between solid and liquid in a suspension. The numerical solution relies on an explicit finite difference procedure in material coordinates, and an Euler forward-marching scheme was used for advancing the solution in time. The problem of internal discontinuities was solved by way of convenient numerical solutions and Lagrangian coordinates. Java-based SECO software with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) was used to implement the model, allowing the solution process to be visualized and animated. The software functionality along with GUI and programming issues were discussed at length. A fine-grained suspension data set was used to validate the model. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Loosening After Acetabular Revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Nicholas A.; Weiss, Stefan; Klotz, Matthias C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The best method of revision acetabular arthroplasty remains unclear. Consequently, we reviewed the literature on the treatment of revision acetabular arthroplasty using revision rings (1541 cases; mean follow-up (FU) 5.7 years) and Trabecular Metal, or TM, implants (1959 cases; mean FU 3.7 years...

  7. An Enhanced Factor Analysis of Performance Degradation Assessment on Slurry Pump Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry pumps, such as oil sand pumps, are widely used in industry to convert electrical energy to slurry potential and kinetic energy. Because of adverse working conditions, slurry pump impellers are prone to suffer wear, which may result in slurry pump breakdowns. To prevent any unexpected breakdowns, slurry pump impeller performance degradation assessment should be immediately conducted to monitor the current health condition and to ensure the safety and reliability of slurry pumps. In this paper, to provide an alternative to the impeller health indicator, an enhanced factor analysis based impeller indicator (EFABII is proposed. Firstly, a low-pass filter is employed to improve the signal to noise ratios of slurry pump vibration signals. Secondly, redundant statistical features are extracted from the filtered vibration signals. To reduce the redundancy of the statistic features, the enhanced factor analysis is performed to generate new statistical features. Moreover, the statistic features can be automatically grouped and developed a new indicator called EFABII. Data collected from industrial oil sand pumps are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to track the current health condition of slurry pump impellers.

  8. On-farm impact of cattle slurry manure management on biological soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dairy cattle slurry management on soil biota, soil respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were evaluated in a farm trial across 12 farms and a field experiment on 2 farms located in a dairy farming area in the north of the Netherlands. The slurry management consisted of slit

  9. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the

  10. Semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring and Sc, Zr additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-wen Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Slurry preparation is one of the most critical steps for semisolid casting, and its primary goal is to prepare slurry with uniformly distributed fine globules. In this work, electromagnetic stirring (EMS and the addition of Sc and Zr elements were used to prepare semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy in a large diameter slurry maker. The effects of different treatments on the microstructure, composition and their radial homogeneity were investigated. The results show that, compared to the slurry without any treatment, large volume slurry with finer and more uniform microstructure can be obtained when treated by EMS, Sc, or Zr additions individually. EMS is more competent in the microstructural and chemical homogenization of the slurry while Sc and Zr additions are more excellent in its microstructural refinement. The combined treatment of EMS, Sc and Zr produces premium 7A04 aluminum alloy slurry with uniformly distributed fine α-Al globules and composition. The interaction mechanism between EMS and Sc and Zr additions was also discussed.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  12. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems

  13. Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory's (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program's first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow (≤12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled

  14. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, Tina B.; Forslund, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0...

  15. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  16. Effects of slurry application methods on soil faunal communities in permanent grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.C.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of two slurry manure application methods, broadcasting manure slurry (MB) and manure slit injection (SMI), on soil faunal communities 1 week and 4 or 5 weeks after application in the spring of 2002 and the summer of 2003. No effect on total numbers of Enchytraeidae and

  17. ABSORPTION OF GASES INTO ACTIVATED CARBON WATER SLURRIES IN A STIRRED CELL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TINGE, JT; DRINKENBURG, AAH

    A surface-aerated stirred cell with a flat liquid surface was used to investigate the absorption of propane and ethene gas into slurries of activated carbon and water. Slurries with a solids concentration up to 4% by weight and particle diameters up to 565-mu-m were used. The experimental mass

  18. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres....

  19. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did...

  20. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  1. Microbial examination of anaerobic sludge adaptation to animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Ferrer, P; Jimenez, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra-López, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the microbial population of anaerobic sludge digesters during the adaptation to pig slurry (PS) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the relationship between microbial parameters and sludge physicochemical composition and methane yield was examined. Results showed that the addition of PS to an unadapted thermophilic anaerobic digester caused an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, a decrease in removal efficiency and CH4 yield. Additionally, increases in total bacteria and total archaea were observed using qPCR. Scanning electron micrographs provided a general overview of the sludge's cell morphology, morphological diversity and degree of organic matter degradation. A change in microbial morphotypes from homogeneous cell morphologies to a higher morphological diversity, similar to that observed in PS, was observed with the addition of PS by SEM. Therefore, the combination of qPCR and SEM allowed expanding the knowledge about the microbial adaptation to animal slurry in thermophilic anaerobic digesters.

  2. Slurry-phase biodegradation of weathered oily sludge waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín-Ramírez, C; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Mayolo-Deloisa, K; Quintero, R; Trejo-Hernández, M R

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the biodegradation of a typical oily sludge waste (PB401) in Mexico using several regimes of indigenous microbial consortium and relevant bioremediation strategies in slurry-phase system. Abiotic loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the PB401 was insignificant, and degradation rates under the various treatment conditions ranged between 666.9 and 2168.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1) over a 15 days reaction period, while viable cell count peaked at between log(10)5.7 and log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Biostimulation with a commercial fertilizer resulted in 24% biodegradation of the TPH in the oily waste and a corresponding peak cell density of log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Addition of non-indigenous adapted consortium did not appear to enhance the removal of TPH from the oily waste. It would appear that the complexities of the components of the alkylaromatic fraction of the waste limited biodegradation rate even in a slurry system.

  3. Rheology of corn stover slurries during fermentation to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanchari; Epps, Brenden; Lynd, Lee

    2017-11-01

    In typical processes that convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol fuel, solubilization of the biomass is carried out by saccharolytic enzymes; however, these enzymes require an expensive pretreatment step to make the biomass accessible for solubilization (and subsequent fermentation). We have proposed a potentially-less-expensive approach using the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum, which can initiate fermentation without pretreatment. Moreover, we have proposed a ``cotreatment'' process, in which fermentation and mechanical milling occur alternately so as to achieve the highest ethanol yield for the least milling energy input. In order to inform the energetic requirements of cotreatment, we experimentally characterized the rheological properties of corn stover slurries at various stages of fermentation. Results show that a corn stover slurry is a yield stress fluid, with shear thinning behavior well described by a power law model. Viscosity decreases dramatically upon fermentation, controlling for variables such as solids concentration and particle size distribution. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the changes in the physical properties of biomass during fermentation by a thermophilic bacterium.

  4. Recycling Pig Slurry Solid Fraction Compost as a Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the physical and acoustical properties of compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction (SF in order to assess the potential to recycle this agricultural waste as a sound absorber. The compacts were obtained by compression. The physical parameters investigated were bulk density, durability, and particle size distribution. The acoustical features of the compacts were studied with an impedance tube device in order to verify the acoustic absorption coefficient. Two composts were prepared: pig SF compost without a bulking agent (SSFC and pig SF compost with wood chips as a bulking agent (WCC. The study’s results indicated that compost particles dimension played a key role in the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts: the smaller the particles, the higher the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts. The densification process increased the bulk density of the investigated composts up to 690 kg m−3 for SSFC and 660 kg m−3 for WWC, with, respectively, medium (77.9% and low (66.5% durability. The addition of woody bulking agent significantly reduced the absorption coefficient: the best results, in terms of potential use as a sound absorber, were observed for compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction without the addition of wood chips.

  5. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.; Adams, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to open-quotes activateclose quotes the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers

  6. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions

  7. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined

  8. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.

  9. An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Weijing Yao; Jianyong Pang; Yushan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry inject...

  10. Experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.V. [Mechanical Dept., M.S. Ramaiah Inst. of Tech., Bangalore (India); Shankapal, S.R. [M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace was carried out using pulverized coconut shell (CSP), LDO and water. The effect of equivalence ratio on the slurry composition, calorific value and the effect of exhaust gas percentage are presented. The calorific value of the biomass slurry increases with equivalence ratio initially, attains a peak value and then decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. It is also observed that with the increase in composition of biomass slurry, the cost of the fuel and the percentage emission of CO decreases. It was found that CSP up to a blend of 20% was more convenient to be used as a slurry fuel in the furnace. (orig.)

  11. Spread of Hepatitis E virus from pig slurry to the water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    Objectives: Spread of pig slurry as an organic fertilizer is commonly used in Danish agriculture. The slurry is spread untreated so pathogens able to survive in slurry tanks will be widely distributed in the environment. The objective of this study was to examine if hepatitis E virus (HEV), which......), and hence could present a risk for virus transmission to wildlife and shellfish. We tested the presence of HEV in water drained from a test field where slurry from a Danish pig farm had been applied and in mussels from different regions in Denmark with fields in close proximity. Methods: Slurry from......). In addition, samples of water collected from wells located along the field and groundwater. Archived mussels from different regions in Denmark were included in the study. Virus was concentrated from water using Poly Ethylene Glycol precipitation and virus from the digestive tissue of the mussels was extracted...

  12. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  13. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  14. The rheology of cryovolcanic slurries: Motivation and phenomenology of methanol-water slurries with implications for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fang; Mitchell, Karl L.; Hays, Charles C.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Barmatz, Martin; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2009-08-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has revealed landforms on the surface of Titan suggested to be viscous cryovolcanic flows and possibly eruptive domes. In order to relate those surface features to the processes and chemistries that produced them, it is necessary to construct flow models, which rely on characterization of the rheological properties of the eruptants. This paper describes our initial exploratory attempts to understand the rheological characteristics of cryogenic slurries, using a 40% methanol-water mixture, as a precursor to more detailed experiments. We have devised a new automated cryogenic rotational viscometer system to more fully characterize cryovolcanic slurry rheologies. A series of measurements were performed, varying first temperature, and then strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions, not previously reported. At fixed shear rate our data are fit well by the Andrade equation, with the activation energy modified by a solid volume fraction. At fixed temperature, depending on shearing history, a Cross model could describe our data over a wide shear rate range. A Bingham plastic model appears to be a good constitutive model for the data measured at high shear rates when the shear was global. The yield stress like behavior implies that levee formation on cryolava flows is more likely than would be inferred from the previous studies, and may provide a partial explanation for features interpreted as steep-sided volcanic constructs on Titan.

  15. Improving profitability through slurry management: a look at the impact of slurry pH on various glass types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Abigail R.; Boffa, Christopher C.; Sarkas, Harry W.; Cureton, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    When building an optical system, optical fabricators and designers meticulously choose the glass types for their application knowing that each one will have different chemical, thermal and mechanical properties. As the requirements for new optical systems have grown more demanding, the range of available glass types has vastly expanded and the specifications on the produced products have grown tighter. In an attempt to simplify processes and streamline consumable purchases, optical polishing houses often rely on one polishing slurry to manage these vast array of glass types. An unforeseen consequence of these practices can be a reduction in productivity by reduced removal rate, poor yields and frequent rework all translating into higher costs and reduced profitability. In this paper, the authors will examine the impact slurry pH has on glass types of different compositions and chemical, thermal and mechanical properties when using a double-sided polishing process. Experiments will use material removal rate, surface quality, and surface figure to provide insight into improving process control for differing glass types. Further guidance will be provided on how simple on-site monitoring and adjustment can deliver improved profitability on challenging substrates.

  16. Abrasive slurry jet cutting model based on fuzzy relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, C. H.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The cutting process of pre-mixed abrasive slurry or suspension jet (ASJ) is a complex process affected by many factors, and there is a highly nonlinear relationship between the cutting parameters and cutting quality. In this paper, guided by fuzzy theory, the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ was developed. In the modeling of surface roughness, the upper surface roughness prediction model and the lower surface roughness prediction model were established respectively. The adaptive fuzzy inference system combines the learning mechanism of neural networks and the linguistic reasoning ability of the fuzzy system, membership functions, and fuzzy rules are obtained by adaptive adjustment. Therefore, the modeling process is fast and effective. In this paper, the ANFIS module of MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox was used to establish the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ, which is found to be quite instrumental to ASJ cutting applications.

  17. Impact of Spherical Frit Beads on Simulated DWPF Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that the rheological properties of simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed with the glass former frit as mostly (90 weight percent) solid spherical particles (referred to as beads) were improved as the feed was less viscous as compared to DWPF melter feed that contained the normal irregular shaped frit particles. Because the physical design of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), Melter Feed Tank (MFT), and melter feed loop are fixed, the impact of changing the rheology might be very beneficial. Most importantly, higher weight percent total solids feed might be processed by reducing the rheological properties (specifically yield stress) of the feed. Additionally, if there are processing problems, such as air entrainment or pumping, these problems might be alleviated by reducing the rheological properties, while maintaining targeted throughputs. Rheology modifiers are chemical, physical, or a combination of the two and can either thin or thicken the rheology of the targeted slurry. The beads are classified as a physical rheological modifier in this case. Even though the improved rheological properties of the feed in the above mentioned DWPF tanks could be quite beneficial, it is the possibility of increased melt rate that is the main driver for the use of beaded glass formers. By improving the rheological properties of the feed, the weight percent solids of the feed could be increased. This higher weight percent solids (less water) feed could be processed faster by the melter as less energy would be required to evaporate the water, and more would be available for the actual melting of the waste and the frit. In addition, the use of beads to thin the feed could possibly allow for the use of a lower targeted acid stoichiometry in the feed preparation process (if in fact acid stoichiometry is being driven by feed rheology as opposed to feed chemistry). Previous work by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the lab

  18. Double shell slurry low-temperature corrosion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Elmore, R.P.; Engel, D.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of year-long tests have been completed on potential double shell slurry (DSS) compositions at temperatures up to 100 0 C. These tests have sought data on uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. No indication of the latter two types of corrosion were observed within the test matrix. Corrosion rates after four months were generally below the 1 mpy (25 μm/y) design limit. By the end of twelve months all results were below this limit and, except for very concentrated mixtures, all were below 0.5 mpy. Prediction equations were generated from a model fitted to the data. The equations provide a rapid means of estimating the corrosion rate for proposed DSS compositions

  19. Formation and filtration of flocs from coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B K

    1977-06-01

    The size and size distribution of flocs are greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the flocculant coal and dirt particles behave differently in this respect. The pH and the concentration of electrolytes also influence flocculation, by changing both the surface properties of the solid material and the effectiveness of the flocculant. The relationship between the sedimentation time and the filtration rate depends on the concentration and type of flocculant. Optimum pH values for various conditions are tabulated. When an anion-active flocculant is added to a coal-dirt mixture in an alkaline medium, selective flocculation occurs; this can be used to improve the separation of slurries.

  20. An integrated approach to route selection in slurry pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Altmann, Nara [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    The pressure to get engineering projects done and constructed as fast as possible in order to take advantage of the high prices in metals and petrochemicals has been driving companies to skip the conceptual phase and go straight into basic engineering with cost estimates in the level of 15% accuracy. By-passing early engineering and demanding higher cost estimating accuracy is a contradiction. In most cases, savings made on capital investment is much higher had money been spent in conceptual studies which allow for the optimal solution to be found. This paper reviews one of the key aspects in conceptual engineering of slurry pipeline designs: route selection. This activity is often overlooked, causing capital cost and operating difficulties to rise unnecessarily. This paper describes and gives example on how an integrated client/engineering company's approach to route selection can produce significant savings in pipeline construction and operating costs. (author)

  1. The role of heterotrophic microorganism Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving pig slurry bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Cui, Chunhong

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry through bioleaching involving the fungus Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two acidophilic thiobacillus (A. ferrooxidans LX5 and A. thiooxidans TS6) was investigated. It was found that the isolated pig slurry dissolved organic matter (DOM) degrader Z3 was identified as Galactomyces sp. Z3, which could grow well at pH 2.5-7 and degrade pig slurry DOM from 1973 to 942 mg/l within 48 h. During the successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, the co-inoculation of pig slurry degrader Galactomyces sp. Z3 and the two Acidithiobacillus species could improve pig slurry bioleaching efficiency compared to the single system without Galactomyces sp. Z3. The removal efficiency of Zn and Cu exceeded 94% and 85%, respectively. In addition, the elimination efficiencies of pathogens, including both total coliform and faecal coliform counts, exceeded 99% after bioleaching treatment. However, the counts of Galactomyces sp. Z3 decreased with the fall of pH and did not restore to the initial level during successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, and it is necessary to re-inoculate Galactomyces sp. Z3 cells into the bioleaching system to maintain its role in degrading pig slurry DOM. Therefore, a bioleaching technique involving both Galactomyces sp. Z3 and Acidithiobacillus species is an efficient method for removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry.

  2. The stability of a novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMPfor GLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caihong; Wang, Chenwei; Niu, Xinhuan; Wang, Yan; Tian, Shengjun; Jiang, Zichao; Liu, Yuling

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the important machining procedures of multilayered copper interconnection for GLSI, meanwhile polishing slurry is a critical factor for realizing the high polishing performance such as high planarization efficiency, low surface roughness. The effect of slurry components such as abrasive (colloidal silica), complexing agent (glycine), inhibitor (BTA) and oxidizing agent (H2O2) on the stability of the novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMP for GLSI was investigated in this paper. First, the synergistic and competitive relationship of them in a peroxide-based weakly alkaline slurry during the copper CMP process was studied and the stability mechanism was put forward. Then 1 wt% colloidal silica, 2.5 wt% glycine, 200 ppm BTA, 20 mL/L H2O2 had been selected as the appropriate concentration to prepare copper slurry, and using such slurry the copper blanket wafer was polished. From the variations of copper removal rate, root-mean square roughness (Sq) value with the setting time, it indicates that the working-life of the novel weakly alkaline slurry can reach more than 7 days, which satisfies the requirement of microelectronics further development. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2016ZX02301003-004-007), the Professional Degree Teaching Case Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. KCJSZ2017008), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. F2015202267), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (No. 16JCYBJC16100).

  3. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  4. Soil-bentonite design mix for slurry cutoff walls used as containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, N.S.; Bachus, R.C.; Jacobson, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, soil-bentonite slurry cutoff walls have been increasingly used as containment barriers around contaminated soils to impede or, in some cases, nearly eliminate the off-site migration of contaminated ground water or other potentially hazardous liquids. The paper presents the procedures used and the results obtained during an extensive laboratory testing program performed to select varying soil-bentonite slurry mix components for a soil-bentonite slurry cutoff wall constructed around an old landfill at a former oil refinery. The landfill is underlain to varying depths by a coarse granular soils that has been exposed to oil-products. Compatibility of three commercially available bentonite products with the free oil-products and the oil-contaminated ground water found at some locations in the landfill was initially investigated. Based on the test results, one of the bentonite products was selected for use in the soil-bentonite slurry testing program. A clayey soil from a borrow source, potable water from the site, and subsurface soils from the proposed soil-bentonite slurry wall alignment were used to form different soil-bentonite slurry mixes. Slump tests were performed to evaluate the workability of the mixes. Based on the test results, a single mix was selected for further study, including permeability/compatibility testing. The results of the compatibility testing program are presented and discussed in the paper. A specific design mix methodology for evaluating the chemical compatibility of soil-bentonite slurry mixes with permeants is proposed

  5. Performance Study of Graphite Anode Slurry in Lithium-ion Flow Battery by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Cai-mei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite anode slurry of lithium-ion flow battery was prepared by the method of ball milling. The morphology, conductivity, specific capacity and cycle performance of graphite anode slurry were studied. Results show that the addition of conductive carbon material can improve the suspension stability of the electrode slurry; the ball milling process can not only improve the suspension stability but also reduce the resistivity of the mixed powders of graphite and conductive carbon materials, the ball milling effect is satisfactory when the mass ratio of the balls and the solid particles is 5:1, but too high ratio of the milling ball and the solid materials can destroy the layer structure of the graphite and affect the stability of the slurry. Increasing the fraction of the graphite and conductive carbon materials can form stable electrical network structure in the slurry and improve the reversible capacity; at the premise of keeping the flowability of the electrode slurry, the reversible specific capacity can be more than 40mAh/g. The capacity loss of graphite anode slurry mainly occurs in the first charging-discharging process, as the increase of the cycles, the capacity loss rate decreases, the capacity goes stable after 5 cycles.

  6. 典型粪污处理模式下规模养猪场农牧结合规模配置研究*Ⅰ.固液分离-液体厌氧发酵模式%Pig farm-cropland configuration under typical waste treatment modes-A case study of anaerobic liquid fermentation following solid-liquid separation of waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛婧; 孙国峰; 郑建初

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient loss during the processing of livestock and poultry manure is significantly different under different modes of manure disposal, subsequently influencing nutrient utilization in farmlands. Separation of solids from liquids before anaerobic fermentation of liquids is currently the main mode of treatment of poultry manure in China. Studies on the configurations of pig farm and croplands under solid and liquid waste disposal modes following the separation and the subsequent anaerobic fermentation of liquid manure is greatly important to reduce pollution by livestock excrement and promote sustainable development of animal husbandry. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal farmland area needed for large-scale pig farm, and to provide the scientific basis and reference for establishing a sustainable agro-ecological mode of crops and animals. Based on the proportions of pig population and pig nitrogen and phosphorus discharge data for different types of swine, the rate of nutrient loss during waste treatment, and then nutrient demands by different crops, the areas of farmlands for waste consumption and the carrying capacities of farmlands with different planting patterns were estimated under typical anaerobic fermentation of liquids following the separation of solids from liquids of waste in a farm with 10 000 pigs. In order to avoid environmental pollution, the optimal farmland area needed for a large-scale pig farm was determined based on calculated maximum farmland areas from crop nitrogen and phosphorus requirement. The results showed that under anaerobic fermentation of liquid after solid-liquid separation of waste, the configuration of a 10000-pig farm needed an area of at least 12.4–13.7 hm2 of grain/oil cropland, 14.2–17.9 hm2 solanaceous vegetable field or 16.4–51.3 hm2 orchard/seedling field for safe disposal of biogas slurry. One hectare of grain/oil cropland, solanaceous vegetable field or orchard/seedling field was enough for the

  7. Microbial decontamination of polluted soil in a slurry process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerdink, M.J.; Kleijntjens, R.H.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Luyben, K.C.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Oil-contaminated soil (2.3--17 g/kg), even soil with high clay and silt content, was remediated microbiologically in a slurry reactor. The presence of soil, however, limits the degradation rate of oil. In contrast with results form experiments using oil dispersed in water, the relative composition of the oil components in a soil slurry after degradation was about the same as that of the original oil. Thus the composition of the degraded oil is the same as that of the original oil, which is indicative for a physical, rather than a (bio)chemical, limitation on the oil degradation rate. About 70% of the contaminant was readily available and was degraded in less than eight days. The dual injected turbulent suspension (DITS) reactor is able to combine remediation of part of the contaminated (polydisperse) soil with separation of the soil into a heavily and a lightly polluted fraction. In continuous operation, lowering the overall soil residence time from 200 to 100 h did not significantly increase the oil concentration in the effluent soil. Therefore a soil residence time of less than 100 h is feasible. With a residence time of 100 h, overall oil degradation rates at the steady state were more than 70 times faster than in a comparable land farm. After treatment in a DITS reactor, the remaining oil in the contaminated soil fraction is slowly released from the soil. From a batch experiment it was found that another 10 weeks were needed to reach the Dutch reference level of 50 mg/kg. This can be done in a process with a low energy input, such as a landfarm

  8. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  9. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry- and solid-phase techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel H.; Irvine, Robert L.

    1995-10-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurrying is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bio-slurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the rate an extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies. Results showed that slurrying for 1.5 hours at a water content less than saturation markedly increased the rate and extent of contaminant biodegradation in the solid phase bioreactors compared with soil having no slurry pretreatment. Slurrying the soil at or above its saturation moisture content resulted in lengthy dewatering times which prohibited aeration, thereby delaying the onset of biological treatment in the solid phase bioreactors. Results also showed that properly operated periodic aeration can provide less volatile contaminant removal and a grater fraction of biological contaminant removal than continuous aeration.

  10. Interim report: Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form a 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses both flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry stimulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every 3 minutes. The following 75-mL samples were measured for release rates: KTPB slurry with 15,000 ppm freshly added benzene that was gently mixed with the slurry, KTPB slurry homogenized (energetically mixed) with 15,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm benzene, clear and filtered KTPB salt solution saturated with benzene (with and without a pure benzene layer on top of the solution), and a slurry sample from a large demonstration experiment (DEMO slurry) containing-benzene generated in situ

  11. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  12. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M.

    1996-01-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  13. Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole fracturing injections : slurry product specifications issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzuan Junin

    1994-01-01

    The technique of using on-site injection of oil contaminated drill cuttings is attracting considerable attention as a cost effective means of complying with environmental legislation concerning discharges of drilling wastes. The slurrification and injection of oil based cuttings into a casing annulus, a process developed in 1989 by a major oil and gas producer/ operator, has proven to be a significant step toward reduction of such environmental waste. This paper discusses the development of the cuttings reinjection, slurrification, slurry properties and benefits of quality slurry, and behaviour of solid laden slurries in a fracture in conjunction with down-hole disposal operations

  14. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Bibliocable. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    This selective, annotated bibliography is a revision of the original published in 1972 (ED 071 402). Some 104 books, articles, and reports included here deal with access, applications, franchising, regulation, technology, and other aspects of cable television. The listings are of two types in each category. First are revisions of the original…

  16. Thermodynamics of binary mixtures of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and ketone. Experimental results and modelling of the (solid + liquid) equilibrium and the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium. The modified UNIFAC (Do) model characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Lachwa, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The (solid + liquid) equilibrium (SLE) of eight binary systems containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) with (2-propanone, or 2-butanone, or 2-pentanone, or 3-pentanone, or cyclopentanone, or 2-hexanone, or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, or 3-heptanone) were carried out by using a dynamic method from T = 200 K to the melting point of the NMP. The isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data (VLE) have been measured for three binary mixtures of NMP with 2-propanone, 3-pentanone and 2-hexanone at pressure range from p = 0 kPa to p = 115 kPa. Data were obtained at the temperature T = 333.15 K for the first system and at T = 373.15 K for the second two systems. The experimental results of SLE have been correlated using the binary parameters Wilson, UNIQUAC ASM and two modified NRTL equations. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all the calculated values vary from (0.32 K to 0.68 K) and depend on the particular equation used. The data of VLE were correlated with one to three parameters in the Redlich-Kister expansion. Binary mixtures of NMP with (2-propanone, or 2-butanone, or 2-pentanone, or 3-pentanone, or cyclopentanone, or 2-hexanone, or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, or 3-heptanone) have been investigated in the framework of the modified UNIFAC (Do) model. The reported new interaction parameters for NMP-group (c-CONCH 3 ) and carbonyl group ( C=O) let the model consistently described a set of thermodynamic properties, including (solid + liquid) equilibrium (vapour + liquid) equilibrium, excess Gibbs energy and molar excess enthalpies of mixing. Our experimental and literature data of binary mixtures containing NMP and ketones were compared with the results of prediction with the modified UNIFAC (Do) model

  17. A review of solid-fluid selection options for optical-based measurements in single-phase liquid, two-phase liquid-liquid and multiphase solid-liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stuart F.; Zadrazil, Ivan; Markides, Christos N.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental techniques based on optical measurement principles have experienced significant growth in recent decades. They are able to provide detailed information with high-spatiotemporal resolution on important scalar (e.g., temperature, concentration, and phase) and vector (e.g., velocity) fields in single-phase or multiphase flows, as well as interfacial characteristics in the latter, which has been instrumental to step-changes in our fundamental understanding of these flows, and the development and validation of advanced models with ever-improving predictive accuracy and reliability. Relevant techniques rely upon well-established optical methods such as direct photography, laser-induced fluorescence, laser Doppler velocimetry/phase Doppler anemometry, particle image/tracking velocimetry, and variants thereof. The accuracy of the resulting data depends on numerous factors including, importantly, the refractive indices of the solids and liquids used. The best results are obtained when the observational materials have closely matched refractive indices, including test-section walls, liquid phases, and any suspended particles. This paper reviews solid-liquid and solid-liquid-liquid refractive-index-matched systems employed in different fields, e.g., multiphase flows, turbomachinery, bio-fluid flows, with an emphasis on liquid-liquid systems. The refractive indices of various aqueous and organic phases found in the literature span the range 1.330-1.620 and 1.251-1.637, respectively, allowing the identification of appropriate combinations to match selected transparent or translucent plastics/polymers, glasses, or custom materials in single-phase liquid or multiphase liquid-liquid flow systems. In addition, the refractive indices of fluids can be further tuned with the use of additives, which also allows for the matching of important flow similarity parameters such as density and viscosity.

  18. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  19. SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF THE MORTAR SLURRY PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological schema of automatic flow line allowing to prepare with minimum charges of manual labor the refined from solid additives mortar slurry with stable density is presented in the article.

  20. Influence of coal slurry particle composition on pipeline hydraulic transportation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-an, Zhao; Ronghuan, Cai; Tieli, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Acting as a new type of energy transportation mode, the coal pipeline hydraulic transmission can reduce the energy transportation cost and the fly ash pollution of the conventional coal transportation. In this study, the effect of average velocity, particle size and pumping time on particle composition of coal particles during hydraulic conveying was investigated by ring tube test. Meanwhile, the effects of particle composition change on slurry viscosity, transmission resistance and critical sedimentation velocity were studied based on the experimental data. The experimental and theoretical analysis indicate that the alter of slurry particle composition can lead to the change of viscosity, resistance and critical velocity of slurry. Moreover, based on the previous studies, the critical velocity calculation model of coal slurry is proposed.

  1. Slurry explosives containing the combination of nitrogen-base salt and hard solid particles as sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, W.M.

    1971-11-02

    In recent years, blasting agents, particularly those of the type known as water gels or slurry explosives have gained considerable commercial acceptance. Generally, the slurry explosives are comprised of an inorganic oxidizing salt, predominantly ammonium nitrate, a thickening agent for the liquid, water, and fuel. The density, velocity of detonation, and ability to sustain detonation are increased so that the compositions propagate in small diameter boreholes. A water-bearing slurry explosive is described containing inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, water and thickener together with nitrogen- base salt and solid particles having a hardness of at least 4 on the Mohs scale and that have an acoustic impedance at least 2 times that of the matrix of the slurry explosive. (15 claims)

  2. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Peters, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range...... of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000. kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient...... on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil...

  3. Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, David A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Rustad, James R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ten, Arkady A.; Hier, Catherine A.

    2000-01-01

    Many highly radioactive wastes will be retrieved by installing mixer pumps that inject high-speed jets to stir up the sludge, saltcake, and supernatant liquid in the tank, blending them into a slurry. This slurry will then be pumped out of the tank into a waste treatment facility. Our objectives are to investigate interactions-chemical reactions, waste rheology, and slurry mixing-occurring during the retrieval operation and to provide a scientific basis for the waste retrieval decision-making process. Specific objectives are to: (1) Evaluate numerical modeling of chemically active, non-Newtonian tank waste mixing, coupled with chemical reactions and realistic rheology; (2) Conduct numerical modeling analysis of local and global mixing of non-Newtonian and Newtonian slurries; and (3) Provide the bases to develop a scientifically justifiable, decision-making support tool for the tank waste retrieval operation

  4. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, A S; Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Head of Laboratory Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" >Boyko, I A; Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (PhD, Engineer, Laboratory Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" >Khorev, V S

    2015-01-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives

  5. Estimation of methane emissions from slurry pits under pig and cattle confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...... and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source...

  6. Apparatus and method of measuring fluctuations of excavated mud amount in a slurry line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Kubota, R.; Uchida, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Seki, N.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring fluctuations in amount of soil in slurry or soil-containing fluid line is described. Each system of feeding the slurry typically to tunneling face and draining it therefrom in the slurry line is provided with gamma-ray densimeter and electromagnetic flow-meter to obtain respective amounts of soil only (dry-soil amounts) in the slurry flowing through each of said systems from respective outputs of these meters in each system, so that actually excavated amount through ground layer of a shielded excavator at the tunneling face can be measured by the difference between the respective dry-soil amounts. The excavator will be advanced depending on this measured amount

  7. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  8. Field device to measure viscosity, density, and other slurry properties in drilled shafts : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Proper performance of mineral slurries used to stabilize drilled shaft excavations is maintained by assuring the : density, viscosity, pH, and sand content stay within state specified limits. These limits have been set either by : past experience, re...

  9. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF KAOLIN/SAND SLURRY USED DURING SUBMERSIBLE MIXER PUMP TESTS AT TNX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSEN, ERICH

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to characterize the physical properties of the kaolin/sand slurries used during the testing of a new submersible mixer pump (SMP) which had undergone performance testing at the TNX Waste Tank mockup facility from July 2004 through May 2005. During this time period, four identical SMPs were subjected to various water tests and four different tests using different batches of kaolin/sand slurries. The physical properties of the kaolin/sand slurries were measured for three of the four tests. In these tests, three different sample locations were used to pull samples, the SMP cooling water exit (CWE), the SMP fluid flow field (FFF), and SMP effective cleaning radius (ECR). The physical properties measured, though not for each sample, included rheology, weight percent total solids (wt% TS), density, kaolin/sand slurry particle size distribution (PSD), weight percent and particles size distribution of material greater than 45 microns

  10. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  11. NPK NMR Sensor: Online Monitoring of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Animal Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Morten K; Jensen, Ole; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nyord, Tavs; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2015-07-07

    Knowledge of the actual content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) in animal slurry is highly important to optimize crop production and avoid environmental pollution when slurry is spread on agricultural fields. Here, we present a mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor suitable for online monitoring of the NPK content in animal slurry as an alternative to crude estimates or tedious nonspecific, off-site laboratory analysis. The sensor is based on (14)N, (17)O, (31)P, and (39)K NMR in a digital NMR instrument equipped with a 1.5 T Halbach magnet for direct detection of ammonium N, total P, and K and indirect evaluation of the organic N content, covering all practical components of NPK in animal slurry. In correlation studies, the obtained NMR measurements show good agreement with reference measurements from commercial laboratories.

  12. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  13. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ŠOCH; JANA ŠŤASTNÁ; V. PÁLKA; B VOSTOUPAL; P. NOVÁK; J. BROUČEK; B. ČERMÁK

    2009-01-01

    The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a sma...

  14. Experiment of forced convection heat transfer using microencapsulated phase-change-material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nagashima, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes an experiment on forced convective heat transfer using a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase-change-material. A normal paraffin hydrocarbon is microencapsulated by melamine resin, melting point of 28.1degC. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a circular tube were evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient using the slurry in case with and without phase change were compared to in case of using pure water. (author)

  15. Study of the Parametric Performance of Solid Particle Erosion Wear under the Slurry Pot Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. More

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stainless Steel (SS 304 is commonly used material for slurry handling applications like pipelines, valves, pumps and other equipment's. Slurry erosion wear is a common problem in many engineering applications like process industry, thermal and hydraulic power plants and slurry handling equipments. In this paper, experimental investigation of the influence of solid particle size, impact velocity, impact angle and solid concentration parameters in slurry erosion wear behavior of SS 304 using slurry pot test rig. In this study the design of experiments was considered using Taguchi technique. A comparison has been made for the experimental and Taguchi technique results. The erosion wear morphology was studied using micro-graph obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis. At shallow impact angle 30°, the material removal pattern was observed in the form of micro displacing, scratching and ploughing with plastic deformation of the material. At 60° impact angle, mixed type of micro indentations and pitting action is observed. At normal impact angle 90°, the material removal pattern was observed in form of indentation and rounded lips. It is found that particle velocity was the most influence factor than impact angle, size and solid concentration. From this investigation, it can be concluded that the slurry erosion wear is minimized by controlling the slurry flow velocity which improves the service life of the slurry handling equipments. From the comparison of experimental and Taguchi experimental design results it is found that the percentage deviation was very small with a higher correlation coefficient (r2 0.987 which is agreeable.

  16. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-01-01

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter (α) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number. Predicted molar flow

  17. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  18. Characterization of the March 2017 Tank 15 Waste Removal Slurry Sample (Combination of Slurry Samples HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-09

    Two March 2017 Tank 15 slurry samples (HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29) were collected during the second bulk waste removal campaign and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two samples were combined and then characterized by a series of physical, elemental, radiological, and ionic analysis methods. Sludge settling as a function of time was also quantified. The characterization results reported in this document are consistent with expectations based upon waste type, process knowledge, comparisons between alternate analysis techniques, and comparisons with the characterization results obtained for the November 2016 Tank 15 slurry sample (the sample collected during the first bulk waste removal campaign).

  19. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  20. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  1. Kinetic modeling of cement slurry synthesized with Henna extract in oil well acidizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Aghajafari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in petroleum reservoirs is a short-term and viable strategy to preserve the productivity of a well. There is a major concern for the degradation of cement sheath integrity, leading to poor zonal isolation and environmental issues. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the cement behaves when attacked by hydrochloric acid. In this study, a cement slurry by incorporation of the Henna extract, as an environmentally friendly cement additive, was synthesized as a potential solution to solve this problem. The characteristics of the treated cement slurry were compared with a reference slurry (w/c = 0.44 which is composed of only cement and water. A kinetic study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption behavior of the cement slurries exposed to an acid solution with 0.1 M HCl in a range of 25 to 55 °C conditions. The features of the cement slurries were evaluated by multiple analytical techniques such as XRD, FTIR, TG, and DSC analysis. From the experimental data, it is concluded that the second-order Lagergren kinetic model revealed to be the best in describing kinetic isotherms taken, because the margin between experimental and calculated values was minor for this model. The results of the characterization and HCl interaction kinetic studies underlined the prominent protective role of Henna extract-modified cement slurry in the enhancement of the cement resistance against acid attack and utilization in environmentally favorable oil well acidizing treatments.

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of Biogas spent slurry for hastening the composting of agro residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Geeta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy and the fertilizers are ever increasing. Organic farming has many advantages looking to the environment pollution, unproductive soil, less yields etc. By installation of a biogas plant serves both the purposes of meeting the fuel as well as obtaining manures. The organic manures need to be added in bulk to meet the nutrient demands of the crop as it is not in concentrated form like chemical fertilizers. Hence, biogas spent slurry is the best alternate for hastening the compost preparation of abundantly available crop residues as well as obtaining enriched compost as conventional method takes long time. Moreover, slurry is composed of major nutrients besides enzymes and a rich microflora. Based on the preliminary results, the present study was conducted at farmer’s field to know whether slurry could be used for degradation of agro residues. One ton of crop residues that included banana waste, sunflower and maize waste, leaf litter of horticultural crops were inoculated individually with 60 L of spent slurry along with consortia of degrading fungi and P-solubilising bacteria. After a retention period of 60 days, nutrients were analysed. The cultures along with slurry indicated 1.5 - 1.96% N with reduction in C:N ratio between 1.6 - 1.82. The micronutrients also increased. Thus, it was concluded that efficient use of spent slurry can be made besides utilising the crop residues and the product for organic cultivation.

  4. Dynamic NMR Study of Model CMP Slurry Containing Silica Particles as Abrasives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, F.; Al-Bawab, A.; Li, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) should provide a good surface planarity with minimal surface defectivity. Since CMP slurries are multi-component systems, it is very important to understand the various processes and interactions taking place in such slurries. Several techniques have been employed for such task, however, most of them lack the molecular recognition to investigate molecular interactions without adding probes which in turn increase complexity and might alter the microenvironment of the slurry. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique that can be employed in such study. The longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of the different components of CMP slurries were measured using Spin Echo-NMR (SE-NMR) at a constant temperature. The fact that NMR is non-invasive and gives information on the molecular level gives more advantage to the technique. The model CMP slurry was prepared in D2O to enable monitoring of T1 for the various components' protons. SE-NMR provide a very powerful tool to study the various interactions and adsorption processes that take place in a model CMP silica based slurry which contains BTA and/or glycine and/or Cu+2 ions. It was found that BTA is very competitive towards complexation with Cu+2 ions and BTA-Cu complex adsorbs on silica surface.

  5. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

  6. High static gel strength cement slurries for gas flow-laboratory surveys and case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Ribeiro, Danilo [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pessoa, Laudemar [University of Adelaide (Australia). Math. Bachelor Master Petroleum Engineer

    2008-07-01

    Gas migration is a phenomenon involving fluid density control, well conditioning, good adherence of the cement slurry to the contacting surfaces, chemical-physical properties, cement hydration mechanisms, and the well's geometry. This problem is evident in several producing wells with a pressurized annulus. Recently, a trend of combining operational techniques with cement slurries capable of developing very high static gel strength (SGS) has developed. Slurry designs intended to confer high SGS almost always have greater rheologies. This can make it difficult to mix the slurry on surfaces or even move the slurry placement through the well, more so because gas-producing wells are typically deep and have complex geometry. This paper evaluates the industry's understanding of this problem. It compares the major solutions with current cement slurry designs and, in addition to the conventional specific gas well parameters, it emphasizes the high SGS and low rheologies on surface conditions. This study also documents the success and efficiency of cementing at a Brazilian sedimentary basin which was completed using designs recommended in this work. This paper does not consider the gas migration occurrence through the cementing matrix. (author)

  7. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, G; Jiang, J; Li, D D; Yi, W S; Zhao, Z; Nie, L N

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system

  8. Attenuation measurements of ultrasound in a kaolin-water slurry. A linear dependence upon frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Mai, J.L.; Good, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The attenuation of ultrasound through a kaolin-water slurry was measured for frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MHz. The maximum concentration of the slurry was for a weight percentage of 44% (or a volume fraction of 0.24). The goal of these measurements was to assess the feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation to determine the concentration of a slurry of known composition. The measurements were obtained by consecutively adding kaolin to the slurry and measuring the attenuation at each concentration. After reaching a maximum concentration a dilution technique was used, in which an amount of slurry was removed and water was added, to obtain the attenuation as a function of the concentration. The dilution technique was the more effective method to obtain calibration data. These measurements were carried out using two transducers, having a center frequency of 2.25 MHz, separated by 0.1016m (4.0 in.). The maximum attenuation measured in these experiments was about 100Np/m, but the experimental apparatus has the capability of measuring a larger attenuation if the distance between the two transducers is decreased. For a given frequency, the data show that ln V/V 0 depends linearly upon the volume fraction (V is the received voltage for the slurry and V 0 is that obtained for water). This indicated that each particle acts independently in attenuating ultrasound. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita

    2016-01-01

    at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed...... macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  10. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  12. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Study on solid-liquid interfacial phenomena and advancement of migration model in diffusion and migration processes of radionuclides in buffer materials and rock matrixes for disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2004-06-01

    This study was performed particularly focused on diffusive pathway and effects receive when nuclides and ions diffuse near solid-liquid interface, among various interactions occurring in the diffusion process of nuclides and ions in buffer material and rock matrix composing multi-barrier system of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. This study was carried out with the following objectives. (1) To clarify the effects of porewater chemistry (particularly ionic strength) and changes in diffusive pathway and micropore structure on diffusion from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. (2) To obtain information with regard to porewater properties, particularly viscosity. (3) To apply for predictions of diffusivities and diffusion process by developing a model concerning electrostatic interaction with ions near solid-liquid interface and viscosity distribution. This report consists of 9 chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction, in which the background and objectives for this study are explained. In chapter 2, it is reported on physical and chemical properties for sandstone (Shirahama sandstone), of which fundamental data and information for diffusion is quite limited and physical properties for bentonite, which is important as a buffer material. In chapter 3, it is discussed on the results studied using tritiated water and deuterated water for the orientation properties of clay particles and the effect of the orientation of clay particles on diffusive pathway in compacted bentonite. In chapter 4, it is discussed on the effects of the orientation of clay particles and ionic strength on diffusivities and activation energies for Cs + and I - ions in compacted bentonite. In chapter 5, it is reported on the diffusion properties of Cs + and I - ions in sandstone obtained by a non-steady state diffusion method and it is discussed on applicability of a solid-liquid interfacial model based on electric double layer theory. In chapter 6, it is reported on thermodynamic

  14. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...

  15. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10 -8 to 10 -1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  16. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D 90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms. - Highlights: ► The hygienic efficiency of electron beam against slurry was researched. ► The hygienization efficiency depended on the slurry characteristics and microorganism species. ► In most of the cases 7 kGy dose was sufficient for slurry hygienization. ► Dose below 1 kGy allowed for 90% elimination of microorganism population. ► The radiation hygienization is a good alternative for typical slurry treatment methods

  17. Rheology of Colombian coal-water slurry fuels: Effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, J E; Rojas, C P; Acero, G [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    Coal-water slurry fuels (CWSF`s) have been prepared and characterized in a research project in Colombia, sponsored by Colciencias and Ecocarbon, in order to evaluate the effects of the different composition variables on the behavior during preparation and pipe line transportation. The authors have previously presented details describing the characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared with five types of Colombian thermal coals and the influence of their chemical composition on the optimum particle-size distribution (PSD) required to prepare highly loaded and workable CWSF`s. The formulation and design of flow systems of suspensions with high solids content, such as the CWSF`s, require a detailed rheological knowledge of the suspension in terms of the governing parameters related to PSD, coal content, surface chemistry of the particles and dispersants used to stabilize the slurries. Important studies on these aspects have been reviewed and carried out experimentally by other authors specially devoted to the correlations between apparent viscosity, solids content and average coal particle-size. One of the targets to obtain an optimum control on the viscosity and flow properties of the CWSF`s must be based in correlating the Theological constants for the prevailing model of viscosity law to the characteristic parameters of the particle-size distribution and to the coal content in the slurry. In spite of the effect of PSD on the rheology of highly-loaded coal slurries have been long recognized as significant, the specific influence of the various PSD`s on the parameters of the Theological model continues to receive attention to further understanding in order to improve the slurry formulations for a specified purpose on preparation and hydraulic handling. This paper reports the results of an experimental technique of examining the various PSD`s on coal slurry fuel rheology, taking special attention for the effect on the parameters of the rheological model.

  18. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, M., E-mail: marco.carozzi@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrara, R.M.; Rana, G. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, via C. Ulpiani, 5 – 70125 Bari (Italy); Acutis, M. [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH{sub 3}) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH{sub 3} emission process was exhausted in the first 24–48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH{sub 3} losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH{sub 3} losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions. - Highlights: ► Ammonia emissions from land-application of slurry were quantified. ► We examined and compared six different agronomic treatments in three locations. ► The faster was the soil-incorporation of slurry, the lower was the ammonia loss. ► The direct injection of slurry was found to be the best abatement strategy. ► The environmental factors were able to strongly influence the ammonia emission.

  19. Fluid dynamic studies for a simulated Melton Valley Storage Tank slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), are used for the collection and storage of remote-handled radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes, which were typically acidic when generated, were neutralized with the addition of sodium hydroxide to protect the storage tanks from corrosion, but this caused the transuranic and heavy metals to precipitate. These wastes will eventually need to be removed from the tanks for ultimate disposal. The objective of the research activities discussed in this report is to support the design of a pipeline transport system between the MVSTs and a treatment facility. Since the wastes in the MVSTs are highly radioactive, a surrogate slurry was developed for this study. Rheological properties of the simulated slurry were determined in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers of different diameters. Pressure drop data at varying flow rates were used to obtain shear stress and shear rate data. The data were analyzed, and the slurry rheological properties were analyzed by the Power Law model and the Bingham plastic model. The plastic viscosity and yield stress data obtained from the rheological tests were used as inputs for a piping design software package, and the pressure drops predicted by the software compared well with the pressure drop data obtained from the test loop. The minimum transport velocity was determine for the slurry by adding known nominal sizes of glass spheres to the slurry. However, it was shown that the surrogate slurry exhibited hindered settling, which may substantially decrease the minimum transport velocity. Therefore, it may be desired to perform additional tests with a surrogate with a lower concentration of suspended solids to determine the minimum transport velocity

  20. Thickness control and interface quality as functions of slurry formulation and casting speed in side-by-side tape casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Mirmasoud; Kaiser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of co-casting called side-by-side tape casting was developed aiming to form thin functionally graded films with varying properties within a single plane. The standard organic-based recipe was optimized to co-cast slurries into thick graded tapes. Performed numerical simulations...... identified the stable flow beneath the blade with a shear rate profile independent of slurry viscosity as long as the slurry load in the casting tank was low. Thickness and interface shape could be well predicted if the rheological behaviour of slurries is known and the processing parameters are well...

  1. Effect of organized assemblies. Part 4. Formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debadutta Das; Sagarika Panigrahi; Pramila K. Misra; Amalendu Nayak [Sambalpur University, Orissa (India). Centre of Studies in Surface Science and Technology

    2008-05-15

    Coal-water slurry has received considerable research nowadays due to its ability in substituting energy sources. The present work reports the formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural occurring surface active compound, saponin, extracted from the fruits of plant Sapindous laurifolia. The isolation of saponin from the plant and its surface activity has been discussed. The rheological characteristics of coal-water slurry have been investigated as a function of coal loading, ash content of coal, pH, temperature, and amount of saponin. The viscosity of the slurry and zeta potential are substantially decreased with concomitant shift of the isoelectric point of coal on adsorption of saponin to it. In the presence of 0.8% of saponin, coal-water slurry containing 64% weight fraction of coal could be achieved. The slurry is stable for a period of as long as 1 month in contrast to 4-5 h in the case of bare coal-water slurry. The results confirm the use of saponin as a suitable additive for coal-water slurry similar to the commercially available additive such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Basing on the effect of pH on the zeta potential and viscosity of slurry, a suitable mechanism for saponin-coal interaction and orientation of saponin at the coal-water interface has been proposed. 47 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry - A life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co......-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low...

  3. SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAMON, CLICK

    2005-01-01

    A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The

  4. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  5. The effect on slurry water as a fresh water replacement in concrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Shahidan, Shahiron; Hai Yee, Lau; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used engineering material in the world and one of the largest water consuming industries. Consequently, the concrete manufacturer, ready mixed concrete plant is increased dramatically due to high demand from urban development project. At the same time, slurry water was generated and leading to environmental problems. Thus, this paper is to investigate the effect of using slurry water on concrete properties in term of mechanical properties. The basic wastewater characterization was investigated according to USEPA (Method 150.1 & 300.0) while the mechanical property of concrete with slurry water was compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this research, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were studied. The percentage of wastewater replaced in concrete mixing was ranging from 0% up to 50%. In addition, the resulted also suggested that the concrete with 20% replacement of slurry water was achieved the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compared to other percentages. Moreover, the results also recommended that concrete with slurry water mix have better compressive strength compared to control mix concrete.

  6. Identification of Inhibitors in Lignocellulosic Slurries and Determination of Their Effect on Hydrocarbon-Producing Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify inhibitors in pretreated lignocellulosic slurries, evaluate high-throughput screening strategies, and investigate the impact of inhibitors on potential hydrocarbon-producing microorganisms. Compounds present in slurries that could inhibit microbial growth were identified through a detailed analysis of saccharified slurries by applying a combination of approaches of high-performance liquid chromatography, GC-MS, LC-DAD-MS, and ICP-MS. Several high-throughput assays were then evaluated to generate toxicity profiles. Our results demonstrated that Bioscreen C was useful for analyzing bacterial toxicity but not for yeast. AlamarBlue reduction assay can be a useful high-throughput assay for both bacterial and yeast strains as long as medium components do not interfere with fluorescence measurements. In addition, this work identified two major inhibitors (furfural and ammonium acetate for three potential hydrocarbon-producing bacterial species that include Escherichia coli, Cupriavidus necator, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630, which are also the primary inhibitors for ethanologens. This study was strived to establish a pipeline to quantify inhibitory compounds in biomass slurries and high-throughput approaches to investigate the effect of inhibitors on microbial biocatalysts, which can be applied for various biomass slurries or hydrolyzates generated through different pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes or different microbial candidates.

  7. An investigation on characterizing dense coal-water slurry with ultrasound: theoretical and experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, M.H.; Su, M.X.; Dong, L.L.; Shang, Z.T.; Cai, X.S. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-01

    Particle size distribution and concentration in particulate two-phase flow are important parameters in a wide variety of industrial areas. For the purpose of online characterization in dense coal-water slurries, ultrasonic methods have many advantages such as avoiding dilution, the capability for being used in real time, and noninvasive testing, while light-based techniques are not capable of providing information because optical methods often require the slurry to be diluted. In this article, the modified Urick equation including temperature modification, which can be used to determine the concentration by means of the measurement of ultrasonic velocity in a coal-water slurry, is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental study. A combination of the coupled-phase model and the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law is employed in this work, and the attenuation spectrum is measured within the frequency region from 3 to 12 MHz. Particle size distributions of the coal-water slurry at different volume fractions are obtained with the optimum regularization technique. Therefore, the ultrasonic technique presented in this work brings the possibility of using ultrasound for online measurements of dense slurries.

  8. Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Forslund, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agric...... types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards.......A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish....... coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE...

  9. Biodegradation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microbial consortia in soil and slurry phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Chungui; Li, Qi; Gong, Zongqiang

    2008-01-15

    Microbial consortia isolated from aged oil-contaminated soil were used to degrade 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15.72 mgkg(-1)) in soil and slurry phases. The three microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) could degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the highest PAH removals were found in soil and slurry inoculated with fungi (50.1% and 55.4%, respectively). PAHs biodegradation in slurry was lower than in soil for bacteria and bacteria-fungi complex inoculation treatments. Degradation of three- to five-ring PAHs treated by consortia was observed in soil and slurry, and the highest degradation of individual PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) appeared in soil (45.9-75.5%, 62-83.7% and 64.5-84.5%, respectively) and slurry (46.0-75.8%, 50.2-86.1% and 54.3-85.7%, respectively). Therefore, inoculation of microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) isolated from in situ contaminated soil to degrade PAHs could be considered as a successful method.

  10. Evaluation of planarization performance for a novel alkaline copper slurry under a low abrasive concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Mengting; Liu Yuling; Yuan Haobo; Chen Guodong; Liu Weijuan

    2014-01-01

    A novel alkaline copper slurry that possesses a relatively high planarization performance is investigated under a low abrasive concentration. Based on the action mechanism of CMP, the feasibility of using one type of slurry in copper bulk elimination process and residual copper elimination process, with different process parameters, was analyzed. In addition, we investigated the regular change of abrasive concentration effect on copper and tantalum removal rate and within wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU) in CMP process. When the abrasive concentration is 3 wt%, in bulk elimination process, the copper removal rate achieves 6125 Å/min, while WIWNU is 3.5%, simultaneously. In residual copper elimination process, the copper removal rate is approximately 2700 Å/min, while WIWNU is 2.8%. Nevertheless, the tantalum removal rate is 0 Å/min, which indicates that barrier layer isn't eliminated in residual copper elimination process. The planarization experimental results show that an excellent planarization performance is obtained with a relatively high copper removal rate in bulk elimination process. Meanwhile, after residual copper elimination process, the dishing value increased inconspicuously, in a controllable range, and the wafer surface roughness is only 0.326 nm (sq < 1 nm) after polishing. By comparison, the planarization performance and surface quality of alkaline slurry show almost no major differences with two kinds of commercial acid slurries after polishing. All experimental results are conducive to research and improvement of alkaline slurry in the future. (semiconductor technology)

  11. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemical–physical combined method (CPCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemical–physical combined methods (CPCMs for treatment of marine clay (MC slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP, while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  12. Spring barley yield and nitrogen recovery after application of peat manure and pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of peat manure, manufactured of pig slurry and moderately humified Sphagnum peat (slurry:peat ca. 1:1.5 v/v, as nitrogen (N source for spring barley was investigated in a four.year field experiment on a clay loam soil in south-western Finland. Pig slurry, NPK fertilizer and plain peat were used as references. Manures were incorporated before sowing or surface-applied after sowing in spring at an ammoniacal N rate of.54.106 kg.ha-1 with or without supplementary NPK fertilizer (40.kg N.ha-1. Soil moisture conditions were varied by different irrigation treatments. Peat manure produced 5.15% higher grain yields than pig slurry, with the largest difference after surface application. Incorporation was more important for slurry than for peat manure in increasing N uptake and yield. Soil moisture deficit in spring and early summer limited the availability of manure N. Part of the manure N that was not available in the early growing period was apparently taken up by the crop later. Consequently, N concentration tended to be higher with lower yields, and differences in the recovery of manure N were smaller than the differences in grain yield. Supplementation of manures with inorganic fertilizer N increased yield by 37%, on average, and improved the N recovery.;

  13. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry and solid phase techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, D.P.; Irvine, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurry is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay load contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the ate and extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies

  15. Transport of veterinary antibiotics in overland flow following the application of slurry to arable land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2005-05-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock due to the application of organic fertilisers to land. Slurry is often spread on to fields following the harvest of the previous crop. Despite recommendations to do so, the slurry may not be ploughed into the soil for some time. If precipitation occurs before incorporation then it is likely that the slurry and any antibiotic residues in the slurry will be transported towards surface waters in overland flow. This phenomenon has been investigated in a plot study and transport via 'tramlines' has been compared to that through crop stubble. Three veterinary antibiotics, from the tetracycline, sulphonamide and macrolide groups, were applied to the plots in pig slurry. Twenty four hours after the application the plots were irrigated. Following this the plots received natural rainfall. Sulphachloropyridazine was detected in runoff from the tramline plot at a peak concentration of 703.2 microgl(-1) and oxytetracycline at 71.7 microgl(-1). Peak concentrations from the plot that did not contain a tramline were lower at 415.5 and 32 microgl(-1), respectively. In contrast, tylosin was not detected at all. Mass losses of the compounds were also greater from the tramline plot due to greater runoff generation. These did not exceed 0.42% for sulphachloropyridazine and 0.07% for oxytetracycline however.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of melting behavior of alkane as phase change materials slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Wu Maochun; Zhang Yanlai; Li Fuhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The melting behavior of phase change materials slurry was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation method. ► Four different PCM slurry systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed. ► Amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions were used in the molecular dynamics simulations. ► The simulated melting temperatures are very close to the published experimental values. - Abstract: The alkane based phase change materials slurry, with high latent heat storage capacity, is effective to enhance the heat transfer rate of traditional fluid. In this paper, the melting behavior of composite phase change materials slurry which consists of n-nonadecane and water was investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation. Four different systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed with amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions. The results showed that the simulated density and melting temperature were very close to the published experimental values. Mixing the n-nonadecane into water decreased the mobility but increased the energy storage capacity of composite systems. To describe the melting behavior of alkane based phase change materials slurry on molecular or atomic scale, molecular dynamics simulation is an effective method.

  17. Swine slurry application and soil management on double-cropped oat/maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.

  18. Evaluation and testing of metering pumps for high-level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Blair, H.T.

    1986-06-01

    The metering pump system that delivers high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) slurry to a melter is an integral subsystem of the vitrification process. The process of selecting a pump for this application began with a technical review of pumps typically used for slurry applications. The design and operating characteristics of numerous pumps were evaluated against established criteria. Two pumps, an air-displacement slurry (ADS) pump and an air-lift pump, were selected for further development. In the development activity, from FY 1983 to FY 1985, the two pumps were subjected to long-term tests using simulated melter feed slurries to evaluate the pumps' performances. Throughout this period, the designs of both pumps were modified to better adapt them for this application. Final reference designs were developed for both the air-displacement slurry pump and the air-lift pump. Successful operation of the final reference designs has demonstrated the feasibility of both pumps. A fully remote design of the ADS pump has been developed and is currently undergoing testing at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Five designs of the ADS pump were tested and evaluated. The initial four designs proved the operating concept of the ADS pump. Weaknesses in the ADS pump system were identified and eliminated in later designs. A full-scale air-lift pump was designed and tested as a final demonstration of the air-lift pump's capabilities

  19. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003 compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  20. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  1. Enhanced acetone-butanol-ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by using starchy slurry as supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Zhang, Junhua; Pappinen, Ari

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to improve acetone-butanol-ethanol production from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic material by supplementing starchy slurry as nutrients. In the fermentations of glucose, xylose and the hydrolysates of Salix schwerinii, the normal supplements such as buffer, minerals, and vitamins solutions were replaced with the barley starchy slurry. The ABE production was increased from 0.86 to 14.7g/L by supplementation of starchy slurry in the fermentation of xylose and the utilization of xylose increased from 29% to 81%. In the fermentations of hemicellulosic and enzymatic hydrolysates from S. schwerinii, the ABE yields were increased from 0 and 0.26 to 0.35 and 0.33g/g sugars, respectively. The results suggested that the starchy slurry supplied the essential nutrients for ABE fermentation. The starchy slurry as supplement could improve the ABE production from both hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysate of lignocelluloses, and it is particularly helpful for enhancing the utilization of xylose from hemicelluloses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physio-Microstructural Properties of Aerated Cement Slurry for Lightweight Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Talal; Hamadna, Sameer; Darsanasiri, A. G. N. D.; Soroushian, Parviz; Balchandra, Anagi; Al-Chaar, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Cementitious composites, including ferrocement and continuous fiber reinforced cement, are increasingly considered for building construction and repair. One alternative in processing of these composites is to infiltrate the reinforcement (continuous fibers or chicken mesh) with a flowable cementitious slurry. The relatively high density of cementitious binders, when compared with polymeric binders, are a setback in efforts to introduce cementitious composites as lower-cost, fire-resistant, and durable alternatives to polymer composites. Aeration of the slurry is an effective means of reducing the density of cementitious composites. This approach, however, compromises the mechanical properties of cementitious binders. An experimental program was undertaken in order to assess the potential for production of aerated slurry with a desired balance of density, mechanical performance, and barrier qualities. The potential for nondestructive monitoring of strength development in aerated cementitious slurry was also investigated. This research produced aerated slurries with densities as low as 0.9 g/cm3 with viable mechanical and barrier qualities for production of composites. The microstructure of these composites was also investigated. PMID:29649163

  3. EVALUATION OF MIXING IN THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR AND MELTER FEED TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARINIK, ANDREW

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) vitrifies High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HLW currently being processed is a waste sludge composed primarily of metal hydroxides and oxides in caustic slurry. These slurries are typically characterized as Bingham Plastic fluids. The HLW undergoes a pretreatment process in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) at DWPF. The processed HLW sludge is then transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) where it is acidified with nitric and formic acid then evaporated to concentrate the solids. Reflux boiling is used to strip mercury from the waste and then the waste is transferred to the Slurry Mix Evaporator tank (SME). Glass formers are added as a frit slurry to the SME to prepare the waste for vitrification. This mixture is evaporated in the SME to the final concentration target. The frit slurry mixture is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) to be fed to the melter

  4. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  5. Acetabular Cup Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum. Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision, accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device (cage), trabecular metal cup cage. The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision, accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.

  6. Fermentation of Anaerobic Cow Waste as Bio-Slurry Organic Fertilizer and Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer on Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafizham; Sutarno

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed was to evaluate the effect of bio-slurry organic fertilizer and urea chemical fertilizer combination on fresh material weight, phosphorus and potassium soybean straw, and seed weight per soybean plant plot. The experiment was conducted with a randomized block design with a single treatment repeated 5 times consisting of P0: control (without fertilizer), P1: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha, P2: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 50 kg of N/ha, P3: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 75 kg of N/ha, P4: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 100 kg of N/ha and P5: bio-slurry 10 t/ha. The results showed that bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha resulted in the highest fresh weight and dry weight of soybean plants, respectively of 240.7 g and 22.33 g, but not significantly different from the bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 50 kg of N/ha which yielded fresh weight of 197.7 g and a dry weight of 19.08 g. P production of 10.23 g per plant was significantly higher than other treatments but didn’t differ significantly between P2 and P4 treatments of 8.05 and 7.17 g per plant. The bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha also yielded K of 6.46 g per plant butn’t unlike the bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 50 kg of N/ha. While the number of pods per plant and weight of 100 grains of the highest soybean seeds were also produced from bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha.

  7. Development and application of a generic CFD toolkit covering the heat flows in combined solid-liquid systems with emphasis on the thermal design of HiLumi superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Gennaro; Malecha, Ziemowit M.; Van Weelderen, Rob

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to develop a robust multi-region numerical toolkit for the modeling of heat flows in combined solid-liquid systems. Specifically heat transfer in complex cryogenic system geometries involving super-fluid helium. The incentive originates from the need to support the design of superconductive magnets in the framework of the HiLumi-LHC project (Brüning and Rossi, 2015) [1]. The intent is, instead of solving heat flows in restricted domains, to be able to model a full magnet section in one go including all relevant construction details as accurately as possible. The toolkit was applied to the so-called MQXF quadrupole magnet design. Parametrisation studies were used to find a compromise in thermal design and electro-mechanical construction constraints. The cooling performance is evaluated in terms of temperature margin of the magnets under full steady state heat load conditions and in terms of maximal sustainable load. We also present transient response to pulse heat loads of varying duration and power and the system response to time-varying cold source temperatures.

  8. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihui; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Chu, Xianfeng; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 μg/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2→358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 μg/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2014-08-15

    An analytical method is proposed to determine ten perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) [nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] in corn, popcorn and microwave popcorn packaging by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS). Selected PFAAs were extracted efficiently in only one 10-s cycle by FUSLE, a simple, safe and inexpensive technique. The developed method was validated for microwave popcorn bags matrix as well as corn and popcorn matrices in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and recovery values. The method showed good accuracy with recovery values around 100% except for the lowest chain length PFAAs, satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs under 16%, and sensitivity with limits of detection in the order of hundreds picograms per gram of sample (between 0.2 and 0.7ng/g). This method was also applied to the analysis of six microwave popcorn bags and the popcorn inside before and after cooking. PFCAs contents between 3.50ng/g and 750ng/g were found in bags, being PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) the most abundant of them. However, no PFAAs were detected either corn or popcorn, therefore no migration was assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared with the commercial lime efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigac, J.; Mikusinec, J.; Strigacova, J.; Stevulova, N.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with studying the antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared to industrially manufactured commercial lime. Antifungal efficiency expressed as mould proofness properties was tested on the fungi using the procedure given in standard CSN 72 4310. A mixture of fungi Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium funiculosum, Paecilomyces variotii and Gliocladium virens was utilized for testing. The scale for evaluating mould proofness properties according to CSN 72 4310 is from 0 to 5 in degree of fungi growth, where 0 means that no fungi growth occurs and the building products and materials possess fungistatic properties. The study confirms the fungistatic propeties of carbide lime slurry as well as industrially manufactured commercial lime. However, carbide lime slurry and industrially manufactured commercial lime possess no fungicidal effect.

  11. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates

  12. A site-specific slurry application technique on grassland and on arable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellberg, Jürgen; Lock, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that unequal slurry application on agricultural land contributes to N losses to the environment. Heterogeneity within fields demands adequate response by means of variable rate application. A technique is presented which allows site-specific application of slurry on grassland and arable land based on pre-defined application maps. The system contains a valve controlling flow rate by an on-board PC. During operation, flow rate is measured and scaled against set point values given in the application map together with the geographic position of the site. The systems worked sufficiently precise at a flow rate between 0 and 25 l s(-1) and an offset of actual slurry flow from set point values between 0.33 and 0.67 l s(-1). Long-term experimentation is required to test if site-specific application de facto reduces N surplus within fields and so significantly contributes to the unloading of N in agricultural areas.

  13. Design and performance of feed-delivery systems for simulated radioactive waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    Processes for vitrifying simulated high-level radioactive waste have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last several years. Paralleling this effort, several feed systems used to deliver the simulated waste slurry to the melter have been tested. Because there had been little industrial experience in delivering abrasive slurries at feed rates of less than 10 L/min, early experience helped direct the design of more-dependable systems. Also, as feed delivery requirements changed, the feed system was modified to meet these new requirements. The various feed systems discussed in this document are part of this evolutionary process, so they have not been ranked against each other. The four slurry feed systems discussed are: (1) vertical-cantilevered centrifugal pump system; (2) airlift feed systems; (3) pressurized-loop systems; and (4) positive-displacement pump system. 20 figures, 11 tables

  14. Sustainable use of pig slurry, with and without treatment, as an amendment organic in almond crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Oliver, S. G.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study consists in the use of different forms of slurry, as an organic fertilizer, on almond trees located in La Aljorra (Cartegena, Murcia). The slurry used comes from a farm near the area of study, which has a treatment system composed by tree parts: a phase separator, a bioreactor and 5 constructed wetlands of vertical flow. Different phases of slurry are obtained from each part of the system. The results show the reduction of most of the parameters lime salinity, BOD 5 QOD, nitrate, etc. The use of these effluents as an organic amend in different doses, supposes a sustainable way of management of these residues; at the same time it improves the soil properties and the agronomic quality of the almond tree crop. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Design and Operation of the World's First Long Distance Bauxite Slurry Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ramesh; Weston, Mike; Talavera, Maru; Brittes, Geraldo Pereira; Barbosa, Eder

    Mineracão Bauxita Paragominas (MBP) is the first long distance slurry pipeline transporting bauxite slurry. Bauxite had developed a reputation for being difficult to hydraulically transport using long distance pipelines. This myth has now been proven wrong. The 245-km- long, 13.5 MTPY capacity MBP pipeline was designed and commissioned by PSI for CVRD. The pipeline is located in the State of Para, Brazil. The Miltonia bauxite mine is in a remote location with no other efficient means of transport. The bauxite slurry is delivered to Alunorte Alumina refinery located near Barcarena. This first of its kind pipeline required significant development work in order to assure technical and economic feasibility. This paper describes the technical aspects of design of the pipeline. It also summarizes the operating experience gained during the first year of operation.

  16. Natural convection heat transfer enhancement using Microencapsulated Phase-Change-Material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nakano, Fumihiko; Nagashima, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigates natural convection heat transfer from a heated cylinder cooled by a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (MCPCM). A normal paraffin hydrocarbon with carbon number of 18 and melting point of 27.9degC, is microencapsulated by Melamine resin into particles of which average diameter is 9.5μm and specific weight is same as water. The slurry of the MCPCM and water is put into a test apparatus, which is a rectangular enclosure with a heated horizontal cylinder. As the concentrations of PCM in the slurry are changed in 1,3 and 5%, the heat transfer coefficients of the cylinder are larger than that of water as working fluid, by 3,20 and 35% enhancements respectively. (author)

  17. Spray polyurea coatings as containment liners in coal slurry storage ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darden, J.W.; Loomis, R.; Roehm, F.T. [Willamette Valley Co., Eugene, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Southern California Edison (SCE) Mohave Generating Station was built in the early 1970`s in response to the shortage of oil due to the OPEC boycott. Coal/water slurry from the Black Mesa Pipeline is used to generate energy at the plant. Eight storage ponds, each about 175,000 square feet, were built in the mid to late 1970`s to insure a constant supply of slurry to feed the generating units. This paper describes the application of POLYQuik{trademark} P400 spray polyurea coating to the Marcona Pond, a coal slurry storage area at Southern California Edison`s Mohave Generating Station. The coating forms an impermeable barrier to prevent water loss and contamination of subgrade soils. The use of these coatings reduces facility downtime and liner replacement costs, offering a cost savings over the life of the pond.

  18. Synthesis gas solubility in Fischer-Tropsch slurry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Lin, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the phase equilibrium behavior of synthesis gases and products in a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. A semi-flow apparatus has been designed and constructed for this purpose. Measurements have been made for hydrogen, cabon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in a heavy n-paraffin at temperatures from 100 to 300)degree)C and pressures 10 to 50 atm. Three n-paraffin waxes: n-eicosane (n-C/sub 20/), n-octacosane )n-C/sub 28/), and n-hexatriacontane (n-C/sub 36/), were studied to model the industrial wax. Solubility of synthesis gas mixtures of H/sub 2/ and CO in n-C/sub 28/ was also determined at two temperatures (200 and 300)degree)C) for each of three gas compositions (40.01, 50.01, and 66.64 mol%) of hydrogen). Measurements were extended to investigate the gas solubility in two industrial Fischer-Tropsch waxes: Mobilwax and SASOL wax. Observed solubility increases in the order: H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, at a given temperature pressure, and in the same solvent. Solubility increases with increasing pressure for all the gases. Lighter gases H/sub 2/ and CO show increased solubility with increasing temperature, while the heavier gases CO/sub 2/, ethane, and ethylene show decreased solubility with increasing temperature. The solubility of methane, the intermediate gas, changes little with temperature, and shows a shallow minimum at about 200)degrees)C or somewhat above. Henry's constant and partial molal volume of the gas solute at infinite dilution are determinedfrom the gas solubility data. A correlation is developed from the experimental data in the form on an equation of state. A computer program has been prepared to implement the correlation. 19 refs., 66 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  20. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.