WorldWideScience

Sample records for solid-liquid interfaces application

  1. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  2. Modeling the electrified solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Skulason, Egill; Björketun, Mårten

    2008-01-01

    function can be related directly to the potential scale of the normal hydrogen electrode. We also show how finite-size effects in common periodic slab-type calculations can be avoided in calculations of activation energies and reaction energies for charge transfer reactions, where we use the Heyrovsky......A detailed atomistic model based on density functional theory calculations is presented of the charged solid-electrolyte interface. Having protons solvated in a water bilayer outside a Pt(111) slab with excess electrons, we show how the interface capacitance is well described and how the work...

  3. Voltage-dependent cluster expansion for electrified solid-liquid interfaces: Application to the electrochemical deposition of transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzner, Stephen E.; Dabo, Ismaila

    2017-11-01

    The detailed atomistic modeling of electrochemically deposited metal monolayers is challenging due to the complex structure of the metal-solution interface and the critical effects of surface electrification during electrode polarization. Accurate models of interfacial electrochemical equilibria are further challenged by the need to include entropic effects to obtain accurate surface chemical potentials. We present an embedded quantum-continuum model of the interfacial environment that addresses each of these challenges and study the underpotential deposition of silver on the gold (100) surface. We leverage these results to parametrize a cluster expansion of the electrified interface and show through grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations the crucial need to account for variations in the interfacial dipole when modeling electrodeposited metals under finite-temperature electrochemical conditions.

  4. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting tempera...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume.......We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...

  5. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  6. Optical fingerprints of solid-liquid interfaces: a joint ATR-IR and first principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Niu, F.; Tecklenburg, S.; Pander, M.; Nayak, S.; Erbe, A.; Wippermann, S.; Gygi, F.; Galli, G.

    Despite the importance of understanding the structural and bonding properties of solid-liquid interfaces for a wide range of (photo-)electrochemical applications, there are presently no experimental techniques available to directly probe the microscopic structure of solid-liquid interfaces. To develop robust strategies to interpret experiments and validate theory, we carried out attenuated total internal reflection (ATR-IR) spectroscopy measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the vibrational properties of interfaces between liquid water and well-controlled prototypical semiconductor substrates. We show the Ge(100)/H2O interface to feature a reversible potential-dependent surface phase transition between Ge-H and Ge-OH termination. The Si(100)/H2O interface is proposed as a model system for corrosion and oxidation processes. We performed AIMD calculations under finite electric fields, revealing different pathways for initial oxidation. These pathways are predicted to exhibit unique spectral signatures. A significant increase in surface specificity can be achieved utilizing an angle-dependent ATR-IR experiment, which allows to detect such signatures at the interfacial layer and consequently changes in the hydrogen bond network. Funding from DOE-BES Grant No. DE-SS0008939 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (RESOLV, EXC 1069) are gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siretanu, Igor; Ebeling, Daniel; Andersson, Martin Peter

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of ions and charge at solid-water interfaces plays an essential role in a wide range of processes in biology, geology and technology. While theoretical models of the solid-electrolyte interface date back to the early 20th century, a detailed picture of the structure of the electric...... double layer has remained elusive, largely because of experimental techniques have not allowed direct observation of the behaviour of ions, i.e. with subnanometer resolution. We have made use of recent advances in high-resolution Atomic Force Microscopy to reveal, with atomic level precision, the ordered...

  8. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect; La structure de l'interface solide-liquide: effet de taille atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique

    2002-09-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size ({sigma}) and energy ({epsilon}) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites ({chi}={sigma}{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 2}) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the {chi} value. (authors)

  9. Homogeneous nucleation ahead of the solid-liquid interface during rapid solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; Elmer, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    In recent rapid solidification experiments on Al-5%Be alloys, a Liquid Phase Nucleation (LPN) model was developed to explain the formation of periodic arrays of randomly-oriented Be-rich particles in an Al-rich matrix. In the LPN model, Be droplets were assumed to nucleate in the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface, but no justification for this was given. Here the authors present a model which considers the geometric constraints (imposed by proximity to the interface) on the number of solute atoms available to form a nucleus. Calculations based on this model predict that nucleation of second-phase particles can be most likely a short distance ahead of the interface in immiscible binary systems such as Al-Be. As part of the nucleation calculations, a semi-empirical method of calculating solid-liquid surface tensions in binary systems was developed, and is presented in the Appendix

  10. In situ scanning probe spectroscopy at nanoscale solid/liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, W.; Hugelmann, M.; Hugelmann, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry provides unique features for the preparation of low-dimensional structures, but in situ spectroscopy with atomic/molecular resolution at such structures is at present not well established yet. This paper shows that in situ scanning probe spectroscopy at solid/liquid interfaces can be utilized to study electronic properties at nanoscale, if appropriate conditions are applied. Tunneling spectroscopy provides information about tunneling barrier heights and electronic states in the tunneling gap, as shown on Au(1 1 1) substrates, contact spectroscopy allows for transport measurements at single nanostructures, as shown at Au/n-Si(1 1 1) nanodiodes. The influence of the electrolytic environment on spectroscopic investigations is not a principal limitation, but offers additional degrees of freedom, which allow, for example, spectroscopic studies of potential dependent surface phenomena at solid/liquid interfaces

  11. Dynamic covalent chemistry of bisimines at the solid/liquid interface monitored by scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; El Garah, Mohamed; Haar, Sébastien; Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic covalent chemistry relies on the formation of reversible covalent bonds under thermodynamic control to generate dynamic combinatorial libraries. It provides access to numerous types of complex functional architectures, and thereby targets several technologically relevant applications, such as in drug discovery, (bio)sensing and dynamic materials. In liquid media it was proved that by taking advantage of the reversible nature of the bond formation it is possible to combine the error-correction capacity of supramolecular chemistry with the robustness of covalent bonding to generate adaptive systems. Here we show that double imine formation between 4-(hexadecyloxy)benzaldehyde and different α,ω-diamines as well as reversible bistransimination reactions can be achieved at the solid/liquid interface, as monitored on the submolecular scale by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging. Our modular approach enables the structurally controlled reversible incorporation of various molecular components to form sophisticated covalent architectures, which opens up perspectives towards responsive multicomponent two-dimensional materials and devices.

  12. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size (σ) and energy (ε) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites (χ=σ 1 /σ 2 ) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the χ value. (authors)

  13. Effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lichun; Malfliet, Annelies; Wollants, Patrick; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel was studied by adding Te to liquid steel before Al deoxidation at 1873 K. After water-quenching, the spatial distribution homogeneity of alumina inclusions in the steel matrix was characterized using the Dirichlet tessellation method. The deterioration of this homogeneity with increasing the addition of Te indicates that Te facilitates pushing of alumina inclusions. This phenomenon was discussed based on the thermodynamics of an asymmetric thin liquid film confined by an advancing solid-liquid interface and a particle. The surface excesses of Te at the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfaces were theoretically demonstrated to decrease when an alumina inclusion moves towards the solid-liquid interface, thereby weakening the effect of Te on the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfacial energies. Based on this, effect of surfactants was incorporated in the models predicting the critical velocity V_C.

  14. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  15. Neutron reflectivity as method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutberlet, Thomas; Klösgen, Beate Maria; Krastev, Rumen

    2004-01-01

    variation. It was observed that the method was capable of visualizing the adsorption of phospholipid layers to different solid-liquid interfaces and to resolve structural details at Angstroem resolution. The results depended strongly on a sufficiently good signal-to-noise ratio of the specific measurements......The use of neutron reflectivity as a method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces was analyzed. The most important advantage of neutron reflectometry is the possibility to very the refractive index of the specific sample by isotope exchange, called contrast...

  16. In situ reflectivity investigations of solid/liquid interface during laser backside etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.; Otto, T.; Zimmer, K.

    2006-01-01

    In situ reflectivity measurements of the solid/liquid interface with a pump-probe setup were performed during laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) of fused silica with KrF excimer laser using toluene as absorbing liquid. The intensity, the temporal shape, and the duration of the reflected light measured in dependence on the laser fluence are discussed referring to the surface modification and the bubble formation. The vaporisation of the superheated liquid at the solid interface causes a considerable increase of the reflectivity and gives information about the bubble lifetime. The alterations of the reflectivity after bubbles collapse can be explained with the changed optical properties due to surface modifications of the solid surface. Comparative studies of the reflectivity at different times and the etch rate behaviour in dependence on the laser fluence show that the in situ measured surface modification begins just at the etch threshold fluence and correlates further with etch rate behaviour and the etched surface appearance. The already observed surface modification at LIBWE due to a carbon deposition and structural changes of the near surface region are approved by the changes of the interface reflectivity and emphasizes the importance of the modified surface region in the laser-induced backside wet etching process

  17. ATR-IR spectroscopic cell for in situ studies at solid-liquid interface at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koichumanova, Kamila; Visan, Aura; Geerdink, Bert; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Mojet, Barbara; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2017-01-01

    An in situ ATR-IR spectroscopic cell suitable for studies at solid-liquid interface is described including the design and experimental details in continuous flow mode at elevated temperatures (230 °C) and pressures (30 bar). The design parameters considered include the cell geometry, the procedure

  18. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  19. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-01

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: P m 3 ¯ m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic "Na" potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of "Na" potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Moreover, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  20. Bubble Induced Disruption of a Planar Solid-Liquid Interface During Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.

    2013-01-01

    Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiments were conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station with the intent of better understanding the role entrained porosity/bubbles play during controlled directional solidification. The planar interface in a slowing growing succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% water alloy was being observed when a nitrogen bubble traversed the mushy zone and remained at the solid-liquid interface. Breakdown of the interface to shallow cells subsequently occurred, and was later evaluated using down-linked data from a nearby thermocouple. These results and other detrimental effects due to the presence of bubbles during solidification processing in a microgravity environment are presented and discussed.

  1. Probing alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures of peptides at solid/liquid interfaces with SFG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jie; Sniadecki, Jason J; Even, Mark A; Chen, Zhan

    2005-03-29

    We demonstrated that sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy can distinguish different secondary structures of proteins or peptides adsorbed at solid/liquid interfaces. The SFG spectrum for tachyplesin I at the polystyrene (PS)/solution interface has a fingerprint peak corresponding to the B1/B3 mode of the antiparallel beta-sheet. This peak disappeared upon the addition of dithiothreitol, which can disrupt the beta-sheet structure. The SFG spectrum indicative of the MSI594 alpha-helical structure was observed at the PS/MSI594 solution interface. This research validates SFG as a powerful technique for revealing detailed secondary structures of interfacial proteins and peptides.

  2. Digital microfluidics platform for interfacing solid-liquid extraction column with portable capillary electropherograph for analysis of soil amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsova, Jelena; Jaanus, Martin; Vaher, Merike; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the concept of a field-portable analyzer is proposed that operates with milliliter amounts of solvents and samples. The need to develop such an analyzer is not only driven by specific extraterrestrial analysis but also, for example, by forensics applications where the amount of liquid that can be taken to the field is severely limited. The prototype of the proposed analyzer consists of a solid-liquid extractor, the output of which is connected to the micropump, which delivers droplets of extracts to digital microfluidic platform (DMFP). In this way, world-to-chip interfacing is established. Further, the sample droplets are transported to CE capillary inlet port, separated and detected via a contactless conductivity detector. Working buffers and other solvents needed to perform CE analysis are also delivered as droplets to the DMFP and transported through the CE capillary. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by analysis of amino acids in sand matrices. The recovery of the spiked amino acids from the inert sand sample was from 34 to 51% with analysis LOD from 0.2 to 0.6 ppm and migration time RSD from 0.2 to 6.0%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Neville J; Peel, Louise L; Swann, Marcus J; Cross, Graham H; Reeves, Andrew; Brand, Stuart; Lu, Jian R

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for the analysis of thin biological films, called dual polarization interferometry (DPI), is described. This high resolution (<1 A), laboratory-based technique allows the thickness and refractive index (density) of biological molecules adsorbing or reacting at the solid-liquid interface to be measured in real time (up to 10 measurements per second). Results from the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on to a silicon oxynitride chip surface are presented to demonstrate how time dependent molecular behaviour can be examined using DPI. Mechanistic and structural information relating to the adsorption process is obtained as a function of the solution pH

  4. Atomic simulations for configurations and solid-liquid interface of Li-Fe and Li-Cu icosahedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianyu, E-mail: hnieyjy@aliyun.com [Hunan Institute of Engineering (China); Hu, Wangyu [Hunan University, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Dai, Xiongying [Hunan Institute of Engineering, College of Science (China)

    2017-04-15

    The melting point of Li is lower than that of Fe (or Cu); thus, solid-liquid interfaces can be easily formed on Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys. In this work, the configurations and solid-liquid interfaces of Li-Fe and Li-Cu icosahedra are studied using Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods. The atomic interactions are described by the analytic embedded-atom method. The dependence of composition, temperature, and nanoparticle size on the configurations and thermal stabilities of nanoalloys is discussed. The behavior of the Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys in segregation, configuration, and thermal stability is investigated. A different behavior of surface segregation of Li atoms is observed for the two types of nanoalloys. The interface between the Li and Fe atoms is clear. Mixing of Li with Cu at larger nanoparticle sizes is found because of low heat of formation in the system. The configurations of the Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys are related to the competition between surface segregation and alloying. The thermal stability of Li in the two types of nanoalloys is enhanced by the support of the Fe (or Cu) solid substrate.

  5. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel 718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, were investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  6. Detection of different oxidation states of individual manganese porphyrins during their reaction with oxygen at a solid/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Duncan; Li, Min; Habets, Thomas; Iavicoli, Patrizia; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M; Speller, Sylvia; Amabilino, David B; De Feyter, Steven; Elemans, Johannes A A W

    2013-07-01

    Manganese porphyrins have been extensively investigated as model systems for the natural enzyme cytochrome P450 and as synthetic oxidation catalysts. Here, we report single-molecule studies of the multistep reaction of manganese porphyrins with molecular oxygen at a solid/liquid interface, using a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) under environmental control. The high lateral resolution of the STM, in combination with its sensitivity to subtle differences in the electronic properties of molecules, allowed the detection of at least four distinct reaction species. Real-space and real-time imaging of reaction dynamics enabled the observation of active sites, immobile on the experimental timescale. Conversions between the different species could be tuned by the composition of the atmosphere (argon, air or oxygen) and the surface bias voltage. By means of extensive comparison of the results to those obtained by analogous solution-based chemistry, we assigned the observed species to the starting compound, reaction intermediates and products.

  7. Electrochemical determination of the glass transition temperature of thin polyelectrolyte brushes at solid-liquid interfaces by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-García, Teodoro; Rodríguez-Presa, María José; Gervasi, Claudio; Moya, Sergio; Azzaroni, Omar

    2013-07-16

    Devising strategies to assess the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyelectrolyte assemblies at solid-electrolyte interfaces is very important to understand and rationalize the temperature-dependent behavior of polyelectrolyte films in a wide range of settings. Despite the evolving perception of the importance of measuring Tg under aqueous conditions in thin film configurations, its straightforward measurement poses a challenging situation that still remains elusive in polymer and materials science. Here, we describe a new method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to estimate the glass transition temperature of planar polyelectrolyte brushes at solid-liquid interfaces. To measure Tg, the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of a redox probe diffusing through the polyelectrolyte brush was measured, and the temperature corresponding to the discontinuous change in Rct was identified as Tg. Furthermore, we demonstrate that impedance measurements not only facilitate the estimation of Tg but also enable a reliable evaluation of the transport properties of the polymeric interface, i.e., determination of diffusion coefficients, close to the thermal transition. We consider that this approach bridges the gap between electrochemistry and the traditional tools used in polymer science and offers new opportunities to characterize the thermal behavior of complex polymeric interfaces and macromolecular assemblies.

  8. Highly Adaptive Solid-Liquid Interfacing Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Diverse Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2018-05-22

    Harvesting water wave energy presents a significantly practical route to energy supply for self-powered wireless sensing networks. Here we report a networked integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (NI-TENG) as a highly adaptive means of harvesting energy from interfacing interactions with various types of water waves. Having an arrayed networking structure, the NI-TENG can accommodate diverse water wave motions and generate stable electric output regardless of how random the water wave is. Nanoscaled surface morphology consisting of dense nanowire arrays is the key for obtaining high electric output. A NI-TENG having an area of 100 × 70 mm 2 can produce a stable short-circuit current of 13.5 μA and corresponding electric power of 1.03 mW at a water wave height of 12 cm. This merit promises practical applications of the NI-TENG in real circumstances, where water waves are highly variable and unpredictable. After energy storage, the generated electric energy can drive wireless sensing by autonomously transmitting data at a period less than 1 min. This work proposes a viable solution for powering individual standalone nodes in a wireless sensor network. Potential applications include but are not limited to long-term environment monitoring, marine surveillance, and off-shore navigation.

  9. Interactions of PAMAM dendrimers with SDS at the solid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Marianna Yanez; Eltes, Felix; Campbell, Richard A; Nylander, Tommy

    2013-05-14

    This work addresses structural and nonequilibrium effects of the interactions between well-defined cationic poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers of generations 4 and 8 and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at the hydrophilic silica-water interface. Neutron reflectometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring were used to reveal the adsorption from premixed dendrimer/surfactant solutions as well as sequential addition of the surfactant to preadsorbed layers of dendrimers. PAMAM dendrimers of both generations adsorb to hydrophilic silica as a compact monolayer, and the adsorption is irreversible upon rinsing with salt solution. SDS adsorbs on the dendrimer layer and at low bulk concentrations causes the expansion of the dendrimer layers on the surface. When the bulk concentration of SDS is increased, the surfactant layer consists of aggregates or bilayer-like structures. The adsorption of surfactant is reversible upon rinsing, but slight changes of the structure of the preadsorbed PAMAM monolayer were observed. The adsorption from premixed solutions close to charge neutrality results in thick multilayers, but the surface excess is lower when the bulk complexes have a net negative charge. A critical examination of the pathway of adsorption for the interactions of SDS with preadsorbed PAMAM monolayers and premixed PAMAM/SDS solutions with hydrophilic silica revealed that nonequilibrium effects are important only in the latter case, and the application of a thermodynamic model to such experimental data would be inappropriate.

  10. Mass Transfer Process by Magneto-convection at a Solid-liquid Interface in a Heterogeneous Vertical Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Morisaki, Shigeyoshi; Aogaki, Ryoichi

    2003-08-01

    When an external magnetic field is vertically imposed on a solid-liquid interface, the mass transfer process of a solute dissolving from or depositing on the interface was theoretically examined. In a heterogeneous vertical magnetic field, a material receives a magnetic force in proportion to the product of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetic flux density B and its gradient (dB/dz). As the reaction proceeds, a diffusion layer of the solute with changing susceptibility is formed at the interface because of the difference of the the magnetic susceptibility on the concentration of the solute. In the case of an unstable condition where the dimensionless number of magneto-convection S takes a positive value, the magnetic force is applied to the layer and induces numerous minute convection cells. The mass transfer of the solute is thus accelerated, so that it is predicted that the mass flux increases with the 1/3rd order of B(dB/dz) and the 4/3rd order of the concentration. The experiment was then performed by measuring the rate of the dissolution of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal in water.

  11. Weighted-density functional approach for the solid-liquid interfaces in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanova, T.A.; Stekolnikov, A.V.

    1991-09-01

    A weighted-density functional method is proposed to describe the atomic structure of the crystal-melt interface in electrolytes based on a charged-hard-sphere model of salt. The contribution of long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account in the field formulation: the electrostatic field potential is determined from the Poisson equation. The ion density profiles and crystalline order parameter at the crystal-melt interface in the 1:1 symmetric electrolytes are calculated. The structurization of liquid near the solid surface is described. The results are compared to those for the neutral hard sphere system. The impurity distributions of extremely small concentrations are calculated both for the neutral and charged hard sphere systems. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  12. A KINETIC MODEL FOR MONO-LAYER GLOBULAR PROTEIN ADSORPTION ON SOLID/LIQUID INTERFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal I. M. Al-Malah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model was derived for globular protein adsorption. The model takes into account the three possible scenarios of a protein molecule in solution, being exposed to an interface: adsorption step from the solution to the interface; the possible desorption back into the solution; and the surface-induced unfolding or spreading of the protein unto the substrate surface. A globular protein molecule is visualized as a sphere with radius D. In addition to the general case of protein adsorption, which portrays either the surface coverage (Theta or surface concentration (� as a function of the adsorption time, special cases, like equilibrium condition, lowsurface coverage, irreversible, and Langmuirian were also presented and treated in light of the derived model. The general model was simplified for each of the subset cases. The irreversibility versus reversibility of protein adsorption was discussed. The substrate surface energetics or effects are accounted for via the proposition of the percent relative change in D/V ratio for the adsorbing protein, called (D/VPRC parameter. (D/VPRC is calculated with respect to the monolayer surface concentration of protein, where the latter is given by D/Vratio. This can be used as a landmark to protein adsorption isotherms or even kinetics. This is visualized as an indicator for solid substrate effects on the adsorbing proteins. (D/VPRC can be zero (fresh monolayer, negative (aged monolayer, or positive (multi-layer. The reference surface concentration is reported for some selected proteins.

  13. Mathematical model to analyze the dissolution behavior of metastable crystals or amorphous drug accompanied with a solid-liquid interface reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Daiki; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-04-30

    Metastable crystals and the amorphous state of poorly water-soluble drugs in solid dispersions (SDs), are subject to a solid-liquid interface reaction upon exposure to a solvent. The dissolution behavior during the solid-liquid interface reaction often shows that the concentration of drugs is supersaturated, with a high initial drug concentration compared with the solubility of stable crystals but finally approaching the latter solubility with time. However, a method for measuring the precipitation rate of stable crystals and/or the potential solubility of metastable crystals or amorphous drugs has not been established. In this study, a novel mathematical model that can represent the dissolution behavior of the solid-liquid interface reaction for metastable crystals or amorphous drug was developed and its validity was evaluated. The theory for this model was based on the Noyes-Whitney equation and assumes that the precipitation of stable crystals at the solid-liquid interface occurs through a first-order reaction. Moreover, two models were developed, one assuming that the surface area of the drug remains constant because of the presence of excess drug in the bulk and the other that the surface area changes in time-dependency because of agglomeration of the drug. SDs of Ibuprofen (IB)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared and their dissolution behaviors under non-sink conditions were fitted by the models to evaluate improvements in solubility. The model assuming time-dependent surface area showed good agreement with experimental values. Furthermore, by applying the model to the dissolution profile, parameters such as the precipitation rate and the potential solubility of the amorphous drug were successfully calculated. In addition, it was shown that the improvement in solubility with supersaturation was able to be evaluated quantitatively using this model. Therefore, this mathematical model would be a useful tool to quantitatively determine the supersaturation

  14. Studies on the interactions between bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin and chitosan at the solid-liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campina, Jose M., E-mail: jpina@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Souza, Hileia K.S., E-mail: hsouza@fe.up.p [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Borges, Joao, E-mail: jborges@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Martins, Ana, E-mail: amartins@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Goncalves, Maria Pilar, E-mail: pilarg@fe.up.p [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Silva, Fernando, E-mail: afssilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-12-01

    Chitosan ultrathin films have been formed on polycrystalline Au substrates using the LbL technique with the purpose of studying its interaction with bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin ({beta}-LG) at the solid-liquid interface. The immobilization of chitosan was followed by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with energy dissipation (QCM-D), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of the chitosan films in the presence of {beta}-LG solutions with different bulk concentrations ([{beta}-LG]), ionic strength (I), and pH has been investigated using the same techniques plus Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results showed that for pHs lower than protein's pI, weak intermolecular forces (H bonding, Van der Waals, hydrophobic, etc.) are established between {beta}-LG and chitosan (especially close to the pI) leading to low coverage nonspecific adsorption. On the contrary when pH > pI, strong ionic bonding through attractive electrostatic interactions lead to high coverage adsorbed phases composed of large {beta}-LG aggregates. The adsorption process was shown to consist of a relatively fast step (in which these interactions are predominant) which is followed, once the {beta}-LG monolayer is exceeded, by the slow formation of thicker and increasingly viscoelastic films through {beta}-LG self-aggregation. QCM-D and AFM experiments unveiled the role of [{beta}-LG] and I on the formation of these aggregates. The adsorption isotherm built from impedance data in the medium-low [{beta}-LG] range (0.001-0.3 mg mL{sup -1}), showed good fitting to the Langmuir model confirming that the formation of one {beta}-LG monolayer is achieved in this concentration range.

  15. Studies on the interactions between bovine β-lactoglobulin and chitosan at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campina, Jose M.; Souza, Hileia K.S.; Borges, Joao; Martins, Ana; Goncalves, Maria Pilar; Silva, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan ultrathin films have been formed on polycrystalline Au substrates using the LbL technique with the purpose of studying its interaction with bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) at the solid-liquid interface. The immobilization of chitosan was followed by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with energy dissipation (QCM-D), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of the chitosan films in the presence of β-LG solutions with different bulk concentrations ([β-LG]), ionic strength (I), and pH has been investigated using the same techniques plus Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results showed that for pHs lower than protein's pI, weak intermolecular forces (H bonding, Van der Waals, hydrophobic, etc.) are established between β-LG and chitosan (especially close to the pI) leading to low coverage nonspecific adsorption. On the contrary when pH > pI, strong ionic bonding through attractive electrostatic interactions lead to high coverage adsorbed phases composed of large β-LG aggregates. The adsorption process was shown to consist of a relatively fast step (in which these interactions are predominant) which is followed, once the β-LG monolayer is exceeded, by the slow formation of thicker and increasingly viscoelastic films through β-LG self-aggregation. QCM-D and AFM experiments unveiled the role of [β-LG] and I on the formation of these aggregates. The adsorption isotherm built from impedance data in the medium-low [β-LG] range (0.001-0.3 mg mL -1 ), showed good fitting to the Langmuir model confirming that the formation of one β-LG monolayer is achieved in this concentration range.

  16. Engineering evaluation of solids/liquids separation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study looks at the solids/liquids separation unit operations after the acid dissolution of the K Basin sludge treatment. Unit operations considered were centrifugation, filtration (cartridge, cross flow, and high shear filtration) and gravity settling. The recommended unit operations for the solids/liquids separations are based upon the efficiency, complexity, and off-the-shelf availability and adaptability. The unit operations recommended were a Robatel DPC 900 centrifuge followed by a nuclearized 31WM cartridge filter. The Robatel DPC 900 has been successfully employed in the nuclear industry on a world wide scale. The 31WM cartridge filter has been employed for filtration campaigns in both the government and civilian nuclear arenas

  17. Redox process at solid-liquid interfaces: studies with thin layers of green rusts electrodeposited on inert substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peulon, S.; Taghdai, Y.; Mercier, F.; Barre, N.; Legrand, L.; Chauss, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The redox reactions which can occur between radioelements and natural phases in the environment are taken still little into account although their importance is established on natural sites; the consequences are significant since they can modify radically the behaviour of the species by increasing or decreasing their migration. The iron compounds are very implicated in these redox processes because iron is one of the most abundant element on earth; moreover, it is also present in the containers used for the storage of the nuclear waste. We exhibited in previous works that electrochemistry is a convenient way to generate the main iron oxidation compounds as thin layers on different inert substrates. The electrochemical behaviour of these deposits that are adherent, homogeneous and well crystallized [1-3], was investigated with the principle advantage that iron metal and its reactivity is eliminate. Moreover, they could be analysed directly by techniques like IRRAS, XRD, SEM, EDS and XPS without any preparation. In the present study, we develop an original way to investigate redox processes at solid-liquid interfaces based on the utilisation of these thin layers; the samples are more commonly powders and/or pieces of corroded steel in the literature. Results obtained with two different systems, chromate and uranyl ions, in interaction with thin layers of sulfated green rusts are presented. Green rusts is chosen because it is a mixed Fe(II-III) compound which could be formed in anoxic conditions like in the case of the storage of the nuclear waste. After various contact times with the solutions containing the reactive species, the thin layers are characterised by different ex-situ methods. The results show clearly the oxidation of the green rust into a Fe(III) compound and the formation of a new solid phase on the electrode due to the reduction and the precipitation of the reactive species present initially in solution. Because thin

  18. Microanalytical techniques applied to phase identification and measurement of solute redistribution at the solid/liquid interface of frozen Fe-4.3Ni doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Faryna, M; Okane, T

    2002-01-01

    A Fe-4.3M alloy has been solidified directionally by using the Bridgman system. The solidification conditions were chosen to obtain an oriented cellular structure of delta-ferrite. These are: a positive temperature gradient of about 60 K/cm and a growth rate of 6.6 mu m/s. A change in these conditions can lead either to the formation of austenite or to the competitive growth of delta-ferrite/gamma-austenite. The solid/liquid interface of delta-ferrite cells has been frozen and double instability has been revealed at the tip of the cells. The instability is described as the first harmonic wave of fundamental undulation, which appeared at the formerly planar solid/liquid interface. This means that a doublet structure is formed only with the imposed specific conditions of solidification. The Ni-solute redistribution after back-diffusion has been measured across the delta-ferrite doublet. Results of energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) measurements on the distribution of Ni and Fe correspond well to the theoretical pred...

  19. A high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experimental method for characterization of solid-liquid interfaces demonstrated with a Li-ion battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maibach, Julia; Xu, Chao; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Edström, Kristina [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Susanna K. [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Åhlund, John [VG Scienta AB, Box 15120, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Siegbahn, Hans; Rensmo, Håkan; Hahlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.hahlin@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    We report a methodology for a direct investigation of the solid/liquid interface using high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS). The technique was demonstrated with an electrochemical system represented by a Li-ion battery using a silicon electrode and a liquid electrolyte of LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) cycled versus metallic lithium. For the first time the presence of a liquid electrolyte was realized using a transfer procedure where the sample was introduced into a 2 mbar N{sub 2} environment in the analysis chamber without an intermediate ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) step in the load lock. The procedure was characterized in detail concerning lateral drop gradients as well as stability of measurement conditions over time. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the solid substrate and the liquid electrolyte can be observed simultaneously. The results show that the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition for the wet electrode is stable within the probing time and generally agrees well with traditional UHV studies. Since the methodology can easily be adjusted to various high pressure photoelectron spectroscopy systems, extending the approach towards operando solid/liquid interface studies using liquid electrolytes seems now feasible.

  20. Solid-Liquid Interface Thermal Resistance Affects the Evaporation Rate of Droplets from a Surface: A Study of Perfluorohexane on Chromium Using Molecular Dynamics and Continuum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoxue; Schlawitschek, Christiane; Katyal, Naman; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2017-05-30

    We study the role of solid-liquid interface thermal resistance (Kapitza resistance) on the evaporation rate of droplets on a heated surface by using a multiscale combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical continuum theory. We parametrize the nonbonded interaction potential between perfluorohexane (C 6 F 14 ) and a face-centered-cubic solid surface to reproduce the experimental wetting behavior of C 6 F 14 on black chromium through the solid-liquid work of adhesion (quantity directly related to the wetting angle). The thermal conductances between C 6 F 14 and (100) and (111) solid substrates are evaluated by a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics approach for a liquid pressure lower than 2 MPa. Finally, we examine the influence of the Kapitza resistance on evaporation of droplets in the vicinity of a three-phase contact line with continuum theory, where the thermal resistance of liquid layer is comparable with the Kapitza resistance. We determine the thermodynamic conditions under which the Kapitza resistance plays an important role in correctly predicting the evaporation heat flux.

  1. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  2. Deducing 2D Crystal Structure at the Solid/Liquid Interface with Atomic Resolution by Combined STM and SFG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Arthur; Ahn, Seokhoon; Matzger, Adam J.; Chen, Zhan

    2009-03-01

    Supplemented by computed models, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) can provide detailed structure of 2D crystals formed at the liquid/solid interface with atomic resolution. However, some structural information such as functional group orientations in such 2D crystals needs to be tested experimentally to ensure the accuracy of the deduced structures. Due to the limited sensitivity, many other experimental techniques such as Raman and infrared spectroscopy have not been allowed to provide such structural information of 2D crystals. Here we showed that Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (SFG) can measure average orientation of functional groups in such 2D crystals, or physisorbed monolayers, providing key experimental data to aid in the modeling and interpretation of the STM images. The usefulness of combining these two techniques is demonstrated with a phthalate diesters monolayer formed at the 1-phenyloctane/ highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface. The spatial orientation of the ester C=O of the monolayer was successfully determined using SFG.

  3. Bias-induced conformational switching of supramolecular networks of trimesic acid at the solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubink, J.; Enache, M.; Stöhr, M.

    2018-05-01

    Using the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope, an electric field-induced reversible phase transition between two planar porous structures ("chickenwire" and "flower") of trimesic acid was accomplished at the nonanoic acid/highly oriented pyrolytic graphite interface. The chickenwire structure was exclusively observed for negative sample bias, while for positive sample bias only the more densely packed flower structure was found. We suggest that the slightly negatively charged carboxyl groups of the trimesic acid molecule are the determining factor for this observation: their adsorption behavior varies with the sample bias and is thus responsible for the switching behavior.

  4. Effect of phospholipid composition and phase on nanodisc films at the solid-liquid interface as studied by neutron reflectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadsäter, Maria Helena; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell

    2013-01-01

    of the cell membrane and can act as a nanometer-sized container for functional single membrane proteins. In this study, we present a general nanodisc-based system, intended for structural and functional studies of membrane proteins. In this method, the nanodiscs are aligned at a solid surface, providing...... the ability to determine the average structure of the film along an axis perpendicular to the interface as measured by neutron reflectivity. The nanodisc film was optimized in terms of nanodisc coverage, reduced film roughness, and stability for time-consuming studies. This was achieved by a systematic...

  5. Exceptionally Slow Movement of Gold Nanoparticles at a Solid/Liquid Interface Investigated by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verch, Andreas; Pfaff, Marina; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-06-30

    Gold nanoparticles were observed to move at a liquid/solid interface 3 orders of magnitude slower than expected for the movement in a bulk liquid by Brownian motion. The nanoscale movement was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a liquid enclosure consisting of microchips with silicon nitride windows. The experiments involved a variation of the electron dose, the coating of the nanoparticles, the surface charge of the enclosing membrane, the viscosity, and the liquid thickness. The observed slow movement was not a result of hydrodynamic hindrance near a wall but instead explained by the presence of a layer of ordered liquid exhibiting a viscosity 5 orders of magnitude larger than a bulk liquid. The increased viscosity presumably led to a dramatic slowdown of the movement. The layer was formed as a result of the surface charge of the silicon nitride windows. The exceptionally slow motion is a crucial aspect of electron microscopy of specimens in liquid, enabling a direct observation of the movement and agglomeration of nanoscale objects in liquid.

  6. NMR studies of the molecules dynamics to the solid-liquid interfaces: from graded porous materials to oil rocks; Etudes RMN de la dynamique des molecules aux interfaces solide-liquide: des materiaux poreux calibres aux roches petroliferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godefroy, S

    2001-11-01

    Low field NMR relaxation for laboratory or in-situ applications provides critical information for oil recovery such as porosity, saturation, and permeability of rocks. In addition, pore size distribution and wettability can also be obtained in some cases. The technique relies on the measurement of proton longitudinal (T{sub 1}) or transverse (T{sub 2}) nuclear relaxation times. For better predictions, the surface micro-dynamics and the chemical properties of the liquids entrapped in the pore space are important and must be characterized. It is well known that the NMR relaxation is enhanced by the paramagnetic impurities at the pore surface but many other parameters influence the relaxation time distributions. These parameters are used to derive the petrophysical properties of the rocks. We propose here an original method to probe the dynamics of water and oil at the pore surface. In the present study, we used both nuclear relaxation at 2.2 MHz and field cycling Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) techniques. We applied these two techniques to different kinds of water or oil saturated macroporous media (grain packings, outcrop and reservoir rocks with SiO{sub 2} or CaCO{sub 3} surfaces). We studied the dependence of NMR relaxation on pore size, magnetic field and temperature. Varying the pore size and the surface density of paramagnetic impurities of water saturated grain packings allowed experimental evidence for the two limiting regimes of the water relaxation in pores (surface- and diffusion-limited regimes). NMRD technique (evolution of 1/T{sub 1} with the magnetic field) allowed us to probe liquid surface dynamics in water or oil fully saturated grain packing, outcrop rocks or reservoir rocks (water- and oil-wet surfaces). We evidenced a two-dimensional molecular surface diffusion and directly estimated important parameters such as correlation times, residence times and molecular self-diffusion on the surface. Finally, we proved that the temperature

  7. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  8. Structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface of dispersed triglyceride nanocrystals with small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiele, Martin; Schindler, Torben; Unruh, Tobias; Busch, Sebastian; Morhenn, Humphrey; Westermann, Martin; Steiniger, Frank; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Schweins, Ralf; Boesecke, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Dispersions of crystalline nanoparticles with at least one sufficiently large unit cell dimension can give rise to Bragg reflections in the small-angle scattering range. If the nanocrystals possess only a small number of unit cells along these particular crystallographic directions, the corresponding Bragg reflections will be broadened. In a previous study of phospholipid stabilized dispersions of β-tripalmitin platelets [Unruh, J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR0021-889810.1107/S0021889807044378 40, 1008 (2007)], the x-ray powder pattern simulation analysis (XPPSA) was developed. The XPPSA method facilitates the interpretation of the rather complicated small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) curves of such dispersions of nanocrystals. The XPPSA method yields the distribution function of the platelet thicknesses and facilitates a structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface between the nanocrystals and the dispersion medium from the shape of the broadened 001 Bragg reflection. In this contribution an improved and extended version of the XPPSA method is presented. The SAXS and small-angle neutron scattering patterns of dilute phospholipid stabilized tripalmitin dispersions can be reproduced on the basis of a consistent simulation model for the particles and their phospholipid stabilizer layer on an absolute scale. The results indicate a surprisingly flat arrangement of the phospholipid molecules in the stabilizer layer with a total thickness of only 12 Å. The stabilizer layer can be modeled by an inner shell for the fatty acid chains and an outer shell including the head groups and additional water. The experiments support a dense packing of the phospholipid molecules on the nanocrystal surfaces rather than isolated phospholipid domains.

  9. Study of solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces in Cu–isoleucine complex by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Pilar; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.

    2013-01-01

    The enzymes could be understood like structures formed by amino acids bonded with metals, which act as active sites. The research on the coordination of metal–amino acid complexes will bring light on the behavior of metal enzymes, due to the close relation existing between the atomic structure and the functionality. The Cu–isoleucine bond is considered as a good model system to attain a better insight into the characteristics of naturally occurring copper metalloproteins. The surface structure of metal–amino acid complex could be considered as a more realistic model for real systems under biologic working conditions, since the molecular packing is decreased. In the surface, the structural constrains are reduced, keeping the structural capability of surface complex to change as a function of the surrounding environment. In this work, we present a surface X-ray diffraction study on Cu–isoleucine complex under different ambient conditions. Cu(Ile) 2 crystals of about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm have been growth, by seeding method in a supersaturated solution, presenting a surface of high quality. The sample for the surface diffraction study was mounted on a cell specially designed for solid/liquid or solid/gas interface analysis. The Cu–isoleucine crystal was measured under a protective dry N 2 gas flow and in contact with a saturated metal amino acid solution. The bulk and the surface signals were compared, showing different atomic structures. In both cases, from surface diffraction data, it is observed that the atomic structure of the top layer undergoes a clear structural deformation. A non-uniform surface relaxation is observed producing an inhomogeneous displacement of the surface atoms towards the surface normal.

  10. Molecular dynamics analysis of the influence of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions on the work of adhesion at the solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surblys, Donatas; Leroy, Frédéric; Yamaguchi, Yasutaka; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the solid-liquid work of adhesion of water on a model silica surface by molecular dynamics simulations, where a methodology previously developed to determine the work of adhesion through thermodynamic integration was extended to a system with long-range electrostatic interactions between solid and liquid. In agreement with previous studies, the work of adhesion increased when the magnitude of the surface polarity was increased. On the other hand, we found that when comparing two systems with and without solid-liquid electrostatic interactions, which were set to have approximately the same total solid-liquid interfacial energy, former had a significantly smaller work of adhesion and a broader distribution in the interfacial energies, which has not been previously reported in detail. This was explained by the entropy contribution to the adhesion free energy; i.e., the former with a broader energy distribution had a larger interfacial entropy than the latter. While the entropy contribution to the work of adhesion has already been known, as a work of adhesion itself is free energy, these results indicate that, contrary to common belief, wetting behavior such as the contact angle is not only governed by the interfacial energy but also significantly affected by the interfacial entropy. Finally, a new interpretation of interfacial entropy in the context of solid-liquid energy variance was offered, from which a fast way to qualitatively estimate the work of adhesion was also presented.

  11. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  12. Multifilamentary superconducting (NbTa)-Sn composite wire by solid-liquid reaction for possible application above 20 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Hull, G.W. Jr.; Fuchs, E.O.; Holthuis, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nb alloyed with Ta was employed in fabricating multifilamentary composite wires of (NbTa)-Sn using the liquid-infiltration process. The superconducting A15 phase was formed with subsequent heat treatments at 800-950 0 C by the solid-liquid reaction. High inductive Tsub(c)'s of 18.2 K with sharp transition width ( 4 A/cm 2 at 2O T and 4.2 K were obtained. It was found that 2 wt.% Ta in the Nb was sufficient in the enhancement of the overall Jsub(c) at the high fields and in increasing the Hsub(c2) (4.2 K) to 25 T. (Auth.)

  13. Multifilamentary superconducting (NbTa)-Sn composite wire by solid-liquid reaction for possible application above 20 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Hull, G.W. Jr.; Fuchs, E.O.; Holthuis, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nb alloyed with Ta was employed in fabricating multifilamentary composite wires of (NbTa)-Sn using the liquid-infiltration process. The superconducting A15 phase was formed with subsequent heat treatments at 800-950 0 C by the solid-liquid reaction. High inductive Tsub(c)'s of 18.2 K with sharp transition width ( 4 A/cm 2 at 20 T and 4.2 K were obtained. It was found that 2 wt.% Ta in the Nb was sufficient in the enhancement of the overall Jsub(c) at the high fields and in increasing the Hsub(c2) (4.2 K) to 25 T. (orig.)

  14. Temperature and compositional dependence of solid-liquid interfacial energy: application of the Cahn-Hilliard theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, I.; Takei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic method to estimate the solid-liquid interfacial energy (or interfacial tension) is proposed, based on the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In the model, the liquid is treated as a regular solution, and the interfacial layers are assumed to have liquid-like thermodynamic properties. In eutectic systems, interfacial adsorption occurs within a few atomic layers, and interfacial energy monotonously increases with decreasing concentration of the solid species in the liquid phase. If non-ideal atomic interaction is strong and the liquid immiscibility region appears in the phase diagrams (this is the case of monotectic systems), the interfacial thickness drastically increases and the interfacial energy is reduced around the immiscibility gap

  15. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  16. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste

  17. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  18. Transport mechanisms and wetting dynamics in molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interface : relation to the solid-liquid phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Wetting and phase transitions play a very important role our daily life. Molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interfaces (e.g. C30H62 on silicon wafers) are very good model systems for studying the relation between wetting behaviour and (bulk) phase transitions. Immediately above the bulk melting temperature the alkanes wet partially the surface (drops). In this temperature range the substrate surface is covered with a molecularly thin ordered, solid-like alkane film (...

  19. Heat-transfer resistance at solid-liquid interfaces: a tool for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Bart; Vanden Bon, Natalie; Strauven, Hannelore; Grieten, Lars; Murib, Mohammed; Monroy, Kathia L Jiménez; Janssens, Stoffel D; Haenen, Ken; Schöning, Michael J; Vermeeren, Veronique; Ameloot, Marcel; Michiels, Luc; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Wagner, Patrick

    2012-03-27

    In this article, we report on the heat-transfer resistance at interfaces as a novel, denaturation-based method to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA. We observed that a molecular brush of double-stranded DNA grafted onto synthetic diamond surfaces does not notably affect the heat-transfer resistance at the solid-to-liquid interface. In contrast to this, molecular brushes of single-stranded DNA cause, surprisingly, a substantially higher heat-transfer resistance and behave like a thermally insulating layer. This effect can be utilized to identify ds-DNA melting temperatures via the switching from low- to high heat-transfer resistance. The melting temperatures identified with this method for different DNA duplexes (29 base pairs without and with built-in mutations) correlate nicely with data calculated by modeling. The method is fast, label-free (without the need for fluorescent or radioactive markers), allows for repetitive measurements, and can also be extended toward array formats. Reference measurements by confocal fluorescence microscopy and impedance spectroscopy confirm that the switching of heat-transfer resistance upon denaturation is indeed related to the thermal on-chip denaturation of DNA. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  20. Triboelectric Charging at the Nanostructured Solid/Liquid Interface for Area-Scalable Wave Energy Conversion and Its Use in Corrosion Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Zhu, Guang; Fan, You Jun; Li, Hua Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-07-28

    We report a flexible and area-scalable energy-harvesting technique for converting kinetic wave energy. Triboelectrification as a result of direct interaction between a dynamic wave and a large-area nanostructured solid surface produces an induced current among an array of electrodes. An integration method ensures that the induced current between any pair of electrodes can be constructively added up, which enables significant enhancement in output power and realizes area-scalable integration of electrode arrays. Internal and external factors that affect the electric output are comprehensively discussed. The produced electricity not only drives small electronics but also achieves effective impressed current cathodic protection. This type of thin-film-based device is a potentially practical solution of on-site sustained power supply at either coastal or off-shore sites wherever a dynamic wave is available. Potential applications include corrosion protection, pollution degradation, water desalination, and wireless sensing for marine surveillance.

  1. Copolymers at the solid - liquid interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Copolymers consisting of both adsorbing and nonadsorbing segments can show an adsorption behaviour which is very different from that of homopolymers. We have mainly investigated the adsorption of AB diblock copolymers, which have one adsorbing block (anchor) and one nonadsorbing block

  2. Surface Science at the Solid Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-06

    prominent experimental avenue, developed originally by Hubbard et al,_ involves emersing monocrystalline elec- As for metal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum...reliable means of both preparing and dosateizn ordered monocrystalline metal surfaces in UHV has led to ing appropriate molecular components of...surface atoms in place of bottom panel of Fig. 2, equal intensity contours are shown 23 underlying surface atoms, the compression is 24/23 - I in the

  3. Enzyme adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinhoven, S.

    1992-01-01

    Enzymes are proteins with the capacity of catalysing various reactions. Nowadays two types of enzymes, proteases and lipases, are available for use in detergent formulations for household and industrial laundry washing. Proteases are capable of catalysing the hydrolysis of proteins while

  4. Liquid-gas and solid-liquid interface: thermodynamics of capillary condensation application to a prosimetry by calorimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, Francois; Hartmanshenn, Olivier.

    1978-01-01

    A direct determination of the pore radii distribution is proposed using calorimetric measurements during condensation and evacuation of pores by capillary condensate. This method is independant of any gravimetric or volumetric measurement of adsorption

  5. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  6. Applications for Packetized Memory Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Myles Glen

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the memory subsystem has a large impact on the performance of modern computer systems. Many important applications are memory bound and others are expected to become memory bound in the future. The importance of memory performance makes it imperative to understand and optimize the interactions between applications and the system architecture. Prototyping and exploring various configurations of memory systems can give important insights, but current memory interfaces are lim...

  7. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin; Akbulut, Sezen

    2008-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient (Γ), solid-liquid interfacial energy (σ SL ) and grain boundary energy (σ gb ) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 ± 0.5) x 10 -8 K m, (8.5 ± 1.3) x 10 -3 J m -2 and (16.5 ± 2.8) x 10 -3 J m -2 , respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature

  8. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Akbulut, Sezen [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: marasli@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-03-21

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ({gamma}), solid-liquid interfacial energy ({sigma}{sub SL}) and grain boundary energy ({sigma}{sub gb}) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -8} K m, (8.5 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2} and (16.5 {+-} 2.8) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2}, respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature.

  9. Solid-liquid separation in the mining industry

    CERN Document Server

    Concha A , Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This book covers virtually all of the engineering science and technological aspects of separating water from particulate solids in the mining industry. It starts with an introduction to the field of mineral processing and the importance of water in mineral concentrators. The consumption of water in the various stages of concentration is discussed, as is the necessity of recovering the majority of that water for recycling. The book presents the fundamentals under which processes of solid-liquid separation are studied, approaching mixtures of discrete finely divided solid particles in water as a basis for dealing with sedimentation in particulate systems. Suspensions, treated as continuous media, provide the basis of sedimentation, flows through porous media and filtration. The book also considers particle aggregations, and thickening is analyzed in depth. Lastly, two chapters cover the fundamentals and application of rheology and the transport of suspensions.  This work is suitable for researchers and profess...

  10. GRAPHIC INTERFACES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PANA,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using effective the method of calculating Fitness for Service requires the achievement of graphical interfaces. This paper presents an example of such interfaces, made with Visual Basic program and used in the evaluation of pipelines in a research contract [4

  11. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  12. Heat and Mass Transfer during Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of n-Alkanes in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Rune

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this project has been to study heat and mass transfer during solid-liquid phase transition of n-alkanes in the in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} range. Phase transitions of both mixtures and pure components have been investigated. All experiments and simulations have been performed without any convection. Thermal conductivities have been determined at the melting point for solid and liquid unbranched alkanes ranging from C{sub 16} to C{sub 19}. An assessment of the error of the method has been performed. The measurements of solid conductivities are in accordance with measurements reported previously and confirm the applicability of the method. Liquid conductivities are higher than extrapolated values from the literature. The enhanced conductivity is believed to be caused by structural changes close to the melting point which is not taken into account when extrapolating values from the literature. Experiments have been performed for the purpose of investigating the freezing of mixtures of n-alkanes in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 19} range. The positions of the solid-liquid interfaces have been measured as freezing occurred. Calculations of the ratio of liquid and solid conductivities show that the solid structure of mixtures of the investigated n-alkanes is predominantly in a rotator structure at the temperatures investigated. There are indications of a transformation into an orthorhombic structure at lower temperatures. The temperatures on the solid-liquid interface have been measured, and compared with calculated values from chapter 4. The temperature of the interface is represented better by the measured interfacial temperatures than by the calculated interfacial temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion of heat is the limiting mechanism of phase transition. This result in a homogeneous liquid composition. A numerical model has been developed in order to simulate the experimental freezing of mixtures. The model represents the results

  13. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  14. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, M.

    2002-11-01

    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  15. Charge Control And Wettability Alteration At Solid-liquid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sîretanu, Igor; Kumar, Naveen; Bera, B.; Wang, Lei; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Collins, I

    2014-01-01

    Most solid surfaces acquire a finite surface charge upon exposure to aqueous environments due to desorption and/or adsorption of ionic species. The resulting electrostatic forces play a crucial role in many fields of science, including colloidal stability, self-assembly, wetting, and biophysics as

  16. Development and application of a generic CFD toolkit covering the heat flows in combined solid-liquid systems with emphasis on the thermal design of HiLumi superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Gennaro; Malecha, Ziemowit M.; Van Weelderen, Rob

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to develop a robust multi-region numerical toolkit for the modeling of heat flows in combined solid-liquid systems. Specifically heat transfer in complex cryogenic system geometries involving super-fluid helium. The incentive originates from the need to support the design of superconductive magnets in the framework of the HiLumi-LHC project (Brüning and Rossi, 2015) [1]. The intent is, instead of solving heat flows in restricted domains, to be able to model a full magnet section in one go including all relevant construction details as accurately as possible. The toolkit was applied to the so-called MQXF quadrupole magnet design. Parametrisation studies were used to find a compromise in thermal design and electro-mechanical construction constraints. The cooling performance is evaluated in terms of temperature margin of the magnets under full steady state heat load conditions and in terms of maximal sustainable load. We also present transient response to pulse heat loads of varying duration and power and the system response to time-varying cold source temperatures.

  17. Programmable Applications: Interpreter Meets Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    ics program written for professional architects and designers, and including a huge library of files written in AutoLisp , a "design-enriched" Lisp... AutoLisp procedures). The choice of Lisp as a base language is a happy one for AutoCAD; the application has clearly benefitted from the contribution

  18. Modelling Safe Interface Interactions in Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Cabot, Jordi; Grossniklaus, Michael

    Current Web applications embed sophisticated user interfaces and business logic. The original interaction paradigm of the Web based on static content pages that are browsed by hyperlinks is, therefore, not valid anymore. In this paper, we advocate a paradigm shift for browsers and Web applications, that improves the management of user interaction and browsing history. Pages are replaced by States as basic navigation nodes, and Back/Forward navigation along the browsing history is replaced by a full-fledged interactive application paradigm, supporting transactions at the interface level and featuring Undo/Redo capabilities. This new paradigm offers a safer and more precise interaction model, protecting the user from unexpected behaviours of the applications and the browser.

  19. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  20. Exploring Dynamic User–Interface in Achieving Software Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... rudiments of user interface in application development may be a diffults task and time consuming, but there ... screen. Such interface is described as menu- driven. (3) Graphical user interface (GUI): user .... using green colour.

  1. Accelerated Metastable Solid-liquid Interdiffusion Bonding with High Thermal Stability and Power Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Smet, Vanessa; Kawamoto, Satomi; Pulugurtha, Markondeya R.; Tummala, Rao R.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging high-performance systems are driving the need for advanced packaging solutions such as 3-D integrated circuits (ICs) and 2.5-D system integration with increasing performance and reliability requirements for off-chip interconnections. Solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding resulting in all-intermetallic joints has been proposed to extend the applicability of solders, but faces fundamental and manufacturing challenges hindering its wide adoption. This paper introduces a Cu-Sn SLID interconnection technology, aiming at stabilization of the microstructure in the Cu6Sn5 metastable phase rather than the usual stable Cu3Sn phase. This enables formation of a void-free interface yielding higher mechanical strength than standard SLID bonding, as well as significantly reducing the transition time. The metastable SLID technology retains the benefits of standard SLID with superior I/O pitch scalability, thermal stability and current handling capability, while advancing assembly manufacturability. In the proposed concept, the interfacial reaction is controlled by introducing Ni(P) diffusion barrier layers, designed to effectively isolate the metastable Cu6Sn5 phase preventing any further transformation. Theoretical diffusion and kinetic models were applied to design the Ni-Cu-Sn interconnection stack to achieve the targeted joint composition. A daisy chain test vehicle was used to demonstrate this technology as a first proof of concept. Full transition to Cu6Sn5 was successfully achieved within a minute at 260°C as confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) analysis. The joint composition was stable through 10× reflow, with outstanding bond strength averaging 90 MPa. The metastable SLID interconnections also showed excellent electromigration performance, surviving 500 h of current stressing at 105 A/cm2 at 150°C.

  2. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides; Contribution a l'etude des mecanismes de sorption aux interfaces solide-liquide: application aux cas des apatites et des oxy-hydroxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, M

    2002-11-15

    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  3. Solids, liquids, and gases under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Ding, Yang; Li, Bing; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental thermodynamic variable but its application was previously limited by the available pressure vessels and probes. The development of megabar diamond anvil cells and a battery of associated in-laboratory and synchrotron techniques at the turn of the century have opened a vast new window of opportunities. With the addition of the pressure dimension, we are facing a new world with an order of magnitude more materials to be discovered than all that have been explored at ambient pressure. Pressure drastically and categorically alters all elastic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and chemical properties, and pushes materials across conventional barriers between insulators and superconductors, amorphous and crystalline solids, ionic and covalent compounds, vigorously reactive and inert chemicals, etc. In the process, it reveals surprising high-pressure physics and chemistry and creates novel materials. This review describes the principles and methodology used to reach ultrahigh static pressure: the in situ probes, the physical phenomena to be investigated, the long-pursued goals, the surprising discoveries, and the vast potential opportunities. Exciting examples include the quest for metallic hydrogen, the record-breaking superconducting temperature of 203 K in HnS , the complication of "free-electron gas" alkali metals, the magnetic collapse in 3 d transition elements, the pressure-induced superconductivity from topological insulators, the novel stoichiometry in simple compounds, the interaction of nanoscience, the accomplishment of 750 GPa pressure, etc. These highlights are the integral results of technological achievements, specific measurements, and theoretical advancement; therefore, the same highlights will appear in different sections corresponding to these different aspects. Overall, this review demonstrates that high-pressure research is a new dimension in condensed-matter physics.

  4. Prototyping of user interfaces for mobile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates processes for the prototyping of user interfaces for mobile apps, and describes the development of new concepts and tools that can improve the prototype driven app development in the early stages. It presents the development and evaluation of a new requirements catalogue for prototyping mobile app tools that identifies the most important criteria such tools should meet at different prototype-development stages. This catalogue is not just a good point of orientation for designing new prototyping approaches, but also provides a set of metrics for a comparing the performance of alternative prototyping tools. In addition, the book discusses the development of Blended Prototyping, a new approach for prototyping user interfaces for mobile applications in the early and middle development stages, and presents the results of an evaluation of its performance, showing that it provides a tool for teamwork-oriented, creative prototyping of mobile apps in the early design stages.

  5. ZnO nanoneedle/H2O solid-liquid heterojunction-based self-powered ultraviolet detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays were grown vertically on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by hydrothermal method at a relatively low temperature. A self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector was fabricated using the ZnO nanoneedles as the active photoanode and H2O as the electrolyte. This solid-liquid heterojunction offers an enlarged ZnO/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. High photosensitivity, excellent spectral selectivity, and fast photoresponse at zero bias are observed in this UV detector. The self-powered behavior can be well explained by the formation of a space charge layer near the interface of the solid-liquid heterojunction, which results in a built-in potential and makes the solid-liquid heterojunction work in photovoltaic mode. PMID:24103153

  6. Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Stephen L.

    compressive load. The thermal performance was further improved by infiltrating the CNT TIM with paraffin wax, which serves as an alternate pathway for heat conduction across the interface that ultimately reduces the bulk thermal resistance of the CNT TIM. For CNT TIMs synthesized at the Birck Nanotechnology Center at Purdue University, the thermal resistance was shown to scale linearly with their aggregate, as-grown height. Thus, the bulk thermal resistance can alternatively be tuned by adjusting the as-grown height. The linear relationship between thermal resistance and CNT TIM height provides a simple and efficient methodology to estimate the contact resistance and effective thermal conductivity of CNT TIMs. In this work, the contact resistance and effective thermal conductivity were estimated using two measurement techniques: (i) one-dimensional, steady-state reference bar and (ii) photoacoustic technique. A discrepancy in the estimated contact resistance exists between the two measurement techniques, which is due to the difficulty in measuring the true contact area. In contrast, the effective thermal conductivities estimated from both measurement techniques moderately agreed and were estimated to be on the order of O(1 W/mK). The final chapter is in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories and focuses on the development of an apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation materials critical for the operation of molten salt batteries. Molten salt batteries are particularly useful power sources for radar and guidance systems in military applications such as guided missiles, ordinance, and other weapons. Molten salt batteries are activated by raising the temperature of the electrolyte above its melting temperature using pyrotechnic heat pellets. The battery will remain active as long as the electrolyte is molten. As a result, the thermal processes within the components and interactions between them are critical to the overall performance of molten salt

  7. Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces and related applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The development of thermal interface materials (TIMs) is necessitated by the temperature drop across interfacing materials arising from macro and microscopic irregularities of their surfaces that constricts heat through small contact regions as well as mismatches in their thermal properties. Similar to other types of TIMs, CNT TIMs alleviate the thermal resistance across the interface by thermally bridging two materials together with cylindrical, high-aspect ratio, and nominally vertical cond...

  8. QCM-D studies on polymer behavior at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    QCM-D Studies on Polymer Behavior at Interfaces reviews the applications of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in polymer research, including the conformational change of grafted polymer chains, the grafting kinetics of polymer chains, the growth mechanism of polyelectrolyte multilayers, and the interactions between polymers and phospholipid membranes. It focuses on how QCM-D can be applied to the study of polymer behavior at various solid-liquid interfaces. Moreover, it clearly reveals the physical significance of the changes in frequency and dissipation associated with the different polymer behaviors at the interfaces.

  9. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  10. SWMM5 Application Programming Interface and PySWMM: A Python Interfacing Wrapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of the OpenWaterAnalytics open source initiative, the PySWMM project encompasses the development of a Python interfacing wrapper to SWMM5 with parallel ongoing development of the USEPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM5) application programming interface (API). ...

  11. Engineering applications using CAD based application programming interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzotzis Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automating the design process of a product or a system can provide engineers and designers with many benefits. As such, repeatable tasks that are time consuming can be handled automatically and with minimal human attention. This is achieved by using the API (Application Programmable Interface of CAD systems in order to create macros or even develop software applications. The present paper deals with an application that has been developed with the API of a general purposes CAD system. This application automates the design process of a standard pneumatic double acting cylinder based on the appropriate inserted parameters (ISO 15552.The design process begins with the creation of a series of components developed as solids, and extends to the extraction of basic attributes and properties from the complete mechanical assembly. Finally, the assembled models and the extracted data can be used to further study the design of the pneumatic double acting cylinder. It is expected in the future to expand the features of the presented application in order to automate the design process of other related mechanical systems.

  12. Interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal by solid-liquid casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solid-liquid method was used to prepare the continuous casting of copper cladding aluminium by liquid aluminum alloy and solid copper, and the interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal at different pouring temperatures (700, 750, 800 oC was investigated by means of metallograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS methods. The results showed that the pouring temperature of aluminum melt had an important influence on the element diffusion of Cu from the solid Cu to Al alloy melt and the reactions between Al and Cu, as well as the morphology of the Al-Cu interface. When the pouring temperature was 800 oC, there were abundant Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs near the interface. However, a lower pouring temperature (700 oC resulted in the formation of cavities which was detrimental to the bonding and mechanical properties. Under the conditions in this study, the good metallurgical bonding of Al-Cu was achieved at a pouring temperature of 750 oC.

  13. SIGMA WEB INTERFACE FOR REACTOR DATA APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2010-05-09

    We present Sigma Web interface which provides user-friendly access for online analysis and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The interface includes advanced browsing and search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, nubars, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations for cross section data sets, pre-calculated integral quantities, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  14. Sigma Web Interface For Reactor Data Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Sigma Web interface which provides user-friendly access for online analysis and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The interface includes advanced browsing and search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, nubars, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations for cross section data sets, pre-calculated integral quantities, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  15. End User Development Toolkit for Developing Physical User Interface Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Daniel T; Palfi, Anders; Svendsen, Haakon Sønsteby

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tangible user interfaces and end user development are two increasingresearch areas in software technology. Physical representation promoteopportunities to ease the use of technology and reinforce personality traits ascreativeness, collaboration and intuitive actions. However, designing tangibleuser interfaces are both cumbersome and require several layers of architecture.End user development allows users with no programming experience to createor customize their own applications. ...

  16. Connected Lighting System Interoperability Study Part 1: Application Programming Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidon, Clement [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    First in a series of studies that focuses on interoperability as realized by the use of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), explores the diversity of such interfaces in several connected lighting systems; characterizes the extent of interoperability that they provide; and illustrates challenges, limitations, and tradeoffs that were encountered during this exploration.

  17. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  18. Using Vim as User Interface for Your Applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The Vim editor offers one of the cleverest user interfaces. It's why many developers write programs with vi keyboard bindings. Now, imagine how powerful it gets to build applications literally on top of Vim itself.

  19. Brain-Computer Interfaces : Beyond Medical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Lotte, F.; Tangermann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction has already moved from assistive care to applications such as gaming. Improvements in usability, hardware, signal processing, and system integration should yield applications in other nonmedical areas.

  20. Accelerator-TEM interface facility and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuansheng; Li Ming; He Jun; Yang Zheng; Zhou Lin; Wang Zesong; Guo Liping; Jiang Changzhong; Yang Shibo; Fu Dejun; Fan Xiangjun; Liu Jiarui; Lee J C

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator-TEM interface facility has been established at Wuhan University in 2008. The system consists of an H800 TEM linked to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. Nitrogen ions at 115 keV were successfully transported from the implanter into the TEM chamber through the interface system, and the ion currents measured at the entrance of the TEM column were between 20 and 180 nA. Structural evolution caused by ion irradiation in Si, GaAs, nanocrystal Ag was observed in situ. The in situ observation showed that the critical implantation dose for amorphization of Si is 10 14 cm -2 . The nuclear material C276 samples implanted with 115 keV Ar + was also studied, and dislocation loops sized at 3-12 nm were clearly observed after implantation to doses of over 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . The density of the loops increased with the dose. Evolution to polycrystalline and amorphous structures were observed at 5 x l0 15 cm -2 and 3 x 10 16 cm -2 , respectively. An in situ RBS/C chamber was installed on the transport line of the accelerator-TEM interface system. This enables in situ measurement of composition and location of the implanted species in lattice of the samples. In addition, a 50 kV low-energy gaseous ion generator was installed close to the TEM chamber, which facilitates in situ TEM observation of helium bubbles formed in helium-implanted materials. (authors)

  1. Wastewater Triad Project: Solid-Liquid Separator FY 2000 Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The Wastewater Triad Project (WTP) consists of three operational units: the cesium removal (CsR) system, the out-of-tank evaporator (OTE) system, and the solid/liquid separation (SLS) system. These systems were designed to reduce the volume and radioactivity of low-level liquid waste (LLLW) stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and are operated independently or in series in order to accomplish the treatment goals. Each is a modular, skid-mounted system that is self-contained, individually shielded, and designed to be decontaminated and removed once the project has been completed. The CsR and OTE systems are installed inside Building 7877; the SLS system is installed adjacent to the east side of the MVST 7830 vault cover. The CsR, which consists of ion-exchange equipment for removing 137 Cs from LLLW, was demonstrated in 1997. During the Cesium Removal Demonstration, 30,853 gal of radioactive supernate was processed and 1142 Ci of 137 Cs was removed from the supernate and loaded onto 70 gal of a crystalline silicotitanate sorbent manufactured by UOP, Inc. The OTE system is a subatmospheric single-stage evaporator system designed to concentrate LLLW to smaller volumes. It was previously demonstrated in 1996 and was operated in 1998 to process about 80,000 gal of LLLW. The SLS system was designed to filter and remove suspended solids from LLLW in order to minimize further accumulation of sludge in new storage tanks or to prevent fouling of CsR and OTE systems. The SLS was installed and demonstrated in 1999; ∼45,000 gal of radioactive supernate was processed during the demonstration

  2. Accelerator-tem interface facility and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; He Jun; Yang Zheng; Zhou Lin; Liu Chuansheng; Guo Liping; Jiang Changzhong; Yang Shibo; Fu Dejun; Fan Xiangjun; Liu Jiarui; Lee, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator-TEM interface facility has been established at Wuhan University. The system consists of an H800 TEM linked to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator. Measures were taken to isolate the TEM from mechanical vibration transmitted from the ion beam lines and good resolution was maintained with the TEM machine when operated under high zoom modes during the ion implantation. Nitrogen ions at 115 keV were successfully transported from the implanter into the TEM chamber through the interface system, and the ion currents measured at the entrance of the TEM column were between 20 and 180 nA. Structural evolution caused by ion irradiation in Si, GaAs, nanocrystal Ag were observed in situ. The TEM sample could be tilted by 52 degree and for low energy ion irradiation, real time observation was realized. The in situ observation showed that the critical implant dose for amorphization of Si is 2 x 10 14 cm -2 and it became fully amorphized at 3 x 10 15 cm -2 . Amorphization of GaAs started at 1 x 10 14 cm -2 , whereas for nanocrystal Ag, the starting dose was 6 x 10 14 cm -2 . The nuclear material C276 samples implanted with 115 keV Ar+ was also studied and dislocation loops with sizes of 3-12 nm were clearly observed after implantation to doses higher than 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . The density of the loops increased with the increase in the implant dose and evolution to polycrystalline and amorphous structures were observed at 5 x 10 15 cm -2 and 3 x 10 16 cm -2 , respectively. An in situ RBS/C chamber has been installed on the transport line of the accelerator-TEM interface system. This makes it possible to in situ measure composition and location of impurities in the lattice of the implanted samples. In addition, a 50 kV low-energy gaseous ion generator was installed close to the TEM chamber, which facilitates in situ TEM observation of helium bubbles formed in materials by helium implantation. (authors)

  3. Implementation of graphical user interfaces in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmsnes, K.A.; Johnsen, T.; Sundling, C.-V.

    1997-01-01

    During recent years a demand has formed for systems that support design and implementation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. Picasso-3 is a user interface management system supporting object oriented definition of GUIs in a distributed computing environment. The system is currently being used in a number of different application areas within the nuclear industry, such as retrofitting of display systems in simulators and control rooms, education and training applications, etc. Some examples are given of nuclear applications where the Picasso-3 system has been used

  4. Distributed user interfaces for clinical ubiquitous computing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bång, Magnus; Larsson, Anders; Berglund, Erik; Eriksson, Henrik

    2005-08-01

    Ubiquitous computing with multiple interaction devices requires new interface models that support user-specific modifications to applications and facilitate the fast development of active workspaces. We have developed NOSTOS, a computer-augmented work environment for clinical personnel to explore new user interface paradigms for ubiquitous computing. NOSTOS uses several devices such as digital pens, an active desk, and walk-up displays that allow the system to track documents and activities in the workplace. We present the distributed user interface (DUI) model that allows standalone applications to distribute their user interface components to several devices dynamically at run-time. This mechanism permit clinicians to develop their own user interfaces and forms to clinical information systems to match their specific needs. We discuss the underlying technical concepts of DUIs and show how service discovery, component distribution, events and layout management are dealt with in the NOSTOS system. Our results suggest that DUIs--and similar network-based user interfaces--will be a prerequisite of future mobile user interfaces and essential to develop clinical multi-device environments.

  5. User Interface Design in Medical Distributed Web Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Mada, Leonard; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara

    2016-01-01

    User interfaces are important to facilitate easy learning and operating with an IT application especially in the medical world. An easy to use interface has to be simple and to customize the user needs and mode of operation. The technology in the background is an important tool to accomplish this. The present work aims to creating a web interface using specific technology (HTML table design combined with CSS3) to provide an optimized responsive interface for a complex web application. In the first phase, the current icMED web medical application layout is analyzed, and its structure is designed using specific tools, on source files. In the second phase, a new graphic adaptable interface to different mobile terminals is proposed, (using HTML table design (TD) and CSS3 method) that uses no source files, just lines of code for layout design, improving the interaction in terms of speed and simplicity. For a complex medical software application a new prototype layout was designed and developed using HTML tables. The method uses a CSS code with only CSS classes applied to one or multiple HTML table elements, instead of CSS styles that can be applied to just one DIV tag at once. The technique has the advantage of a simplified CSS code, and a better adaptability to different media resolutions compared to DIV-CSS style method. The presented work is a proof that adaptive web interfaces can be developed just using and combining different types of design methods and technologies, using HTML table design, resulting in a simpler to learn and use interface, suitable for healthcare services.

  6. Affective Interface Adaptations in the Musickiosk Interactive Entertainment Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, L.; Raouzaiou, A.; Pearce, L.; Karpouzis, K.

    The current work presents the affective interface adaptations in the Musickiosk application. Adaptive interaction poses several open questions since there is no unique way of mapping affective factors of user behaviour to the output of the system. Musickiosk uses a non-contact interface and implicit interaction through emotional affect rather than explicit interaction where a gesture, sound or other input directly maps to an output behaviour - as in traditional entertainment applications. PAD model is used for characterizing the different affective states and emotions.

  7. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  8. The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can de- crease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.

  9. Physics through the 1990s: scientific interfaces and technological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume examines the scientific interfaces and technological applications of physics. Twelve areas are dealt with: biological physics--biophysics, the brain, and theoretical biology; the physics-chemistry interface--instrumentation, surfaces, neutron and synchrotron radiation, polymers, organic electronic materials; materials science; geophysics--tectonics, the atmosphere and oceans, planets, drilling and seismic exploration, and remote sensing; computational physics--complex systems and applications in basic research; mathematics--field theory and chaos; microelectronics--integrated circuits, miniaturization, future trends; optical information technologies--fiber optics and photonics; instrumentation; physics applications to energy needs and the environment; national security--devices, weapons, and arms control; medical physics--radiology, ultrasonics, NMR, and photonics. An executive summary and many chapters contain recommendations regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs

  10. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  11. Invariance of the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting probed via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Olivier, Gloria K; Frechette, Joelle

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation is employed to probe the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting on dielectric. The height of an annular water meniscus formed via capillary condensation inside the surface force apparatus is measured as a function of the potential applied across the meniscus and the dielectric stack where the meniscus is formed. According to the Kelvin equation, a decrease in the solid-liquid interfacial energy at constant temperature and relative humidity should lead to an increase in the meniscus height. Our experimental results on nanometer-sized meniscus are in agreement with the work of Mugele [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2007, 19, 375112] and unequivocally demonstrate that the real contact angle (or the solid-liquid interfacial energy) remains unaltered in electrowetting on dielectric.

  12. Numerical simulation analysis of four-stage mutation of solid-liquid two-phase grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Liu, Yang; Hou, Jikun; Hu, Jinglei; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase abrasive grain polishing and abrupt change tube, in this paper, the fourth order abrupt change tube was selected as the research object, using the fluid mechanics software to simulate,based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow dynamics, study on the mechanism of AFM micromachining a workpiece during polishing.Analysis at different inlet pressures, the dynamic pressure distribution pipe mutant fourth order abrasive flow field, turbulence intensity, discuss the influence of the inlet pressure of different abrasive flow polishing effect.

  13. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  14. A RESTful interface to pseudonymization services in modern web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lablans, Martin; Borg, Andreas; Ückert, Frank

    2015-02-07

    Medical research networks rely on record linkage and pseudonymization to determine which records from different sources relate to the same patient. To establish informational separation of powers, the required identifying data are redirected to a trusted third party that has, in turn, no access to medical data. This pseudonymization service receives identifying data, compares them with a list of already reported patient records and replies with a (new or existing) pseudonym. We found existing solutions to be technically outdated, complex to implement or not suitable for internet-based research infrastructures. In this article, we propose a new RESTful pseudonymization interface tailored for use in web applications accessed by modern web browsers. The interface is modelled as a resource-oriented architecture, which is based on the representational state transfer (REST) architectural style. We translated typical use-cases into resources to be manipulated with well-known HTTP verbs. Patients can be re-identified in real-time by authorized users' web browsers using temporary identifiers. We encourage the use of PID strings for pseudonyms and the EpiLink algorithm for record linkage. As a proof of concept, we developed a Java Servlet as reference implementation. The following resources have been identified: Sessions allow data associated with a client to be stored beyond a single request while still maintaining statelessness. Tokens authorize for a specified action and thus allow the delegation of authentication. Patients are identified by one or more pseudonyms and carry identifying fields. Relying on HTTP calls alone, the interface is firewall-friendly. The reference implementation has proven to be production stable. The RESTful pseudonymization interface fits the requirements of web-based scenarios and allows building applications that make pseudonymization transparent to the user using ordinary web technology. The open-source reference implementation implements the

  15. Physics through the 1990s: Scientific interfaces and technological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Physics traditionally serves mankind through its fundamental discoveries, which enrich our understanding of nature and the cosmos. While the basic driving force for physics research is intellectual curiosity and the search for understanding, the nation's support for physics is also motivated by strategic national goals, by the pride of world scientific leadership, by societal impact through symbiosis with other natural sciences, and through the stimulus of advanced technology provided by applications of physics. This Physics Survey volume looks outward from physics to report its profound impact on society and the economy through interactions at the interfaces with other natural sciences and through applications of physics to technology, medicine, and national defense

  16. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  17. Enhanced electroforced sedimentation of various solid- liquid systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Application of electric field, to enhance the separation, is one of the techniques .... the material; Ce the modified consolidation coefficient and θ time. ... sedimentation of thick clay suspensions in consolidation region. Chemical ...

  18. Dewetting of low-viscosity films at solid/liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Duval, Hervé

    2012-11-13

    We report new experimental results on the dewetting of a mercury film (A) intercalated between a glass slab and an external nonmiscible liquid phase (B) under conditions of a large equilibrium contact angle. The viscosity of the external phase, ηB, was varied over 7 orders of magnitude. We observe a transition between two regimes of dewetting at a threshold viscosity of η(B)* ≈ (ρ(A)e|S̃|)(1/2), where ρ(A) is the mercury density, e is the film thickness, and |S̃| is the effective spreading coefficient. For η(B) dewetting is constant and ruled by Culick’s law, V ≈ (|S̃|/(ρ(A)e))(1/2). Capillary waves were observed at high dewetting velocities: they are a signature of hydraulic shock. For η(B) > η(B)*, the regime is viscous. The dewetting velocity is constant and scales as V ≈ |S̃|/η(B) in the limit of large η(B). We interpret this regime by a balance between the surface energy released during dewetting and the viscous dissipation in the surrounding liquid.

  19. Recent Advances in Study of Solid-Liquid Interfaces and Solidification of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Asle Zaeem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solidification occurs in several material processing methods, such as in casting, welding, and laser additive manufacturing of metals, and it controls the nano- and microstructures, as well as the overall properties of the products[...

  20. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface. The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface....... The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. [S1063-651X...

  2. Temperature-induced changes in polyelectrolyte films at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steitz, R.; Leiner, V.; Tauer, K.; Khrenov, V.; Klitzing, R. v.

    2002-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (film thickness 30-60 nm) were built on top of silicon substrates by layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes from aqueous solutions. Three kinds of films were investigated: (A) films of a homo-polyelectrolyte and a diblock copolymer with a thermosensitive poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide) block and (B) and (C) two reference systems built solely from homo-polyelectrolytes of opposite charges. Thermal behavior and subsequent structural changes of the functionalized films against D 2 O were investigated by neutron reflectometry. All films showed irreversible annealing effects upon heating. In addition, the thermosensitive films showed a decrease in thickness at elevated temperature (>30 C) while the reference samples, composed of thermo-insensitive polyelectrolytes only, did not. (orig.)

  3. Molecular structure and Equilibrium forces of bovine submaxillary mucin adsorbed at a solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zappone, Bruno; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Madsen, Jan Busk

    2015-01-01

    prepared by additional chromatographic purification of commercially available products. The mucin molecule was found to have a z-average hydrodynamic diameter of ca. 35 nm in phosphate buffered solution, without any particular secondary or tertiary structure. The contour length of the mucin is larger than...

  4. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Formamide-Acetophenone System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevská, I.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Řehák, K.; Vrbka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, 9 (2006) , s. 1350-1358 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibria * liquid-liquid equilibria * metastable Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  5. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, AF; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, Damien; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P; Boshoven, JG; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D

    2017-01-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2–ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the

  6. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  7. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  8. All about Solids, Liquids & Gases. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In All About Solids, Liquids and Gases, young students will be introduced to the three common forms of matter. They'll learn that all things are made up of tiny particles called atoms and that the movement of these particles determines the form that matter takes. In solids, the particles are packed tightly together and move very little. The…

  9. Interfacing of DNA with carbon nanotubes for nanodevice applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Richa; Dhindsa, Navneet; Suri, C. Raman; Pant, B.D.; Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Inderpreet; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.

    2012-01-01

    In nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes are evolving as ‘hot spot’ due to their applications as most sensitive biosensors. Thus, study of effect of biomolecular interaction is prerequisite for their electrical application in biosensors and bioelectronics. Here, we have explored this effect on electrical properties of carbon nanotubes with DNA as a model biomolecule. A stable conjugate of carbon nanotubes with DNA is formed via covalent methodology employing quantum dot as fluoropore and characterized with various spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. CNT–DNA adduct showed decreased transconductance (from 614.46 μS to 1.34 μS) and shift of threshold voltage (from −0.85 V to 2.5 V) due to change in Schottky barriers at metal–nanotube contact. In addition, decrease in hole mobility (from 4.46 × 10 6 to 9.72 × 10 3 cm 2 V −1 s −1 ) and increase in ON-linear resistance (from 74 kΩ to 0.44 MΩ) conclude large change in device parameters. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential. -- Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes are interfaced with DNA via covalent interactions and characterized with spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. Electrical characterization of this stable SWNT–DNA conjugate shows decreased transconductance and shift of threshold voltage towards positive gate voltages. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential. Highlights: ► Effect of biomolecular (DNA) interaction on electrical

  10. Interfacing of DNA with carbon nanotubes for nanodevice applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Richa, E-mail: richa.bend@gmail.com [Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Sector-30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Punjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Dhindsa, Navneet [Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Sector-30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Suri, C. Raman [Biosensor Division, Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Sector-39, Chandigarh 160039 (India); Pant, B.D. [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Tripathi, S.K. [Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Punjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kaur, Inderpreet; Bharadwaj, Lalit M. [Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Sector-30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes are evolving as 'hot spot' due to their applications as most sensitive biosensors. Thus, study of effect of biomolecular interaction is prerequisite for their electrical application in biosensors and bioelectronics. Here, we have explored this effect on electrical properties of carbon nanotubes with DNA as a model biomolecule. A stable conjugate of carbon nanotubes with DNA is formed via covalent methodology employing quantum dot as fluoropore and characterized with various spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. CNT-DNA adduct showed decreased transconductance (from 614.46 {mu}S to 1.34 {mu}S) and shift of threshold voltage (from -0.85 V to 2.5 V) due to change in Schottky barriers at metal-nanotube contact. In addition, decrease in hole mobility (from 4.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} to 9.72 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and increase in ON-linear resistance (from 74 k Ohm-Sign to 0.44 M Ohm-Sign ) conclude large change in device parameters. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential. -- Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes are interfaced with DNA via covalent interactions and characterized with spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. Electrical characterization of this stable SWNT-DNA conjugate shows decreased transconductance and shift of threshold voltage towards positive gate voltages. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential

  11. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Deloose; J. Cuperus; P. Charrue; F. DiMaio; K. Kostro; M. Vanden Eynden; W. Watson

    1999-01-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common control as infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organized in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described

  12. Region based Brain Computer Interface for a home control application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman Aydin, Eda; Bay, Omer Faruk; Guler, Inan

    2015-08-01

    Environment control is one of the important challenges for disabled people who suffer from neuromuscular diseases. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides a communication channel between the human brain and the environment without requiring any muscular activation. The most important expectation for a home control application is high accuracy and reliable control. Region-based paradigm is a stimulus paradigm based on oddball principle and requires selection of a target at two levels. This paper presents an application of region based paradigm for a smart home control application for people with neuromuscular diseases. In this study, a region based stimulus interface containing 49 commands was designed. Five non-disabled subjects were attended to the experiments. Offline analysis results of the experiments yielded 95% accuracy for five flashes. This result showed that region based paradigm can be used to select commands of a smart home control application with high accuracy in the low number of repetitions successfully. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was not observed between the level accuracies.

  13. Moving interface problems and applications in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lin, Ping

    2008-01-01

    This volume is a collection of research papers presented at the program on Moving Interface Problems and Applications in Fluid Dynamics, which was held between January 8 and March 31, 2007 at the Institute for Mathematical Sciences (IMS) of the National University of Singapore. The topics discussed include modeling and simulations of biological flow coupled to deformable tissue/elastic structure, shock wave and bubble dynamics and various applications including biological treatments with experimental verification, multi-medium flow or multi-phase flow and various applications including cavitation/supercavitation, detonation problems, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid, and many other areas. Readers can benefit from some recent research results in these areas.

  14. Applicability of Donnan equilibrium theory at nanochannel-reservoir interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huanhuan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Moran

    2015-08-15

    Understanding ionic transport in nanochannels has attracted broad attention from various areas in energy and environmental fields. In most pervious research, Donnan equilibrium has been applied widely to nanofluidic systems to obtain ionic concentration and electrical potential at channel-reservoir interfaces; however, as well known that Donnan equilibrium is derived from classical thermodynamic theories with equilibrium assumptions. Therefore the applicability of the Donnan equilibrium may be questionable when the transport at nanochannel-reservoir interface is strongly non-equilibrium. In this work, the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model for ion transport is numerically solved to obtain the exact distributions of ionic concentration and electrical potential. The numerical results are quantitatively compared with the Donnan equilibrium predictions. The applicability of Donnan equilibrium is therefore justified by changing channel length, reservoir ionic concentration, surface charge density and channel height. The results indicate that the Donnan equilibrium is not applicable for short nanochannels, large concentration difference and wide openings. A non-dimensional parameter, Q factor, is proposed to measure the non-equilibrium extent and the relation between Q and the working conditions is studied in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. UKAEA contract no. 3: miscellaneous solid, liquid and gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    This document reports work carried out in 1982/83 on the following topics concerned with the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes: flowsheeting; dewatering low and medium level radioactive wastes; applications of ultrafiltration in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes; ion exchange processes; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes; chemical conversion of Zircaloy cladding to oxide; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; fuel cladding and ion exchanger immobilisation - radioactive trials; thermal techniques; development and assessment of medium level waste forms. (U.K.)

  16. Nanoscale biomaterial interface modification for advanced tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonov, V; Zykova, A; Smolik, J; Rogovska, R; Donkov, N; Goltsev, A; Dubrava, T; Rassokha, I; Georgieva, V

    2012-01-01

    Recently, various stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been found to have considerable potential for application in tissue engineering and future advanced therapies due to their biological capability to differentiate into specific lineages. Modified surface properties, such as composition, nano-roughness and wettability, affect the most important processes at the biomaterial interface. The aim of the present is work is to study the stem cells' (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics in in vitro tests, and to distinguish betwen the different factors influencing the cell/biomaterial interaction, such as nano-topography, surface chemistry and surface free energy.

  17. Study on solid-liquid interfacial phenomena and advancement of migration model in diffusion and migration processes of radionuclides in buffer materials and rock matrixes for disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2004-06-01

    This study was performed particularly focused on diffusive pathway and effects receive when nuclides and ions diffuse near solid-liquid interface, among various interactions occurring in the diffusion process of nuclides and ions in buffer material and rock matrix composing multi-barrier system of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. This study was carried out with the following objectives. (1) To clarify the effects of porewater chemistry (particularly ionic strength) and changes in diffusive pathway and micropore structure on diffusion from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. (2) To obtain information with regard to porewater properties, particularly viscosity. (3) To apply for predictions of diffusivities and diffusion process by developing a model concerning electrostatic interaction with ions near solid-liquid interface and viscosity distribution. This report consists of 9 chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction, in which the background and objectives for this study are explained. In chapter 2, it is reported on physical and chemical properties for sandstone (Shirahama sandstone), of which fundamental data and information for diffusion is quite limited and physical properties for bentonite, which is important as a buffer material. In chapter 3, it is discussed on the results studied using tritiated water and deuterated water for the orientation properties of clay particles and the effect of the orientation of clay particles on diffusive pathway in compacted bentonite. In chapter 4, it is discussed on the effects of the orientation of clay particles and ionic strength on diffusivities and activation energies for Cs + and I - ions in compacted bentonite. In chapter 5, it is reported on the diffusion properties of Cs + and I - ions in sandstone obtained by a non-steady state diffusion method and it is discussed on applicability of a solid-liquid interfacial model based on electric double layer theory. In chapter 6, it is reported on thermodynamic

  18. Solid-Liquid equilibrium of n-alkanes using the Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a solid phase in liquid mixtures with large paraffinic molecules is a phenomenon of interest in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological industries among onters. Efforts to model the solid-liquid equilibrium in these systems have been mainly empirical and with different...... degrees of success.An attempt to describe the equilibrium between the high temperature form of a paraffinic solid solution, commonly known as rotator phase, and the liquid phase is performed. The Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model (CDLP) is developed allowing a successful description of the solid-liquid...... equilibrium of n-alkanes ranging from n-C_20 to n-C_40.The model is further modified to achieve a more correct temperature dependence because it severely underestimates the excess enthalpy. It is shown that the ratio of excess enthalpy and entropy for n-alkane solid solutions, as happens for other solid...

  19. Numerical simulation of polishing U-tube based on solid-liquid two-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-ye; Meng, Wen-qing; Wu, Gui-ling; Hu, Jing-lei; Wang, Bao-zuo

    2018-03-01

    As the advanced technology to solve the ultra-precision machining of small hole structure parts and complex cavity parts, the abrasive grain flow processing technology has the characteristics of high efficiency, high quality and low cost. So this technology in many areas of precision machining has an important role. Based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow coupling, a solid-liquid two-phase MIXTURE model is used to simulate the abrasive flow polishing process on the inner surface of U-tube, and the temperature, turbulent viscosity and turbulent dissipation rate in the process of abrasive flow machining of U-tube were compared and analyzed under different inlet pressure. In this paper, the influence of different inlet pressure on the surface quality of the workpiece during abrasive flow machining is studied and discussed, which provides a theoretical basis for the research of abrasive flow machining process.

  20. Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Systems with an Ionic Liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Sauton, H.; Hynek, V.; Malijevská, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), s. 657-664 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0444; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : experimental data * solid-liquid equlibrium * 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  1. Solid-Liquid Equilibria in Systems [Cxmim][Tf2N] with Diethylamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotrekl, Jan; Vrbka, P.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Wagner, Zdeněk; Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2015), s. 453-460 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Symposium on Solubility Phenomena 2014. Karlsruhe, 20.07.2014-24.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094; GA MŠk LG13060 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * solid-liquid equilibria * COSMO-RS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  2. An Object-Oriented Architecture for User Interface Management in Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Denzer, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    User interfaces for large distributed applications have to handle specific problems: the complexity of the application itself and the integration of online-data into the user interface. A main task of the user interface architecture is to provide powerful tools to design and augment the end-user system easily, hence giving the designer more time to focus on user requirements. Our experiences developing a user interface system for a process control room showed that a lot of time during the dev...

  3. Development of an Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Daniel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • APIDA an Application Programming Interface tool for Depletion Analysis. • APIDA employs a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method. • A burnup solver to couple to neutron transport solvers in lattice depletion or reactor core analysis codes. - Abstract: A new utility has been developed with extensive capabilities in identifying nuclide decay and transmutation characteristics, allowing for accurate and efficient tracking of the change in isotopic concentrations in nuclear reactor fuel over time when coupled with a transport solution method. This tool, named the Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA), employs both a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method to solve for the end-of-time-step nuclide concentrations for all isotopes relevant to nuclear reactors. The Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) was utilized to deal with the ill-conditioned matrices generated during lattice depletion calculations, and a complex linear chain solver was developed to handle isotopes reduced from the burnup matrix due to either radioactive stability or a sufficiently low neutron-induced reaction cross section. The entire tool is housed in a robust but simple application programming interface (API). The development of this API allows other codes, particularly numerical neutron transport solvers, to incorporate APIDA as the burnup solver in a lattice depletion code or reactor core analysis code in memory, without the need to write or read from the hard disk. The APIDA code was benchmarked using several decay and transmutation chains. Burnup solutions produced by APIDA were shown to provide material concentrations comparable to the analytically solved Bateman equations – well below 0.01% relative error for even the most extreme cases using isotopes with vastly different decay constants. As a first order demonstration of the API, APIDA was coupled with the transport solver in the SERPENT code for a fuel pin

  4. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yanlin [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249 (China); Wang, Mi [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (China); Yao, Jun [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-04-11

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases system involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal particles

  5. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  6. Brain-computer interfaces current trends and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The success of a BCI system depends as much on the system itself as on the user’s ability to produce distinctive EEG activity. BCI systems can be divided into two groups according to the placement of the electrodes used to detect and measure neurons firing in the brain. These groups are: invasive systems, electrodes are inserted directly into the cortex are used for single cell or multi unit recording, and electrocorticography (EcoG), electrodes are placed on the surface of the cortex (or dura); noninvasive systems, they are placed on the scalp and use electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) to detect neuron activity. The book is basically divided into three parts. The first part of the book covers the basic concepts and overviews of Brain Computer Interface. The second part describes new theoretical developments of BCI systems. The third part covers views on real applications of BCI systems.

  7. Interfacing system LOCA risk assessment: Methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Schroeher, J.A.; Hanson, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring a research program to develop an improved understanding of the human factors hardware, and accident consequence issues that dominate the risk from an Interfacing Systems Loss-of-Coolant Accident (ISLOCA) at a nuclear power plant. To accomplish this program, a methodology has been developed for estimating the core damage frequency and risk associated with an ISLOCA. The steps of the methodology are described with emphasis on one step which is unique, estimation of the probability of rupture of the low pressure systems. A trial application of the methodology was made for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The results are believed to be plant specific and indicate that human errors during startup and shutdown could be significant contributors to ISLOCA risk at the plant evaluated. 10 refs

  8. Leveraging OpenStudio's Application Programming Interfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Ball, B.; Goldwasser, D.; Parker, A.; Elling, J.; Davis, O.; Kruchten, D.

    2013-11-01

    OpenStudio development efforts have been focused on providing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) where users are able to extend OpenStudio without the need to compile the open source libraries. This paper will discuss the basic purposes and functionalities of the core libraries that have been wrapped with APIs including the Building Model, Results Processing, Advanced Analysis, UncertaintyQuantification, and Data Interoperability through Translators. Several building energy modeling applications have been produced using OpenStudio's API and Software Development Kits (SDK) including the United States Department of Energy's Asset ScoreCalculator, a mobile-based audit tool, an energy design assistance reporting protocol, and a portfolio scale incentive optimization analysismethodology. Each of these software applications will be discussed briefly and will describe how the APIs were leveraged for various uses including high-level modeling, data transformations from detailed building audits, error checking/quality assurance of models, and use of high-performance computing for mass simulations.

  9. (Liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid), and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria of systems containing cyclic ether (tetrahydrofuran or 1,3-dioxolane), water, and a biological buffer MOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altway, Saidah; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MOPS buffer induced liquid phase splitting for mixtures of water with THF or 1,3-dioxolane. • Phase boundaries of LLE, SLE, and SLLE were determined experimentally. • Tie-lines at LLE and at SLLE were also measured. • Phase diagrams of MOPS + water + THF or 1,3-dioxolane are prepared. • LLE tie-line data are correlated satisfactorily with the NRTL model. - Abstract: Two liquid phases were formed as the addition of a certain amount of biological buffer 3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) in the aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-dioxolane. To evaluate the feasibility of recovering the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions with the aid of MOPS, we determined experimentally the phase diagrams of the ternary systems of {cyclic ether (THF or 1,3-dioxolane) + water + MOPS} at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. In this study, the solubility data of MOPS in water and in the mixed solvents of water/cyclic ethers were obtained from the results of a series of density measurements, while the (liquid + liquid) and the (solid + liquid + liquid) phase boundaries were determined by visually inspection. Additionally, the tie-line results for (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and for (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (SLLE) were measured using an analytical method. The reliability of the experimental LLE tie-line results data was validated by using the Othmer–Tobias correlation. These LLE tie-line values were correlated well with the NRTL model. The phase diagrams obtained from this study reveal that MOPS is a feasible green auxiliary agent to recover the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions, especially for 1,3-dioxolane

  10. Grid-interfacing converter systems with enhanced voltage quality for microgrid application : concept and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grid-interfacing converter systems with enhanced voltage quality are proposed for microgrid application in this paper. By adapting the conventional series-parallel structure, a group of grid-interfacing system topologies are proposed for the purpose of interfacing local generation/microgrid to the

  11. A user interface development tool for space science systems Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczur, Martha R.

    1990-01-01

    The Transportable Applications Environment Plus (TAE PLUS), developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is a portable What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) user interface development and management system. Its primary objective is to provide an integrated software environment that allows interactive prototyping and development that of user interfaces, as well as management of the user interface within the operational domain. Although TAE Plus is applicable to many types of applications, its focus is supporting user interfaces for space applications. This paper discusses what TAE Plus provides and how the implementation has utilized state-of-the-art technologies within graphic workstations, windowing systems and object-oriented programming languages.

  12. Application of MCU to intelligent interface of high precision magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ruinian; Li Deming

    2004-01-01

    Application of the high-capability MCU in the intelligent interface is introduced in this paper. A prototype of intelligent interface for high precision huge magnet power supply was developed successfully. This intelligent interface was composed of two parts: operation panel and main board, both of which adopt a MCU of PIC16F877 respectively. The interface has many advantages, such as small size, low cost and good interference immunity. (authors)

  13. Interface Effects Enabling New Applications of Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Sattar, Shahid

    2018-05-01

    Interface effects in two-dimensional (2D) materials play a critical role for the electronic properties and device characteristics. Here we use first-principles calculations to investigate interface effects in 2D materials enabling new applications. We first show that graphene in contact with monolayer and bilayer PtSe2 experiences weak van der Waals interaction. Analysis of the work functions and band bending at the interface reveals that graphene forms an n-type Schottky contact with monolayer PtSe2 and a p-type Schottky contact with bilayer PtSe2, whereas a small biaxial tensile strain makes the contact Ohmic in the latter case as required for transistor operation. For silicene, which is a 2D Dirac relative of graphene, structural buckling complicates the experimental synthesis and strong interaction with the substrate perturbs the characteristic linear dispersion. To remove this obstacle, we propose solid argon as a possible substrate for realizing quasi-freestanding silicene and argue that a weak van der Waals interaction and small binding energy indicate the possibility to separate silicene from the substrate. For the silicene-PtSe2 interface, we demonstrate much stronger interlayer interaction than previously reported for silicene on other semiconducting substrates. Due to the inversion symmetry breaking and proximity to PtSe2, a band gap opening and spin splittings in the valence and conduction bands of silicene are observed. It is also shown that the strong interlayer interaction can be effectively reduced by intercalating NH3 molecules between silicene and PtSe2, and a small NH3 discussion barrier makes intercalation a viable experimental approach. Silicene/germanene are categorized as key materials for the field of valleytronics due to stronger spin-orbit coupling as compared to graphene. However, no viable route exists so far to experimental realization. We propose F-doped WS2 as substrate that avoids detrimental effects and at the same time induces the

  14. Solid-liquid phase equilibria of Fe-Cr-Al alloys and spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, J. W.; Hu, R.; Ushakov, S. V.; Shin, D.; Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-08-01

    Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are candidate accident tolerant cladding materials. There is a paucity of data concerning the melting behavior for FeCrAl and its oxides. Analysis tools have therefore had to utilize assumptions for simulations using FeCrAl cladding. The focus of this study is to examine in some detail the solid-liquid phase equilibria of FeCrAl alloys and spinels with the aim of improving the accuracy of severe accident scenario computational studies.

  15. A minicomputer interface for realtime operations: an application to operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Wilson, J

    1975-09-01

    A PDP-12 interface was designed, constructed, and tested for realtime imput and output of binary information. Within limits this interface can be used with any peripheral device which operates in the binary mode. In addition to its generality of application the interface features include ease of expansion and low cost. A description of its design and operation is give here is terms of a typical application: the control of behavioral equipment (i.e. "Skinner Boxes") for operant conditioning.

  16. Experimental evaluation of multimodal human computer interface for tactical audio applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.; Jovanov, E.; Oy, S.

    2002-01-01

    Mission critical and information overwhelming applications require careful design of the human computer interface. Typical applications include night vision or low visibility mission navigation, guidance through a hostile territory, and flight navigation and orientation. Additional channels of

  17. System and Method for Providing a Climate Data Analytic Services Application Programming Interface Distribution Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L. (Inventor); Duffy, Daniel Q. (Inventor); Tamkin, Glenn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system, method and computer-readable storage devices for providing a climate data analytic services application programming interface distribution package. The example system can provide various components. The system provides a climate data analytic services application programming interface library that enables software applications running on a client device to invoke the capabilities of a climate data analytic service. The system provides a command-line interface that provides a means of interacting with a climate data analytic service by issuing commands directly to the system's server interface. The system provides sample programs that call on the capabilities of the application programming interface library and can be used as templates for the construction of new client applications. The system can also provide test utilities, build utilities, service integration utilities, and documentation.

  18. Kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments have been reviewed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic framework. This framework is based on the premise that radiocaesium is almost exclusively and highly-selectively bound to the frayed particle edges of illitic clay minerals in the sediments. Several processes with distinctly different rates can be distinguished in radiocaesium sorption to sediments. 2- and 3-box kinetic models can describe both the overall solid/liquid partitioning in sediments and the reversible (exchangeable) and irreversible (nonexchangeable or 'fixed') fractions of radiocaesium in sediments over time scales relevant for natural aquatic systems. The obtained rate parameters indicate that reversible partitioning of radiocaesium dominates over the first few days following a contamination event, whereas irreversible kinetics becomes important over time scales of weeks to months. The slow process, which reduces the exchangeability of sediment-bound radiocaesium over time, is believed to result from a migration of radiocaesium from exchangeable sites on the frayed edges of illite towards less-exchangeable interlayer sites. Long-term extraction of radiocaesium from historically contaminated sediments has given evidence for a reverse (remobilization) process with a half-life of the order of tens of years. These findings suggest that the long-term exchangeability of radiocaesium in sediments may be higher than the few % which is generally assumed. (orig.)

  19. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  20. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  1. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCadbe, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing

  2. Adaptation of the Camera Link Interface for Flight-Instrument Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Mahoney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    COTS (commercial-off-the-shelf) hard ware using an industry-standard Camera Link interface is proposed to accomplish the task of designing, building, assembling, and testing electronics for an airborne spectrometer that would be low-cost, but sustain the required data speed and volume. The focal plane electronics were designed to support that hardware standard. Analysis was done to determine how these COTS electronics could be interfaced with space-qualified camera electronics. Interfaces available for spaceflight application do not support the industry standard Camera Link interface, but with careful design, COTS EGSE (electronics ground support equipment), including camera interfaces and camera simulators, can still be used.

  3. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey W. Blanch

    2004-12-01

    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  4. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  5. Application Program Interface for the Orion Aerodynamics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip E.; Thompson, James

    2013-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Aerodynamic Database has been developed to provide the developers of software an easily implemented, fully self-contained method of accessing the CEV Aerodynamic Database for use in their analysis and simulation tools. The API is programmed in C and provides a series of functions to interact with the database, such as initialization, selecting various options, and calculating the aerodynamic data. No special functions (file read/write, table lookup) are required on the host system other than those included with a standard ANSI C installation. It reads one or more files of aero data tables. Previous releases of aerodynamic databases for space vehicles have only included data tables and a document of the algorithm and equations to combine them for the total aerodynamic forces and moments. This process required each software tool to have a unique implementation of the database code. Errors or omissions in the documentation, or errors in the implementation, led to a lengthy and burdensome process of having to debug each instance of the code. Additionally, input file formats differ for each space vehicle simulation tool, requiring the aero database tables to be reformatted to meet the tool s input file structure requirements. Finally, the capabilities for built-in table lookup routines vary for each simulation tool. Implementation of a new database may require an update to and verification of the table lookup routines. This may be required if the number of dimensions of a data table exceeds the capability of the simulation tools built-in lookup routines. A single software solution was created to provide an aerodynamics software model that could be integrated into other simulation and analysis tools. The highly complex Orion aerodynamics model can then be quickly included in a wide variety of tools. The API code is written in ANSI C for ease of portability to a wide variety of systems. The

  6. A Visual Galaxy Classification Interface and its Classroom Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsch, Stefan J.; Phung, Chau; VanHilst, Michael; Castro, Victor H

    2014-06-01

    Galaxy morphology is an important topic in modern astronomy to understand questions concerning the evolution and formation of galaxies and their dark matter content. In order to engage students in exploring galaxy morphology, we developed a web-based, graphical interface that allows students to visually classify galaxy images according to various morphological types. The website is designed with HTML5, JavaScript, PHP, and a MySQL database. The classification interface provides hands-on research experience and training for students and interested clients, and allows them to contribute to studies of galaxy morphology. We present the first results of a pilot study and compare the visually classified types using our interface with that from automated classification routines.

  7. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  8. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...... out from the proces and usually dewatered before further handling. The separation process is costly. Moreover, the separation process depends on the composition and the properties of the sludge. The best separation is obtained for sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells...... and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Polyvalent ions improve the floc strangth and improve the separation whereas monovalent ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion and industry) reduces impair the separation. Further high pH impairs the separation process due to floc disintegration...

  9. In Situ Monitoring of Chemical Reactions at a Solid-Water Interface by Femtosecond Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chih-Chiang; Weng, Meng-Yu; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Yao, Yi-Ting; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2017-11-02

    Chemical reactions at a solid-liquid interface are of fundamental importance. Interfacial chemical reactions occur not only at the very interface but also in the subsurface area, while existing monitoring techniques either provide limited spatial resolution or are applicable only for the outmost atomic layer. Here, with the aid of the time-domain analysis with femtosecond acoustics, we demonstrate a subatomic-level-resolution technique to longitudinally monitor chemical reactions at solid-water interfaces, capable of in situ monitoring even the subsurface area under atmospheric conditions. Our work was proven by monitoring the already-known anode oxidation process occurring during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Furthermore, whenever the oxide layer thickness equals an integer  number of the effective atomic layer thickness, the measured acoustic echo will show higher signal-to-noise ratios with reduced speckle noise, indicating the quantum-like behavior of this coherent-phonon-based technique.

  10. Advances in clinical application of optical coherence tomography in vitreomacular interface disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Xing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous macular interface disease mainly includes vitreomacular traction syndrome, idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane and idiopathic macular hole. Optical coherence tomography(OCTas a new tool that provides high resolution biopsy cross section image non traumatic imaging inspection, has a unique high resolution, no damage characteristics, and hence clinical widely used, vitreous macular interface for clinical disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and condition monitoring and quantitative evaluation, treatment options, etc provides important information and reference value. Vitreous macular interface disease in OCT image of anatomical morphology characteristics, improve the clinical on disease occurrence and development of knowledge. We reviewed the advances in the application of OCT in vitreomacular interface disease.

  11. Building Interfaces: Mechanisms, fabrication, and applications at the biotic/abiotic interface for silk fibroin based bioelectronic and biooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenckle, Mark

    Recent efforts in bioelectronics and biooptics have led to a shift in the materials and form factors used to make medical devices, including high performance, implantable, and wearable sensors. In this context, biopolymer-based devices must be processed to interface the soft, curvilinear biological world with the rigid, inorganic world of traditional electronics and optics. This poses new material-specific fabrication challenges in designing such devices, which in turn requires further understanding of the fundamental physical behaviors of the materials in question. As a biopolymer, silk fibroin protein has remarkable promise in this space, due to its bioresorbability, mechanical strength, optical clarity, ability to be reshaped on the micro- and nano-scale, and ability to stabilize labile compounds. Application of this material to devices at the biotic/abiotic interface will require the development of fabrication techniques for nano-patterning, lithography, multilayer adhesion, and transfer printing in silk materials. In this work, we address this need through fundamental study of the thermal and diffusional properties of silk protein as it relates to these fabrication strategies. We then leverage these properties to fabricate devices well suited to the biotic/abiotic interface in three areas: shelf-ready sensing, implantable transient electronics, and wearable biosensing. These example devices will illustrate the advantages of silk in this class of bioelectronic and biooptical devices, from fundamentals through application, and contribute to a silk platform for the development of future devices that combine biology with high technology.

  12. Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus: A NASA tool for building and managing graphical user interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczur, Martha R.

    1993-01-01

    The Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus, developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is an advanced portable user interface development which simplifies the process of creating and managing complex application graphical user interfaces (GUI's). TAE Plus supports the rapid prototyping of GUI's and allows applications to be ported easily between different platforms. This paper will discuss the capabilities of the TAE Plus tool, and how it makes the job of designing and developing GUI's easier for application developers. TAE Plus is being applied to many types of applications, and this paper discusses how it has been used both within and outside NASA.

  13. Brain Machine Interfaces for Robotic Control in Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will study the application of a brain machine interface (BMI) to enable crew to remotely operate and monitor robots from inside a flight vehicle, habitat...

  14. CALIBRATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ALGORITHMS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (COSU-API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) tool development, here fore referred to as the Calibration, Optimization, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Algorithms API (COSU-API), was initially d...

  15. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  16. Robotic and user interface solutions for hazardous and remote applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.

    1997-01-01

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is developing novel robotic and user interface systems to assist in the cleanup activities undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Under DOE's EM-50 funding and administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), CMU has developed a novel asbestos pipe-insulation abatement robot system, called BOA, and a novel generic user interface control and training console, dubbed RoboCon. The use of BOA will allow the speedier abatement of the vast DOE piping networks clad with hazardous and contaminated asbestos insulation by which overall job costs can be reduced by as much as 50%. RoboCon will allow the DOE to evaluate different remote and robotic system technologies from the overall man-machine performance standpoint, as well as provide a standardized training platform for training site operators in the operation of remote and robotic equipment

  17. Applications of Computed Tomography to Evaluate Cellular Solid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Josephine; Marse, Daryl J.; Schilling, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The major morphological features - foam cells, voids, knit lines, and the bondline interface were evaluated. The features identified by micro-CT correlate well to those observed by SEM. 3D reconstructions yielded volumetric dimensions for large voids (max 30 mm). Internal voids and groupings of smaller cells at the bondline are concluded to be the cause of the indications noted during the NDE prescreening process.

  18. Python GUI Scripting Interface for Running Atomic Physics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tahat, Amani; Tahat, Mofleh

    2011-01-01

    We create a Python GUI scripting interface working under Windows in addition to (UNIX/Linux). The GUI has been built around the Python open-source programming language. We use the Python's GUI library that so called Python Mega Widgets (PMW) and based on Tkinter Python module (http://www.freenetpages.co.uk/hp/alan.gauld/tutgui.htm). The new GUI was motivated primarily by the desire of more updated operations, more flexibility incorporating future and current improvements in producing atomic d...

  19. Application of LBB to a nozzle-pipe interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.J.; Sohn, G.H.; Kim, Y.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Typical LBB (Leak-Before-Break) analysis is performed for the highest stress location for each different type of material in the high energy pipe line. In most cases, the highest stress occurs at the nozzle and pipe interface location at the terminal end. The standard finite element analysis approach to calculate J-Integral values at the crack tip utilizes symmetry conditions when modeling near the nozzle as well as away from the nozzle region to minimize the model size and simplify the calculation of J-integral values at the crack tip. A factor of two is typically applied to the J-integral value to account for symmetric conditions. This simplified analysis can lead to conservative results especially for small diameter pipes where the asymmetry of the nozzle-pipe interface is ignored. The stiffness of the residual piping system and non-symmetries of geometry along with different material for the nozzle, safe end and pipe are usually omitted in current LBB methodology. In this paper, the effects of non-symmetries due to geometry and material at the pipe-nozzle interface are presented. Various LBB analyses are performed for a small diameter piping system to evaluate the effect a nozzle has on the J-integral calculation, crack opening area and crack stability. In addition, material differences between the nozzle and pipe are evaluated. Comparison is made between a pipe model and a nozzle-pipe interface model, and a LBB PED (Piping Evaluation Diagram) curve is developed to summarize the results for use by piping designers.

  20. An SML Driven Graphical User Interface and Application Management Toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Greg R

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the features of a user interface were limited by those available in the existing graphical widgets it used. Now, improvements in processor speed have fostered the emergence of interpreted languages, in which the appropriate method to render a given data object can be loaded at runtime. XML can be used to precisely describe the association of data types with their graphical handling (beans), and Java provides an especially rich environment for programming the graphics. We present a graphical user interface builder based on Java Beans and XML, in which the graphical screens are described textually (in files or a database) in terms of their screen components. Each component may be a simple text read back, or a complex plot. The programming model provides for dynamic data pertaining to a component to be forwarded synchronously or asynchronously, to the appropriate handler, which may be a built-in method, or a complex applet. This work was initially motivated by the need to move the legacy VMS display interface of the SLAC Control Program to another platform while preserving all of its existing functionality. However the model allows us a powerful and generic system for adding new kinds of graphics, such as Matlab, data sources, such as EPICS, middleware, such as AIDA[1], and transport, such as XML and SOAP. The system will also include a management console, which will be able to report on the present usage of the system, for instance who is running it where and connected to which channels

  1. Participation in the ABWR Man-Machine interface design. Applicability to the Spanish Electrical Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Manrique Martin, A.; Nunez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Project coordinated by DTN within the advanced reactor programme. Participation in the design activities for the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) man-machine interface was divided into two phases: Phase I: Preparation of drawings for designing, developing and assessing the advanced control room Phase II: Application of these drawings in design activities Participation in this programme has led to the following possible future applications to the electrical sector: 1. Design and implementation of man-machine interfaces 2. Human factor criteria 3. Assessment of man-machine interfaces 4. Functional specification, computerised operating procedures 5. Computerised alarm prototypes. (Author)

  2. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb [ECOMatters Inc., Pinawa (Canada); Sohlenius, Gustav [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  3. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2009-03-01

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  4. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of (Pb, Sn)Te Thermoelectric Modules with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film Sn Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. H.; Lin, H. J.; Chuang, C. H.; Yeh, W. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    A (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element plated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer has been joined with a Cu electrode coated with Ag and Sn thin films using a solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding method. This method allows the interfacial reaction between Ag and Sn such that Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds form at low temperature and are stable at high temperature. In this study, the bonding strength was about 6.6 MPa, and the specimens fractured along the interface between the (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element and the Ni barrier layer. Pre-electroplating a film of Sn with a thickness of about 1 μm on the thermoelectric element and pre-heating at 250°C for 3 min ensures the adhesion between the thermoelectric material and the Ni barrier layer. The bonding strength is thus increased to a maximal value of 12.2 MPa, and most of the fractures occur inside the thermoelectric material. During the bonding process, not only the Ag3Sn intermetallics but also Cu6Sn5 forms at the Ag3Sn/Cu interface, which transforms into Cu3Sn with increases in the bonding temperature or bonding time.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of solid-liquid heat transfer and passive liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudasan Daisy, Sumith

    equilibrium canonical ensemble (NVT) is simulated using thermostat algorithms. For research in heat transfer involving solid liquid interaction, we need to perform non equilibrium MD (NEMD) simulations. In such NEMD simulations, the methods used for simulating heating from a surface is very important and must capture proper physics and thermodynamic properties. Development of MD simulation techniques to simulate solid-liquid heating and the study of fundamental mechanism of passive flow is the main focus of this thesis. An accurate surface-heating algorithm was developed for water which can now allow the study of a whole new set of fundamental heat transfer problems at the nanoscale like surface heating/cooling of droplets, thin-films, etc. The developed algorithm is implemented in the in-house developed C++ MD code. A direct two dimensional local pressure estimation algorithm is also formulated and implemented in the code. With this algorithm, local pressure of argon and platinum interaction is studied. Also, the surface tension of platinum-argon (solid-liquid) was estimated directly from the MD simulations for the first time. Contact angle estimation studies of water on platinum, and argon on platinum were also performed. A thin film of argon is kept above platinum plate and heated in the middle region, leading to the evaporation and pressure reduction thus creating a strong passive flow in the near surface region. This observed passive liquid flow is characterized by estimating the pressure, density, velocity and surface tension using Eulerian mapping method. Using these simulation, we have demonstrated the fundamental nature and origin of surface-driven passive flow. Heat flux removed from the surface is also estimated from the results, which shows a significant improvement can be achieved in thermal management of electronic devices by taking advantage of surface-driven strong passive liquid flow. Further, the local pressure of water on silicon di-oxide surface is

  6. Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus - A NASA productivity tool used to develop graphical user interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczur, Martha R.

    1991-01-01

    The Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus, developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is an advanced portable user interface development environment which simplifies the process of creating and managing complex application graphical user interfaces (GUIs), supports prototyping, allows applications to be oported easily between different platforms, and encourages appropriate levels of user interface consistency between applications. This paper discusses the capabilities of the TAE Plus tool, and how it makes the job of designing and developing GUIs easier for the application developers. The paper also explains how tools like TAE Plus provide for reusability and ensure reliability of UI software components, as well as how they aid in the reduction of development and maintenance costs.

  7. Development of interface tracking method. Two-phase flows applications; Developpement d'une methode de suivi d'interface. Applications aux ecoulements diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, S.

    2004-11-15

    Spray formation mechanisms study from a liquid-gas flow is a fundamental research subject, which industrial applications are large, especially in combustion and propulsion field. Numerical simulation of such flows appear as an essential complement to experimental and theoretical studies, for comprehension and accurate prediction of such physical processes. In this study we developed an numerical interface tracking technique with a Navier-Stokes solver to study accurately the liquid-gas interface dynamics. We describe Level Set method which has been used to track interface motion, and numerical methods for solving Navier-Stokes equations. Different numerical schemes have been tested to improve the computation accuracy. Ghost Fluid Method enables a robust and accurate treatment of discontinuities across the liquid-gas interface. The codes developed (2D, 3D, parallelization MPI) are then used to study droplets collisions. Comparisons with experimental results show that simulations are realistic and predictive. Next, feasibility studies are done on more complex configurations. Droplets spray formation from primary atomization of a liquid jet seems to be especially a promising investigation field for such simulations. Finally, reactive interfaces propagation, as liquid vaporization and premixed combustion have also been studied using Ghost Fluid Method to impose specific jump conditions. (author)

  8. Modeling organohalide perovskites for photovoltaic applications: From materials to interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Filippo

    2015-03-01

    The field of hybrid/organic photovoltaics has been revolutionized in 2012 by the first reports of solid-state solar cells based on organohalide perovskites, now topping at 20% efficiency. First-principles modeling has been widely applied to the dye-sensitized solar cells field, and more recently to perovskite-based solar cells. The computational design and screening of new materials has played a major role in advancing the DSCs field. Suitable modeling strategies may also offer a view of the crucial heterointerfaces ruling the device operational mechanism. I will illustrate how simulation tools can be employed in the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. The performance of the proposed simulation toolbox along with the fundamental modeling strategies are presented using selected examples of relevant materials and interfaces. The main issue with hybrid perovskite modeling is to be able to accurately describe their structural, electronic and optical features. These materials show a degree of short range disorder, due to the presence of mobile organic cations embedded within the inorganic matrix, requiring to average their properties over a molecular dynamics trajectory. Due to the presence of heavy atoms (e.g. Sn and Pb) their electronic structure must take into account spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in an effective way, possibly including GW corrections. The proposed SOC-GW method constitutes the basis for tuning the materials electronic and optical properties, rationalizing experimental trends. Modeling charge generation in perovskite-sensitized TiO2 interfaces is then approached based on a SOC-DFT scheme, describing alignment of energy levels in a qualitatively correct fashion. The role of interfacial chemistry on the device performance is finally discussed. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007 2013] under Grant Agreement No. 604032 of the MESO project.

  9. ClusterControl: a web interface for distributing and monitoring bioinformatics applications on a Linux cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Gernot; Rieder, Dietmar; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2004-03-22

    ClusterControl is a web interface to simplify distributing and monitoring bioinformatics applications on Linux cluster systems. We have developed a modular concept that enables integration of command line oriented program into the application framework of ClusterControl. The systems facilitate integration of different applications accessed through one interface and executed on a distributed cluster system. The package is based on freely available technologies like Apache as web server, PHP as server-side scripting language and OpenPBS as queuing system and is available free of charge for academic and non-profit institutions. http://genome.tugraz.at/Software/ClusterControl

  10. Server Interface Descriptions for Automated Testing of JavaScript Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Svenning; Møller, Anders; Su, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    Automated testing of JavaScript web applications is complicated by the communication with servers. Specifically, it is difficult to test the JavaScript code in isolation from the server code and database contents. We present a practical solution to this problem. First, we demonstrate that formal...... server interface descriptions are useful in automated testing of JavaScript web applications for separating the concerns of the client and the server. Second, to support the construction of server interface descriptions for existing applications, we introduce an effective inference technique that learns...... communication patterns from sample data. By incorporating interface descriptions into the testing tool Artemis, our experimental results show that we increase the level of automation for high-coverage testing on a collection of JavaScript web applications that exchange JSON data between the clients and servers...

  11. Enhanced mass transfer during solid-liquid extraction of gamma-irradiated red beetroot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Chetan A.; Chethana, S.; Rastogi, N.K.; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure to gamma-irradiation pretreatment increases cell wall permeabilization, resulting in loss of turgor pressure, which led to the increase of extractability of betanin from red beetroot. The degree of extraction of betanin was investigated using gamma irradiation as a pretreatment prior to the solid-liquid extraction process and compared with control beetroot samples. The beetroot subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kGy) and control was dipped in an acetic acid medium (1% v/v) to extract the betanin. The diffusion coefficients for betanin as well as ionic component were estimated considering Fickian diffusion. The results indicated an increase in the diffusion coefficient of betanin (0.302x10 -9 -0.463x10 -9 m 2 /s) and ionic component (0.248x10 -9 -0.453x10 -9 m 2 /s) as the dose rate increased (from 2.5 to 10.0 kGy). The degradation constant was found to increase (0.050-0.079 min -1 ) with an increase gamma-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy), indicating lower stability of the betanin as compared to control sample at 65 deg. C

  12. Solid/liquid extraction equilibria of phenolic compounds with trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated in polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-06-01

    Trioctylphosphine oxide based extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) were used for extraction of phenol and its methyl, hydroxyl and chloride substituted derivatives. The distribution coefficients of the phenols varied from 2 to 234, in the order of 1-napthol > p-chlorophenol > m-cresol > p-cresol > o-cresol > phenol > catechol > pyrogallol > hydroquinone, when initial phenols loadings was varied in 100-2000 mg/L. An extraction model, based on the law of mass action, was formulated to predict the equilibrium distribution of the phenols. The model was in excellent agreement (R(2) > 0.97) with the experimental results at low phenols concentrations ( 0.95), which signified high mass transfer resistance in the EIMs. Examination of the effects of ring substitution on equilibrium, and bivariate statistical analysis between the amounts of phenols extracted into the EIMs and factors affecting phenols interaction with TOPO, indicated the dominant role of hydrophobicity in equilibrium determination. These results improve understanding of the solid/liquid equilibrium process between phenols and the EIMs, and these will be useful in designing phenol recovery process from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  14. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  15. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  16. Determination of the solid-liquid-vapor triple point pressure of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed experimental study of the triple point pressure of carbon using laser heating techniques has been completed. Uncertainties and conflict in previous investigations have been addressed and substantial data presented which places the solid-liquid-vapor carbon triple point at 107 +- 2 atmospheres. This is in agreement with most investigations which have located the triple point pressure between 100 and 120 atmospheres, but is in disagreement with recent low pressure carbon experiments. The absence of any significant polymorphs of carbon other than graphite suggests that the graphite-liquid-vapor triple point has been measured. Graphite samples were melted in a pressure vessel using a 400 W Nd:YAG continuous-wave laser focused to a maximum power density of approximately 80 kW/cm 2 . Melt was confirmed by detailed microstructure analysis and x-ray diffraction of the recrystallized graphite. Experiments to determine the minimum melt pressure of carbon were completed as a function of sample size, type of inert gas, and laser power density to asure that laser power densities were sufficient to produce melt at the triple point pressure of carbon, and the pressure of carbon at the surface of the sample was identical to the measured pressure of the inert gas in the pressure vessel. High-speed color cinematography of the carbon heating revealed the presence of a laser-generated vapor or particle plume in front of the sample. The existence of this bright plume pevented the measurement of the carbon triple point temperature

  17. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification Version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Levenhagen, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, H. Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Younge, Andrew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  18. Information Practices and User Interfaces: Student Use of an iOS Application in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmans Epp, Carrie; McEwen, Rhonda; Campigotto, Rachelle; Moffatt, Karyn

    2016-01-01

    A framework connecting concepts from user interface design with those from information studies is applied in a study that integrated a location-aware mobile application into two special education classes at different schools; this application had two support modes (one general and one location specific). The five-month study revealed several…

  19. Migrating Multi-page Web Applications to Single-page AJAX Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new web development technique for creating interactive web applications, dubbed AJAX, has emerged. In this new model, the single-page web interface is composed of individual components which can be updated/replaced independently. With the rise of AJAX web applications classical

  20. A novel 2.5D approach for interfacing with web applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    Web applications need better user interface to be interactive and attractive. A new approach/concept of dimensional enhancement - 2.5D "a 2D display of a virtual 3D environment", which can be implemented in social networking sites and further in other system applications.

  1. User Manual for the Data-Series Interface of the Gr Application Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    This manual describes the data-series interface for the Gr Application software. Basic tasks such as plotting, editing, manipulating, and printing data series are presented. The properties of the various types of data objects and graphical objects used within the application, and the relationships between them also are presented. Descriptions of compatible data-series file formats are provided.

  2. Visibility Aspects Importance of User Interface Reception in Cloud Computing Applications with Increased Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Haxhixhemajli, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Visibility aspects of User Interfaces are important; they deal with the crucial phase of human-computer interaction. They allow users to perform and at the same time hide the complexity of the system. Acceptance of new systems depends on how visibility aspects of the User Interfaces are presented. Human eyes make the first contact with the appearance of any system by so it generates the very beginning of the human – application interaction. In this study it is enforced that visibility aspects...

  3. Cationic flocculants carrying hydrophobic functionalities: applications for solid/liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Jaeger, W; Paulke, B-R; Bratskaya, S; Smolka, N; Bohrisch, J

    2007-07-26

    The flocculation behaviors of three series of polycations with narrow molecular weight distributions carrying hydrophobic substituents on their backbones [poly(N-vinylbenzyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride), poly(N-vinylbenzyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-butylammonium chloride), and poly(N-vinylbenzylpyridinium chloride)] were investigated in dispersions of monodisperse polystyrene latexes and kaolin. Apparently, the charge density of the polycations decreases with increasing substituent hydrophobicity and increasing molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes. The necessary amount of flocculant for phase separation in dispersions with high substrate surface charge densities increases with increasing hydrophobicity of the polyelectrolyte. Nevertheless, the introduction of hydrophobic functionalities is beneficial, resulting in a substantial broadening of the range between the minimum and maximum amounts of flocculant necessary for efficient flocculation (flocculation window). An increase in ionic strength supports this effect. When the substrate has a low charge density, the hydrophobic interactions play a much more significant role in the flocculation process. Here, the minimum efficient doses remained the same for all three polyelectrolytes investigated, but the width of the flocculation window increased as the polycation hydrophobicity and the molecular weight increased. The necessary amount of flocculant increased with an increase in particle size at constant solid content of the dispersion, as well as with a decreasing number of particles at a constant particle size.

  4. Designing and application of SAN extension interface based on CWDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Leihua; Yu, Shengsheng; Zhou, Jingli

    2005-11-01

    As Fibre Channel (FC) becomes the protocol of choice within corporate data centers, enterprises are increasingly deploying SANs in their data central. In order to mitigate the risk of losing data and improve the availability of data, more and more enterprises are increasingly adopting storage extension technologies to replicate their business critical data to a secondary site. Transmitting this information over distance requires a carrier grade environment with zero data loss, scalable throughput, low jitter, high security and ability to travel long distance. To address this business requirements, there are three basic architectures for storage extension, they are Storage over Internet Protocol, Storage over Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) and Storage over Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM). Each approach varies in functionality, complexity, cost, scalability, security, availability , predictable behavior (bandwidth, jitter, latency) and multiple carrier limitations. Compared with these connectiviy technologies,Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) is a Simplified, Low Cost and High Performance connectivity solutions for enterprises to deploy their storage extension. In this paper, we design a storage extension connectivity over CWDM and test it's electrical characteristic and random read and write performance of disk array through the CWDM connectivity, testing result show us that the performance of the connectivity over CWDM is acceptable. Furthermore, we propose three kinds of network architecture of SAN extension based on CWDM interface. Finally the credit-Based flow control mechanism of FC, and the relationship between credits and extension distance is analyzed.

  5. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  6. Light-Induced Contraction/Expansion of 1D Photoswitchable Metallopolymer Monitored at the Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garah, Mohamed El; Borré, Etienne; Ciesielski, Artur; Dianat, Arezoo; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane; Mauro, Matteo; Samorì, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The use of a bottom-up approach to the fabrication of nanopatterned functional surfaces, which are capable to respond to external stimuli, is of great current interest. Herein, the preparation of light-responsive, linear supramolecular metallopolymers constituted by the ideally infinite repetition of a ditopic ligand bearing an azoaryl moiety and Co(II) coordination nodes is described. The supramolecular polymerization process is followed by optical spectroscopy in dimethylformamide solution. Noteworthy, a submolecularly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of the in situ reversible trans-to-cis photoisomerization of a photoswitchable metallopolymer that self-assembles into 2D crystalline patterns onto a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is achieved for the first time. The STM analysis of the nanopatterned surfaces is corroborated by modeling the physisorbed species onto a graphene slab before and after irradiation by means of density functional theory calculation. Significantly, switching of the monolayers consisting of supramolecular Co(II) metallopolymer bearing trans-azoaryl units to a novel pattern based on cis isomers can be triggered by UV light and reversed back to the trans conformer by using visible light, thereby restoring the trans-based supramolecular 2D packing. These findings represent a step forward toward the design and preparation of photoresponsive "smart" surfaces organized with an atomic precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Ternary System Acetic Acid-Propanoic Acid-Formamide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Malijevská, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 261, 1-2 (2007) , s. 129-132 ISSN 0378-3812. [International Conference on Properties and Phase Equilibria for Product and Process Design PPEPPD 2007 /11./. Hersonissos, Crete, 20.05.2007-25.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibrium * ternary system * solid adduct Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2007

  8. Integrating Field Buses at the Application Level C Interface and LabView Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Charrue, P

    1996-01-01

    The controls group of the SPS and LEP accelerators at CERN, Geneva, uses many different fieldbuses into the controls infrastucture, such as 1553, BITBUS, GPIB, RS232, JBUS, etc. A software package (SL-EQUIP) has been developped to give end users a standardized application program interface (API) to access any equipment connected to any fieldbus. This interface has now been integrated to LabView. We can offer a powerful graphical package, running on HP-UX workstations which treats data from heterogeneous equipment using the great flexibility of LabView. This paper will present SL-EQUIP and LabView, and will then describe some applications using these tools.

  9. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O2+y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, A.; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, D.; Scheinost, A.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P.; Boshoven, J.; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M.; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D.

    2017-10-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2sbnd ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the only study available in the literature on the whole pseudo-binary system. In addition, a minimum melting point is identified here for compositions near (U0.6Zr0.4)O2+y, around 2800 K. The solidus line is rather flat on a broad range of compositions around the minimum. It increases for compositions closer to the pure end members, up to the melting point of pure UO2 (3130 K) on one side and pure ZrO2 (2970 K) on the other. Solid state phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-monoclinic) have also been observed in the ZrO2-rich compositions X-ray diffraction. Investigations under 0.3 MPa air (0.063 MPa O2) revealed a significant decrease in the melting points down to 2500 K-2600 K for increasing uranium content (x(UO2)> 0.2). This was found to be related to further oxidation of uranium dioxide, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For example, a typical oxidised corium composition U0.6Zr0.4O2.13 was observed to solidify at a temperature as low as 2493 K. The current results are important for assessing the thermal stability of the system fuel - cladding in an oxide based nuclear reactor, and for simulating the system behaviour during a hypothetical severe accident.

  10. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabnikova, O.; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment

  11. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  12. Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S; Cook, J; Juratovac, J; Goodwillie, J; Burke, T

    2011-10-25

    Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities

  13. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  14. A shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS for real-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Neto, André C.; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Park, Kaprai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We implemented a shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS. • We implemented an EPICS module supporting device and driver support. • We implemented an example EPICS IOC and CSS OPI for evaluation. - Abstract: The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a multi-platform C++ middleware designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. It currently supports the Linux, Linux + RTAI, VxWorks, Solaris and MS Windows platforms. In the fusion community MARTe is being used at JET, COMPASS, ISTTOK, FTU and RFX in fusion [1]. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a standard framework for the control systems in KSTAR and ITER, is a set of software tools and applications which provide a software infrastructure for use in building distributed control systems to operate devices. For a MARTe based application to cooperate with an EPICS based application, an interface layer between MARTe and EPICS is required. To solve this issue, a number of interfacing solutions have been proposed and some of them have been implemented. Nevertheless, a new approach is required to mitigate the functional limitations of existing solutions and to improve their performance for real-time applications. This paper describes the design and implementation of a shared memory based interface between MARTe and EPICS

  15. A shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS for real-time applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon, E-mail: yunsw@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Park, Kaprai [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • We implemented a shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS. • We implemented an EPICS module supporting device and driver support. • We implemented an example EPICS IOC and CSS OPI for evaluation. - Abstract: The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a multi-platform C++ middleware designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. It currently supports the Linux, Linux + RTAI, VxWorks, Solaris and MS Windows platforms. In the fusion community MARTe is being used at JET, COMPASS, ISTTOK, FTU and RFX in fusion [1]. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a standard framework for the control systems in KSTAR and ITER, is a set of software tools and applications which provide a software infrastructure for use in building distributed control systems to operate devices. For a MARTe based application to cooperate with an EPICS based application, an interface layer between MARTe and EPICS is required. To solve this issue, a number of interfacing solutions have been proposed and some of them have been implemented. Nevertheless, a new approach is required to mitigate the functional limitations of existing solutions and to improve their performance for real-time applications. This paper describes the design and implementation of a shared memory based interface between MARTe and EPICS.

  16. Development of a GIS interface for WEPP Model application to Great Lakes forested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Frankenberger; S. Dun; D. C. Flanagan; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will highlight efforts on development of a new online WEPP GIS interface, targeted toward application in forested regions bordering the Great Lakes. The key components and algorithms of the online GIS system will be outlined. The general procedures used to provide input to the WEPP model and to display model output will be demonstrated.

  17. Integration of data validation and user interface concerns in a DSL for web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, D.M.; Visser, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a pre-print of: Danny M. Groenewegen, Eelco Visser. Integration of Data Validation and User Interface Concerns in a DSL for Web Applications. In Mark G. J. van den Brand, Jeff Gray, editors, Software Language Engineering, Second International Conference, SLE 2009, Denver, USA, October,

  18. Tools for man-machine interface development in accelerator control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, L.; Mikhev, M.; Trofimov, N.; Yurpalov, V.

    1994-01-01

    For the UNK Project a development of the Accelerator Control Applications is in the progress. These applications will use a specific Graphical User Interface for data presentation and accelerator parameter management. A number of tools have been developed based on the Motif Tool Kit. They contain a set of problem oriented screen templates and libraries. Using these tools, full scale prototype applications of the UNK Tune and Orbit measurement and correction were developed and are described, as examples. A subset of these allows the creation of the synoptic control screens from the Autocad pictures files and Oracle DB equipment descriptions. The basic concepts and a few application examples are presented. ((orig.))

  19. Workshop AccessibleTV "Accessible User Interfaces for Future TV Applications"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Volker; Hamisu, Pascal; Jung, Christopher; Heinrich, Gregor; Duarte, Carlos; Langdon, Pat

    Approximately half of the elderly people over 55 suffer from some type of typically mild visual, auditory, motor or cognitive impairment. For them interaction, especially with PCs and other complex devices is sometimes challenging, although accessible ICT applications could make much of a difference for their living quality. Basically they have the potential to enable or simplify participation and inclusion in their surrounding private and professional communities. However, the availability of accessible user interfaces being capable to adapt to the specific needs and requirements of users with individual impairments is very limited. Although there are a number of APIs [1, 2, 3, 4] available for various platforms that allow developers to provide accessibility features within their applications, today none of them provides features for the automatic adaptation of multimodal interfaces being capable to automatically fit the individual requirements of users with different kinds of impairments. Moreover, the provision of accessible user interfaces is still expensive and risky for application developers, as they need special experience and effort for user tests. Today many implementations simply neglect the needs of elderly people, thus locking out a large portion of their potential users. The workshop is organized as part of the dissemination activity for the European-funded project GUIDE "Gentle user interfaces for elderly people", which aims to address this situation with a comprehensive approach for the realization of multimodal user interfaces being capable to adapt to the needs of users with different kinds of mild impairments. As application platform, GUIDE will mainly target TVs and Set-Top Boxes, such as the emerging Connected-TV or WebTV platforms, as they have the potential to address the needs of the elderly users with applications such as for home automation, communication or continuing education.

  20. Low power interface IC's for electrostatic energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempitiya, Asantha

    The application of wireless distributed micro-sensor systems ranges from equipment diagnostic and control to real time structural and biomedical monitoring. A major obstacle in developing autonomous micro-sensor networks is the need for local electric power supply, since using a battery is often not a viable solution. This void has sparked significant interest in micro-scale power generators based on electrostatic, piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy conversion that can scavenge ambient energy from the environment. In comparison to existing energy harvesting techniques, electrostatic-based power generation is attractive as it can be integrated using mainstream silicon technologies while providing higher power densities through miniaturization. However the power output of reported electrostatic micro-generators to date does not meet the communication and computation requirements of wireless sensor nodes. The objective of this thesis is to investigate novel CMOS-based energy harvesting circuit (EHC) architectures to increase the level of harvested mechanical energy in electrostatic converters. The electronic circuits that facilitate mechanical to electrical energy conversion employing variable capacitors can either have synchronous or asynchronous architectures. The later does not require synchronization of electrical events with mechanical motion, which eliminates difficulties in gate clocking and the power consumption associated with complex control circuitry. However, the implementation of the EHC with the converter can be detrimental to system performance when done without concurrent optimization of both elements, an aspect mainly overlooked in the literature. System level analysis is performed to show that there is an optimum value for either the storage capacitor or cycle number for maximum scavenging of ambient energy. The analysis also shows that maximum power is extracted when the system approaches synchronous operation. However, there is a region of

  1. Development of a Compact Wireless Laplacian Electrode Module for Electromyograms and Its Human Interface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ichikawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a compact wireless Laplacian electrode module for electromyograms (EMGs. One of the advantages of the Laplacian electrode configuration is that EMGs obtained with it are expected to be sensitive to the firing of the muscle directly beneath the measurement site. The performance of the developed electrode module was investigated in two human interface applications: character-input interface and detection of finger movement during finger Braille typing. In the former application, the electrode module was combined with an EMG-mouse click converter circuit. In the latter, four electrode modules were used for detection of finger movements during finger Braille typing. Investigation on the character-input interface indicated that characters could be input stably by contraction of (a the masseter, (b trapezius, (c anterior tibialis and (d flexor carpi ulnaris muscles. This wide applicability is desirable when the interface is applied to persons with physical disabilities because the disability differs one to another. The investigation also demonstrated that the electrode module can work properly without any skin preparation. Finger movement detection experiments showed that each finger movement was more clearly detectable when comparing to EMGs recorded with conventional electrodes, suggesting that the Laplacian electrode module is more suitable for detecting the timing of finger movement during typing. This could be because the Laplacian configuration enables us to record EMGs just beneath the electrode. These results demonstrate the advantages of the Laplacian electrode module.

  2. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Yanyan; Mølhave, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO₂ micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO₂ nanostructures via different strategies...

  3. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros III, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeBonis, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelly, Suzanne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Levenhagen, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  4. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for Many-component Mixtures Using Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fettouhi, André; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    In the creation of liquefied natural gas the formation of solids play a substantial role, hence detailed knowledge is needed about solid-liquid equilibria (SLE). In this abstract we shortly summarize the work we have carried out at CERE over the past year with SLE for many-component mixtures usin...... the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state. Components used in this work are highly relevant to the oil and gas industry and include light and heavy hydrocarbons, alcohols, water and carbon dioxide....

  5. Density of Ni-Al Alloys in Liquid and Solid-Liquid Coexistence State Measured by a Modified Pycnometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Feng XIAO; Zushu LI; Zainan TAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of Ni-Al alloys in both liquid state and solid-liquid coexistence state was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It was found that the density of NI-Al alloys decreases with increasing temperature and Al concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Al binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and Al concentration. The partial molar volume of Al in NI-Al binary alloy was calculated approximately. The molar volume of liquid NI-Al alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear molar volume.

  6. The Self-Paced Graz Brain-Computer Interface: Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Scherer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the self-paced 3-class Graz brain-computer interface (BCI which is based on the detection of sensorimotor electroencephalogram (EEG rhythms induced by motor imagery. Self-paced operation means that the BCI is able to determine whether the ongoing brain activity is intended as control signal (intentional control or not (non-control state. The presented system is able to automatically reduce electrooculogram (EOG artifacts, to detect electromyographic (EMG activity, and uses only three bipolar EEG channels. Two applications are presented: the freeSpace virtual environment (VE and the Brainloop interface. The freeSpace is a computer-game-like application where subjects have to navigate through the environment and collect coins by autonomously selecting navigation commands. Three subjects participated in these feedback experiments and each learned to navigate through the VE and collect coins. Two out of the three succeeded in collecting all three coins. The Brainloop interface provides an interface between the Graz-BCI and Google Earth.

  7. Distribution functions to estimate radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils: the case of Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Mart i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the revision of the IAEA TRS 364 (Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments), a database of radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in soils was compiled with data coming from field and laboratory experiments, from references mostly from 1990 onwards, including data from reports, reviewed papers, and grey literature. The K{sub d} values were grouped for each radionuclide according to two criteria. The first criterion was based on the sand and clay mineral percentages referred to the mineral matter, and the organic matter (OM) content in the soil. This defined the 'texture/OM' criterion. The second criterion was to group soils regarding specific soil factors governing the radionuclide-soil interaction ('cofactor' criterion). The cofactors depended on the radionuclide considered. An advantage of using cofactors was that the variability of K{sub d} ranges for a given soil group decreased considerably compared with that observed when the classification was based solely on sand, clay and organic matter contents. The K{sub d} best estimates were defined as the calculated GM values assuming that K{sub d} values were always log-normally distributed. Risk assessment models may require as input data for a given parameter either a single value (a best estimate) or a continuous function from which not only individual best estimates but also confidence ranges and data variability can be derived. In the case of the K{sub d} parameter, a suitable continuous function which contains the statistical parameters (e.g. arithmetical/geometric mean, arithmetical/geometric standard deviation, mode, etc.) that better explain the distribution among the K{sub d} values of a dataset is the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). To our knowledge, appropriate CDFs has not been proposed for radionuclide K{sub d} in soils yet. Therefore, the aim of this works is to create CDFs for

  8. Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus: A NASA tool used to develop and manage graphical user interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczur, Martha R.

    1992-01-01

    The Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Plus was built to support the construction of graphical user interfaces (GUI's) for highly interactive applications, such as real-time processing systems and scientific analysis systems. It is a general purpose portable tool that includes a 'What You See Is What You Get' WorkBench that allows user interface designers to layout and manipulate windows and interaction objects. The WorkBench includes both user entry objects (e.g., radio buttons, menus) and data-driven objects (e.g., dials, gages, stripcharts), which dynamically change based on values of realtime data. Discussed here is what TAE Plus provides, how the implementation has utilized state-of-the-art technologies within graphic workstations, and how it has been used both within and without NASA.

  9. Challenges of a mobile application for asthma and allergic rhinitis patient enablement-interface and synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnay, Eduardo; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Jacinto, Tiago; Sousa, Ana Sá; Fonseca, João

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis (ARA) are common inflammatory diseases of the airways. Enhancement of a patient's participation on clinical decisions is related to better results in control of diseases. To control ARA, patients should monitor their symptoms, avoid triggers, and follow their treatment plan. This study described the challenges of developing a mobile application, called m.Carat, that records the main events related to ARA. The mobile application m.Carat was developed for Android™ (Google, Mountain View, CA) and iPhone(®) (Apple, San Jose, CA) smartphones. It was developed using PhoneGap, which allows the development of applications for several mobile operating systems. To generate the user interface, jQuery Mobile, HTML, Javascript, and CSS were used. Despite the use of mobile development frameworks, some input and output elements had to be improved. To evaluate the interface, a pilot study was performed with eight users who performed 10 different tasks in the application. To synchronize m.Carat with an online database, an algorithm was developed from scratch. This feature represents a major challenge because all the changes must be reflected in all devices. Currently m.Carat is a mobile application where ARA patients fill out a questionnaire to assess the degree of control of ARA and record their exacerbations, triggers, symptoms, medications, lung function tests, and visits to the doctor or the hospital. They also can receive information and news about ARA, define medication and tasks notifications, and synchronize all records at caratnetwork.org with an online database. The evaluation showed some of the adopted solutions to improve interface usability did not work as expected. Of the 80 total tasks tested the users had no difficulty in 37(46%). Most of the problems observed were easily solved. m.Carat is a mobile application for ARA that may contribute to patient enablement. The development of m.Carat suggests that mobile applications may introduce

  10. Tests of the Royce ultrasonic interface level analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WITWER, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes testing carried out in 1995 on the Royce Interface Level Analyzer. The testing was carried out in the 305 Bldg., Engineering Testing Laboratory, 300 Area. The Level Analyzer was shown to be able to effectively locate the solid liquid interface layer of two different simulants under various conditions and was able to do so after being irradiated with over 5 million RADS gamma from a Cobalt 60 source

  11. Transmission electron microscope interfaced with ion accelerators and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hojou, Kiichi; Furuno, Shigemi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    We have developed the transmission/analytical electron microscope interfaced with two sets of ion accelerators (TEM-Accelerators Facility) at JAERI-Takasaki. The facility is expected to provide quantitative insights into radiation effects, such as damage evolution, irradiation-induced phase transformation and their stability, through in-situ observation and analysis under ion and/or electron irradiation. The TEM-Accelerators Facility and its application to materials research are reviewed. (author)

  12. Challenges in clinical applications of brain computer interfaces in individuals with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that measure brain activities and translate them into control signals used for a variety of applications. Among them are systems for communication, environmental control, neuroprostheses, exoskeletons, or restorative therapies. Over the last years the technology of BCIs has reached a level of matureness allowing them to be used not only in research experiments supervised by scientists, but also in clinical routine with patients with neurological im...

  13. Numerical Simulation of 3D Solid-Liquid Turbulent Flow in a Low Specific Speed Centrifugal Pump: Flow Field Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Shi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For numerically simulating 3D solid-liquid turbulent flow in low specific speed centrifugal pumps, the iteration convergence problem caused by complex internal structure and high rotational speed of pump is always a problem for numeral simulation researchers. To solve this problem, the combination of three measures of dynamic underrelaxation factor adjustment, step method, and rotational velocity control means according to residual curves trends of operating parameters was used to improve the numerical convergence. Numeral simulation of 3D turbulent flow in a low specific speed solid-liquid centrifugal pump was performed, and the results showed that the improved solution strategy is greatly helpful to the numerical convergence. Moreover, the 3D turbulent flow fields in pumps have been simulated for the bottom ash-particles with the volume fraction of 10%, 20%, and 30% at the same particle diameter of 0.1 mm. The two-phase calculation results are compared with those of single-phase clean water flow. The calculated results gave the main region of the abrasion of the impeller and volute casing and improve the hydraulic design of the impeller in order to decrease the abrasion and increase the service life of the pump.

  14. Numerical Thermodynamic Analysis of Two-Phase Solid-Liquid Abrasive Flow Polishing in U-Type Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available U-type tubes are widely used in military and civilian fields and the quality of the internal surface of their channel often determines the merits and performance of a machine in which they are incorporated. Abrasive flow polishing is an effective method for improving the channel surface quality of a U-type tube. Using the results of a numerical analysis of the thermodynamic energy balance equation of a two-phase solid-liquid flow, we carried out numerical simulations of the heat transfer and surface processing characteristics of a two-phase solid-liquid abrasive flow polishing of a U-type tube. The distribution cloud of the changes in the inlet turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, and dynamic pressure near the wall of the tube were obtained. The relationships between the temperature and the turbulent kinetic energy, between the turbulent kinetic energy and the velocity, and between the temperature and the processing velocity were also determined to develop a theoretical basis for controlling the quality of abrasive flow polishing.

  15. A critical compilation and review of default soil solid/liquid partition coefficients, Kd, for use in environmental assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, D.H.; Sheppard, M.I.; Smith, P.A.

    1990-03-01

    Environmental assessments of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analyses of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the geosphere, unconsolidated overburden and soil use models requiring solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the solid materials. This report presents element-specific soil solid/liquid partition coefficients based on a detailed survey of the literature. Values for clays, silt, sand and organic soils are summarized. Partition coefficients for the following elements are presented: americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, curium, europium, iodine, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, phosphorus, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, tellurium, terbium, thorium, tin, tritium, uranium, zinc, and zirconium. The values compiled in this study are compared with earlier K d value compendiums and are the values recommended for the use in the soil, deep sediment and overburden models for the Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

  16. Kinetics, morphology and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition of non-metals. Progress report, March 1, 1979-February 28, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekerka, R.F.

    1979-08-01

    Some previous work on Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth was documented. New calculations have been made to show that for large rf skin depths, the temperature of the sample depends in a systematic way on only three dimensionless parameters; these characterize the rf power level, the surface heat transfer coefficient, and the ambient temperature. Critical values are given for the ambient temperature below which curves of sample temperature versus RF power level are S-shaped. Based on this improvement in understanding, our previous numerical results, valid for arbitrary skin depths, are being prepared for publication. Work continues toward the measurement of the solid-liquid surface tensions of non-metallic materials via the grain-boundary groove technique. Degassed samples of GeO 2 have been obtained, but the necessary temperature caused damage to the quartz tube in our present apparatus, necessitating a new design. While the new apparatus is under construction, sodium sulfate will be used as a prototype material to enable work on the optical system. Use of an astronomical telescope in conjunction with the optical viewpoint leads to poor image quality so we are considering the substitution of a microscope with a large working distance. Previous difficulties with numerical calculation of the temperature profiles in the system have been alleviated by using finer grid sizes for the finite difference scheme. Further effort has been expended to form the basis of new work on the application of Onsager's theory of reciprocity to transport phenomena in solids

  17. Multiphase flow towards coupled solid-liquid interactions in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels: a fluorescent microscopy and micro-PIV measurement at pore scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth; Kenneth Christensen, Notre Dame Team

    2017-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is relevant to a range of applications in the energy and environmental sectors. Recently, the interest has been renewed by geological storage of CO2 within saline aquifers. Central to this goal is predicting the fidelity of candidate sites pre-injection of CO2 and its post-injection migration. Moreover, local pressure buildup may cause micro-seismic events, which could prove disastrous, and possibly compromise seal integrity. Evidence shows that the large-scale events are coupled with pore-scale phenomena, necessitating the understanding of pore-scale stress, strain, and flow processes and their representation in large-scale modeling. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions over a range of wettability conditions in 2D heterogeneous micromodels that reflect the complexity of real sandstone. High-speed fluorescent microscopy, complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A flexible micromodel is also designed, to be used in conjunction with the micro-PIV technique, enabling the quantification of coupled solid-liquid interactions. This work was supported as part of the GSCO2, an EFRC funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, and partially supported by WPI-I2CNER.

  18. A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Antonio

    2008-01-21

    From the first applications of AT-cut quartz crystals as sensors in solutionsmore than 20 years ago, the so-called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor isbecoming into a good alternative analytical method in a great deal of applications such asbiosensors, analysis of biomolecular interactions, study of bacterial adhesion at specificinterfaces, pathogen and microorganism detection, study of polymer film-biomolecule orcell-substrate interactions, immunosensors and an extensive use in fluids and polymercharacterization and electrochemical applications among others. The appropriateevaluation of this analytical method requires recognizing the different steps involved andto be conscious of their importance and limitations. The first step involved in a QCMsystem is the accurate and appropriate characterization of the sensor in relation to thespecific application. The use of the piezoelectric sensor in contact with solutions stronglyaffects its behavior and appropriate electronic interfaces must be used for an adequatesensor characterization. Systems based on different principles and techniques have beenimplemented during the last 25 years. The interface selection for the specific application isimportant and its limitations must be known to be conscious of its suitability, and foravoiding the possible error propagation in the interpretation of results. This article presentsa comprehensive overview of the different techniques used for AT-cut quartz crystalmicrobalance in in-solution applications, which are based on the following principles:network or impedance analyzers, decay methods, oscillators and lock-in techniques. Theelectronic interfaces based on oscillators and phase-locked techniques are treated in detail,with the description of different configurations, since these techniques are the most used inapplications for detection of analytes in solutions, and in those where a fast sensorresponse is necessary.

  19. A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arnau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From the first applications of AT-cut quartz crystals as sensors in solutionsmore than 20 years ago, the so-called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor isbecoming into a good alternative analytical method in a great deal of applications such asbiosensors, analysis of biomolecular interactions, study of bacterial adhesion at specificinterfaces, pathogen and microorganism detection, study of polymer film-biomolecule orcell-substrate interactions, immunosensors and an extensive use in fluids and polymercharacterization and electrochemical applications among others. The appropriateevaluation of this analytical method requires recognizing the different steps involved andto be conscious of their importance and limitations. The first step involved in a QCMsystem is the accurate and appropriate characterization of the sensor in relation to thespecific application. The use of the piezoelectric sensor in contact with solutions stronglyaffects its behavior and appropriate electronic interfaces must be used for an adequatesensor characterization. Systems based on different principles and techniques have beenimplemented during the last 25 years. The interface selection for the specific application isimportant and its limitations must be known to be conscious of its suitability, and foravoiding the possible error propagation in the interpretation of results. This article presentsa comprehensive overview of the different techniques used for AT-cut quartz crystalmicrobalance in in-solution applications, which are based on the following principles:network or impedance analyzers, decay methods, oscillators and lock-in techniques. Theelectronic interfaces based on oscillators and phase-locked techniques are treated in detail,with the description of different configurations, since these techniques are the most used inapplications for detection of analytes in solutions, and in those where a fast sensorresponse is necessary.

  20. A CMOS pressure sensor with integrated interface for passive RFID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Wu, Xiang; Fu, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS pressure sensor with integrated interface for passive RFID sensing applications. The pressure sensor consists of three parts: top electrode, dielectric layer and bottom electrode. The dielectric layer consists of silicon oxide and an air gap. The bottom electrode is made of polysilicon. The gap is formed by sacrificial layer release and the Al vapor process is used to seal the gap and form the top electrode. The sensor interface is based on phase-locked architecture, which allows the use of fully digital blocks. The proposed pressure sensor and interface is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results show the pressure sensor achieves excellent linearity with a sensitivity of 1.2 fF kPa −1 . The sensor interface consumes only 1.1 µW of power at 0.5 V voltage supply, which is at least an order of magnitude better than state-of-the-art designs. (paper)

  1. 8051 microcontroller to FPGA and ADC interface design for high speed parallel processing systems – Application in ultrasound scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jean Rossario Raj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microcontrollers perform the hardware control in many instruments. Instruments requiring huge data throughput and parallel computing use FPGA’s for data processing. The microcontroller in turn configures the application hardware devices such as FPGA’s, ADC’s and Ethernet chips etc. The interfacing of these devices uses address/data bus interface, serial interface or serial peripheral interface. The choice of the interface depends upon the input/output pins available with different devices, programming ease and proprietary interfaces supported by devices such as ADC’s. The novelty of this paper is to describe the programming logic used for various types of interface scenarios from microcontroller to different programmable devices. The study presented describes the methods and logic flowcharts for different interfaces. The implementation of the interface logics were in prototype hardware for ultrasound scanner. The internal devices were controlled from the graphical user interface in a laptop and the scan results are taken. It is seen that the optimum solution of the hardware design can be achieved by using a common serial interface towards all the devices.

  2. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications. Final report: RoboCon electrical interfacing -- system architecture, and Interfacing NDDS and LabView

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.

    1998-04-30

    The first appendix contains detailed specifications of the electrical interfacing employed in Robocon. This includes all electrical signals and power requirement descriptions up to and including the interface entry points for external robots and systems. The reader is first presented with an overview of the overall Robocon electrical system, followed by sub-sections describing each module in detail. The appendices contain listings of power requirements and the electrical connectors and cables used, followed by an overall electrical system diagram. Custom electronics employed are also described. The Network Data Delivery Service (NDDS) is a real-time dissemination communications architecture which allows nodes on a network to publish data and subscribe to data published by other nodes while remaining anonymous. The second appendix explains how to facilitate a seamless interface between NDDS and LabView and provides sample source code used to implement an NDDS consumer which writes a string to a socket.

  3. Ab initio calculation of pentacene-PbSe hybrid interface for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Nguyen, Thao P

    2016-07-21

    We perform density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations for the pentacene-PbSe hybrid interface at both molecular and crystal levels. At the interface, the parallel orientation of pentacene on the PbSe surface is found to be the most favorable, analogous to a pentacene-gold interface. The molecule-surface distance and the value of charge transfer from one pentacene molecule to the PbSe surface are estimated at around 4.15 Å and 0.12 e(-) respectively. We found that, standard-LDA/GGA-PBE/hybrid/meta-GGA xc-functionals incorrectly determine the band gaps of both pentacene and PbSe and leads to a failed prediction of the energy alignment in this system. So, we use a relativistic G0W0 functional and accurately model the electronic properties of pentacene and PbSe in both bulk material and near the interface. An energy shift of 0.23 eV, due to the difference in work function at the interface was supplemented after a detailed analysis of the electrostatic potential. The highest occupied molecular orbital level of pentacene is 0.01 eV above PbSe while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of pentacene lies 1.70 eV above PbSe, allowing both electrons and holes to transfer along the donor-acceptor junction. Our results provide additional insights into the electronic structure properties of the pentacene-PbSe heterojunction and establish it as a promising and efficient candidate for photovoltaic applications.

  4. Effect of Direct Current on Solid-Liquid Interfacial Tension and Wetting Behavior of Ga–In–Sn Alloy Melt on Cu Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of direct current (DC on the wetting behavior of Cu substrate by liquid Ga–25In–13Sn alloy at room temperature is investigated using a sessile drop method. It is found that there is a critical value for current intensity, below which the decrease of contact angle with increasing current intensity is approximately linear and above which contact angle tends to a stable value from drop shape. Current polarity is a negligible factor in the observed trend. Additionally, the observed change in contact angles is translated into the corresponding change in solid-liquid interfacial tension using the equation of state for liquid interfacial tensions. The solid-liquid interfacial tension decreases under DC. DC-induced promotion of solute diffusion coefficient is likely to play an important role in determining the wettability and solid-liquid interfacial tension under DC.

  5. Investigation of the GaN-on-GaAs interface for vertical power device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möreke, Janina; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin; Novikov, Sergei V.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Hosseini Vajargah, Shahrzad; Wallis, David J.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Al-Khalidi, Abdullah; Wasige, Edward; Thayne, Iain

    2014-01-01

    GaN layers were grown onto (111) GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Minimal band offset between the conduction bands for GaN and GaAs materials has been suggested in the literature raising the possibility of using GaN-on-GaAs for vertical power device applications. I-V and C-V measurements of the GaN/GaAs heterostructures however yielded a rectifying junction, even when both sides of the junction were heavily doped with an n-type dopant. Transmission electron microscopy analysis further confirmed the challenge in creating a GaN/GaAs Ohmic interface by showing a large density of dislocations in the GaN layer and suggesting roughening of the GaN/GaAs interface due to etching of the GaAs by the nitrogen plasma, diffusion of nitrogen or melting of Ga into the GaAs substrate.

  6. Investigation of the GaN-on-GaAs interface for vertical power device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möreke, Janina, E-mail: janina.moereke@bristol.ac.uk; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Novikov, Sergei V.; Foxon, C. Thomas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hosseini Vajargah, Shahrzad; Wallis, David J.; Humphreys, Colin J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Haigh, Sarah J. [Super STEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury Campus, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Al-Khalidi, Abdullah; Wasige, Edward; Thayne, Iain [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Bldg, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-07

    GaN layers were grown onto (111) GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Minimal band offset between the conduction bands for GaN and GaAs materials has been suggested in the literature raising the possibility of using GaN-on-GaAs for vertical power device applications. I-V and C-V measurements of the GaN/GaAs heterostructures however yielded a rectifying junction, even when both sides of the junction were heavily doped with an n-type dopant. Transmission electron microscopy analysis further confirmed the challenge in creating a GaN/GaAs Ohmic interface by showing a large density of dislocations in the GaN layer and suggesting roughening of the GaN/GaAs interface due to etching of the GaAs by the nitrogen plasma, diffusion of nitrogen or melting of Ga into the GaAs substrate.

  7. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596, status and possible applications to data acquisition and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960-1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics. 7 refs

  8. HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI): A comprehensive approach to working with spectroscopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Wcisło, P.; Hill, C.; Wilzewski, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    The HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI) is presented. HAPI is a free Python library, which extends the capabilities of the HITRANonline interface (www.hitran.org) and can be used to filter and process the structured spectroscopic data. HAPI incorporates a set of tools for spectra simulation accounting for the temperature, pressure, optical path length, and instrument properties. HAPI is aimed to facilitate the spectroscopic data analysis and the spectra simulation based on the line-by-line data, such as from the HITRAN database [JQSRT (2013) 130, 4-50], allowing the usage of the non-Voigt line profile parameters, custom temperature and pressure dependences, and partition sums. The HAPI functions allow the user to control the spectra simulation and data filtering process via a set of the function parameters. HAPI can be obtained at its homepage www.hitran.org/hapi.

  9. AMBIT RESTful web services: an implementation of the OpenTox application programming interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazkova Nina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The AMBIT web services package is one of the several existing independent implementations of the OpenTox Application Programming Interface and is built according to the principles of the Representational State Transfer (REST architecture. The Open Source Predictive Toxicology Framework, developed by the partners in the EC FP7 OpenTox project, aims at providing a unified access to toxicity data and predictive models, as well as validation procedures. This is achieved by i an information model, based on a common OWL-DL ontology ii links to related ontologies; iii data and algorithms, available through a standardized REST web services interface, where every compound, data set or predictive method has a unique web address, used to retrieve its Resource Description Framework (RDF representation, or initiate the associated calculations. The AMBIT web services package has been developed as an extension of AMBIT modules, adding the ability to create (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models and providing an OpenTox API compliant interface. The representation of data and processing resources in W3C Resource Description Framework facilitates integrating the resources as Linked Data. By uploading datasets with chemical structures and arbitrary set of properties, they become automatically available online in several formats. The services provide unified interfaces to several descriptor calculation, machine learning and similarity searching algorithms, as well as to applicability domain and toxicity prediction models. All Toxtree modules for predicting the toxicological hazard of chemical compounds are also integrated within this package. The complexity and diversity of the processing is reduced to the simple paradigm "read data from a web address, perform processing, write to a web address". The online service allows to easily run predictions, without installing any software, as well to share online datasets and models. The

  10. AMBIT RESTful web services: an implementation of the OpenTox application programming interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin

    2011-05-16

    The AMBIT web services package is one of the several existing independent implementations of the OpenTox Application Programming Interface and is built according to the principles of the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The Open Source Predictive Toxicology Framework, developed by the partners in the EC FP7 OpenTox project, aims at providing a unified access to toxicity data and predictive models, as well as validation procedures. This is achieved by i) an information model, based on a common OWL-DL ontology ii) links to related ontologies; iii) data and algorithms, available through a standardized REST web services interface, where every compound, data set or predictive method has a unique web address, used to retrieve its Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation, or initiate the associated calculations.The AMBIT web services package has been developed as an extension of AMBIT modules, adding the ability to create (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models and providing an OpenTox API compliant interface. The representation of data and processing resources in W3C Resource Description Framework facilitates integrating the resources as Linked Data. By uploading datasets with chemical structures and arbitrary set of properties, they become automatically available online in several formats. The services provide unified interfaces to several descriptor calculation, machine learning and similarity searching algorithms, as well as to applicability domain and toxicity prediction models. All Toxtree modules for predicting the toxicological hazard of chemical compounds are also integrated within this package. The complexity and diversity of the processing is reduced to the simple paradigm "read data from a web address, perform processing, write to a web address". The online service allows to easily run predictions, without installing any software, as well to share online datasets and models. The downloadable web application

  11. Implementation of Hierarchical Task Analysis for User Interface Design in Drawing Application for Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kania Sabariah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Draw learning in early childhood is an important lesson and full of stimulation of the process of growth and development of children which could help to train the fine motor skills. We have had a lot of applications that can be used to perform learning, including interactive learning applications. Referring to the observations that have been conducted showed that the experiences given by the applications that exist today are very diverse and have not been able to represent the model of learning and characteristics of early childhood (4-6 years. Based on the results, Hierarchical Task Analysis method generated a list of tasks that must be done in designing an user interface that represents the user experience in draw learning. Then by using the Heuristic Evaluation method the usability of the model has fulfilled a very good level of understanding and also it can be enhanced and produce a better model.

  12. Measurement of solid-liquid interfacial energy in the In-Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasli, N; Akbulut, S; Ocak, Y; Keslioglu, K; Boeyuek, U; Kaya, H; Cadirli, E

    2007-01-01

    The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) x 10 -7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) x 10 -3 J m -2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) x 10 -3 J m -2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 deg. C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus

  13. An in-plane solid-liquid-solid growth mode for self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linwei; Alet, Pierre-Jean; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2009-03-27

    We report an in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mode for obtaining self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires (SiNW) in a reacting-gas-free annealing process, where the growth of SiNWs is guided by liquid indium drops that transform the surrounding a-SiratioH matrix into crystalline SiNWs. The SiNWs can be approximately mm long, with the smallest diameter down to approximately 22 nm. A high growth rate of >10(2) nm/s and rich evolution dynamics are revealed in a real-time in situ scanning electron microscopy observation. A qualitative growth model is proposed to account for the major features of this IPSLS SiNW growth mode.

  14. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Esterina

    2017-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a

  16. The influence of protruding filamentous bacteria on floc stability and solid-liquid separation in the activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Wilhelm; Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Scales, Peter J; Martin, Gregory J O; Stickland, Anthony D; Gras, Sally L

    2017-10-15

    Filamentous bacteria can impact on the physical properties of flocs in the activated sludge process assisting solid-liquid separation or inducing problems when bacteria are overabundant. While filamentous bacteria within the flocs are understood to increase floc tensile strength, the relationship between protruding external filaments, dewatering characteristics and floc stability is unclear. Here, a quantitative methodology was applied to determine the abundance of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants. An automated image analysis procedure was applied to identify filaments and flocs and calculate the length of the protruding filamentous bacteria (PFB) relative to the floc size. The correlation between PFB and floc behavior was then assessed. Increased filament abundance was found to increase interphase drag on the settling flocs, as quantified by the hindered settling function. Additionally, increased filament abundance was correlated with a lower gel point concentration leading to poorer sludge compactability. The floc strength factor, defined as the relative change in floc size upon shearing, correlated positively with filament abundance. This influence of external protruding filamentous bacteria on floc stability is consistent with the filamentous backbone theory, where filamentous bacteria within flocs increase floc resistance to shear-induced breakup. A qualitative correlation was also observed between protruding and internal filamentous structure. This study confirms that filamentous bacteria are necessary to enhance floc stability but if excessively abundant will adversely affect solid-liquid separation. The tools developed here will allow quantitative analysis of filament abundance, which is an improvement on current qualitative methods and the improved method could be used to assist and optimize the operation of waste water treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The application of front tracking to the simulation of shock refractions and shock accelerated interface mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.H.; Grove, J.W.; Yang, Y.; Boston, B.; Holmes, R.; Zhang, Q.; Glimm, J.

    1993-01-01

    The mixing behavior of two or more fluids plays an important role in a number of physical processes and technological applications. The authors consider two basic types of mechanical (i.e., non-diffusive) fluid mixing. If a heavy fluid is suspended above a lighter fluid in the presence of a gravitational field, small perturbations at the fluid interface will grow. This process is known as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. One can visualize this instability in terms of bubbles of the light fluid rising into the heavy fluid, and fingers (spikes) of the heavy fluid falling into the light fluid. A similar process, called the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when an interface is accelerated by a shock wave. These instabilities have several common features. Indeed, Richtmyer's approach to understanding the shock induced instability was to view that process as resulting from an acceleration of the two fluids by a strong gravitational field acting for a short time. Here, the authors report new results on the Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Highlights include calculations of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in curved geometries without grid orientation effects, improved agreement between computations and experiments in the case of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities at a plane interface, and a demonstration of an increase in the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer growth rate with increasing compressibility, along with a loss of universality of this growth rate. The principal computational tool used in obtaining these results was a code based on the front tracking method

  18. Enhanced thermal stability of RuO2/polyimide interface for flexible device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Denis; Schmidt, Paul; Chang, Keke

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the thermal stability of RuO2/polyimide (Kapton) interface using experimental and theoretical methods. Based on calorimetric and spectroscopic analyses, this inorganic-organic system does not exhibit any enthalpic peaks as well as all bonds in RuO2 and Kapton are preserved up to 500 °C. In addition, large-scale density functional theory based molecular dynamics, carried out in the same temperature range, validates the electronic structure and points out that numerous Ru-C and a few Ru-O covalent/ionic bonds form across the RuO2/Kapton interface. This indicates strong adhesion, but there is no evidence of Kapton degradation upon thermal excitation. Furthermore, RuO2 does not exhibit any interfacial bonds with N and H in Kapton, providing additional evidence for the thermal stability notion. It is suggested that the RuO2/Kapton interface is stable due to aromatic architecture of Kapton. This enhanced thermal stability renders Kapton an appropriate polymeric substrate for RuO2 containing systems in various applications, especially for flexible microelectronic and energy devices.

  19. On the applicability of numerical image mapping for PIV image analysis near curved interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masullo, Alessandro; Theunissen, Raf

    2017-01-01

    This paper scrutinises the general suitability of image mapping for particle image velocimetry (PIV) applications. Image mapping can improve PIV measurement accuracy by eliminating overlap between the PIV interrogation windows and an interface, as illustrated by some examples in the literature. Image mapping transforms the PIV images using a curvilinear interface-fitted mesh prior to performing the PIV cross correlation. However, degrading effects due to particle image deformation and the Jacobian transformation inherent in the mapping along curvilinear grid lines have never been deeply investigated. Here, the implementation of image mapping from mesh generation to image resampling is presented in detail, and related error sources are analysed. Systematic comparison with standard PIV approaches shows that image mapping is effective only in a very limited set of flow conditions and geometries, and depends strongly on a priori knowledge of the boundary shape and streamlines. In particular, with strongly curved geometries or streamlines that are not parallel to the interface, the image-mapping approach is easily outperformed by more traditional image analysis methodologies invoking suitable spatial relocation of the obtained displacement vector. (paper)

  20. Basic research needs and opportunities on interfaces in solar materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A. W.; Gottschall, R. J. [eds.

    1981-04-01

    The workshop on research needs and recommended research programs on interfaces in solar energy conversion devices was held June 30-July 3, 1980. The papers deal mainly with solid-solid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces, sometimes involving multilayer solid-solid interfaces. They deal mainly with instrumental techniques of studying these interfaces so they can be optimized, so they can be fabricated with quality control and so changes with time can be forecast. The latter is required because a long lifetime (20 yrs is suggested) is necessary for economic reasons. Fifteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. A Simple Application Program Interface for Saving Java Program Data on a Wiki

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanoue, Takashi; Oda, Kentaro; Shimozono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A simple application program interface (API) for Java programs running on a wiki is implemented experimentally. A Java program with the API can be running on a wiki, and the Java program can save its data on the wiki. The Java program consists of PukiWiki, which is a popular wiki in Japan, and a plug-in, which starts up Java programs and classes of Java. A Java applet with default access privilege cannot save its data at a local host. We have constructed an API of applets for easy and unified...

  2. Effect of graphene layer thickness and mechanical compliance on interfacial heat flow and thermal conduction in solid-liquid phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzoha, Ronald J; Fleischer, Amy S

    2014-08-13

    Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs) are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage and electronics cooling applications but have limited applicability in state-of-the-art technologies due to their low intrinsic thermal conductivities. Recent efforts to incorporate graphene and multilayer graphene into PCMs have led to the development of thermal energy storage materials with remarkable values of bulk thermal conductivity. However, the full potential of graphene as a filler material for the thermal enhancement of PCMs remains unrealized, largely due to an incomplete understanding of the physical mechanisms that govern thermal transport within graphene-based nanocomposites. In this work, we show that the number of graphene layers (n) within an individual graphene nanoparticle has a significant effect on the bulk thermal conductivity of an organic PCM. Results indicate that the bulk thermal conductivity of PCMs can be tuned by over an order of magnitude simply by adjusting the number of graphene layers (n) from n = 3 to 44. Using scanning electron microscopy in tandem with nanoscale analytical techniques, the physical mechanisms that govern heat flow within a graphene nanocomposite PCM are found to be nearly independent of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the graphene nanoparticle itself and are instead found to be dependent on the mechanical compliance of the graphene nanoparticles. These findings are critical for the design and development of PCMs that are capable of cooling next-generation electronics and storing heat effectively in medium-to-large-scale energy systems, including solar-thermal power plants and building heating and cooling systems.

  3. Perturbation Theory for Scattering from Multilayers with Randomly Rough Fractal Interfaces: Remote Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Imperatore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A general, approximate perturbation method, able to provide closed-form expressions of scattering from a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces, has been recently developed. Such a method provides a unique tool for the characterization of radar response patterns of natural rough multilayers. In order to show that, here, for the first time in a journal paper, we describe the application of the developed perturbation theory to fractal interfaces; we then employ the perturbative method solution to analyze the scattering from real-world layered structures of practical interest in remote sensing applications. We focus on the dependence of normalized radar cross section on geometrical and physical properties of the considered scenarios, and we choose two classes of natural stratifications: wet paleosoil covered by a low-loss dry sand layer and a sea-ice layer above water with dry snow cover. Results are in accordance with the experimental evidence available in the literature for the low-loss dry sand layer, and they may provide useful indications about the actual ability of remote sensing instruments to perform sub-surface sensing for different sensor and scene parameters.

  4. Perturbation Theory for Scattering from Multilayers with Randomly Rough Fractal Interfaces: Remote Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Pasquale; Iodice, Antonio; Riccio, Daniele

    2017-12-27

    A general, approximate perturbation method, able to provide closed-form expressions of scattering from a layered structure with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces, has been recently developed. Such a method provides a unique tool for the characterization of radar response patterns of natural rough multilayers. In order to show that, here, for the first time in a journal paper, we describe the application of the developed perturbation theory to fractal interfaces; we then employ the perturbative method solution to analyze the scattering from real-world layered structures of practical interest in remote sensing applications. We focus on the dependence of normalized radar cross section on geometrical and physical properties of the considered scenarios, and we choose two classes of natural stratifications: wet paleosoil covered by a low-loss dry sand layer and a sea-ice layer above water with dry snow cover. Results are in accordance with the experimental evidence available in the literature for the low-loss dry sand layer, and they may provide useful indications about the actual ability of remote sensing instruments to perform sub-surface sensing for different sensor and scene parameters.

  5. JISCARD GUI, a graphical interface application for simple and quick calculation of aviation route doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Ryufuku, Susumu; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Pilots, flight attendants, and passengers aboard jet aircrafts are subjected to higher cosmic radiation levels at high altitude than on the ground. Additional dose, received during flight is called 'aviation route dose'. Addressing the needs for precise and easy determination of aviation route doses (Sv), the authors have developed a new application 'JISCARD GUI' with a graphical user interface which provides dose rate (Sv/h) distribution along a flight route and aviation route dose. The graphical interface made with Adobe Flash provide functions to select airports on dynamic map or to search by airport/city names, and to report resulting aviation route doses and graphs of dose rate change through a flight. Dose rate data at several cut off rigidity, Rc and force field potential, FFP were calculated in advance using a PHITS-based analytical model and stored in the server as matrix data. Upon user's request of departure/arrival airports and flight date, interpolation using matrix data substantiates derivation of dose rate distribution in a simple and quick manner with sufficient accuracy. Precision of the dose calculation was verified by comparison with JISCARD EX (MS-Excel version) released in September 2008. This advanced application will be open to public through the website of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the near future. (author)

  6. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Illobre, Luis Fernandez; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user. (authors)

  7. A square root ensemble Kalman filter application to a motor-imagery brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrunnahar, M; Schiff, S J

    2011-01-01

    We here investigated a non-linear ensemble Kalman filter (SPKF) application to a motor imagery brain computer interface (BCI). A square root central difference Kalman filter (SR-CDKF) was used as an approach for brain state estimation in motor imagery task performance, using scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Healthy human subjects imagined left vs. right hand movements and tongue vs. bilateral toe movements while scalp EEG signals were recorded. Offline data analysis was conducted for training the model as well as for decoding the imagery movements. Preliminary results indicate the feasibility of this approach with a decoding accuracy of 78%-90% for the hand movements and 70%-90% for the tongue-toes movements. Ongoing research includes online BCI applications of this approach as well as combined state and parameter estimation using this algorithm with different system dynamic models.

  8. The Plasma Window: A Windowless High Pressure-Vacuum Interface for Various Accelerator Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A. I.; Johnson, E. D.; Lanza, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Plasma Window is a stabilized plasma arc used as an interface between accelerator vacuum and pressurized targets. There is no solid material introduced into the beam and thus it is also capable of transmitting particle beams and electromagnetic radiation with low loss and of sustaining high beam currents without damage. Measurements on a prototype system with a 3 mm diameter opening have shown that pressure differences of more than 2.5 atmospheres can be sustained with an input pressure of ∼ 10 -6 Torr. The system is capable of scaling to higher-pressure differences and larger apertures. Various plasma window applications for synchrotron light sources, high power lasers, internal targets, high current accelerators such as the HAWK, ATW, APT, DARHT, spallation sources, as well as for a number of commercial applications, is discussed

  9. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  10. Transformable Menu Component for Mobile Device Applications: Working with both Adaptive and Adaptable User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Glavinic

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a learning system in a mobile environmentis not effective if barriers are not overcome in theinteraction with targeted users. For that purpose all mobileservices, including m-learning ones, demand specialattention being paid to interaction with the user. Whilemobile device applications are becoming more powerful,their development process must utilize the concepts ofuniversal access and universal usability. This paperdescribes the model of both adaptable and adaptive mobileuser interface, through the introduction of a transformablemenu component capable to be personalized to eachindividual user with respect to her/his preferences andinteraction style. We discuss the use of customization andadaptation techniques, with the aim to both enhance mobileHCI and to increase user satisfaction, particularly whenworking with graphically rich m-learning applications.

  11. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes (Spain). Simulation and Control Rooms Div.

    2015-07-15

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  12. A modified free-volume-based model for predicting vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for size asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to present a free-volume combinatorial term in predicting vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of polymer/solvent and light and heavy hydrocarbon/hydrocarbon mixtures. The proposed term is based on a modification of the original Freed ...

  13. Pre-Service Primary Science Teachers' Understandings of the Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore pre-service primary teachers' understandings of the effect of temperature and pressure on the solid-liquid phase transition of water. In the study a survey approach was used, and the sample consisted of one-hundred and three, third year pre-service primary science teachers. As a tool for data collection, a test…

  14. Solid-liquid phase equilibrium in the systems of LiBr-H2O and LiCl-H2O

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Jaroslav; Klomfar, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 250, - (2006), s. 138-149 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : salt-water system * solubility * solid-liquid system * lithium bromide * litthium chloride Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.680, year: 2006

  15. Surface composition variation and high-vacuum performance of DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings: Influence of space irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiufang; Wang Liping; Pu Jibin; Xue Qunji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a DLC/ionic liquid (DLC/ILs) solid-liquid lubricating coating and investigated the effect of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV), proton and electron irradiations on composition, structure, morphology and tribological properties of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings. A ground-based simulation facility was employed to carry out the irradiation experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), Raman spectra, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyzed the structure and composition changes of DLC film and IL lubricant before and after irradiations. The tribological behavior of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coating before and after irradiations was investigated by a vacuum tribometer with the pressure of 10 -5 Pa. The experimental results revealed that irradiations induced the structural changes, including oxidation, bond break and crosslinking reactions of DLC film and IL lubricant. The damage of proton and AO irradiations to lubricating materials were the most serious, and UV irradiation was the slightest. After irradiations, the friction coefficient of the solid-liquid lubricating coatings decreased (except for AO irradiation), but the disc wear rate increased compared with non-irradiation coatings.

  16. Brain-Computer Interface application: auditory serial interface to control a two-class motor-imagery-based wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Angevin, Ricardo; Velasco-Álvarez, Francisco; Fernández-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Díaz-Estrella, Antonio; Blanca-Mena, María José; Vizcaíno-Martín, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-30

    Certain diseases affect brain areas that control the movements of the patients' body, thereby limiting their autonomy and communication capacity. Research in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces aims to provide patients with an alternative communication channel not based on muscular activity, but on the processing of brain signals. Through these systems, subjects can control external devices such as spellers to communicate, robotic prostheses to restore limb movements, or domotic systems. The present work focus on the non-muscular control of a robotic wheelchair. A proposal to control a wheelchair through a Brain-Computer Interface based on the discrimination of only two mental tasks is presented in this study. The wheelchair displacement is performed with discrete movements. The control signals used are sensorimotor rhythms modulated through a right-hand motor imagery task or mental idle state. The peculiarity of the control system is that it is based on a serial auditory interface that provides the user with four navigation commands. The use of two mental tasks to select commands may facilitate control and reduce error rates compared to other endogenous control systems for wheelchairs. Seventeen subjects initially participated in the study; nine of them completed the three sessions of the proposed protocol. After the first calibration session, seven subjects were discarded due to a low control of their electroencephalographic signals; nine out of ten subjects controlled a virtual wheelchair during the second session; these same nine subjects achieved a medium accuracy level above 0.83 on the real wheelchair control session. The results suggest that more extensive training with the proposed control system can be an effective and safe option that will allow the displacement of a wheelchair in a controlled environment for potential users suffering from some types of motor neuron diseases.

  17. Neuroengineering tools/applications for bidirectional interfaces, brain computer interfaces, and neuroprosthetic implants - a review of recent progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Rothschild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this review is to provide a holistic amalgamated overview of the most recent human in vivo techniques for implementing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, bidirectional interfaces and neuroprosthetics. Neuroengineering is providing new methods for tackling current difficulties; however neuroprosthetics have been studied for decades. Recent progresses are permitting the design of better systems with higher accuracies, repeatability and system robustness. Bidirectional interfaces integrate recording and the relaying of information from and to the brain for the development of BCIs. The concepts of non-invasive and invasive recording of brain activity are introduced. This includes classical and innovative techniques like electroencephalography (EEG and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Then the problem of gliosis and solutions for (semi- permanent implant biocompatibility such as innovative implant coatings, materials and shapes are discussed. Implant power and the transmission of their data through implanted pulse generators (IPGs and wireless telemetry are taken into account. How sensation can be relayed back to the brain to increase integration of the neuroengineered systems with the body by methods such as micro-stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS are then addressed. The neuroprosthetic section discusses some of the various types and how they operate. Visual prosthetics are discussed and the three types, dependant on implant location, are examined. Auditory prosthetics, being cochlear or cortical, are then addressed. Replacement hand and limb prosthetics are then considered. These are followed by sections concentrating on the control of wheelchairs, computers and robotics directly from brain activity as recorded by non-invasive and invasive techniques.

  18. Transferring brain-computer interfaces beyond the laboratory: successful application control for motor-disabled users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Robert; Perdikis, Serafeim; Tonin, Luca; Biasiucci, Andrea; Tavella, Michele; Creatura, Marco; Molina, Alberto; Al-Khodairy, Abdul; Carlson, Tom; Millán, José D R

    2013-10-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are no longer only used by healthy participants under controlled conditions in laboratory environments, but also by patients and end-users, controlling applications in their homes or clinics, without the BCI experts around. But are the technology and the field mature enough for this? Especially the successful operation of applications - like text entry systems or assistive mobility devices such as tele-presence robots - requires a good level of BCI control. How much training is needed to achieve such a level? Is it possible to train naïve end-users in 10 days to successfully control such applications? In this work, we report our experiences of training 24 motor-disabled participants at rehabilitation clinics or at the end-users' homes, without BCI experts present. We also share the lessons that we have learned through transferring BCI technologies from the lab to the user's home or clinics. The most important outcome is that 50% of the participants achieved good BCI performance and could successfully control the applications (tele-presence robot and text-entry system). In the case of the tele-presence robot the participants achieved an average performance ratio of 0.87 (max. 0.97) and for the text entry application a mean of 0.93 (max. 1.0). The lessons learned and the gathered user feedback range from pure BCI problems (technical and handling), to common communication issues among the different people involved, and issues encountered while controlling the applications. The points raised in this paper are very widely applicable and we anticipate that they might be faced similarly by other groups, if they move on to bringing the BCI technology to the end-user, to home environments and towards application prototype control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling of planar interface elastic behaviour: Application to grain boundaries in polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelebart, L.

    2010-01-01

    In polycrystalline elastic simulations, grain boundaries can be considered as volume inter-phases or as elastic interfaces assuming a displacement jump across the interface. Such an interface description does not account for the in-plane deformation of the interface and Poisson effects cannot be reproduced. The purpose of this Note is to provide an enriched description of the elastic interface which takes into account such effects. When considering a multilayer material, the interphase description and the enriched interface description yield identical homogenized behaviour while quite important discrepancies can be observed with the classical interface description. (author)

  20. LIANA Model Integration System - architecture, user interface design and application in MOIRA DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hofman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The LIANA Model Integration System is the shell application supporting model integration and user interface functionality required for the rapid construction and run-time support of the environmental decision support systems (EDSS. Internally it is constructed as the framework of C++ classes and functions covering most common tasks performed by the EDSS (such as managing of and alternative strategies, running of the chain of the models, supporting visualisation of the data with tables and graphs, keeping ranges and default values for input parameters etc.. EDSS is constructed by integration of LIANA system with the models or other applications such as GIS or MAA software. The basic requirements to the model or other application to be integrated is minimal - it should be a Windows or DOS .exe file and receive input and provide output as text files. For the user the EDSS is represented as the number of data sets describing scenario or giving results of evaluation of scenario via modelling. Internally data sets correspond to the I/O files of the models. During the integration the parameters included in each the data sets as well as specifications necessary to present the data set in GUI and export or import it to/from text file are provided with MIL_LIANA language. Visual C++ version of LIANA has been developed in the frame of MOIRA project and is used as the basis for the MOIRA Software Framework - the shell and user interface component of the MOIRA Decision Support System. At present, the usage of LIANA for the creation of a new EDSS requires changes to be made in its C++ code. The possibility to use LIANA for the new EDSS construction without extending the source code is achieved by substituting MIL_LIANA with the object-oriented LIANA language.

  1. Envisioning Advanced User Interfaces for E-Government Applications: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvary, Gaëlle; Serna, Audrey; Coutaz, Joëlle; Scapin, Dominique; Pontico, Florence; Winckler, Marco

    The increasing use of the Web as a software platform together with the advance of technology has promoted Web applications as a starting point for improving communication between citizens and administration. Currently, several e-government Web portals propose applications for accessing information regarding healthcare, taxation, registration, housing, agriculture, education, and social services, which otherwise may be difficult to obtain. However, the adoption of services provided to citizens depends upon how such applications comply with the users' needs. Unfortunately, building an e-government website doesn't guarantee that all citizens who come to use it can access its contents. These services need to be accessible to all citizens/customers equally to ensure wider reach and subsequent adoption of the e-government services. User disabilities, computer or language illiteracy (e.g., foreign language), flexibility on information access (e.g., user remotely located in rural areas, homeless, mobile users), and ensuring user privacy on sensitive data are some of the barriers that must be taken into account when designing the User Interface (UI) of e-government applications.

  2. Amino acids separation with the tetracarboxylic derived of the para-ter-butylcalix[4]arene by means of solid-liquid extraction assisted with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal R, R. del C.

    2014-01-01

    catalytic degradation, since increases the tyrosine degradation to 85% to ph 3. The solid-liquid system used for separating L-tyrosine of water to sour ph, neutral and basic as well as the system used for its photo catalytic degradation suggests its possible application in the waters decontamination containing tyrosine and its metabolites. Of course that before using as alternative the studied system, a thorough study of the same system will be required and with other parameters that could affect so much in the tyrosine separation as in its photo catalytic degradation. (Author)

  3. Integrated multimodal human-computer interface and augmented reality for interactive display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Marius S.; Sundareswaran, Venkataraman; Chen, S.; Behringer, Reinhold; Tam, Clement K.; Chan, M.; Bangayan, Phil T.; McGee, Joshua H.

    2000-08-01

    We describe new systems for improved integrated multimodal human-computer interaction and augmented reality for a diverse array of applications, including future advanced cockpits, tactical operations centers, and others. We have developed an integrated display system featuring: speech recognition of multiple concurrent users equipped with both standard air- coupled microphones and novel throat-coupled sensors (developed at Army Research Labs for increased noise immunity); lip reading for improving speech recognition accuracy in noisy environments, three-dimensional spatialized audio for improved display of warnings, alerts, and other information; wireless, coordinated handheld-PC control of a large display; real-time display of data and inferences from wireless integrated networked sensors with on-board signal processing and discrimination; gesture control with disambiguated point-and-speak capability; head- and eye- tracking coupled with speech recognition for 'look-and-speak' interaction; and integrated tetherless augmented reality on a wearable computer. The various interaction modalities (speech recognition, 3D audio, eyetracking, etc.) are implemented a 'modality servers' in an Internet-based client-server architecture. Each modality server encapsulates and exposes commercial and research software packages, presenting a socket network interface that is abstracted to a high-level interface, minimizing both vendor dependencies and required changes on the client side as the server's technology improves.

  4. Applications of artificial intelligence to space station: General purpose intelligent sensor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1988-01-01

    This final report describes the accomplishments of the General Purpose Intelligent Sensor Interface task of the Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Space Station grant for the period from October 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988. Portions of the First Biannual Report not revised will not be included but only referenced. The goal is to develop an intelligent sensor system that will simplify the design and development of expert systems using sensors of the physical phenomena as a source of data. This research will concentrate on the integration of image processing sensors and voice processing sensors with a computer designed for expert system development. The result of this research will be the design and documentation of a system in which the user will not need to be an expert in such areas as image processing algorithms, local area networks, image processor hardware selection or interfacing, television camera selection, voice recognition hardware selection, or analog signal processing. The user will be able to access data from video or voice sensors through standard LISP statements without any need to know about the sensor hardware or software.

  5. HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI): A comprehensive approach to working with spectroscopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochanov, R.V.; Gordon, I.E.; Rothman, L.S.; Wcisło, P.; Hill, C.; Wilzewski, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI) is presented. HAPI is a free Python library, which extends the capabilities of the HITRANonline interface ( (www.hitran.org)) and can be used to filter and process the structured spectroscopic data. HAPI incorporates a set of tools for spectra simulation accounting for the temperature, pressure, optical path length, and instrument properties. HAPI is aimed to facilitate the spectroscopic data analysis and the spectra simulation based on the line-by-line data, such as from the HITRAN database [JQSRT (2013) 130, 4–50], allowing the usage of the non-Voigt line profile parameters, custom temperature and pressure dependences, and partition sums. The HAPI functions allow the user to control the spectra simulation and data filtering process via a set of the function parameters. HAPI can be obtained at its homepage (www.hitran.org/hapi). - Highlights: • HAPI extends the HITRANonline portal and provides an access to the HITRAN data. • Free, flexible, and portable Python library for working with the spectroscopic data. • Incorporates functions for querying, filtering and processing the spectroscopic data. • Provides functionality for single-layer spectra simulation. • Can be used in the radiative transfer codes, spectroscopic data validation, etc.

  6. Steady distribution structure of point defects near crystal-melt interface under pulling stop of CZ Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2017-02-01

    In order to reveal a steady distribution structure of point defects of no growing Si on the solid-liquid interface, the crystals were grown at a high pulling rate, which Vs becomes predominant, and the pulling was suddenly stopped. After restoring the variations of the crystal by the pulling-stop, the crystals were then left in prolonged contact with the melt. Finally, the crystals were detached and rapidly cooled to freeze point defects and then a distribution of the point defects of the as-grown crystals was observed. As a result, a dislocation loop (DL) region, which is formed by the aggregation of interstitials (Is), was formed over the solid-liquid interface and was surrounded with a Vs-and-Is-free recombination region (Rc-region), although the entire crystals had been Vs rich in the beginning. It was also revealed that the crystal on the solid-liquid interface after the prolonged contact with the melt can partially have a Rc-region to be directly in contact with the melt, unlike a defect distribution of a solid-liquid interface that has been growing. This experimental result contradicts a hypothesis of Voronkov's diffusion model, which always assumes the equilibrium concentrations of Vs and Is as the boundary condition for distribution of point defects on the growth interface. The results were disscussed from a qualitative point of view of temperature distribution and thermal stress by the pulling-stop.

  7. Applications of Brain–Machine Interface Systems in Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Gerard E.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, significantly impacting the quality of life (QOL) in survivors, and rehabilitation remains the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Recent engineering and technological advances such as brain-machine interfaces (BMI) and robotic rehabilitative devices are promising to enhance stroke neu-rorehabilitation, to accelerate functional recovery and improve QOL. This review discusses the recent applications of BMI and robotic-assisted rehabilitation in stroke patients. We present the framework for integrated BMI and robotic-assisted therapies, and discuss their potential therapeutic, assistive and diagnostic functions in stroke rehabilitation. Finally, we conclude with an outlook on the potential challenges and future directions of these neurotechnologies, and their impact on clinical rehabilitation. PMID:25110624

  8. Joint Time-Frequency-Space Classification of EEG in a Brain-Computer Interface Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Gary N Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface is a growing field of interest in human-computer interaction with diverse applications ranging from medicine to entertainment. In this paper, we present a system which allows for classification of mental tasks based on a joint time-frequency-space decorrelation, in which mental tasks are measured via electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The efficiency of this approach was evaluated by means of real-time experimentations on two subjects performing three different mental tasks. To do so, a number of protocols for visualization, as well as training with and without feedback, were also developed. Obtained results show that it is possible to obtain good classification of simple mental tasks, in view of command and control, after a relatively small amount of training, with accuracies around 80%, and in real time.

  9. Brain Computer Interface: Assessment of Spinal Cord Injury Patient towards Motor Movement through EEG application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Syahrull Hi-Fi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG associated with motor task have been comprehensively investigated and it can also describe the brain activities while spinal cord injury (SCI patient with para/tetraplegia performing movement with their limbs. This paper reviews on conducted research regarding application of brain computer interface (BCI that offer alternative for neural impairments community such as spinal cord injury patient (SCI which include the experimental design, signal analysis of EEG band signal and data processing methods. The findings claim that the EEG signals of SCI patients associated with movement tasks can be stimulated through mental and motor task. Other than that EEG signal component such as alpha and beta frequency bands indicate significance for analysing the brain activity of subjects with SCI during movements.

  10. Numerical Platon: A unified linear equation solver interface by CEA for solving open foe scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secher, Bernard; Belliard, Michel; Calvin, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a tool called 'Numerical Platon' developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). It provides a freely available (GNU LGPL license) interface for coupling scientific computing applications to various freeware linear solver libraries (essentially PETSc, SuperLU and HyPre), together with some proprietary CEA solvers, for high-performance computers that may be used in industrial software written in various programming languages. This tool was developed as part of considerable efforts by the CEA Nuclear Energy Division in the past years to promote massively parallel software and on-shelf parallel tools to help develop new generation simulation codes. After the presentation of the package architecture and the available algorithms, we show examples of how Numerical Platon is used in sequential and parallel CEA codes. Comparing with in-house solvers, the gain in terms of increases in computation capacities or in terms of parallel performances is notable, without considerable extra development cost

  11. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS for Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS. A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  12. Numerical Platon: A unified linear equation solver interface by CEA for solving open foe scientific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secher, Bernard [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Nuclear Energy Division (DEN) (France); CEA Saclay DM2S/SFME/LGLS, Bat. 454, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: bsecher@cea.fr; Belliard, Michel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Nuclear Energy Division (DEN) (France); CEA Cadarache DER/SSTH/LMDL, Bat. 238, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Calvin, Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Nuclear Energy Division (DEN) (France); CEA Saclay DM2S/SERMA/LLPR, Bat. 470, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    This paper describes a tool called 'Numerical Platon' developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). It provides a freely available (GNU LGPL license) interface for coupling scientific computing applications to various freeware linear solver libraries (essentially PETSc, SuperLU and HyPre), together with some proprietary CEA solvers, for high-performance computers that may be used in industrial software written in various programming languages. This tool was developed as part of considerable efforts by the CEA Nuclear Energy Division in the past years to promote massively parallel software and on-shelf parallel tools to help develop new generation simulation codes. After the presentation of the package architecture and the available algorithms, we show examples of how Numerical Platon is used in sequential and parallel CEA codes. Comparing with in-house solvers, the gain in terms of increases in computation capacities or in terms of parallel performances is notable, without considerable extra development cost.

  13. Interface of Augmented Reality Game Using Face Tracking and Its Application to Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Yong Jae

    This paper proposes the face interface method which can be used in recognizing gamer's movements in the real world for application in the cyber space so that we could make three-dimensional space recognition motion-based game. The proposed algorithm is the new face recognition technology which incorporates the strengths of two existing algorithms, CBCH and CAMSHIFT and its validity has been proved through a series of experiments. Moreover, for the purpose of the interdisciplinary studies, concepts of advertising have been introduced into the three-dimensional motion-based game to look into the possible new beneficiary models for the game industry. This kind of attempt may be significant in that it tried to see if the advertising brand when placed in the game could play the role of the game item or quest. The proposed method can provide the basic references for developing motion-based game development.

  14. LTCP 2D Graphical User Interface. Application Description and User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert; Navaz, Homayun K.

    1996-01-01

    A graphical user interface (GUI) written for NASA's LTCP (Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance) 2 dimensional computational fluid dynamic code is described. The GUI is written in C++ for a desktop personal computer running under a Microsoft Windows operating environment. Through the use of common and familiar dialog boxes, features, and tools, the user can easily and quickly create and modify input files for the LTCP code. In addition, old input files used with the LTCP code can be opened and modified using the GUI. The application is written in C++ for a desktop personal computer running under a Microsoft Windows operating environment. The program and its capabilities are presented, followed by a detailed description of each menu selection and the method of creating an input file for LTCP. A cross reference is included to help experienced users quickly find the variables which commonly need changes. Finally, the system requirements and installation instructions are provided.

  15. An automated meta-monitoring mobile application and front-end interface for the ATLAS computing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Gen; Quadt, Arnulf [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Efficient administration of computing centres requires advanced tools for the monitoring and front-end interface of the infrastructure. Providing the large-scale distributed systems as a global grid infrastructure, like the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) and ATLAS computing, is offering many existing web pages and information sources indicating the status of the services, systems and user jobs at grid sites. A meta-monitoring mobile application which automatically collects the information could give every administrator a sophisticated and flexible interface of the infrastructure. We describe such a solution; the MadFace mobile application developed at Goettingen. It is a HappyFace compatible mobile application which has a user-friendly interface. It also becomes very feasible to automatically investigate the status and problem from different sources and provides access of the administration roles for non-experts.

  16. Transient solid-liquid He heat transfer and onset of film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, W.; Huebener, R.P.; Selig, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The transient heat transfer between single-crystalline Ge chips and liquid helium is investigated during the application of light pulses with different optical power to the Ge sample. The strong temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of Ge conveniently serves for monitoring the temporal behaviour of the sample temperature during the input of optical energy. After a certain time interval following the beginning of the light pulse an abrupt rise of the sample temperature is observed. This time interval is much longer than the thermal time constant expected for the sample. This abrupt rise of the sample temperature can be understood in terms of the onset of film boiling. The observed onset time of film boiling and its dependence upon the heat transfer power density agrees reasonably with earlier results by Steward (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 21; 863. (1978)). (author)

  17. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Simulation of solid-liquid flows in a stirred bead mill based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, S.; Widiyastuti, W.; Septiani, E. L.; Nurtono, T.

    2018-05-01

    The selection of simulation model is an important step in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain an agreement with experimental work. In addition, computational time and processor speed also influence the performance of the simulation results. Here, we report the simulation of solid-liquid flow in a bead mill using Eulerian model. Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) was also used to model the interaction between moving (shaft and disk) and stationary (chamber exclude shaft and disk) zones. Bead mill dimension was based on the experimental work of Yamada and Sakai (2013). The effect of shaft rotation speed of 1200 and 1800 rpm on the particle distribution and the flow field was discussed. For rotation speed of 1200 rpm, the particles spread evenly throughout the bead mill chamber. On the other hand, for the rotation speed of 1800 rpm, the particles tend to be thrown to the near wall region resulting in the dead zone and found no particle in the center region. The selected model agreed well to the experimental data with average discrepancies less than 10%. Furthermore, the simulation was run without excessive computational cost.

  19. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides isoproturon and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Cindy M; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14C-isoproturon and 14C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (Kd range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (Kd range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography.

  20. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Cindy M.; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D.

    2004-01-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14 C-isoproturon and 14 C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K d values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K d range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K d range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances

  1. Study on solid-liquid two-phase unsteady flow characteristics with different flow rates in screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R N; Wang, H Y; Han, W; Shen, Z J; Ma, W

    2013-01-01

    The screw centrifugal pump is used as an object, and the unsteady numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase flow is carried out under different flow rate conditions in one circle by choosing the two-phase flow of sand and water as medium, using the software FLUENT based on the URANS equations, combining with sliding mesh method, and choosing the Mixture multiphase flow model and the SIMPLE algorithm. The results show that, with the flow rate increasing, the change trends for the pressure on volute outlet are almost constant, the fluctuation trends of the impeller axial force have a little change, the pressure and the axial force turn to decrease on the whole, the radial force gradually increases when the impeller maximum radius passes by half a cycle near the volute outlet, and the radial force gradually decreases when the maximum radius passes by the other half a cycle in a rotation cycle. The distributions of the solid particles are very uneven under a small flow rate condition on the face. The solid particles under a big flow rate condition are distributed more evenly than the ones under a small flow rate condition on the back. The theoretical basis and reference are provided for improving its working performance

  2. On the applicability of brain reading for predictive human-machine interfaces in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Straube, Sirko; Seeland, Anett; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Krell, Mario Michael; Tabie, Marc; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR), a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML) methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors.

  3. Creating Mobile and Web Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for NASA Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, D.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at the NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia houses almost three petabytes of data, a collection that increases every day. To put it into perspective, it is estimated that three petabytes of data storage could store a digitized copy of all printed material in U.S. research libraries. There are more than ten other NASA data centers like the ASDC. Scientists and the public use this data for research, science education, and to understand our environment. Most importantly these data provide the potential for all of us make new discoveries. NASA is about making discoveries. Galileo was quoted as saying, "All discoveries are easy to understand once they are discovered. The point is to discover them." To that end, NASA stores vast amounts of publicly available data. This paper examines an approach to create web applications that serve NASA data in ways that specifically address the mobile web application technologies that are quickly emerging. Mobile data is not a new concept. What is new, is that user driven tools have recently become available that allow users to create their own mobile applications. Through the use of these cloud-based tools users can produce complete native mobile applications. Thus, mobile apps can now be created by everyone, regardless of their programming experience or expertise. This work will explore standards and methods for creating dynamic and malleable application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow users to access and use NASA science data for their own needs. The focus will be on experiences that broaden and increase the scope and usage of NASA science data sets.

  4. On the applicability of brain reading for predictive human-machine interfaces in robotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Andrea Kirchner

    Full Text Available The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR, a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors.

  5. Development and Evaluation of Micro-Electrocorticography Arrays for Neural Interfacing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Amelia Ann

    Neural interfaces have great promise for both electrophysiological research and therapeutic applications. Whether for the study of neural circuitry or for neural prosthetic or other therapeutic applications, micro-electrocorticography (micro-ECoG) arrays have proven extremely useful as neural interfacing devices. These devices strike a balance between invasiveness and signal resolution, an important step towards eventual human application. The objective of this research was to make design improvements to micro-ECoG devices to enhance both biocompatibility and device functionality. To best evaluate the effectiveness of these improvements, a cranial window imaging method for in vivo monitoring of the longitudinal tissue response post device implant was developed. Employment of this method provided valuable insight into the way tissue grows around micro-ECoG arrays after epidural implantation, spurring a study of the effects of substrate geometry on the meningeal tissue response. The results of the substrate footprint comparison suggest that a more open substrate geometry provides an easy path for the tissue to grow around to the top side of the device, whereas a solid device substrate encourages the tissue to thicken beneath the device, between the electrode sites and the brain. The formation of thick scar tissue between the recording electrode sites and the neural tissue is disadvantageous for long-term recorded signal quality, and thus future micro-ECoG device designs should incorporate open-architecture substrates for enhanced longitudinal in vivo function. In addition to investigating improvements for long-term device reliability, it was also desired to enhance the functionality of micro-ECoG devices for neural electrophysiology research applications. To achieve this goal, a completely transparent graphene-based device was fabricated for use with the cranial window imaging method and optogenetic techniques. The use of graphene as the conductive material provided

  6. Selective solid-liquid extraction of lithium halide salts using a ditopic macrobicyclic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Beatty, Alicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2004-11-29

    A ditopic salt receptor that is known to bind and extract solid NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr into organic solution as their contact ion pairs is now shown by NMR and X-ray crystallography to bind and extract solid LiCl and LiBr as water-separated ion pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane with a cation selectivity of K+ > Na+ > Li+. However, the selectivity order is strongly reversed when the receptor extracts solid alkali metal chlorides and bromides into organic solution. For a three-component mixture of solid LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, the ratio of salts extracted and complexed to the receptor in CDCl3 was 94:4:2, respectively. The same strong lithium selectivity was also observed in the case of a three-component mixture of solid LiBr, NaBr, and KBr where the ratio of extracted salts was 92:5:3. This observation is attributed to the unusually high solubility of lithium salts in organic solvents. The study suggests that ditopic receptors with an ability to extract solid salts as associated ion pairs may have application in separation processes.

  7. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  8. A Standard for Sharing and Accessing Time Series Data: The Heliophysics Application Programmers Interface (HAPI) Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriff, J. D.; King, T. A.; Weigel, R. S.; Faden, J.; Roberts, D. A.; Harris, B. T.; Lal, N.; Boardsen, S. A.; Candey, R. M.; Lindholm, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Heliophysics Application Programmers Interface (HAPI), a new interface specification that both large and small data centers can use to expose time series data holdings in a standard way. HAPI was inspired by the similarity of existing services at many Heliophysics data centers, and these data centers have collaborated to define a single interface that captures best practices and represents what everyone considers the essential, lowest common denominator for basic data access. This low level access can serve as infrastructure to support greatly enhanced interoperability among analysis tools, with the goal being simplified analysis and comparison of data from any instrument, model, mission or data center. The three main services a HAPI server must perform are 1. list a catalog of datasets (one unique ID per dataset), 2. describe the content of one dataset (JSON metadata), and 3. retrieve numerical content for one dataset (stream the actual data). HAPI defines both the format of the query to the server, and the response from the server. The metadata is lightweight, focusing on use rather than discovery, and the data format is a streaming one, with Comma Separated Values (CSV) being required and binary or JSON streaming being optional. The HAPI specification is available at GitHub, where projects are also underway to develop reference implementation servers that data providers can adapt and use at their own sites. Also in the works are data analysis clients in multiple languages (IDL, Python, Matlab, and Java). Institutions which have agreed to adopt HAPI include Goddard (CDAWeb for data and CCMC for models), LASP at the University of Colorado Boulder, the Particles and Plasma Interactions node of the Planetary Data System (PPI/PDS) at UCLA, the Plasma Wave Group at the University of Iowa, the Space Sector at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab (APL), and the tsds.org site maintained at George Mason University. Over the next year, the adoption of a

  9. Challenges in clinical applications of brain computer interfaces in individuals with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger eRupp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces (BCIs are devices that measure brain activities and translate them into control signals used for a variety of applications. Among them are systems for communication, environmental control, neuroprostheses, exoskeletons or restorative therapies. Over the last years the technology of BCIs has reached a level of matureness allowing them to be used not only in research experiments supervised by scientists, but also in clinical routine with patients with neurological impairments supervised by clinical personnel or caregivers. However, clinicians and patients face many challenges in the application of BCIs. This particularly applies to high spinal cord injured patients, in whom artificial ventilation, autonomic dysfunctions, neuropathic pain or the inability to achieve a sufficient level of control during a short-term training may limit the successful use of a BCI. Additionally, spasmolytic medication and the acute stress reaction with associated episodes of depression may have a negative influence on the modulation of brain waves and therefore the ability to concentrate over an extended period of time. Although BCIs seem to be a promising assistive technology for individuals with high spinal cord injury systematic investigations are highly needed to obtain realistic estimates of the percentage of users that for any reason may not be able to operate a BCI in a clinical setting.

  10. Charge and field coupling phenomena at metal-oxide interfaces and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voora, Venkata M.

    Heterostructures composed of polar materials, such as ferroelectric and/or piezoelectric, are interesting due to their interface lattice charge coupling (LCC) effects. In this thesis, coupling effects between switchable ferroelectric and non-switchable piezoelectric semiconductor spontaneous polarizations are addressed. Also discussed is a dielectric continuum model approach for studying LCC effects in double layer piezoelectric semiconductor-ferroelectric and triple layer piezoelectric semiconductor-ferroelectric-piezoelectric semiconductor heterostructures. The dielectric continuum model augments the effects of electric field driven switchable polarization due to LCC with depletion layer formation in semiconductor heterostructures. Electrical investigations were used to study a reference single layer (BaTiO3), a double layer (BaTiO3-ZnO), and a triple layer (ZnO-BaTiO 3-ZnO) heterostructure grown by pulsed laser deposition. The coupling between the non-switchable spontaneous polarization of ZnO and the electrically switchable spontaneous polarization of BaTiO3 causes strong asymmetric polarization hysteresis behavior. The n-type ZnO layer within double and triple layered heterostructures reveals hysteresis-dependent capacitance variations upon formation of depletion layers at the ZnO/BaTiO 3 interfaces. Model analysis show very good agreement between the generated data and the experimental results. The dielectric continuum model approach allows for the derivation of the amount and orientation of the spontaneous polarization of the piezoelectric constituents, and can be generalized towards multiple layer piezoelectric semiconductor-ferroelectric heterostructures. Based on experimental results the polarization coupled ZnO-BaTiO 3-ZnO heterostructures is identified as a two-terminal unipolar ferroelectric bi-junction transistor which can be utilized in memory storage devices. Furthermore it is discussed, that the triple layer heterostructure with magnetically

  11. A memory efficient user interface for CLIPS micro-computer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterle, Mark E.; Mayer, Richard J.; Jordan, Janice A.; Brodale, Howard N.; Lin, Min-Jin

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Southern Pine Beetle Expert System (ISPBEX) is to provide expert level knowledge concerning treatment advice that is convenient and easy to use for Forest Service personnel. ISPBEX was developed in CLIPS and delivered on an IBM PC AT class micro-computer, operating with an MS/DOS operating system. This restricted the size of the run time system to 640K. In order to provide a robust expert system, with on-line explanation, help, and alternative actions menus, as well as features that allow the user to back up or execute 'what if' scenarios, a memory efficient menuing system was developed to interface with the CLIPS programs. By robust, we mean an expert system that (1) is user friendly, (2) provides reasonable solutions for a wide variety of domain specific problems, (3) explains why some solutions were suggested but others were not, and (4) provides technical information relating to the problem solution. Several advantages were gained by using this type of user interface (UI). First, by storing the menus on the hard disk (instead of main memory) during program execution, a more robust system could be implemented. Second, since the menus were built rapidly, development time was reduced. Third, the user may try a new scenario by backing up to any of the input screens and revising segments of the original input without having to retype all the information. And fourth, asserting facts from the menus provided for a dynamic and flexible fact base. This UI technology has been applied successfully in expert systems applications in forest management, agriculture, and manufacturing. This paper discusses the architecture of the UI system, human factors considerations, and the menu syntax design.

  12. BEAGLE: an application programming interface and high-performance computing library for statistical phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Daniel L; Darling, Aaron; Zwickl, Derrick J; Beerli, Peter; Holder, Mark T; Lewis, Paul O; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik; Swofford, David L; Cummings, Michael P; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is fundamental to our understanding of most aspects of the origin and evolution of life, and in recent years, there has been a concentration of interest in statistical approaches such as Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood estimation. Yet, for large data sets and realistic or interesting models of evolution, these approaches remain computationally demanding. High-throughput sequencing can yield data for thousands of taxa, but scaling to such problems using serial computing often necessitates the use of nonstatistical or approximate approaches. The recent emergence of graphics processing units (GPUs) provides an opportunity to leverage their excellent floating-point computational performance to accelerate statistical phylogenetic inference. A specialized library for phylogenetic calculation would allow existing software packages to make more effective use of available computer hardware, including GPUs. Adoption of a common library would also make it easier for other emerging computing architectures, such as field programmable gate arrays, to be used in the future. We present BEAGLE, an application programming interface (API) and library for high-performance statistical phylogenetic inference. The API provides a uniform interface for performing phylogenetic likelihood calculations on a variety of compute hardware platforms. The library includes a set of efficient implementations and can currently exploit hardware including GPUs using NVIDIA CUDA, central processing units (CPUs) with Streaming SIMD Extensions and related processor supplementary instruction sets, and multicore CPUs via OpenMP. To demonstrate the advantages of a common API, we have incorporated the library into several popular phylogenetic software packages. The BEAGLE library is free open source software licensed under the Lesser GPL and available from http://beagle-lib.googlecode.com. An example client program is available as public domain software.

  13. Design of a 32-channel EEG system for brain control interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Sung

    2012-01-01

    This study integrates the hardware circuit design and the development support of the software interface to achieve a 32-channel EEG system for BCI applications. Since the EEG signals of human bodies are generally very weak, in addition to preventing noise interference, it also requires avoiding the waveform distortion as well as waveform offset and so on; therefore, the design of a preamplifier with high common-mode rejection ratio and high signal-to-noise ratio is very important. Moreover, the friction between the electrode pads and the skin as well as the design of dual power supply will generate DC bias which affects the measurement signals. For this reason, this study specially designs an improved single-power AC-coupled circuit, which effectively reduces the DC bias and improves the error caused by the effects of part errors. At the same time, the digital way is applied to design the adjustable amplification and filter function, which can design for different EEG frequency bands. For the analog circuit, a frequency band will be taken out through the filtering circuit and then the digital filtering design will be used to adjust the extracted frequency band for the target frequency band, combining with MATLAB to design man-machine interface for displaying brain wave. Finally the measured signals are compared to the traditional 32-channel EEG signals. In addition to meeting the IFCN standards, the system design also conducted measurement verification in the standard EEG isolation room in order to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this system design.

  14. Selective visual attention to drive cognitive brain machine interfaces: from concepts to neurofeedback and rehabilitation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine eAstrand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI using motor cortical activity to drive an external effector like a screen cursor or a robotic arm have seen enormous success and proven their great rehabilitation potential. An emerging parallel effort is now directed to BMIs controlled by endogenous cognitive activity, also called cognitive BMIs. While more challenging, this approach opens new dimensions to the rehabilitation of cognitive disorders. In the present work, we focus on BMIs driven by visuospatial attention signals and we provide a critical review of these studies in the light of the accumulated knowledge about the psychophysics, anatomy and neurophysiology of visual spatial attention. Importantly, we provide a unique comparative overview of the several studies, ranging from noninvasive to invasive human and non-human primates studies, that decode attention-related information from ongoing neuronal activity. We discuss these studies in the light of the challenges attention-driven cognitive BMIs have to face. In a second part of the review, we discuss past and current attention-based neurofeedback studies, describing both the covert effects of neurofeedback onto neuronal activity and its overt behavioral effects. Importantly, we compare neurofeedback studies based on the amplitude of cortical activity to studies based on the enhancement of cortical information content. Last, we discuss several lines of future research and applications for attention-driven cognitive BCIs, including the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, restored communication in locked-in patients, and open-field applications for enhanced cognition in normal subjects. The core motivation of this work is the key idea that the improvement of current cognitive BMIs for therapeutic and open field applications needs to be grounded in a proper interdisciplinary understanding of the physiology of the cognitive function of interest, be it spatial attention, working memory or any other

  15. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 materials have been intensively studied in the past years because of many varied applications. This mini review article focuses on TiO2 micro and nano architectures with the prevalent crystal structures (anatase, rutile, brookite, and TiO2(B, and summarizes the major advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO2 micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO2 nanostructures via different strategies, with an emphasis on rational control of the surface and interface structures. We further discuss the applications of TiO2 micro and nano architectures in photocatalysis, lithium/sodium ion batteries, and Li–S batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the surface/interface structures of TiO2 micro and nano structures will be highlighted. Then, we discuss the phase transitions of TiO2 nanostructures and possible strategies of improving the phase stability. The review concludes with a perspective on the current challenges and future research directions.

  16. A Brain Computer Interface for Robust Wheelchair Control Application Based on Pseudorandom Code Modulated Visual Evoked Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohebbi, Ali; Engelsholm, Signe K.D.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study, a novel and minimalistic Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based wheelchair control application was developed. The system was based on pseudorandom code modulated Visual Evoked Potentials (c-VEPs). The visual stimuli in the scheme were generated based on the Gold code...

  17. A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Roychoudhury, Appan; Srivastava, Manish; Solanki, Pratima R.; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Hee; Malhotra, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared nanorods has been electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. The n-Tm2O3 nanorods are found to provide improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The structural and morphological studies of n-Tm2O3 nanorods have been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. This interfacial platform has been used for fabrication of a total cholesterol biosensor by immobilizing cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) onto a Tm2O3 nanostructured surface. The results of response studies of the fabricated ChEt-ChOx/n-Tm2O3/ITO bioelectrode show a broad linear range of 8-400 mg dL-1, detection limit of 19.78 mg (dL cm-2)-1, and high sensitivity of 0.9245 μA (mg per dL cm-2)-1 with a response time of 40 s. Further, this bioelectrode has been utilized for estimation of total cholesterol with negligible interference (3%) from analytes present in human serum samples. The utilization of this n-Tm2O3 modified electrode for enzyme-based biosensor analysis offers an efficient strategy and a novel interface for application of the rare earth metal oxide materials in the field of electrochemical sensors and bioelectronic devices.In this paper, we present results of the studies related to fabrication of a rare earth metal oxide based efficient biosensor using an interface based on hydrothermally prepared nanostructured thulium oxide (n-Tm2O3). A colloidal solution of prepared

  18. Continuous-Flow Synthesis and Materials Interface Engineering of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots for Photovoltaic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.

    2016-05-25

    Harnessing the Sun’s energy via the conversion of solar photons to electricity has emerged as a sustainable energy source to fulfill our future demands. In this regard, solution-processable, size-tunable PbS quantum dots (QDs) have been identified as a promising active materials for photovoltaics (PVs). Yet, there are still serious challenges that hinder the full exploitation of QD materials in PVs. This dissertation addresses two main challenges to aid these QDs in fulfilling their tremendous potential in PV applications. First, it is essential to establish a large-scale synthetic technique which maintains control over the reaction parameters to yield QDs with well-defined shape, size, and composition. Rigorous protocols for cost-effective production on a scale are still missing from literature. Particularly, previous reports of record-performance QD-PVs have been based on small-scale, manual, batch syntheses. One way to achieve a controlled large-scale synthesis is by reducing the reaction volume to ensure uniformity. Accordingly, we design a droplet-based continuous-flow synthesis of PbS QDs. Only upon separating the nucleation and growth phases, via a dual-temperature-stage reactor, it was possible to achieve high-quality QDs with high photoluminescence quantum yield (50%) in large-scale. The performance of these QDs in a PV device was comparable to batch-synthesized QDs, thus providing a promise in utilizing automated synthesis of QDs for PV applications. Second, it is crucial to study and control the charge transfer (CT) dynamics at QD interfaces in order to optimize their PV performance. Yet, the CT investigations based on PbS QDs are limited in literature. Here, we investigate the CT and charge separation (CS) at size-tunable PbS QDs and organic acceptor interfaces using a combination of femtosecond broadband transient spectroscopic techniques and steady-state measurements. The results reveal that the energy band alignment, tuned by the quantum

  19. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency

  20. Contact Resistance of Ceramic Interfaces Between Materials Used for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren

    The contact resistance can be divided into two main contributions. The small area of contact between ceramic components results in resistance due to current constriction. Resistive phases or potential barriers at the interface result in an interface contribution to the contact resistance, which may....... The influence of the mechanical load on the contact resistance was ascribed to an area effect. The contact resistance of the investigated materials was dominated by current constric-tion at high temperatures. The measured contact resistance was comparable to the resis-tance calculated on basis of the contact...... areas found by optical and electron microscopy. At low temperatures, the interface contribution to the contact resistance was dominating. The cobaltite interface could be described by one potential barrier at the contact interface, whereas the manganite interfaces required several consecutive potential...

  1. A Framework for Effective User Interface Design for Web-Based Electronic Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Burns

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of relevant product information is increasingly becoming the central basis of competition between firms. The interface design represents the central component for successful information delivery to consumers. However, interface design for web-based information systems is probably more an art than a science at this point in time. Much research is needed to understand properties of an effective interface for electronic commerce. This paper develops a framework identifying the relationship between user factors, the role of the user interface and overall system success for web-based electronic commerce. The paper argues that web-based systems for electronic commerce have some similar properties to decision support systems (DSS and adapts an established DSS framework to the electronic commerce domain. Based on a limited amount of research studying web browser interface design, the framework identifies areas of research needed and outlines possible relationships between consumer characteristics, interface design attributes and measures of overall system success.

  2. Form-stable paraffin/high density polyethylene composites as solid-liquid phase change material for thermal energy storage: preparation and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites as form-stable, solid-liquid phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage and with determination of their thermal properties. In such a composite, the paraffin (P) serves as a latent heat storage material and the HDPE acts as a supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin because of providing structural strength. Therefore, it is named form-stable composite PCM. In this study, two kinds of paraffins with melting temperatures of 42-44 deg. C (type P1) and 56-58 deg. C (type P2) and latent heats of 192.8 and 212.4 J g -1 were used. The maximum weight percentage for both paraffin types in the PCM composites without any seepage of the paraffin in the melted state were found as high as 77%. It is observed that the paraffin is dispersed into the network of the solid HDPE by investigation of the structure of the composite PCMs using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The melting temperatures and latent heats of the form-stable P1/HDPE and P2/HDPE composite PCMs were determined as 37.8 and 55.7 deg. C, and 147.6 and 162.2 J g -1 , respectively, by the technique of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, to improve the thermal conductivity of the form-stable P/HDPE composite PCMs, expanded and exfoliated graphite (EG) by heat treatment was added to the samples in the ratio of 3 wt.%. Thereby, the thermal conductivity was increased about 14% for the form-stable P1/HDPE and about 24% for the P2/HDPE composite PCMs. Based on the results, it is concluded that the prepared form-stable P/HDPE blends as composite type PCM have great potential for thermal energy storage applications in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties and improved thermal conductivity. Furthermore, these composite PCMs added with EG can be considered cost effective latent heat storage materials since they do not require encapsulation and extra cost to enhance

  3. A study on the application of voice interaction in automotive human machine interface experience design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiemin

    2018-04-01

    This paper, firstly, introduces the application trend of the integration of multi-channel interactions in automotive HMI ((Human Machine Interface) from complex information models faced by existing automotive HMI and describes various interaction modes. By comparing voice interaction and touch screen, gestures and other interaction modes, the potential and feasibility of voice interaction in automotive HMI experience design are concluded. Then, the related theories of voice interaction, identification technologies, human beings' cognitive models of voices and voice design methods are further explored. And the research priority of this paper is proposed, i.e. how to design voice interaction to create more humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios to enhance interactive experiences of automotive HMI. The specific scenarios in driving behaviors suitable for the use of voice interaction are studied and classified, and the usability principles and key elements for automotive HMI voice design are proposed according to the scenario features. Then, through the user participatory usability testing experiment, the dialogue processes of voice interaction in automotive HMI are defined. The logics and grammars in voice interaction are classified according to the experimental results, and the mental models in the interaction processes are analyzed. At last, the voice interaction design method to create the humane task-oriented dialogue scenarios in the driving environment is proposed.

  4. Identification of interfaces involved in weak interactions with application to F-actin-aldolase rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiqing; Taylor, Dianne W; Liu, Jun; Taylor, Kenneth A

    2018-03-01

    Macromolecular interactions occur with widely varying affinities. Strong interactions form well defined interfaces but weak interactions are more dynamic and variable. Weak interactions can collectively lead to large structures such as microvilli via cooperativity and are often the precursors of much stronger interactions, e.g. the initial actin-myosin interaction during muscle contraction. Electron tomography combined with subvolume alignment and classification is an ideal method for the study of weak interactions because a 3-D image is obtained for the individual interactions, which subsequently are characterized collectively. Here we describe a method to characterize heterogeneous F-actin-aldolase interactions in 2-D rafts using electron tomography. By forming separate averages of the two constituents and fitting an atomic structure to each average, together with the alignment information which relates the raw motif to the average, an atomic model of each crosslink is determined and a frequency map of contact residues is computed. The approach should be applicable to any large structure composed of constituents that interact weakly and heterogeneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Tool and Application Programming Interface for Browsing Historical Geostationary Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Ayers, J.

    2013-12-01

    Providing access to information is a key concern for NASA Langley Research Center. We describe a tool and method that allows end users to easily browse and access information that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The tool described has as its core the application-programming interface that is made available to the public. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration to end users so that they can use the enhanced imagery as an input into their own work flows. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite imagery accessible and easily searchable. As we see the increasing use of virtual supply chains that provide additional value at each link there is value in making satellite imagery available through a simple access method as well as allowing users to browse and view that imagery as they need rather than in a manner most convenient for the data provider.

  6. Simple adaptive sparse representation based classification schemes for EEG based brain-computer interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Younghak; Lee, Seungchan; Ahn, Minkyu; Cho, Hohyun; Jun, Sung Chan; Lee, Heung-No

    2015-11-01

    One of the main problems related to electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems is the non-stationarity of the underlying EEG signals. This results in the deterioration of the classification performance during experimental sessions. Therefore, adaptive classification techniques are required for EEG based BCI applications. In this paper, we propose simple adaptive sparse representation based classification (SRC) schemes. Supervised and unsupervised dictionary update techniques for new test data and a dictionary modification method by using the incoherence measure of the training data are investigated. The proposed methods are very simple and additional computation for the re-training of the classifier is not needed. The proposed adaptive SRC schemes are evaluated using two BCI experimental datasets. The proposed methods are assessed by comparing classification results with the conventional SRC and other adaptive classification methods. On the basis of the results, we find that the proposed adaptive schemes show relatively improved classification accuracy as compared to conventional methods without requiring additional computation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurobionics and the brain-computer interface: current applications and future horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Wong, Yan Tat

    2017-05-01

    The brain-computer interface (BCI) is an exciting advance in neuroscience and engineering. In a motor BCI, electrical recordings from the motor cortex of paralysed humans are decoded by a computer and used to drive robotic arms or to restore movement in a paralysed hand by stimulating the muscles in the forearm. Simultaneously integrating a BCI with the sensory cortex will further enhance dexterity and fine control. BCIs are also being developed to: provide ambulation for paraplegic patients through controlling robotic exoskeletons; restore vision in people with acquired blindness; detect and control epileptic seizures; and improve control of movement disorders and memory enhancement. High-fidelity connectivity with small groups of neurons requires microelectrode placement in the cerebral cortex. Electrodes placed on the cortical surface are less invasive but produce inferior fidelity. Scalp surface recording using electroencephalography is much less precise. BCI technology is still in an early phase of development and awaits further technical improvements and larger multicentre clinical trials before wider clinical application and impact on the care of people with disabilities. There are also many ethical challenges to explore as this technology evolves.

  8. Construction of an Interface Terminology on SNOMED CT Generic Approach and Its Application in Intensive Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi-Raiez, F.; Ahmadian, L.; Cornet, R.; de Jonge, E.; de Keizer, N. F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a generic approach for developing a domain-specific interface terminology on SNOMED CT and to apply this approach to the domain of intensive care. Methods: The process of developing an interface terminology on SNOMED CT can be regarded as six sequential phases: domain analysis,

  9. Current transport across the pentacene/CVD-grown graphene interface for diode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berke, K; Tongay, S; McCarthy, M A; Rinzler, A G; Appleton, B R; Hebard, A F

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties across the pentacene/graphene interface. Current transport across the pentacene/graphene interface is found to be strikingly different from transport across pentacene/HOPG and pentacene/Cu interfaces. At low voltages, diodes using graphene as a bottom electrode display Poole-Frenkel emission, while diodes with HOPG and Cu electrodes are dominated by thermionic emission. At high voltages conduction is dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission for all three junctions. We propose that current across these interfaces can be accurately modeled by a combination of thermionic and Poole-Frenkel emission. Results presented not only suggest that graphene provides low resistive contacts to pentacene where a flat-laying orientation of pentacene and transparent metal electrodes are desired but also provides further understanding of the physics at the organic semiconductor/graphene interface. (paper)

  10. Current transport across the pentacene/CVD-grown graphene interface for diode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, K; Tongay, S; McCarthy, M A; Rinzler, A G; Appleton, B R; Hebard, A F

    2012-06-27

    We investigate the electronic transport properties across the pentacene/graphene interface. Current transport across the pentacene/graphene interface is found to be strikingly different from transport across pentacene/HOPG and pentacene/Cu interfaces. At low voltages, diodes using graphene as a bottom electrode display Poole–Frenkel emission, while diodes with HOPG and Cu electrodes are dominated by thermionic emission. At high voltages conduction is dominated by Poole–Frenkel emission for all three junctions. We propose that current across these interfaces can be accurately modeled by a combination of thermionic and Poole–Frenkel emission. Results presented not only suggest that graphene provides low resistive contacts to pentacene where a flat-laying orientation of pentacene and transparent metal electrodes are desired but also provides further understanding of the physics at the organic semiconductor/graphene interface.

  11. Contact resistance of ceramic interfaces between materials used for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, S.

    2002-01-01

    The contact resistance can be divided into two main contributions. The small area of contact between ceramic components results in resistance due to current constriction. Resistive phases or potential barriers at the interface result in an interface contribution to the contact resistance, which may be smaller or larger than the constriction resistance. The contact resistance between pairs of three different materials were analysed (strontium doped lanthanum manganite, yttria stabilised zirconia and strontium and nickel doped lanthanum cobaltite), and the effects of temperature, atmosphere, polarisation and mechanical load on the contact resistance were investigated. The investigations revealed that the mechanical load of a ceramic contact has a high influence on the contact resistance, and generally power law dependence between the contact resistance and the mechanical load was found. The influence of the mechanical load on the contact resistance was ascribed to an area effect. The contact resistance of the investigated materials was dominated by current constriction at high temperatures. The measured contact resistance was comparable to the resistance calculated on basis of the contact areas found by optical and electron microscopy. At low temperatures, the interface contribution to the contact resistance was dominating. The cobaltite interface could be described by one potential barrier at the contact interface, whereas the manganite interfaces required several consecutive potential barriers to model the observed behaviour. The current-voltage behaviour of the YSZ contact interfaces was only weakly non-linear, and could be described by 22{+-}1 barriers in series. Contact interfaces with sinterable contact layers were also investigated, and the measured contact resistance for these interfaces were more than 10 times less than for the other interfaces. (au)

  12. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  13. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  14. Internal interface: I/O communication with FPGA circuits and hardware description standard for applications in HEP and FEL electronics ver. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozniak, K.T. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems ELHEP Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    The work describes hardware layer of the universal, parameterized communication interface for application in the FPGA chips. The interface is called in this work as the ''Internal Interface'' or in short the ''II''. The paper shows how to automatically create the address and data space, according to the user declarations. The methods to standardize the I/O communication with FPGA chips are described. The communication uses library functions and standardized, parametric components in VHDL. Theoretical background and technical description of the Internal Interface are illustrated with a few easy examples of simple interfaces. (orig.)

  15. Internal interface: I/O communication with FPGA circuits and hardware description standard for applications in HEP and FEL electronics ver. 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozniak, K.T.

    2005-01-01

    The work describes hardware layer of the universal, parameterized communication interface for application in the FPGA chips. The interface is called in this work as the ''Internal Interface'' or in short the ''II''. The paper shows how to automatically create the address and data space, according to the user declarations. The methods to standardize the I/O communication with FPGA chips are described. The communication uses library functions and standardized, parametric components in VHDL. Theoretical background and technical description of the Internal Interface are illustrated with a few easy examples of simple interfaces. (orig.)

  16. Implementation of active electrodes on a brain-computer interface and its application as P300 speller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero Rojas, Eliecer

    2013-01-01

    A brain computer interface has implemented using open hardware called Modular EEG, created by The OpenEEG Project and distributed by the company Olimex Ltd. That hardware is modified to use active electrodes, instead of passive electrodes, for acquiring electroencephalographic signals. The application has been given to the interface has been a speller P300; for which has used the BC12000 open software that has the necessary configuration for the application. P300 speller has used a protocol in each session so that could be standardize the method to different users. Valuing the results with three neuropsychological tests, was within the objectives; however, has not been achieved by the limitation in time of project implementation. A brain computer interface has been used with passive electrodes; implemented in the same way that the BCI with active electrodes; and has worked better than the interface with active electrodes. One of the major advantages that has been observed of passive electrodes on the actives has been the size of the same, because the liabilities are smaller and therefore, easier to place preventing the hair of the user, which increases the noise in the signal. (author) [es

  17. SketchyDynamics: A Library for the Development of Physics Simulation Applications with Sketch-Based Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sketch-based interfaces provide a powerful, natural and intuitive way for users to interact with an application. By combining a sketch-based interface with a physically simulated environment, an application offers the means for users to rapidly sketch a set of objects, like if they are doing it on piece of paper, and see how these objects behave in a simulation. In this paper we present SketchyDynamics, a library that intends to facilitate the creation of applications by rapidly providing them a sketch-based interface and physics simulation capabilities. SketchyDynamics was designed to be versatile and customizable but also simple. In fact, a simple application where the user draws objects and they are immediately simulated, colliding with each other and reacting to the specified physical forces, can be created with only 3 lines of code. In order to validate SketchyDynamics design choices, we also present some details of the usability evaluation that was conducted with a proof-of-concept prototype

  18. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihui; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Chu, Xianfeng; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 μg/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2→358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 μg/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Applicability of the "Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset" as a user-friendly input interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutani, Hidenori; Ohsuga, Mieko

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to develop an input interface by using the P3 component of visual event-related potentials (ERPs). When using electroencephalography (EEG) in daily applications, coping with ocular-motor artifacts and ensuring that the equipment is user-friendly are both important. To address the first issue, we applied a previously proposed method that applies an unmixing matrix to acquire independent components (ICs) obtained from another dataset. For the second issue, we introduced a 14-channel EEG commercial headset called the "Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset". An advantage of the Emotiv headset is that users can put it on by themselves within 1 min without any specific skills. However, only a few studies have investigated whether EEG and ERP signals are accurately measured by Emotiv. Additionally, no electrodes of the Emotiv headset are located over the centroparietal area of the head where P3 components are reported to show large amplitudes. Therefore, we first demonstrated that the P3 components obtained by the headset and by commercial plate electrodes and a multipurpose bioelectric amplifier during an oddball task were comparable. Next, we confirmed that eye-blink and ocular movement components could be decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA) using the 14-channel signals measured by the headset. We also demonstrated that artifacts could be removed with an unmixing matrix, as long as the matrix was obtained from the same person, even if they were measured on different days. Finally, we confirmed that the fluctuation of the sampling frequency of the Emotiv headset was not a major problem.

  20. Optical nano-biosensing interface via nucleic acid amplification strategy: construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-03-21

    Modern optical detection technology plays a critical role in current clinical detection due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. However, higher requirements such as extremely high detection sensitivity have been put forward due to the clinical needs for the early finding and diagnosing of malignant tumors which are significant for tumor therapy. The technology of isothermal amplification with nucleic acids opens up avenues for meeting this requirement. Recent reports have shown that a nucleic acid amplification-assisted modern optical sensing interface has achieved satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, high speed and specificity. Compared with isothermal amplification technology designed to work completely in a solution system, solid biosensing interfaces demonstrated better performances in stability and sensitivity due to their ease of separation from the reaction mixture and the better signal transduction on these optical nano-biosensing interfaces. Also the flexibility and designability during the construction of these nano-biosensing interfaces provided a promising research topic for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer diseases. In this review, we describe the construction of the burgeoning number of optical nano-biosensing interfaces assisted by a nucleic acid amplification strategy, and provide insightful views on: (1) approaches to the smart fabrication of an optical nano-biosensing interface, (2) biosensing mechanisms via the nucleic acid amplification method, (3) the newest strategies and future perspectives.

  1. Effects of interface edge configuration on residual stress in the bonded structures for a divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagata, K.; Shibui, M.; Tachikawa, N.; Araki, M.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses in the interface region, that developed at the cool down during the brazing, were evaluated for several bonded structures to assess the mechanical strength of the bonded interface, using thermoelasto-plastic stress analysis. Normal stress components of the residual stresses around the interface edge of graphite-copper (C-Cu) bonded structures were compared for three types of bonded features such as flat-type, monoblock-type and saddle-type. The saddle-type structure was found to be favorable for its relatively low residual stress, easy fabrication accuracy on bonded interface and armor replacement. Residual stresses around the interface edge in three armor materials/copper bonded structures for a divertor plate were also examined for the C-Cu, tungsten-copper (W-Cu) and molybdenum alloy-copper (TZM-Cu), varying the interface wedge angle from 45 to 135 . An optimal bonded configuration for the least value of residual stress was found to have a wedge angle of 45 for the C-Cu, and 135 for both the W-Cu and TZM-Cu bonded ones. (orig.)

  2. IAEA consultants` meeting on atomic data base and fusion applications interface, Vienna, 9-13 May 1988. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R K

    1988-09-01

    The Summary Report of the IAEA Consultants` Meeting on the ``Atomic Data Base and Fusion Applications Interface`` held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on May 9-13, 1988, is provided. The Report contains a brief review of the meeting proceedings, and the reports of the Working Groups on the A and M dictionary (labelling/indexing system) and on the data storage and exchange system. The conclusions and recommendations of the meeting are also summarized. (author). Figs and tabs.

  3. IAEA consultants' meeting on atomic data base and fusion applications interface, Vienna, 9-13 May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.K.

    1988-09-01

    The Summary Report of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on the ''Atomic Data Base and Fusion Applications Interface'' held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on May 9-13, 1988, is provided. The Report contains a brief review of the meeting proceedings, and the reports of the Working Groups on the A and M dictionary (labelling/indexing system) and on the data storage and exchange system. The conclusions and recommendations of the meeting are also summarized. (author). Figs and tabs

  4. —Research Perspectives at the Interface of Marketing and Operations: Applications to the Motion Picture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Swami

    2006-01-01

    In this comment, I discuss some research issues at the interface of marketing and operations particularly relevant to the motion picture industry. The major focus of my comments will be on the exhibition component of the motion picture value chain. Based on research findings and available data, I discuss the following issues: dynamic and interesting characteristics of the motion picture industry, the applicability of management science tools to artistic products, the practitioners' viewpoint,...

  5. x-y-recording in transmission electron microscopy. A versatile and inexpensive interface to personal computers with application to stereology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, M; Siklós, L; Joó, F; Wolff, J R

    1990-09-01

    An interface for IBM XT/AT-compatible computers is described which has been designed to read the actual specimen stage position of electron microscopes. The complete system consists of (i) optical incremental encoders attached to the x- and y-stage drivers of the microscope, (ii) two keypads for operator input, (iii) an interface card fitted to the bus of the personal computer, (iv) a standard configuration IBM XT (or compatible) personal computer optionally equipped with a (v) HP Graphic Language controllable colour plotter. The small size of the encoders and their connection to the stage drivers by simple ribbed belts allows an easy adaptation of the system to most electron microscopes. Operation of the interface card itself is supported by any high-level language available for personal computers. By the modular concept of these languages, the system can be customized to various applications, and no computer expertise is needed for actual operation. The present configuration offers an inexpensive attachment, which covers a wide range of applications from a simple notebook to high-resolution (200-nm) mapping of tissue. Since section coordinates can be processed in real-time, stereological estimations can be derived directly "on microscope". This is exemplified by an application in which particle numbers were determined by the disector method.

  6. An MCBJ case study : The influence of π-conjugation on the single-molecule conductance at a solid/liquid interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Wenjing; Valkenier, Hennie; Meszaros, Gabor; Manrique, David Zsolt; Mishchenko, Artem; Putz, Alexander; Garcia, Pavel Moreno; Lambert, Colin J.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    π-Conjugation plays an important role in charge transport through single molecular junctions. We describe in this paper the construction of a mechanically controlled break-junction setup (MCBJ) equipped with a highly sensitive log I–V converter in order to measure ultralow conductances of molecular

  7. The impact of intramolecular π-coupling and steric flexibility on the ordering of organic films at solid/liquid-interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, Martino; Breuer, Stephan; Barati, Gholamreza; Sak, Emilia; Hingerl, Kurt; Müller, Ute; Müller, Manfred; Höger, Sigurd; Wandelt, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In the present work the effect of the intramolecular steric flexibility on the structural self-assembly of organic cations and their redox activity at a chloride precovered Cu(100) electrode is investigated. In particular the adsorption of 1,1‧-dibenzyl-4,4‧-(propane-1,3-diyl)dipyridinium (C3-DBDP) is studied by means of cyclic voltametry (CV), in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the experimental results are compared to previously published findings on related bipyridinium (“viologen”) molecules. The CV measurements reveal a loss of the redox activity of the more flexible C3-DBDP2 + compared to dibenzylviologen (DBV2 +), as the first electron reduction step of C3-DBDP2 + does not appear within the potential window of the Cu(100), but is shifted below the hydrogen evolution regime. This reduced redox activity is the result of the lifting of the extended π-system of the bipyridinium core by introducing the propyl chain between the two pyridinium rings. In agreement with this result, XP spectra prove that the C3-DBDP2 + cations retain their initial dicationic charge within the entire potential window in solution but also upon adsorption on the Cl-c(2x2)/Cu(100) substrate, where they are found to form an inter-linked stripe phase. The building blocks of each stripe are attributed to one pyridinium-benzyl moiety, which represents half of one C3-DBDP2 + molecule. The resulting consecutive arrangement of half C3-DBDP2 + molecules along one stripe is stabilized by electrostatic attraction between the positively charged pyridinium rings and the negatively charged π-system of the benzyl rings.

  8. The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride onto cotton nonwoven hydroentangled substrates at the solid-liquid interface is minimized by additive chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaternary ammonium compounds, commonly referred to as quats, are cationic surfactants widely used as the active biocide ingredient for disposable disinfecting wipes. The cationic nature of quats results in a strong ionic interaction and adsorption onto wipes materials that have an anionic surface ...

  9. Towards supramolecular engineering of functional nanomaterials: pre-programming multi-component 2D self-assembly at solid-liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Palma, Carlos-Andres; Bonini, Massimo; Samorì, Paolo

    2010-08-24

    Materials with a pre-programmed order at the supramolecular level can be engineered with a sub-nanometer precision making use of reversible non- covalent interactions. The intrinsic ability of supramolecular materials to recognize and exchange their constituents makes them constitutionally dynamic materials. The tailoring of the materials properties relies on the full control over the self-assembly behavior of molecular modules exposing recognition sites and incorporating functional units. In this review we focus on three classes of weak-interactions to form complex 2D architectures starting from properly designed molecular modules: van der Waals, metallo-ligand and hydrogen bonding. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies will provide evidence with a sub-nanometer resolution, on the formation of responsive multicomponent architectures with controlled geometries and properties. Such endeavor enriches the scientist capability of generating more and more complex smart materials featuring controlled functions and unprecedented properties.

  10. A technical review of liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation equipment in the field of nuclear-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid/liquid extraction is generally accepted as the preferred method in nuclear-fuel reprocessing. However, although many types of liquid/liquid contactors are available, only a few meet the stringent specifications set by the nuclear industry. This report discusses the criteria for contactor selection and then reviews the most important types, namely packed columns, pulsed columns, mixer-setters and centrifugal contactors. Finally, a short section concerned with solid/liquid separations is included because of the possible deleterious effects caused by solids in liquid/liquid contactors

  11. The Silica-Water Interface from the Analysis of Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lardhi, Sheikha F.

    2013-05-01

    Surface chemistry is an emerging field that can give detailed insight about the elec- tronic properties and the interaction of complex material surfaces with their neigh- bors. This is for both solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces. Among the latter class, the silica-water interface plays a major role in nature. Silica is among the most abundant materials on earth, as well in advanced technological applications such as catalysis and nanotechnology. This immediately indicates the relevance of a detailed understanding of the silica-water interface. In this study, we investigate the details of this interaction at microscopic level by analyzing trajectories obtained with ab initio molecular dynamic simulations. The system we consider consists of bulk liquid water confined between two β-cristobalite silica surfaces. The molecular dynamics were generated with the CP2K, an ab initio molecular dynamic simulation tool. The simulations are 25 picoseconds long, and the CP2K program was run on 64 cores on a supercomputer cluster. During the simulations the program integrates Newton’s equations of motion for the system and generates the trajectory for analysis. For analysis, we focused on the following properties that characterize the silica water interface. We calculated the density profile of the water layers from the silica surface, and we also calculated the radial distribution function (RDF) of the hydrogen bond at the silanols on the silica surface. The main focus of this thesis is to write the programs for calculating the atom density profile and the RDF from the generated MD trajectories. The atomic probability density profile shows that water is strongly adsorbed on the (001) cristobalite surface, while the RDF indicates differently ad- sorbed water molecules in the first adsorption layer. As final remark, the protocol and the tools developed in this thesis can be applied to the study of basically any crystal-water interface.

  12. Development and application of YSJ-1 type oil-water interface level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Punan

    2003-01-01

    A new type nuclear device for measuring the oil-water interface level as well as the total liquid level was presented. A series of new methods, such as non-linear fitting of the level, automatic compensations for the deviation caused by the decay of radioactive source, the medium's temperature, etc., were employed. Comparing with other non-nuclear techniques, this device has the following advantages: non-contact surveying, anti-interference of paraffin wax coagulating and a little of repairing. The measuring range is 0-200cm for total liquid level and 0-100cm for oil-water interface level respectively. The measurement precision is 1% for total liquid level and 2% for the interface level respectively. The respond time is ≤10s, the long time stability ≤0.5% FS/48h and the temperature influence ≤0.01% FS /degree C. The gauge can be used in surveying oil-water interface level and total liquid level in oil-water separation tanks on oil fields. It is also suitable to measure the interface level of two kinds of liquids as well as the total liquid level in various storage tanks

  13. Fusion interfaces for tactical environments: An application of virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael W.

    1994-01-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and nonvirtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory, and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multisensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion interface concepts. This new facility, the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments (FITE) Facility is a specialized flight simulator enabling efficient concept development through rapid prototyping and direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE Facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operation fighter pilots in an air combat environment. The facility is utilized by a multidisciplinary design team composed of human factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, experimental psychologists, and oeprational pilots. The FITE computational architecture is composed of twenty-five 80486-based microcomputers operating in real-time. The microcomputers generate out-the-window visuals, in-cockpit and head-mounted visuals, localized auditory presentations, haptic displays on the stick and rudder pedals, as well as executing weapons models, aerodynamic models, and threat models.

  14. Grid-Forming-Mode Operation of Boost-Power-Stage Converter in PV-Generator-Interfacing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Viinamäki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of constant power control and inclusion of energy storage in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV energy systems may increase the use of two-stage system structures composed of DC–DC-converter-interfaced PV generator and grid-connected inverter connected in cascade. A typical PV-generator-interfacing DC–DC converter is a boost-power-stage converter. The renewable energy system may operate in three different operation modes—grid-forming, grid-feeding, and grid-supporting modes. In the last two operation modes, the outmost feedback loops are taken from the input terminal of the associated power electronic converters, which usually does not pose stability problems in terms of their input sources. In the grid-forming operation mode, the outmost feedback loops have to be connected to the output terminal of the associated power electronic converters, and hence the input terminal will behave as a negative incremental resistor at low frequencies. This property will limit the operation of the PV interfacing converter in either the constant voltage or constant current region of the PV generator for ensuring stable operation. The boost-power-stage converter can be applied as a voltage or current-fed converter limiting the stable operation region accordingly. The investigations of this paper show explicitly that only the voltage-fed mode would provide feasible dynamic and stability properties as a viable interfacing converter.

  15. Application of the functional surface/interface of Nano/Micro systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiping

    Investigation of the surface/ interface of Nano/Micro systems plays an essential role in lots of areas, include the synthesis and assembly of nanostructures, evaporation of liquid, etc. Through studying the interaction between the polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and the surface of the silver nanowires (AgNWs), it was found that the PVP, serving as a capping agent, has a great impact on the morphology and structure of AgNWs. By means of a series of experiments, the critical minimum PVP chain length for successful formation of uniform nanowires was discovered, below which, only nanoparticles or short Nano rods can be obtained. Surprisingly, a core-shell structure of nanowire with a polycrystal was observed when the PVP with very long chain length was employed in the processing. By controlling the interaction between the Ag NWs and the surface of the substrates, a one-step method was developed for the fabrication of electrodes with patterns. Such film comprising Ag NWs were only self-growing or grafted on a hydrophilic surface area instead of the hydrophobic one. Thus, the selective patterning of the conducting film on the hybrid substrate surface can be realized, which is etching-free method for metal removal usually for the fabrication of electrodes by lithographic process or laser cutting. Therefore, such technique for producing conducting film is green and environmental friendly. A biochip based silver nano dendritic structures was fabricated to detect Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is a common tumor marker in clinical tests. Results show that the Raman signal of the CEA enhanced by about 10 4 times compared with silver nanowires, which is capable of detecting CEA at 1 fg/mL. The surface of liquid water, especial the hydration of ions on the surface, which are of fundamental interest and have potential applications, remain unclear. A fantastic and extraordinary phenomenon was observed during the evaporation of a water droplet doped with manganese chloride. As

  16. Application of ecological interface design in nuclear power plant (NPP operator support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Anokhin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most publications confirm that an ecological interface is a very efficient tool to supporting operators in recognition of complex and unusual situations and in decision-making. The present article describes the experience of implementation of an ecological interface concept for visualization of material balance in a drum separator of RBMK-type NPPs. Functional analysis of the domain area was carried out and revealed main factors and contributors to the balance. The proposed ecological display was designed to facilitate execution of the most complicated cognitive operations, such as comparison, summarizing, prediction, etc. The experimental series carried out at NPPs demonstrated considerable reduction of operators' mental load, time of reaction, and error rate. Keywords: Ecological Interface Design, Experimental Evaluation, Model, Work Domain Analysis

  17. The EnMAP-Box—A Toolbox and Application Programming Interface for EnMAP Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian van der Linden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The EnMAP-Box is a toolbox that is developed for the processing and analysis of data acquired by the German spaceborne imaging spectrometer EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program. It is developed with two aims in mind in order to guarantee full usage of future EnMAP data, i.e., (1 extending the EnMAP user community and (2 providing access to recent approaches for imaging spectroscopy data processing. The software is freely available and offers a range of tools and applications for the processing of spectral imagery, including classical processing tools for imaging spectroscopy data as well as powerful machine learning approaches or interfaces for the integration of methods available in scripting languages. A special developer version includes the full open source code, an application programming interface and an application wizard for easy integration and documentation of new developments. This paper gives an overview of the EnMAP-Box for users and developers, explains typical workflows along an application example and exemplifies the concept for making it a frequently used and constantly extended platform for imaging spectroscopy applications.

  18. A variational treatment of material configurations with application to interface motion and microstructural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Gregory H.; Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna

    2017-02-01

    We present a unified variational treatment of evolving configurations in crystalline solids with microstructure. The crux of our treatment lies in the introduction of a vector configurational field. This field lies in the material, or configurational, manifold, in contrast with the traditional displacement field, which we regard as lying in the spatial manifold. We identify two distinct cases which describe (a) problems in which the configurational field's evolution is localized to a mathematically sharp interface, and (b) those in which the configurational field's evolution can extend throughout the volume. The first case is suitable for describing incoherent phase interfaces in polycrystalline solids, and the latter is useful for describing smooth changes in crystal structure and naturally incorporates coherent (diffuse) phase interfaces. These descriptions also lead to parameterizations of the free energies for the two cases, from which variational treatments can be developed and equilibrium conditions obtained. For sharp interfaces that are out-of-equilibrium, the second law of thermodynamics furnishes restrictions on the kinetic law for the interface velocity. The class of problems in which the material undergoes configurational changes between distinct, stable crystal structures are characterized by free energy density functions that are non-convex with respect to configurational strain. For physically meaningful solutions and mathematical well-posedness, it becomes necessary to incorporate interfacial energy. This we have done by introducing a configurational strain gradient dependence in the free energy density function following ideas laid out by Toupin (1962, Elastic materials with couple-stresses. Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 11, 385-414). The variational treatment leads to a system of partial differential equations governing the configuration that is coupled with the traditional equations of nonlinear elasticity. The coupled system of equations governs

  19. Interface model coupling in fluid dynamics: application to two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galie, Th.

    2009-03-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of interface model coupling problems in space between different models of compressible flows. We consider one-dimensional problems where the interface is sharp, fixed and separating two regions of space corresponding to the two coupled models. Our goal is to define a coupling condition at the interface and to solve numerically the coupling problem with this condition. After a state of art on the interface model coupling of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, we propose a new coupling condition by adding in the equations of the coupled problem a measure source term at the interface. We first suppose a given constant weight associated to this source term. Two Riemann solvers are developed and one of them is based on a relaxation approach preserving equilibrium solutions of the coupled problem. This relaxation method is then used in an optimization problem, defined by several motivations at the interface, which permits to calculate a time dynamical weight. In a second part, we develop an approached Riemann solver for a two-phase two-pressure model in the particular case of a two-phase isentropic flow. Such a model contains non conservative terms that we write under the form of measure source terms. The previous relaxation method is thus extended to the case of the two-phase two-pressure model with an a priori estimation of the non conservative term contributions. The method allows us to solve, in the next and last chapter, the coupling problem of a two-fluid two-pressure model with a drift-flux model thanks to the father model approach. (authors)

  20. Eye gaze in intelligent user interfaces gaze-based analyses, models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Yukiko I; Bader, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in eye-tracking technologies opened the way to design novel attention-based intelligent user interfaces, and highlighted the importance of better understanding of eye-gaze in human-computer interaction and human-human communication. For instance, a user's focus of attention is useful in interpreting the user's intentions, their understanding of the conversation, and their attitude towards the conversation. In human face-to-face communication, eye gaze plays an important role in floor management, grounding, and engagement in conversation.Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfac

  1. Semiconductor-Electrocatalyst Interfaces: Theory, Experiment, and Applications in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellist, Michael R; Laskowski, Forrest A L; Lin, Fuding; Mills, Thomas J; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2016-04-19

    Light-absorbing semiconductor electrodes coated with electrocatalysts are key components of photoelectrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. Efforts to optimize these systems have been slowed by an inadequate understanding of the semiconductor-electrocatalyst (sem|cat) interface. The sem|cat interface is important because it separates and collects photoexcited charge carriers from the semiconductor. The photovoltage generated by the interface drives "uphill" photochemical reactions, such as water splitting to form hydrogen fuel. Here we describe efforts to understand the microscopic processes and materials parameters governing interfacial electron transfer between light-absorbing semiconductors, electrocatalysts, and solution. We highlight the properties of transition-metal oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts, such as Ni(Fe)OOH, because they are the fastest oxygen-evolution catalysts known in alkaline media and are (typically) permeable to electrolyte. We describe the physics that govern the charge-transfer kinetics for different interface types, and show how numerical simulations can explain the response of composite systems. Emphasis is placed on "limiting" behavior. Electrocatalysts that are permeable to electrolyte form "adaptive" junctions where the interface energetics change during operation as charge accumulates in the catalyst, but is screened locally by electrolyte ions. Electrocatalysts that are dense, and thus impermeable to electrolyte, form buried junctions where the interface physics are unchanged during operation. Experiments to directly measure the interface behavior and test the theory/simulations are challenging because conventional photoelectrochemical techniques do not measure the electrocatalyst potential during operation. We developed dual-working-electrode (DWE) photoelectrochemistry to address this limitation. A second electrode is attached to the catalyst layer to sense or control current/voltage independent from that of the

  2. Improving the accessibility at home: implementation of a domotic application using a p300-based brain computer interface system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Corralejo Palacios

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a Brain Computer Interface (BCI application to control domotic devices usually present at home. Previous studies have shown that people with severe disabilities, both physical and cognitive ones, do not achieve high accuracy results using motor imagery-based BCIs. To overcome this limitation, we propose the implementation of a BCI application using P300 evoked potentials, because neither extensive training nor extremely high concentration level are required for this kind of BCIs. The implemented BCI application allows to control several devices as TV, DVD player, mini Hi-Fi system, multimedia hard drive, telephone, heater, fan and lights. Our aim is that potential users, i.e. people with severe disabilities, are able to achieve high accuracy. Therefore, this domotic BCI application is useful to increase

  3. Application of GPU to Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatake, Taku; Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    In the nuclear engineering fields, a high performance computer system is necessary to perform the large scale computations. Recently, a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been developed as a rendering computational system in order to reduce a Central Processing Unit (CPU) load. In the graphics processing, the high performance computing is needed to render the high-quality 3D objects in some video games. Thus the GPU consists of many processing units and a wide memory bandwidth. In this study, the Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver (MARS) which is one of the interface volume tracking methods for multi-phase flows has been performed. The multi-phase flow computation is very important for the nuclear reactors and other engineering fields. The MARS consists of two computing parts: the interface tracking part and the fluid motion computing part. As for the interface tracking part, the performance of GPU (GTX280) was 6 times faster than that of the CPU (Dual-Xeon 5040), and in the fluid motion computing part the Poisson Solver by the GPU (GTX285) was 22 times faster than that by the CPU(Core i7). As for the Dam Breaking Problem, the result of GPU-MARS showed slightly different from the experimental result. Because the GPU-MARS was developed using the single-precision GPU, it can be considered that the round-off error might be accumulated. (author)

  4. Assessment of Application Technology of Natural User Interfaces in the Creation of a Virtual Chemical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Piotr; Wolski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Natural User Interfaces (NUI) are now widely used in electronic devices such as smartphones, tablets and gaming consoles. We have tried to apply this technology in the teaching of chemistry in middle school and high school. A virtual chemical laboratory was developed in which students can simulate the performance of laboratory activities similar…

  5. Smart and green interfaces: From single bubbles/drops to industrial environmental and biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutschk, Victoria; Karapantsios, T.; Liggieri, L.; McMillan, N.; Miller, R.; Starov, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Interfaces can be called Smart and Green (S&G) when tailored such that the required technologies can be implemented with high efficiency, adaptability and selectivity. At the same time they also have to be eco-friendly, i.e. products must be biodegradable, reusable or simply more durable. Bubble and

  6. Determination of the electronic density of states near buried interfaces: Application to Co/Cu multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Sthör, J.; Wiell, T.

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution L(3) x-ray absorption and emission spectra of Co and Cu in Co/Cu multilayers are shown to provide unique information on the occupied and unoccupied density of d states near buried interfaces. The d bands of both Co and Cu interfacial layers are shown to be considerably narrowed...

  7. Light Stimulation Properties to Influence Brain Activity: A Brain-CoMputer Interface application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieger, J.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enable people to control appliances without involving the normal output pathways of peripheral nervesand muscles. A particularly promising type of BCI is based on the Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Users can selectcommands by focusing their attention

  8. Brain Machine Interfaces : technology status, applications and the way to the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Duistermaat, M.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable direct communication between the brain or nervous system and a machine without involving the sensory-motor system. BMIs are an embryonic technology and remarkable accomplishments have recently been reported. BMIs have a high potential and possibly an enormous

  9. 1D and 2D graphdiynes. Recent advances on the synthesis at interfaces and potential nanotechnological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi; Molina-Jiron, Concepcion; Klyatskaya, Svetlana [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Klappenberger, Florian [Physik Department E20, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ruben, Mario [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); IPCMS-CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg (France)

    2017-11-15

    In solution-based chemistry butadiyne linkage through the homocoupling reaction of alkynes is a versatile tool for the synthesis of π-conjugated polymers, scaffolds and networks. To date this strategy was actively implemented towards chemical synthesis at interfaces. In this review paper we summarize recent advances in the syntheses of 1D wires, 2D single-layers and thin films of graphdiyne-related carbon materials at interfaces and their potential applications in nanotechnology. With a high degree of π-conjunction, uniformly distributed pores and tunable electronic properties such 2D all-carbon networks with butadiyne linkages also known as 'graphdiynes' have been successfully employed in the field-effected emission devices, solar cells, for Li ion storage and oil water separation, and as catalysis or chemical sensors. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Downsizer - A Graphical User Interface-Based Application for Browsing, Acquiring, and Formatting Time-Series Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Garrison, Christian; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Downsizer is a computer application that selects, downloads, verifies, and formats station-based time-series data for environmental-resource models, particularly the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. Downsizer implements the client-server software architecture. The client presents a map-based, graphical user interface that is intuitive to modelers; the server provides streamflow and climate time-series data from over 40,000 measurement stations across the United States. This report is the Downsizer user's manual and provides (1) an overview of the software design, (2) installation instructions, (3) a description of the graphical user interface, (4) a description of selected output files, and (5) troubleshooting information.

  11. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of PMMA/n-heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCM for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization and thermal properties of microencapsulated n-heptadecane with polymethylmethacrylate shell. The PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules were synthesized as novel solid-liquid microencapsulated phase change material (microPCMs) by emulsion polymerization method. The chemical and thermal characterization of the microPCMs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The diameters of microPCMs were found in the narrow range (0.14-0.40 μm) under the stirring speed of 2000 rpm. The spherical surfaces of microPCMs were smooth and compact. The DSC results show that microPCMs have good energy storage capacity. Thermal cycling test showed that the microPCMs have good thermal reliability with respect to the changes in their thermal properties after repeated 5000 thermal cycling. TGA analyses also indicated that the microPCMs degraded in three steps and have good thermal stability. Based on all results, it can be considered that the PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCMs have good energy storage potential.

  12. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AthenaTV: an authoring tool of educational applications for TV using android-based interface design patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Ramírez, Raquel; Alor-Hernández, Giner; Sánchez-Ramírez, Cuauhtémoc; Guzmán-Luna, Jaime; Zatarain-Cabada, Ramón; Barrón-Estrada, María-Lucía

    2014-07-01

    Education has become a key component of any society since it is the means by which humanity functions and governs itself. It allows individuals to appropriately integrate into a given community. For this reason, new ways of interaction between students and educational contents are emerging in order to improve the quality of education. In this context, devices such as computers, smartphones, or electronic tablets represent new ways of accessing educational resources which do not limit students to their usage merely inside the classroom since these devices are available anywhere. Nowadays, television has become one of these technological tools able to support the teaching-learning process through documentary films or movies, among others. However, two main issues appear. First, some of these educational contents are not those needed by a professor since information is restricted, and second, the development of TV-based applications requires an integrative approach involving the support of several specialists in education who provide the guidelines needed to build high-quality contents, as well as application designers and developers who are able to deliver the educational applications demanded by students. This work presents a system called AthenaTV to generate android-based educational applications for TV. AthenaTV takes into account the 10-foot design scheme used by Google to develop interfaces based on interface design patterns established in Google TV, and it is based on the android development guidelines and HTML5 standard.

  14. Multi-scale structuration of the electrode-electrolyte interface for applications in bio-electro-catalysis; Structuration multi-echelle de l'interface electrode-electrolyte pour des applications en bioelectrocatalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., LACReM, ENSCPB, 33 - Pessac (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, two approaches have been combined to elaborate bio-functionalized interfaces having an original structure and well defined at several characteristic scales. These two approaches are 1)the growth of conducting or non conducting materials through organized structures and 2)the chemistry of non-covalent intermolecular bonds leading to the assembling of molecules towards interfacial structures having greatest size. With a deep physico-chemical characterization, it has been possible to understand the properties of these multi-scale structures and to propose different applications fields as for instance bio-electro-catalysis or photovoltaic cells. (O.M.)

  15. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today's safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL

  16. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G.; Peebles, R.C.; Smith, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today's safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL

  17. TOOKUIL: A case study in user interface development for safety code application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.L.; Harkins, C.K.; Hoole, J.G. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Traditionally, there has been a very high learning curve associated with using nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis codes. Even for seasoned plant analysts and engineers, the process of building or modifying an input model for present day NPP analysis codes is tedious, error prone, and time consuming. Current cost constraints and performance demands place an additional burden on today`s safety analysis community. Advances in graphical user interface (GUI) technology have been applied to obtain significant productivity and quality assurance improvements for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) input model development. KAPL Inc. has developed an X Windows-based graphical user interface named TOOKUIL which supports the design and analysis process, acting as a preprocessor, runtime editor, help system, and post processor for TRAC. This paper summarizes the objectives of the project, the GUI development process and experiences, and the resulting end product, TOOKUIL.

  18. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV- assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide (PEO based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The resulting polymer-coated virus-based system was then peeled from the PTFE backing to produce a flexible electrode-electrolyte component. Electrochemical studies indicated the virus-structured metal-oxide PEO-based interface was stable and displayed robust charge transfer kinetics. Combined, these studies demonstrate the development of a novel solid-state electrode architecture with a unique peelable and flexible processing attribute.

  19. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2013-01-01

    . The generation and moderation of neutrons is simulated using a full scale MCNPX model of the ESS target monolith. Upon entering the beam extraction region, the individual neutron states are handed to McStas via the MCNPX-McStas interface. McStas transports the neutrons through the beam guide and by using newly......Recently, an interface between the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the neutron ray-tracing code MCNPX was developed[1]. Based on the expected neutronic performance and guide geometries relevant for the ESS, the combined MCNPX-McStas code is used to calculate dose rates along neutron beam guides...... developed event logging capability, the neutron state parameters corresponding to un-reflected neutrons are recorded at each scattering. This information is handed back to MCNPX where it serves as neutron source input for a second MCNPX simulation. This simulation enables calculation of dose rates...

  20. Orientation-modulated attention effect on visual evoked potential: Application for PIN system using brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilaiprasitporn, Theerawit; Yagi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    This research demonstrates the orientation-modulated attention effect on visual evoked potential. We combined this finding with our previous findings about the motion-modulated attention effect and used the result to develop novel visual stimuli for a personal identification number (PIN) application based on a brain-computer interface (BCI) framework. An electroencephalography amplifier with a single electrode channel was sufficient for our application. A computationally inexpensive algorithm and small datasets were used in processing. Seven healthy volunteers participated in experiments to measure offline performance. Mean accuracy was 83.3% at 13.9 bits/min. Encouraged by these results, we plan to continue developing the BCI-based personal identification application toward real-time systems.

  1. Development and ITER relevant application of a user friendly interface (TEM) for use with the TMAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.R.; Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Sood, S.K.; Delisle, M.; Natalizio, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tritium Enclosure Model (TEM) has been developed as a user friendly interface to facilitate the application of the previously validated, verified and ITER approved TMAP4 Code. TEM (and TMAP4) dynamically analyzes the movement of tritium through structures, between structures and adjoining enclosures. Credible ITER relevant accident scenarios were developed and analyzed. The analyses considered the scenario with the cleanup system active or inactive, with and without the surface interactions. For surface interaction cases, the epoxy characteristics reported in the TMAP4 User Manual were used. Typical applications for TEM are the estimation of time-dependent tritium inventories in enclosures, as well as emissions to the environment following an accidental spill into any set of enclosures connected to cleanup systems. This paper outlines the various features of TEM and reports on the application of TEM to determine environmental source terms for the ITER Fuel Cycle and Cooling Systems, under chronic and accidental tritium releases. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics: an application to a crack touching the bimaterial interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, L.; Hutař, Pavel; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 452-453, - (2011), s. 445-448 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803; GA ČR GA101/09/1821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : generalized stress intensity factor * bimaterial interface * composite materials * strain energy density factor * fracture criterion * generalized linear elastic fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE WITH APPLICATIONS IN SUSCEPTIBLE-INFECTIOUS-SUSCEPTIBLE MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Arotăriţei, D; Rotariu, Mariana; Popescu, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    Practical significance of understanding the dynamics and evolution of infectious diseases increases continuously in contemporary world. The mathematical study of the dynamics of infectious diseases has a long history. By incorporating statistical methods and computer-based simulations in dynamic epidemiological models, it could be possible for modeling methods and theoretical analyses to be more realistic and reliable, allowing a more detailed understanding of the rules governing epidemic spreading. To provide the basis for a disease transmission, the population of a region is often divided into various compartments, and the model governing their relation is called the compartmental model. To present all of the information available, a graphical user interface provides icons and visual indicators. The graphical interface shown in this paper is performed using the MATLAB software ver. 7.6.0. MATLAB software offers a wide range of techniques by which data can be displayed graphically. The process of data viewing involves a series of operations. To achieve it, I had to make three separate files, one for defining the mathematical model and two for the interface itself. Considering a fixed population, it is observed that the number of susceptible individuals diminishes along with an increase in the number of infectious individuals so that in about ten days the number of individuals infected and susceptible, respectively, has the same value. If the epidemic is not controlled, it will continue for an indefinite period of time. By changing the global parameters specific of the SIS model, a more rapid increase of infectious individuals is noted. Using the graphical user interface shown in this paper helps achieving a much easier interaction with the computer, simplifying the structure of complex instructions by using icons and menus, and, in particular, programs and files are much easier to organize. Some numerical simulations have been presented to illustrate theoretical

  4. Investigation on sense of control parameters for joystick interface in remote operated container crane application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, U. N. N.; Handroos, H.

    2017-09-01

    Introduction: This paper presents the study of sense of control parameters to improve the lack of direct motion feeling through remote operated container crane station (ROCCS) joystick interface. The investigations of the parameters in this study are important to develop the engineering parameters related to the sense of control goal in the next design process. Methodology: Structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain the user experience data from thirteen remote container crane operators from two international terminals. Then, interview analysis, task analysis, activity analysis and time line analysis were conducted to compare and contrast the results from interviews and observations. Results: Four experience parameters were identified to support the sense of control goal in the later design improvement of the ROCC joystick interface. The significance of difficulties to control, unsynchronized movements, facilitate in control and decision making in unexpected situation as parameters to the sense of control goal were validated by' feedbacks from operators as well as analysis. Contribution: This study provides feedback directly from end users towards developing a sustainable control interface for ROCCS in specific and remote operated off-road vehicles in general.

  5. Application of EMD-Based SVD and SVM to Coal-Gangue Interface Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal-gangue interface detection during top-coal caving mining is a challenging problem. This paper proposes a new vibration signal analysis approach to detecting the coal-gangue interface based on singular value decomposition (SVD techniques and support vector machines (SVMs. Due to the nonstationary characteristics in vibration signals of the tail boom support of the longwall mining machine in this complicated environment, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD is used to decompose the raw vibration signals into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs by which the initial feature vector matrices can be formed automatically. By applying the SVD algorithm to the initial feature vector matrices, the singular values of matrices can be obtained and used as the input feature vectors of SVMs classifier. The analysis results of vibration signals from the tail boom support of a longwall mining machine show that the method based on EMD, SVD, and SVM is effective for coal-gangue interface detection even when the number of samples is small.

  6. The Euler’s Graphical User Interface Spreadsheet Calculator for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations by Visual Basic for Application Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaik Tay, Kim; Cheong, Tau Han; Foong Lee, Ming; Kek, Sie Long; Abdul-Kahar, Rosmila

    2017-08-01

    In the previous work on Euler’s spreadsheet calculator for solving an ordinary differential equation, the Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming was used, however, a graphical user interface was not developed to capture users input. This weakness may make users confuse on the input and output since those input and output are displayed in the same worksheet. Besides, the existing Euler’s spreadsheet calculator is not interactive as there is no prompt message if there is a mistake in inputting the parameters. On top of that, there are no users’ instructions to guide users to input the derivative function. Hence, in this paper, we improved previous limitations by developing a user-friendly and interactive graphical user interface. This improvement is aimed to capture users’ input with users’ instructions and interactive prompt error messages by using VBA programming. This Euler’s graphical user interface spreadsheet calculator is not acted as a black box as users can click on any cells in the worksheet to see the formula used to implement the numerical scheme. In this way, it could enhance self-learning and life-long learning in implementing the numerical scheme in a spreadsheet and later in any programming language.

  7. MeV+R: using MeV as a graphical user interface for Bioconductor applications in microarray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Vu T; Gottardo, Raphael; Raftery, Adrian E; Bumgarner, Roger E; Yeung, Ka Yee

    2008-01-01

    We present MeV+R, an integration of the JAVA MultiExperiment Viewer program with Bioconductor packages. This integration of MultiExperiment Viewer and R is easily extensible to other R packages and provides users with point and click access to traditionally command line driven tools written in R. We demonstrate the ability to use MultiExperiment Viewer as a graphical user interface for Bioconductor applications in microarray data analysis by incorporating three Bioconductor packages, RAMA, BRIDGE and iterativeBMA. PMID:18652698

  8. Research on e-commerce transaction networks using multi-agent modelling and open application programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunhui; Han, Xufang; Wu, Harris

    2010-08-01

    We provide a formal definition of an e-commerce transaction network. Agent-based modelling is used to simulate e-commerce transaction networks. For real-world analysis, we studied the open application programming interfaces (APIs) from eBay and Taobao e-commerce websites and captured real transaction data. Pajek is used to visualise the agent relationships in the transaction network. We derived one-mode networks from the transaction network and analysed them using degree and betweenness centrality. Integrating multi-agent modelling, open APIs and social network analysis, we propose a new way to study large-scale e-commerce systems.

  9. Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong

    Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non

  10. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy of surfactants at liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Paulo B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-14

    Surfactants are widely used to modify physical and chemical properties of interfaces. They play an important role in many technological problems. Surfactant monolayer are also of great scientific interest because they are two-dimensional systems that may exhibit a very rich phase transition behavior and can also be considered as a model system for biological interfaces. In this Thesis, we use a second-order nonlinear optical technique (Sum-Frequency Generation - SFG) to obtain vibrational spectra of surfactant monolayer at Iiquidhapor and solid/liquid interfaces. The technique has several advantages: it is intrinsically surface-specific, can be applied to buried interfaces, has submonolayer sensitivity and is remarkably sensitive to the confirmational order of surfactant monolayers.

  11. Study and application of human reliability analysis for digital human-system interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ming; Liu Yanzi; Zhang Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of human-orientated abilities and limitations could be used to digital human-system interface (HSI) design by human reliability analysis (HRA) technology. Further, control room system design could achieve the perfect match of man-machine-environment. This research was conducted to establish an integrated HRA method. This method identified HSI potential design flaws which may affect human performance and cause human error. Then a systematic approach was adopted to optimize HSI. It turns out that this method is practical and objective, and effectively improves the safety, reliability and economy of nuclear power plant. This method was applied to CRP1000 projects under construction successfully with great potential. (authors)

  12. The application of standardized control and interface circuits to three dc to dc power converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Lalli, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Standardized control and interface circuits were applied to the three most commonly used dc to dc converters: the buck-boost converter, the series-switching buck regulator, and the pulse-modulated parallel inverter. The two-loop ASDTIC regulation control concept was implemented by using a common analog control signal processor and a novel digital control signal processor. This resulted in control circuit standardization and superior static and dynamic performance of the three dc-to-dc converters. Power components stress control, through active peak current limiting and recovery of switching losses, was applied to enhance reliability and converter efficiency.

  13. Implantable neurotechnologies: bidirectional neural interfaces--applications and VLSI circuit implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Elliot; Masters, Matthew R; Thakor, Nitish V

    2016-01-01

    A bidirectional neural interface is a device that transfers information into and out of the nervous system. This class of devices has potential to improve treatment and therapy in several patient populations. Progress in very large-scale integration has advanced the design of complex integrated circuits. System-on-chip devices are capable of recording neural electrical activity and altering natural activity with electrical stimulation. Often, these devices include wireless powering and telemetry functions. This review presents the state of the art of bidirectional circuits as applied to neuroprosthetic, neurorepair, and neurotherapeutic systems.

  14. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an interface between the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the neutron ray-tracing code MCNPX was developed [1, 2]. Based on the expected neutronic performance and guide geometries relevant for the ESS, the combined MCNPX-McStas code is used to calculate dose rates along neutron beam guides......, and by using newly developed event logging capability, the neutron state parameters corresponding to un-reflected neutrons are recorded at each scattering. This information is handed back to MCNPX where it serves as neutron source input for a second MCNPX simulation. This simulation enables calculation of dose...

  15. Assessment of Application Technology of Natural User Interfaces in the Creation of a Virtual Chemical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodziński, Piotr; Wolski, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Natural User Interfaces (NUI) are now widely used in electronic devices such as smartphones, tablets and gaming consoles. We have tried to apply this technology in the teaching of chemistry in middle school and high school. A virtual chemical laboratory was developed in which students can simulate the performance of laboratory activities similar to those that they perform in a real laboratory. Kinect sensor was used for the detection and analysis of the student's hand movements, which is an example of NUI. The studies conducted found the effectiveness of educational virtual laboratory. The extent to which the use of a teaching aid increased the students' progress in learning chemistry was examined. The results indicate that the use of NUI creates opportunities to both enhance and improve the quality of the chemistry education. Working in a virtual laboratory using the Kinect interface results in greater emotional involvement and an increased sense of self-efficacy in the laboratory work among students. As a consequence, students are getting higher marks and are more interested in the subject of chemistry.

  16. Development of a user interface for the TSR and its application for beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetzlaff, K.

    1997-01-01

    One of the topics of the following work is the development of a user interface for the control system of the heavy ion storage ring TSR at the Max-Planck-Institut for nuclear physics in Heidelberg. The new software has been developed with the programming language Visual Basic TM under the operating system Windows 95 TM . Its purpose is on one hand to enable the operator(s) to calculate some of the parameters for the adjustment of the storage ring on the other hand it improves the means of data acquisition from current, Schottky and BTF (beam transfer function) measurements. To achieve a simple operation of the program has been one of the primary goals during the development of the program. The new user interface was practically tested within three beam times. The collected data was examined to obtain information about momentum spread, longitudinal coupling impedance and minimal detection limit for the number of ions. A measurement with a 32 S 16+ beam rsulted in a limit of about 300. (orig.) [de

  17. IEEE P1596, a scalable coherent interface for GigaByte/sec multiprocessor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1988-11-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained during the development of Fastbus (IEEE 960), Futurebus (IEEE 896.1) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of shared memory; and support for segmentation, bus repeaters and general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or full crossbar networks. To achieve these ambitious goals, SCI must sacrifice the immediate handshake characteristic of the present generation of buses in favor of a packet-like split-cycle protocol. Wire-ORs, broadcasts, and even ordinary passive bus structures are to be avoided. However, a lower performance (1 GByte/sec per backplane instead of per processor) implementation using a register insertion ring architecture on a passive ''backplane'' appears to be possible using the same interface as for the more costly switch networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, and reports the status of the work in progress

  18. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.; Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

  19. Electroplex emission at PVK/Bphen interface for application in white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Liang; Li Fushan; Xie Jiangxing; Wu Chaoxing; Zheng Yong; Chen Dongling; Xu Sheng; Guo Tailiang; Qu Bo; Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang

    2011-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with a structure of ITO/poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (Bphen)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 )/LiF/Al has been fabricated via the thermal evaporation technique. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the as-fabricated WOLED covers from 380 to 700 nm of the visible light region with a wide blue emission from PVK and an interesting new red emission. The red emission at 613 nm in EL spectra of the WOLED was attributed to electroplex emission at PVK/Bphen interface since it was not observed in photoluminescence spectra. The WOLED showed a Commission International De l'Eclairage coordinate of (0.31, 0.32), which is very close to the standard white coordinate (0.33, 0.33). - Highlights: → A white organic light-emitting diode was fabricated by vacuum deposition. → A new red emission at 613 nm was observed in the electroluminescence spectra. → Red emission comes from electroplex instead of exciplex at PVK/Bphen interface. → The device has a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.32).

  20. Stability assessment of a multi-port power electronic interface for hybrid micro-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Pourya

    Migration to an industrial society increases the demand for electrical energy. Meanwhile, social causes for preserving the environment and reducing pollutions seek cleaner forms of energy sources. Therefore, there has been a growth in distributed generation from renewable sources in the past decade. Existing regulations and power system coordination does not allow for massive integration of distributed generation throughout the grid. Moreover, the current infrastructures are not designed for interfacing distributed and deregulated generation. In order to remedy this problem, a hybrid micro-grid based on nano-grids is introduced. This system consists of a reliable micro-grid structure that provides a smooth transition from the current distribution networks to smart micro-grid systems. Multi-port power electronic interfaces are introduced to manage the local generation, storage, and consumption. Afterwards, a model for this micro-grid is derived. Using this model, the stability of the system under a variety of source and load induced disturbances is studied. Moreover, pole-zero study of the micro-grid is performed under various loading conditions. An experimental setup of this micro-grid is developed, and the validity of the model in emulating the dynamic behavior of the system is verified. This study provides a theory for a novel hybrid micro-grid as well as models for stability assessment of the proposed micro-grid.

  1. Crack deflection in brittle media with heterogeneous interfaces and its application in shale fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaguang; Wei, Yujie

    Driven by the rapid progress in exploiting unconventional energy resources such as shale gas, there is growing interest in hydraulic fracture of brittle yet heterogeneous shales. In particular, how hydraulic cracks interact with natural weak zones in sedimentary rocks to form permeable cracking networks is of significance in engineering practice. Such a process is typically influenced by crack deflection, material anisotropy, crack-surface friction, crustal stresses, and so on. In this work, we extend the He-Hutchinson theory (He and Hutchinson, 1989) to give the closed-form formulae of the strain energy release rate of a hydraulic crack with arbitrary angles with respect to the crustal stress. The critical conditions in which the hydraulic crack deflects into weak interfaces and exhibits a dependence on crack-surface friction and crustal stress anisotropy are given in explicit formulae. We reveal analytically that, with increasing pressure, hydraulic fracture in shales may sequentially undergo friction locking, mode II fracture, and mixed mode fracture. Mode II fracture dominates the hydraulic fracturing process and the impinging angle between the hydraulic crack and the weak interface is the determining factor that accounts for crack deflection; the lower friction coefficient between cracked planes and the greater crustal stress difference favor hydraulic fracturing. In addition to shale fracking, the analytical solution of crack deflection could be used in failure analysis of other brittle media.

  2. Fully Integrated Solar Energy Harvester and Sensor Interface Circuits for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy-efficient solar energy harvesting and sensing microsystem that harvests solar energy from a micro-power photovoltaic module for autonomous operation of a gas sensor. A fully integrated solar energy harvester stores the harvested energy in a rechargeable NiMH microbattery. Hydrogen concentration and temperature are measured and converted to a digital value with 12-bit resolution using a fully integrated sensor interface circuit, and a wireless transceiver is used to transmit the measurement results to a base station. As the harvested solar energy varies considerably in different lighting conditions, in order to guarantee autonomous operation of the sensor, the proposed area- and energy-efficient circuit scales the power consumption and performance of the sensor. The power management circuit dynamically decreases the operating frequency of digital circuits and bias currents of analog circuits in the sensor interface circuit and increases the idle time of the transceiver under reduced light intensity. The proposed microsystem has been implemented in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process and occupies a core area of only 0.25 mm2. This circuit features a low power consumption of 2.1 µW when operating at its highest performance. It operates with low power supply voltage in the 0.8V to 1.6 V range.

  3. Effect of ageing on the gastro-intestinal transit of a lactulose-supplemented mixed solid-liquid meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M; Börsch, G; Schaffstein, J; Lüth, I; Rickels, R; Ricken, D

    1988-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal transit of a mixed solid-liquid meal containing wheat bread, scrambled eggs, coffee labelled with 99mTc, orange juice with lactulose and indigocarmine was evaluated in 21 young control (mean age 33.5 years) and 25 elderly subjects (mean age 81.7 years) without gastrointestinal complaints or severe medical illness. The rate of gastric emptying was determined by an anterior gamma camera technique, mouth-to-caecum transit by the hydrogen breath test and whole-gut transit by the first stool passage of indigocarmine. Gastric emptying was significantly prolonged in older subjects: t1/2 = 136 +/- (SEM) 13 versus 81 +/- 4 min; p less than 0.001. Concerning mouth-to-caecum or whole-gut transit time, significant differences between the two study groups were not detected.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of niobium oxides by solid/liquid state oxygen source and lithium assisted metal-halide chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Greenlee, Jordan D.; Shank, Joshua C.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-09-01

    In order to consistently grow high quality niobium oxides and lithium niobium oxides, a novel solid/liquid state oxygen source, LiClO4, has been implemented in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. LiClO4 is shown to decompose into both molecular and atomic oxygen upon heating. This allows oxidation rates similar to that of molecular oxygen but at a reduced overall beam flux, quantified by in situ Auger analysis. LiClO4 operation is decomposition limited to less than 400 °C, and other material limitations are identified. The design of a custom near-ambient NbCl5 effusion cell is presented, which improves both short and long term stability. Films of Nb oxidation state +2, +3, and +5 are grown using these new tools, including the multi-functional sub-oxide LiNbO2.

  5. Comparison between 2 methods of solid-liquid extraction for the production of Cinchona calisaya elixir: an experimental kinetics and numerical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Formato, Andrea; Gallo, Monica

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the extraction process for the production of China elixir starting from the same vegetable mixture, as performed by conventional maceration or a cyclically pressurized extraction process (rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction) using the Naviglio Extractor. Dry residue was used as a marker for the kinetics of the extraction process because it was proportional to the amount of active principles extracted and, therefore, to their total concentration in the solution. UV spectra of the hydroalcoholic extracts allowed for the identification of the predominant chemical species in the extracts, while the organoleptic tests carried out on the final product provided an indication of the acceptance of the beverage and highlighted features that were not detectable by instrumental analytical techniques. In addition, a numerical simulation of the process has been performed, obtaining useful information about the timing of the process (time history) as well as its mathematical description. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 3: miscellany of radionuclides (Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, I, Se, Sb, Pu, Am, and others)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Garcia, C.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.

    2009-01-01

    New best estimates for the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) for a set of radionuclides are proposed, based on a selective data search and subsequent calculation of geometric means. The K d best estimates are calculated for soils grouped according to the texture and organic matter content. For a limited number of radionuclides this is extended to consider soil cofactors affecting soil-radionuclide interaction, such as pH, organic matter content, and radionuclide chemical speciation. Correlations between main soil properties and radionuclide K d are examined to complete the information derived from the best estimates with a rough prediction of K d based on soil parameters. Although there are still gaps for many radionuclides, new data from recent studies improve the calculation of K d best estimates for a number of radionuclides, such as selenium, antimony, and iodine.

  7. The solid-liquid extraction separation of lithium isotopes by porous composite materials doped with ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Ling Gu; Dan Qiu; Dong-Hong Ren; Zaijun Li; Zhi-Guo Gu; Jiangnan University, Wuxi

    2015-01-01

    A green and efficient solid-liquid extraction method of lithium isotopes separation by porous composite materials doped with imidazolium ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5 has been reported in this paper. The composite materials of mesoporous silica and impregnated resin were synthesized by sol-gel and direct impregnation process, respectively. Various extraction parameters such as the concentration of lithium salt, anion of lithium salt, initial pH, time and temperature were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the maximum single-stage separation factor of 6 Li/ 7 Li was 1.048 ± 0.002, the maximum extraction efficiency was 15.86 %. The sorbents can be regenerated easily with HCl solution and reused repeatedly. (author)

  8. THE PROCESS OF MASS TRANSFER ON THE SOLID-LIQUID BOUNDARY LAYER DURING THE RELEASE OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE FROM TABLETS IN A PADDLE APPARATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina; Zimmer, Lukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The release study of diclofenac sodium (DIC) and papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from two formulations of the tablets in the paddle apparatus using different rotation speeds to characterize the process of mass transfer on the solid-liquid boundary layer was carried out. The dissolution process of active substances was described by values of mass transfer coefficients, the diffusion boundary layer thickness and dimensionless numbers (Sh and Re). The values of calculated parameters showed that the release of DIC and PAP from tablets comprising potato starch proceeded faster than from tablets containing HPMC and microcrystalline cellulose. They were obtained by direct dependencies between Sh and Re in the range from 75 rpm to 125 rpm for both substances from all tablets. The description of the dissolution process with the dimensionless numbers make it possible to plan the drug with the required release profile under given in vitro conditions.

  9. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Qualitative Methods to Create a Home Health Web Application User Interface for Patients with Low Computer Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Rosa R; Cooper, Emily; Wysocki, Andrea; Gravenstein, Stefan; Clark, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the investment in public reporting for a number of healthcare settings, evidence indicates that consumers do not routinely use available data to select providers. This suggests that existing reports do not adequately incorporate recommendations for consumer-facing reports or web applications. Healthcentric Advisors and Brown University undertook a multi-phased approach to create a consumer-facing home health web application in Rhode Island. This included reviewing the evidence base review to identify design recommendations and then creating a paper prototype and wireframe. We performed qualitative research to iteratively test our proposed user interface with two user groups, home health consumers and hospital case managers, refining our design to create the final web application. To test our prototype, we conducted two focus groups, with a total of 13 consumers, and 28 case manager interviews. Both user groups responded favorably to the prototype, with the majority commenting that they felt this type of tool would be useful. Case managers suggested revisions to ensure the application conformed to laws requiring Medicare patients to have the freedom to choose among providers and could be incorporated into hospital workflow. After incorporating changes and creating the wireframe, we conducted usability testing interviews with 14 home health consumers and six hospital case managers. We found that consumers needed prompting to navigate through the wireframe; they demonstrated confusion through both their words and body language. As a result, we modified the web application's sequence, navigation, and function to provide additional instructions and prompts. Although we designed our web application for low literacy and low health literacy, using recommendations from the evidence base, we overestimated the extent to which older adults were familiar with using computers. Some of our key learnings and recommendations run counter to general web design principles

  11. Design of a Programmable Passive SoC for Biomedical Applications Using RFID ISO 15693/NFC5 Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Bhattacharyya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power, low cost inductively powered passive biotelemetry system involving fully customized RFID/NFC interface base SoC has gained popularity in the last decades. However, most of the SoCs developed are application specific and lacks either on-chip computational or sensor readout capability. In this paper, we present design details of a programmable passive SoC in compliance with ISO 15693/NFC5 standard for biomedical applications. The integrated system consists of a 32-bit microcontroller, a sensor readout circuit, a 12-bit SAR type ADC, 16 kB RAM, 16 kB ROM and other digital peripherals. The design is implemented in a 0.18 μ m CMOS technology and used a die area of 1.52 mm × 3.24 mm. The simulated maximum power consumption of the analog block is 592 μ W. The number of external components required by the SoC is limited to an external memory device, sensors, antenna and some passive components. The external memory device contains the application specific firmware. Based on the application, the firmware can be modified accordingly. The SoC design is suitable for medical implants to measure physiological parameters like temperature, pressure or ECG. As an application example, the authors have proposed a bioimplant to measure arterial blood pressure for patients suffering from Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD.

  12. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  13. Numerical investigation of solid-liquid two phase flow in a non-clogging centrifugal pump at off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, B J; Chen, H L; Hou, D H; Huang, Z F

    2012-01-01

    The solid-liquid two-phase flow fields in the non-clogging centrifugal pump with a double-channel impeller have been investigated numerically for the design condition and also off-design conditions, in order to study the solid-liquid two-phase flow pattern and non-clogging mechanism in non-clogging centrifugal pumps. The main conclusions include: The sand volume fraction distribution is extremely inhomogeneous in the whole flow channel of the pump at off-design conditions. In the impeller, particles mainly flow along the pressure surface and hub; In the volute, particles mainly accumulate in the region near to the exit of volute, the largest sand volume fraction is observed at the tongue, and a large number of particles collide with volute wall and exit the volute after circling around the volute for several times. When the particle diameter increases, particles tend to accumulate on the pressure side of the impeller, and more particles crash with the pressure side of the blade. And larger sand volume fraction gratitude is also observed in the whole flow channel of the pump. With the decrease of the inlet sand volume fraction, particles tend to accumulate on the suction side of the blade. Compared with the particle diameter, the inlet sand volume fraction has less influence on the sand volume fraction gratitude in the whole channel of the pump. At the large flow rate, the minimum and maximum sand volume fraction in the whole flow channel of the model pump tends to be smaller than that at the small flow rate. Thus, it is concluded that the water transportation capacity increases with the flow rate. This research will strengthen people's understanding of the multiphase flow pattern in non-clogging centrifugal pumps, thus provides a theoretical basis for the optimal design of non-clogging centrifugal pumps.

  14. Maximally resolved anharmonic OH vibrational spectrum of the water/ZnO(101 \\xAF 0) interface from a high-dimensional neural network potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Vanessa; Hellström, Matti; Behler, Jörg; Kullgren, Jolla; Mitev, Pavlin D.; Hermansson, Kersti

    2018-06-01

    Unraveling the atomistic details of solid/liquid interfaces, e.g., by means of vibrational spectroscopy, is of vital importance in numerous applications, from electrochemistry to heterogeneous catalysis. Water-oxide interfaces represent a formidable challenge because a large variety of molecular and dissociated water species are present at the surface. Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the anharmonic OH stretching vibrations at the water/ZnO(101 ¯ 0) interface as a prototypical case. Molecular dynamics simulations employing a reactive high-dimensional neural network potential based on density functional theory calculations have been used to sample the interfacial structures. In the second step, one-dimensional potential energy curves have been generated for a large number of configurations to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. We find that (i) the ZnO surface gives rise to OH frequency shifts up to a distance of about 4 Å from the surface; (ii) the spectrum contains a number of overlapping signals arising from different chemical species, with the frequencies decreasing in the order ν(adsorbed hydroxide) > ν(non-adsorbed water) > ν(surface hydroxide) > ν(adsorbed water); (iii) stretching frequencies are strongly influenced by the hydrogen bond pattern of these interfacial species. Finally, we have been able to identify substantial correlations between the stretching frequencies and hydrogen bond lengths for all species.

  15. Crawling Ajax-based Web Applications through Dynamic Analysis of User Interface State Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.; Lenselink, S.

    2011-01-01

    Using JavaScript and dynamic DOM manipulation on the client-side of web applications is becoming a widespread approach for achieving rich interactivity and responsiveness in modern web applications. At the same time, such techniques, collectively known as Ajax, shatter the metaphor of web ‘pages’

  16. Interface topography and residual stress distributions in W coatings for fusion armour applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.thomas@cranfield.ac.uk; Vincent, R. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Matthews, G. [UKAEA Fusion, K2 Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dance, B. [TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abingdon, Cambridge CB1 6AL (United Kingdom); Grant, P.S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-25

    Vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) tungsten (W) coatings are potential plasma facing components in future fusion power plants. However, the large coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between W and underlying structural steels and other metallic materials poses a significant problem for manufacturing and service life because of the evolution of large thermally induced stresses leading to failure. In this paper, the effects of the substrate/coating interface 3D geometry on stress distributions are investigated using finite element analysis and VPS experiments to manufacture up to 2 mm thick W coatings. The key factors that affect internal stress distributions during thermal exposure have been identified including graded composition inter-layers, stress concentration effects, mechanical adhesion, and the possible role of segmentation in relieving coating stresses on surface sculptured substrates.

  17. Application of tripolar concentric electrodes and prefeature selection algorithm for brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besio, Walter G; Cao, Hongbao; Zhou, Peng

    2008-04-01

    For persons with severe disabilities, a brain-computer interface (BCI) may be a viable means of communication. Lapalacian electroencephalogram (EEG) has been shown to improve classification in EEG recognition. In this work, the effectiveness of signals from tripolar concentric electrodes and disc electrodes were compared for use as a BCI. Two sets of left/right hand motor imagery EEG signals were acquired. An autoregressive (AR) model was developed for feature extraction with a Mahalanobis distance based linear classifier for classification. An exhaust selection algorithm was employed to analyze three factors before feature extraction. The factors analyzed were 1) length of data in each trial to be used, 2) start position of data, and 3) the order of the AR model. The results showed that tripolar concentric electrodes generated significantly higher classification accuracy than disc electrodes.

  18. Towards Practical Brain-Computer Interfaces Bridging the Gap from Research to Real-World Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, Stephen; Leeb, Robert; Millán, José; Nijholt, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that enable people to communicate via thought alone. Brain signals can be directly translated into messages or commands. Until recently, these devices were used primarily to help people who could not move. However, BCIs are now becoming practical tools for a wide variety of people, in many different situations. What will BCIs in the future be like? Who will use them, and why? This book, written by many of the top BCI researchers and developers, reviews the latest progress in the different components of BCIs. Chapters also discuss practical issues in an emerging BCI enabled community. The book is intended both for professionals and for interested laypeople who are not experts in BCI research.

  19. Application of a brain-computer interface for person authentication using EEG responses to photo stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhendong; Yin, Jinhai; Hu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a person authentication system that can effectively identify individuals by generating unique electroencephalogram signal features in response to self-face and non-self-face photos is presented. In order to achieve a good stability performance, the sequence of self-face photo including first-occurrence position and non-first-occurrence position are taken into account in the serial occurrence of visual stimuli. In addition, a Fisher linear classification method and event-related potential technique for feature analysis is adapted to yield remarkably better outcomes than that by most of the existing methods in the field. The results have shown that the EEG-based person authentications via brain-computer interface can be considered as a suitable approach for biometric authentication system.

  20. Interface topography and residual stress distributions in W coatings for fusion armour applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.; Vincent, R.; Matthews, G.; Dance, B.; Grant, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) tungsten (W) coatings are potential plasma facing components in future fusion power plants. However, the large coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between W and underlying structural steels and other metallic materials poses a significant problem for manufacturing and service life because of the evolution of large thermally induced stresses leading to failure. In this paper, the effects of the substrate/coating interface 3D geometry on stress distributions are investigated using finite element analysis and VPS experiments to manufacture up to 2 mm thick W coatings. The key factors that affect internal stress distributions during thermal exposure have been identified including graded composition inter-layers, stress concentration effects, mechanical adhesion, and the possible role of segmentation in relieving coating stresses on surface sculptured substrates

  1. Applications of interface controlled pulsed-laser deposited polymer films in field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Danish; Ukah, Ndubuisi; Guha, Suchi; Gupta, Ram; Ghosh, Kartik

    2010-03-01

    Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation, a derivative of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), is an alternative method of depositing polymer and biomaterial films that allows homogeneous film coverage of high molecular weight organic materials for layer-by-layer growth without any laser induced damage. Polyfluorene (PF)-based conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention in organic field-effect transistors (FETs). A co-polymer of PF (PFB) was deposited as a thin film using matrix assisted PLD employing a KrF excimer laser. Electrical characteristics of FETs fabricated using these PLD grown films were compared to those of FETs using spin-coated films. We show that threshold voltages, on/off ratios, and charge carrier motilities are significantly improved in PLD grown films. This is attributed to an improved dielectric-polymer interface.

  2. Non invasive Brain-Computer Interface system: towards its application as assistive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Aloise, Fabio; Bufalari, Simona; Schalk, Gerwin; Oriolo, Giuseppe; Cherubini, Andrea; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Babiloni, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The quality of life of people suffering from severe motor disabilities can benefit from the use of current assistive technology capable of ameliorating communication, house-environment management and mobility, according to the user's residual motor abilities. Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems that can translate brain activity into signals that control external devices. Thus they can represent the only technology for severely paralyzed patients to increase or maintain their communication and control options. Here we report on a pilot study in which a system was implemented and validated to allow disabled persons to improve or recover their mobility (directly or by emulation) and communication within the surrounding environment. The system is based on a software controller that offers to the user a communication interface that is matched with the individual's residual motor abilities. Patients (n=14) with severe motor disabilities due to progressive neurodegenerative disorders were trained to use the system prototype under a rehabilitation program carried out in a house-like furnished space. All users utilized regular assistive control options (e.g., microswitches or head trackers). In addition, four subjects learned to operate the system by means of a non-invasive EEG-based BCI. This system was controlled by the subjects' voluntary modulations of EEG sensorimotor rhythms recorded on the scalp; this skill was learnt even though the subjects have not had control over their limbs for a long time. We conclude that such a prototype system, which integrates several different assistive technologies including a BCI system, can potentially facilitate the translation from pre-clinical demonstrations to a clinical useful BCI. PMID:18394526

  3. Synthesis of Stable Interfaces on SnO2 Surfaces for Charge-Transfer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michelle C.

    The commercial market for solar harvesting devices as an alternative energy source requires them to be both low-cost and efficient to replace or reduce the dependence on fossil fuel burning. Over the last few decades there has been promising efforts towards improving solar devices by using abundant and non-toxic metal oxide nanomaterials. One particular metal oxide of interest has been SnO2 due to its high electron mobility, wide-band gap, and aqueous stability. However SnO2 based solar cells have yet to reach efficiency values of other metal oxides, like TiO2. The advancement of SnO2 based devices is dependent on many factors, including improved methods of surface functionalization that can yield stable interfaces. This work explores the use of a versatile functionalization method through the use of the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The CuAAC reaction is capable of producing electrochemically, photochemically, and electrocatalytically active surfaces on a variety of SnO2 materials. The resulting charge-transfer characteristics were investigated as well as an emphasis on understanding the stability of the resulting molecular linkage. We determined the CuAAC reaction is able to proceed through both azide-modified and alkyne-modified surfaces. The resulting charge-transfer properties showed that the molecular tether was capable of supporting charge separation at the interface. We also investigated the enhancement of electron injection upon the introduction of an ultra-thin ZrO2 coating on SnO2. Several complexes were used to fully understand the charge-transfer capabilities, including model systems of ferrocene and a ruthenium coordination complex, a ruthenium mononuclear water oxidation catalyst, and a commercial ruthenium based dye.

  4. Development of a graphical user interface for sgRNAcas9 and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-zhi; Zhang, Yi; Li, Guang-lei; Chen, Ji-liang; Li, Jing-Jin; Ren, Rui-min; Ni, Pan; Zhao, Shu-hong; Xie, Sheng-song

    2015-10-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique is a powerful tool for researchers. However, off-target effects of the Cas9 nuclease activity is a recurrent concern of the CRISPR system. Thus, designing sgRNA (single guide RNA) with minimal off-target effects is very important. sgRNAcas9 is a software package, which can be used to design sgRNA and to evaluate potential off-target cleavage sites. In this study, a graphical user interface for sgRNAcas9 was developed using the Java programming language. In addition, off-target effect for sgRNAs was evaluated according to mismatched number and "seed sequence" specification. Moreover, sgRNAcas9 software was used to design 34 124 sgRNAs, which can target 4691 microRNA (miRNA) precursors from human, mouse, rat, pig, and chicken. In particular, the off-target effect of a sgRNA targeting to human miR-206 precursor was analyzed, and the on/off-target activity of this sgRNA was validated by T7E1 assay in vitro. Taken together, these data showed that the interface can simplify the usage of the sgRNAcas9 program, which can be used to design sgRNAs for the majority of miRNA precursors. We also found that the GC% of those sgRNAs ranged from 40% to 60%. In summary, the sgRNAcas9 software can be easily used to design sgRNA with minimal off-target effects for any species. The software can be downloaded from BiooTools website (http://www.biootools.com/).

  5. Non-invasive brain-computer interface system: towards its application as assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Aloise, Fabio; Bufalari, Simona; Schalk, Gerwin; Oriolo, Giuseppe; Cherubini, Andrea; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Babiloni, Fabio

    2008-04-15

    The quality of life of people suffering from severe motor disabilities can benefit from the use of current assistive technology capable of ameliorating communication, house-environment management and mobility, according to the user's residual motor abilities. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that can translate brain activity into signals that control external devices. Thus they can represent the only technology for severely paralyzed patients to increase or maintain their communication and control options. Here we report on a pilot study in which a system was implemented and validated to allow disabled persons to improve or recover their mobility (directly or by emulation) and communication within the surrounding environment. The system is based on a software controller that offers to the user a communication interface that is matched with the individual's residual motor abilities. Patients (n=14) with severe motor disabilities due to progressive neurodegenerative disorders were trained to use the system prototype under a rehabilitation program carried out in a house-like furnished space. All users utilized regular assistive control options (e.g., microswitches or head trackers). In addition, four subjects learned to operate the system by means of a non-invasive EEG-based BCI. This system was controlled by the subjects' voluntary modulations of EEG sensorimotor rhythms recorded on the scalp; this skill was learnt even though the subjects have not had control over their limbs for a long time. We conclude that such a prototype system, which integrates several different assistive technologies including a BCI system, can potentially facilitate the translation from pre-clinical demonstrations to a clinical useful BCI.

  6. JUPITER: Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability - An Application Programming Interface (API) for Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Poeter, Eileen P.; Doherty, John E.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    he Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability Application Programming Interface (JUPITER API) improves the computer programming resources available to those developing applications (computer programs) for model analysis.The JUPITER API consists of eleven Fortran-90 modules that provide for encapsulation of data and operations on that data. Each module contains one or more entities: data, data types, subroutines, functions, and generic interfaces. The modules do not constitute computer programs themselves; instead, they are used to construct computer programs. Such computer programs are called applications of the API. The API provides common modeling operations for use by a variety of computer applications.The models being analyzed are referred to here as process models, and may, for example, represent the physics, chemistry, and(or) biology of a field or laboratory system. Process models commonly are constructed using published models such as MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000; Harbaugh, 2005), MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1996), HSPF (Bicknell et al., 1997), PRMS (Leavesley and Stannard, 1995), and many others. The process model may be accessed by a JUPITER API application as an external program, or it may be implemented as a subroutine within a JUPITER API application . In either case, execution of the model takes place in a framework designed by the application programmer. This framework can be designed to take advantage of any parallel processing capabilities possessed by the process model, as well as the parallel-processing capabilities of the JUPITER API.Model analyses for which the JUPITER API could be useful include, for example: Compare model results to observed values to determine how well the model reproduces system processes and characteristics.Use sensitivity analysis to determine the information provided by observations to parameters and predictions of interest.Determine the additional data needed to improve selected model

  7. Using DLL as Interface between API an VC#.NET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for using complex Win32API data structures and functions in Visual C# .NET applications. We built DLL (Dynamic Link Library to manage the API functions and data structures and we used DLL modules in a C# application. This is an easier working way compared with the traditional way of importing and managing API’s functions in C# programs.

  8. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system to use arbitrary Windows applications by directly controlling mouse and keyboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer.

  9. Evaluation of a Dry EEG System for Application of Passive Brain-Computer Interfaces in Autonomous Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Thorsten O; Andreessen, Lena M; Berg, Angela; Bleuel, Maurice; Pawlitzki, Juliane; Zawallich, Lars; Krol, Laurens R; Gramann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We tested the applicability and signal quality of a 16 channel dry electroencephalography (EEG) system in a laboratory environment and in a car under controlled, realistic conditions. The aim of our investigation was an estimation how well a passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) can work in an autonomous driving scenario. The evaluation considered speed and accuracy of self-applicability by an untrained person, quality of recorded EEG data, shifts of electrode positions on the head after driving-related movements, usability, and complexity of the system as such and wearing comfort over time. An experiment was conducted inside and outside of a stationary vehicle with running engine, air-conditioning, and muted radio. Signal quality was sufficient for standard EEG analysis in the time and frequency domain as well as for the use in pBCIs. While the influence of vehicle-induced interferences to data quality was insignificant, driving-related movements led to strong shifts in electrode positions. In general, the EEG system used allowed for a fast self-applicability of cap and electrodes. The assessed usability of the system was still acceptable while the wearing comfort decreased strongly over time due to friction and pressure to the head. From these results we conclude that the evaluated system should provide the essential requirements for an application in an autonomous driving context. Nevertheless, further refinement is suggested to reduce shifts of the system due to body movements and increase the headset's usability and wearing comfort.

  10. Multi-solid and multi-fluid diffuse interface model: Applications to dynamic fracture and fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndanou, S., E-mail: serge.ndanou@univ-amu.fr; Favrie, N., E-mail: nicolas.favrie@univ-amu.fr; Gavrilyuk, S., E-mail: sergey.gavrilyuk@univ-amu.fr

    2015-08-15

    We extend the model of diffuse solid–fluid interfaces developed earlier by authors of this paper to the case of arbitrary number of interacting hyperelastic solids. Plastic transformations of solids are taken into account through a Maxwell type model. The specific energy of each solid is given in separable form: it is the sum of a hydrodynamic part of the energy depending only on the density and the entropy, and an elastic part of the energy which is unaffected by the volume change. It allows us to naturally pass to the fluid description in the limit of vanishing shear modulus. In spite of a large number of governing equations, the model has a quite simple mathematical structure: it is a duplication of a single visco-elastic model. The model is well posed both mathematically and thermodynamically: it is hyperbolic and compatible with the second law of thermodynamics. The resulting model can be applied in the situations involving an arbitrary number of fluids and solids. In particular, we show the ability of the model to describe spallation and penetration phenomena occurring during high velocity impacts.

  11. Application of a driving simulator to the development of in-vehicle human–machine-interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Weir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of a driving simulator in the development of human–machine-interfaces (HMI such as a navigation, information or entertainment system is discussed. Such use addresses the need to study and evaluate the characteristics of a candidate HMI early in the R&D and design stage to ensure that it is likely to meet various objectives and requirements, and to revise the HMI as may be necessary. Those HMI requirements include such things as usability, driver comfort, and an acceptable level of attentional demand in dual task conditions (driving while using an HMI. Typically, such an HMI involves an information display to the driver, and a means for driver input to the HMI. Corresponding simulator requirements are discussed, along with typical simulator features and components. The latter include a cab, control feel systems, visual image generator, real time scenario control (task definitions, a motion system (if provided, and data acquisition. Both fixed and moving base systems are described, together with associated benefits and tradeoffs. Considerations in the design of the evaluation experiment are discussed, including definition of primary and secondary tasks, and number of driver subjects (experimental participants. Possible response and performance measures for the primary and secondary tasks are noted, together with subjective measures such as task difficulty and ease of using the HMI. The advantages of using a driving simulator to support R&D are summarized. Some typical and example simulator uses are noted.

  12. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC. PMID:26123281

  13. Gesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Charles J. (Inventor); Beach, Glenn (Inventor); Cavell, Brook (Inventor); Foulk, Gene (Inventor); Jacobus, Charles J. (Inventor); Obermark, Jay (Inventor); Paul, George (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gesture recognition interface for use in controlling self-service machines and other devices is disclosed. A gesture is defined as motions and kinematic poses generated by humans, animals, or machines. Specific body features are tracked, and static and motion gestures are interpreted. Motion gestures are defined as a family of parametrically delimited oscillatory motions, modeled as a linear-in-parameters dynamic system with added geometric constraints to allow for real-time recognition using a small amount of memory and processing time. A linear least squares method is preferably used to determine the parameters which represent each gesture. Feature position measure is used in conjunction with a bank of predictor bins seeded with the gesture parameters, and the system determines which bin best fits the observed motion. Recognizing static pose gestures is preferably performed by localizing the body/object from the rest of the image, describing that object, and identifying that description. The disclosure details methods for gesture recognition, as well as the overall architecture for using gesture recognition to control of devices, including self-service machines.

  14. A Hyperbolic Ontology Visualization Tool for Model Application Programming Interface Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Cody

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft modeling, a critically important portion in validating planned spacecraft activities, is currently carried out using a time consuming method of mission to mission model implementations and integration. A current project in early development, Integrated Spacecraft Analysis (ISCA), aims to remedy this hindrance by providing reusable architectures and reducing time spent integrating models with planning and sequencing tools. The principle objective of this internship was to develop a user interface for an experimental ontology-based structure visualization of navigation and attitude control system modeling software. To satisfy this, a number of tree and graph visualization tools were researched and a Java based hyperbolic graph viewer was selected for experimental adaptation. Early results show promise in the ability to organize and display large amounts of spacecraft model documentation efficiently and effectively through a web browser. This viewer serves as a conceptual implementation for future development but trials with both ISCA developers and end users should be performed to truly evaluate the effectiveness of continued development of such visualizations.

  15. Applications of the scalable coherent interface to data acquisition at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bogaerts, A; Divià, R; Müller, H; Parkman, C; Ponting, P J; Skaali, B; Midttun, G; Wormald, D; Wikne, J; Falciano, S; Cesaroni, F; Vinogradov, V I; Kristiansen, E H; Solberg, B; Guglielmi, A M; Worm, F H; Bovier, J; Davis, C; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1991-01-01

    We propose to use the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) as a very high speed interconnect between LHC detector data buffers and farms of commercial trigger processors. Both the global second and third level trigger can be based on SCI as a reconfigurable and scalable system. SCI is a proposed IEEE standard which uses fast point-to-point links to provide computer-bus like services. It can connect a maximum of 65 536 nodes (memories or processors), providing data transfer rates of up to 1 Gbyte/s. Scalable data acquisition systems can be built using either simple SCI rings or complex switches. The interconnections may be flat cables, coaxial cables, or optical fibres. SCI protocols have been entirely implemented in VLSI, resulting in a significant simplification of data acquisition software. Novel SCI features allow efficient implementation of both data and processor driven readout architectures. In particular, a very efficient implementation of the third level trigger can be achieved by combining SCI's shared ...

  16. Developing an iPhone application with focus on the user interface

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Naryanan

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones are becoming increasingly popular day by day. The reason why they are called ‘Smart phones’ is that they can perform advanced computing and have a better connectivity to the Internet. Smartphones usually run a complete operating system. For example, iOS runs on Apple Inc.’s mobile devices like iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad [1]. A Smartphone allows the user to run applications. These applications are aimed at making life simpler for the users. This Master Thesis aims at developing on...

  17. A Three-Step Resolution-Reconfigurable Hazardous Multi-Gas Sensor Interface for Wireless Air-Quality Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Subin; Park, Kyeonghwan; Lee, Seungwook; Lim, Yeongjin; Oh, Byungjoo; Chae, Hee Young; Park, Chan Sam; Shin, Heugjoo; Kim, Jae Joon

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents a resolution-reconfigurable wide-range resistive sensor readout interface for wireless multi-gas monitoring applications that displays results on a smartphone. Three types of sensing resolutions were selected to minimize processing power consumption, and a dual-mode front-end structure was proposed to support the detection of a variety of hazardous gases with wide range of characteristic resistance. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process to provide three reconfigurable data conversions that correspond to a low-power resistance-to-digital converter (RDC), a 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a 16-bit delta-sigma modulator. For functional feasibility, a wireless sensor system prototype that included in-house microelectromechanical (MEMS) sensing devices and commercial device products was manufactured and experimentally verified to detect a variety of hazardous gases.

  18. Mobile Learning Application Interfaces: First Steps to a Cognitive Load Aware System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile learning is a cognitively demanding application and more frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the nature of this use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where…

  19. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-07

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample.

  20. Tracking Single Units in Chronic, Large Scale, Neural Recordings for Brain Machine Interface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eEleryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study of population coding in neurobiological systems, tracking unit identity may be critical to assess possible changes in the coding properties of neuronal constituents over prolonged periods of time. Ensuring unit stability is even more critical for reliable neural decoding of motor variables in intra-cortically controlled brain-machine interfaces (BMIs. Variability in intrinsic spike patterns, tuning characteristics, and single-unit identity over chronic use is a major challenge to maintaining this stability, requiring frequent daily calibration of neural decoders in BMI sessions by an experienced human operator. Here, we report on a unit-stability tracking algorithm that efficiently and autonomously identifies putative single-units that are stable across many sessions using a relatively short duration recording interval at the start of each session. The algorithm first builds a database of features extracted from units' average spike waveforms and firing patterns across many days of recording. It then uses these features to decide whether spike occurrences on the same channel on one day belong to the same unit recorded on another day or not. We assessed the overall performance of the algorithm for different choices of features and classifiers trained using human expert judgment, and quantified it as a function of accuracy and execution time. Overall, we found a trade-off between accuracy and execution time with increasing data volumes from chronically implanted rhesus macaques, with an average of 12 seconds processing time per channel at ~90% classification accuracy. Furthermore, 77% of the resulting putative single-units matched those tracked by human experts. These results demonstrate that over the span of a few months of recordings, automated unit tracking can be performed with high accuracy and used to streamline the calibration phase during BMI sessions.

  1. Owgis 2.0: Open Source Java Application that Builds Web GIS Interfaces for Desktop Andmobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Romero, O.; Chassignet, E.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Pandav, H.; Velissariou, P.; Meyer-Baese, A.

    2016-12-01

    OWGIS is an open source Java and JavaScript application that builds easily configurable Web GIS sites for desktop and mobile devices. The current version of OWGIS generates mobile interfaces based on HTML5 technology and can be used to create mobile applications. The style of the generated websites can be modified using COMPASS, a well known CSS Authoring Framework. In addition, OWGIS uses several Open Geospatial Consortium standards to request datafrom the most common map servers, such as GeoServer. It is also able to request data from ncWMS servers, allowing the websites to display 4D data from NetCDF files. This application is configured by XML files that define which layers, geographic datasets, are displayed on the Web GIS sites. Among other features, OWGIS allows for animations; streamlines from vector data; virtual globe display; vertical profiles and vertical transects; different color palettes; the ability to download data; and display text in multiple languages. OWGIS users are mainly scientists in the oceanography, meteorology and climate fields.

  2. The Influence of Social Networks on the Development of Recruitment Actions that Favor User Interface Design and Conversions in Mobile Applications Powered by Linked Data

    OpenAIRE

    Palos-Sanchez, Pedro R.; Saura, Jose Ramon; Debasa, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes the most important influence factors in the literature, which have the greatest influence on the conversions obtained in a mobile application powered by linked data. With the study of user interface design and a small user survey (n = 101,053), we studied the influence of social networks, advertising, and promotional and recruitment actions in conversions for mobile applications powered by linked data. The analysis of the users’ behavior and their application in the design...

  3. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  4. Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot

    interaction are the window to the underlying quantum world. It is no surprise then that there has always been push to find more, and gain better control over systems in which this interaction can be studied. In the past two decades, this end was further motivated as applications were envisioned to coherent...... control of matter. These include applications such as efficient photon collection, single-photon switching and transistors, and long-range optical coupling of quantum bits for quantum communications. However, generating and controlling strong coherent interaction between otherwise very weakly interacting...... light and quantum emitters proves a difficult task. Current days solutions range from cavities, atomic ensembles, photonic band gaps structures, ion traps and optical latices are all being improved and studied but none has yet to emerge as superior. Recently, another proposal for such a strong coupling...

  5. Integral solution of equiaxed solidification with an interface kinetics model for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naterer, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a one-dimensional analysis of energy and species transport during binary dendritic solidification is presented and compared to experimental results. The paper's objective is a continuation of previous studies of solidification control for the waste management of nuclear materials in the underground disposal concept. In the present analysis, interface kinetics at the solid - liquid interface accounts for recalescent thermal behaviour during solidification. The theoretical results were compared to available experimental results and the agreement appears fair although some discrepancies have been attributed to uncertainties with thermophysical properties. (author)

  6. Multiscale optical simulation settings: challenging applications handled with an iterative ray-tracing FDTD interface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Claude; Nemitz, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Susanne; Kuna, Ladislav; Wenzl, Franz P; Hartmann, Paul; Satzinger, Valentin; Sommer, Christian

    2016-03-20

    We show that with an appropriate combination of two optical simulation techniques-classical ray-tracing and the finite difference time domain method-an optical device containing multiple diffractive and refractive optical elements can be accurately simulated in an iterative simulation approach. We compare the simulation results with experimental measurements of the device to discuss the applicability and accuracy of our iterative simulation procedure.

  7. A New Solid/Liquid Hypergolic System: 3-amino 1,2,4-triazine and Nitric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    materials. These mixtures are useful in a variety of aviation applications such as space travel , where they are used to ignite rocket motors, or used as...motor, rocket , HAN 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 26 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...adducts as additives of liquid/gel hypergols and solid hybrid rocket motor fuels: property and performance predictions. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army

  8. The Influence of Social Networks on the Development of Recruitment Actions that Favor User Interface Design and Conversions in Mobile Applications Powered by Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Palos-Sanchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the most important influence factors in the literature, which have the greatest influence on the conversions obtained in a mobile application powered by linked data. With the study of user interface design and a small user survey (n = 101,053, we studied the influence of social networks, advertising, and promotional and recruitment actions in conversions for mobile applications powered by linked data. The analysis of the users’ behavior and their application in the design of the actions to promote and capture constitutes an important part of the current theories of digital marketing. However, this study shows that its results may be contradictory and depend on other factors and circumstances when mobile applications powered by linked data are considered. The predictive value, reached by the developed model, may be useful for professionals and researchers in the field of digital marketing and the user interface design in mobile applications powered by linked data.

  9. A synchronization method for wireless acquisition systems, application to brain computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, M; Bonnet, S; van Langhenhove, A; Porcherot, J; Charvet, G

    2013-01-01

    A synchronization method for wireless acquisition systems has been developed and implemented on a wireless ECoG recording implant and on a wireless EEG recording helmet. The presented algorithm and hardware implementation allow the precise synchronization of several data streams from several sensor nodes for applications where timing is critical like in event-related potential (ERP) studies. The proposed method has been successfully applied to obtain visual evoked potentials and compared with a reference biosignal amplifier. The control over the exact sampling frequency allows reducing synchronization errors that will otherwise accumulate during a recording. The method is scalable to several sensor nodes communicating with a shared base station.

  10. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  11. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One step bench top novel synthesis and growth dynamics of ZnO structures are successfully performed. • Nanostructures dispersing liquid crystals (NDLC) is recently found to have significant influence on the nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. • Electro-optical switching application ensures the bright field droplet design marble pattern of smectic G phase, nematic and most significant twist nematic phase pattern are obtained. • Spontaneous polarization, rotational viscosity and response time study, exploring smart applications in LCD technology. - Abstract: The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were

  12. Implementation of a patient-facing genomic test report in the electronic health record using a web-application interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marc S; Kern, Melissa S; Lerch, Virginia R; Billet, Jonathan; Williams, Janet L; Moore, Gregory J

    2018-05-30

    Genomic medicine is emerging into clinical care. Communication of genetic laboratory results to patients and providers is hampered by the complex technical nature of the laboratory reports. This can lead to confusion and misinterpretation of the results resulting in inappropriate care. Patients usually do not receive a copy of the report leading to further opportunities for miscommunication. To address these problems, interpretive reports were created using input from the intended end users, patients and providers. This paper describes the technical development and deployment of the first patient-facing genomic test report (PGR) within an electronic health record (EHR) ecosystem using a locally developed standards-based web-application interface. A patient-facing genomic test report with a companion provider report was configured for implementation within the EHR using a locally developed software platform, COMPASS™. COMPASS™ is designed to manage secure data exchange, as well as patient and provider access to patient reported data capture and clinical display tools. COMPASS™ is built using a Software as a Service (SaaS) approach which exposes an API that apps can interact with. An authoring tool was developed that allowed creation of patient-specific PGRs and the accompanying provider reports. These were converted to a format that allowed them to be presented in the patient portal and EHR respectively using the existing COMPASS™ interface thus allowing patients, caregivers and providers access to individual reports designed for the intended end user. The PGR as developed was shown to enhance patient and provider communication around genomic results. It is built on current standards but is designed to support integration with other tools and be compatible with emerging opportunities such as SMART on FHIR. This approach could be used to support genomic return of results as the tool is scalable and generalizable.

  13. PNA-PEG modified silicon platforms as functional bio-interfaces for applications in DNA microarrays and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani-Scholz, Anna; Pedone, Daniel; Blobner, Florian; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Tornow, Marc; Andruzzi, Luisa

    2009-03-09

    The synthesis and characterization of two types of silicon-based biofunctional interfaces are reported; each interface bonds a dense layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG(n)) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Phosphonate self-assembled monolayers were derivatized with PNA using a maleimido-terminated PEG(45). Similarly, siloxane monolayers were functionalized with PNA using a maleimido-terminated PEG(45) spacer and were subsequently modified with a shorter methoxy-terminated PEG(12) ("back-filling"). The long PEG(45) spacer was used to distance the PNA probe from the surface and to minimize undesirable nonspecific adsorption of DNA analyte. The short PEG(12) "back-filler" was used to provide additional passivation of the surface against nonspecific DNA adsorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis near the C 1s and N 1s ionization edges was done to characterize chemical groups formed in the near-surface region, which confirmed binding of PEG and PNA to the phosphonate and silane films. XPS also indicated that additional PEG chains were tethered to the surface during the back-filling process. Fluorescence hybridization experiments were carried out with complementary and noncDNA strands; both phosphonate and siloxane biofunctional surfaces were effective for hybridization of cDNA strands and significantly reduced nonspecific adsorption of the analyte. Spatial patterns were prepared by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromolding on the PNA-functionalized surfaces; selective hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA was shown at the PNA functionalized regions, and physisorption at the probe-less PEG-functionalized regions was dramatically reduced. These results show that PNA-PEG derivatized phosphonate monolayers hold promise for the smooth integration of device surface chemistry with semiconductor technology for the fabrication of DNA biosensors. In addition, our results confirm that PNA-PEG derivatized self-assembled carboxyalkylsiloxane films are

  14. Facile Deposition of Ultrafine Silver Particles on Silicon Surface Not Submerged in Precursor Solutions for Applications in Antireflective Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile deposition method, the ultrafine silver particles are successfully deposited on the Si surface that is not submerged in precursor solutions. The ultrafine silver particles have many advantages, such as quasiround shape, uniformity in size, monodisperse distribution, and reduction of agglomeration. The internal physical procedure in the deposition is also investigated. The results show that there are more particles on the rough Si surface due to the wetting effect of solid-liquid interface. The higher concentration of ethanol solvent can induce the increase of quantity and size of particles on Si surface not in solutions. The ultrafine particles can be used to prepare porous Si antireflective layer in solar cell applications.

  15. Playful User Interfaces. Interfaces that Invite Social and Physical Interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  16. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of fructans from agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul at different ultrasound powers and solid-liquid ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel SÁNCHEZ-MADRIGAL

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE at different ultrasound power densities (UPDs; 40, 80, and 120 mW/mL and solid:liquid (S:L ratio (1:2, 1:3, and 1:6 on the extraction of carbohydrates from Agave tequilana plant of different ages were evaluated. Extracts obtained (6- and 7-year-old plant were analyzed in the yield of carbohydrates (YC, fructan (FRU content, simple sugars, fructan profile and the average degree of polymerization (DPn. UPD, S:L ratio, and plant age all affected YC, FRU, and DPn. Maximum YC and FRU were obtained from the older agave with UPD and S:L ratio of 120 mW/mL and 1:6, respectively; while glucose, fructose, and sucrose were highly released from the younger plant. Agave of 7-year-old presented the highest DPn. Fructan degradation occurred at high UPD, increasing the simple sugars and decreasing the DPn. Thermal-traditional extraction without sonication caused more fructan degradation; and overall, ultrasound enhanced fructan extraction and minimized fructan damage, representing a technological alternative for fructan extraction from agave.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of carotenoids and tocopherols in botanical species using one step solid-liquid extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, Izaskun; Bustamante, María Ángeles; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; Nájera, Ana Isabel; de Renobales, Mertxe; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2015-04-15

    Carotenoids and tocopherols from botanical species abundant in Atlantic mountain grasslands were simultaneously extracted using one-step solid-liquid phase. A single n-hexane/2-propanol extract containing both types of compounds was injected twice under two different sets of HPLC conditions to separate the tocopherols by normal-phase chromatography and carotenoids by reverse-phase mode. The method allowed reproducible quantification in plant samples of very low amounts of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols (LOD from 0.0379 to 0.0720 μg g(-1) DM) and over 15 different xanthophylls and carotene isomers. The simplified one-step extraction without saponification significantly increased the recovery of tocopherols and carotenoids, thereby enabling the determination of α-tocopherol acetate in plant samples. The two different sets of chromatographic analysis provided near baseline separation of individual compounds without interference from other lipid compounds extracted from plants, and a very sensitive and accurate detection of tocopherols and carotenoids. The detection of minor individual components in botanical species from grasslands is nowadays of high interest in searching for biomarkers for foods derived from grazing animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction combined with anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of lead and cadmium in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Es’haghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is presented for the determination of low concentrations of lead and cadmium in water samples. Ligand assisted pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction using sol–gel sorbent reinforced with carbon nanotubes was combined with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in tap water, and Darongar river water samples. In the present work, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE was used in order to determine the ultra trace level of lead and cadmium ions in real samples. This method is based on accumulation of lead and cadmium ions on the electrode using different ligands; Quinolin-8-ol, 5,7-diiodo quinoline-8-ol, 4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2(3H-one and 2-{[2-(2-Hydroxy-ethylamino-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenol as the complexing agent. The optimized conditions were obtained. The relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 0.05–500 ng mL−1 for Cd (II and Pb (II. The limits of detection for lead and cadmium were 0.015 ng mL−1 and 0.012 ng mL−1, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the pre-concentration factors are 2440 and 3710 for Cd (II and Pb (II in 5 mL of water sample, respectively.

  19. Microstructure and transport current characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-x thick films prepared by modified solid-liquid melt growth and powder melt process routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhorn, J.; McGinn, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    From the characterization of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thick films processed by melt texturing on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates from YBCO precursors it is clear that the properties are highly dependent on the precursor powder. Increased YBCO grain sizes have been induced in thick films processed from by modified solid-liquid melt growth (SLMG) and powder melt (PMP) processes with respect to those processed from pre-reacted YBCO materials. The SLMG and PMP routes utilize precursors consisting of BaCuO 2 -CuO flux material mixed with Y 2 O 3 and Y 2 BaCuO 5 respectively. Cross-sectional analysis of films textured by these routes shows a decreased Y 2 BaCuO 5 size and an increased homogeneity within the matrix with respect to films processed from YBCO powder. Such microstructural improvements lead to an improvement of both the flux pinning and current-carrying characteristics of the processed YBCO films. (author)

  20. The existence of a plastic phase and a solid-liquid dynamical bistability region in small fullerene cluster (C60)7: molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatek, A; Dawid, A; Gburski, Z

    2006-01-01

    We have simulated (by the molecular dymanics (MD) method) the dynamics of fullerenes (C 60 ) in an extremely small cluster composed of only as many as seven C 60 molecules. The interaction is taken to be the full 60-site pairwise additive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential which generates both translational and anisotropic rotational motions of each molecule. Our atomically detailed MD simulations discover the plastic phase (no translations but active reorientations of fullerenes) at low energies (temperatures) of the (C 60 ) 7 cluster. We provide the in-depth evidence of the dynamical solid-liquid bistability region in the investigated cluster. Moreover, we confirm the existence of the liquid phase in (C 60 ) 7 , the finding of Gallego et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 5258) obtained earlier on the basis of Girifalco's model, which assumes single-site only and spherically symmetrical interaction between C 60 molecules. We have calculated the translational and angular velocity autocorrelation functions and estimated the diffusion coefficient of fullerene in the liquid phase

  1. [Gastric emptying of a solid-liquid meal in normal subjects: validity of the labeling (99mTc) of chicken liver by a multipuncture technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostein, J; Capony, P; Busquet, G; Bost, R; Fournet, J

    1985-04-01

    For gastric emptying studies of a solid-liquid meal by the scintigraphic method, a valid isotope labeling method for each phase of the meal must be obtained. The aim of this study was to validate a simple chicken liver labeling method in normal subjects by multipuncture technic with 99mtechnetium. Labeling according to Meyer's method was chosen as a reference. Simultaneously, a study of the quality of liquid phase labeling by 111indium was done. The labeling process quality for each phase of the meal was assessed: a) in vitro, after incubation of the meal with human gastric juice (n = 12); b) in vivo, after meal ingestion and sequential collection of gastric contents by aspiration (n = 4). Furthermore, in 8 healthy volunteers, gastric emptying curves of the solid and liquid phases of the meal were determined scintigraphically and compared. Our results showed: a) for the solid phase: a good specificity of the marker, which was assessed in vitro and in vivo, after liver labeling with multipuncture technique (89 p. 100 and 92 p. 100 after 180 min, respectively); b) for the liquid phase: a good specificity of the marker in vitro and a poor specificity in vivo (82 p. 100 and 27 p. 100 after 180 min, respectively); c) similar half-gastric emptying times and cumulative percentages for the solid and liquid phases with both liver labeling methods. In conclusion, the multipuncture technique for chicken liver labeling may be used for gastric emptying studies in humans.

  2. A validated solid-liquid extraction method for the HPLC determination of polyphenols in apple tissues Comparison with pressurised liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Barranco, Alejandro; Corta, Edurne; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2005-02-15

    A solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (DAD) for the determination of polyphenols in freeze-dried apple peel and pulp is reported. The extraction step consists in sonicating 0.5g of freeze-dried apple tissue with 30mL of methanol-water-acetic acid (30:69:1, v/v/v) containing 2g of ascorbic acid/L, for 10min in an ultrasonic bath. The whole method was validated, concluding that it is a robust method that presents high extraction efficiencies (peel: >91%, pulp: >95%) and appropriate precisions (within day: R.S.D. (n = 5) <5%, and between days: R.S.D. (n = 5) <7%) at the different concentration levels of polyphenols that can be found in apple samples. The method was compared with one previously published, consisting in a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by RP-HPLC-DAD determination. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed.

  3. Experimental Quantification of Pore-Scale Flow Phenomena in 2D Heterogeneous Porous Micromodels: Multiphase Flow Towards Coupled Solid-Liquid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 within saline aquifers is a viable technology for reducing CO2 emissions. Central to this goal is accurately predicting both the fidelity of candidate sites pre-injection of CO2 and its post-injection migration. Moreover, local fluid pressure buildup may cause activation of small pre-existing unidentified faults, leading to micro-seismic events, which could prove disastrous for societal acceptance of CCS, and possibly compromise seal integrity. Recent evidence shows that large-scale events are coupled with pore-scale phenomena, which necessitates the representation of pore-scale stress, strain, and multiphase flow processes in large-scale modeling. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions, over a range of wettability conditions in 2D heterogeneous micromodels that reflect the complexity of a real sandstone. High-speed fluorescent microscopy, complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A flexible micromodel is also designed and fabricated, to be used in conjunction with the micro-PIV technique, enabling the quantification of coupled solid-liquid interactions.

  4. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Cindy M. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cindy.cooke@imperial.ac.uk; Shaw, George [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of {sup 14}C-isoproturon and {sup 14}C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d} values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K{sub d} range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K{sub d} range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances.

  5. Numerical research on the effects of impeller pump-out vanes on axial force in a solid-liquid screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X R; Li, R N; Gao, Y; Guo, W L

    2013-01-01

    A commercial CFD code has been used to predict the performance of a screw centrifugal pump with pump-out vanes, especially when changing regularity of impeller axial force based on the solid-liquid two-phase flow. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach has been applied to solve the unsteady, incompressible, three-dimensional turbulent. The SIMPLEC algorithm, standard wall functions and mix two-phase flow model were applied. The RNG k ε-model was used to account the turbulence effects. By changing the number of impeller pump-out vanes and width, six different screw centrifugal pump numerical simulation projects were given, and each scheme in the different solid volume fraction were calculated respectively. The change rules of axial force, velocity and pressure distribution of flow field were obtained on the different condition and different volume fraction. The results showed that the axial forces values based solid-fluid two-phase greater than based single-phase clear water, but both changing regularity of the axial force were consistent; as same condition, the same solid-phase volume concentration, with the increase of pump-out vanes number or width, the impeller axial force increased as well. Meanwhile the number of the pump-out vanes and the width of pump-out vanes in balancing the impeller axial force, there are the most optimal value

  6. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  7. Preface (to Playful User Interfaces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the

  8. Relation between distribution coefficient of radioactive strontium and solid-liquid distribution ratio of background stable strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Toshifumi; Mahara, Yasunori; Okamura, Masaki; Ashikawa, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Distribution coefficients (K d ) of nuclides, which are defined as the ratio of the adsorbed concentration to the solution concentration, are important in predicting nuclide migration in the subsurface environment. This study was undertaken to contrust an effective method of determining the most pertinent K d value for simulating in situ distribution phenomena between the solid and liquid phases, by using background stable isotopes. This paper describes the applicability of this method to Sr by carrying out a batch Sr adsorption experiment where stable Sr coexisted with the radioactive isotope, 85 Sr, and by comparing the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr with the K d value obtained by the batch experiment. The results showed that the K d of 85 Sr (K d85 ) agreed well with the K d of the coexisting stable Sr (K ds ) and that the two values decreased with an increase in the concentration of the stable Sr, when sand was used as an adsorbent. In addition, the K d85 corresponded to the ratio of the exchangeable solid-phase concentration of background stable Sr to the concentration of the background stable Sr in groundwater when the concentration of the coexisting stable Sr approached the background level. On the other hand, when powdered rock samples were used, the K d85 did not agree with the K ds , and the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr was greater than the K d85 . This discrepancy might be due to the disequilibrium resulting from grinding the rock matrices. This suggests that measurement of the background stable Sr distribution ratio between the solid and liquid phases can be an effective method of estimating the K d of radioactive Sr when the groundwater is in satisfactory contact with the adsorption medium. (author)

  9. Brain-computer interface game applications for combined neurofeedback and biofeedback treatment for children on the autism spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth V C Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD show deficits in social and communicative skills, including imitation, empathy, and shared attention, as well as restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behaviors. Evidence for and against the idea that dysfunctions in the mirror neuron system are involved in imitation and could be one underlying cause for ASD is discussed in this review. Neurofeedback interventions have reduced symptoms in children with ASD by self-regulation of brain rhythms. However, cortical deficiencies are not the only cause of these symptoms. Peripheral physiological activity, such as the heart rate, is closely linked to neurophysiological signals and associated with social engagement. Therefore, a combined approach targeting the interplay between brain, body and behavior could be more effective. Brain-computer interface applications for combined neurofeedback and biofeedback treatment for children with ASD are currently nonexistent. To facilitate their use, we have designed an innovative game that includes social interactions and provides neural- and body-based feedback that corresponds directly to the underlying significance of the trained signals as well as to the behavior that is reinforced.

  10. Toward brain-actuated car applications: Self-paced control with a motor imagery-based brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhou, Zongtan; Yin, Erwei; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Jingsheng; Liu, Yadong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-01

    This study presented a paradigm for controlling a car using an asynchronous electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and presented the experimental results of a simulation performed in an experimental environment outside the laboratory. This paradigm uses two distinct MI tasks, imaginary left- and right-hand movements, to generate a multi-task car control strategy consisting of starting the engine, moving forward, turning left, turning right, moving backward, and stopping the engine. Five healthy subjects participated in the online car control experiment, and all successfully controlled the car by following a previously outlined route. Subject S1 exhibited the most satisfactory BCI-based performance, which was comparable to the manual control-based performance. We hypothesize that the proposed self-paced car control paradigm based on EEG signals could potentially be used in car control applications, and we provide a complementary or alternative way for individuals with locked-in disorders to achieve more mobility in the future, as well as providing a supplementary car-driving strategy to assist healthy people in driving a car. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain-computer interface game applications for combined neurofeedback and biofeedback treatment for children on the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Elisabeth V C; Suttie, Neil; Sivanathan, Aparajithan; Lim, Theodore; Louchart, Sandy; Pineda, Jaime A

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show deficits in social and communicative skills, including imitation, empathy, and shared attention, as well as restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behaviors. Evidence for and against the idea that dysfunctions in the mirror neuron system are involved in imitation and could be one underlying cause for ASD is discussed in this review. Neurofeedback interventions have reduced symptoms in children with ASD by self-regulation of brain rhythms. However, cortical deficiencies are not the only cause of these symptoms. Peripheral physiological activity, such as the heart rate and its variability, is closely linked to neurophysiological signals and associated with social engagement. Therefore, a combined approach targeting the interplay between brain, body, and behavior could be more effective. Brain-computer interface applications for combined neurofeedback and biofeedback treatment for children with ASD are currently nonexistent. To facilitate their use, we have designed an innovative game that includes social interactions and provides neural- and body-based feedback that corresponds directly to the underlying significance of the trained signals as well as to the behavior that is reinforced.

  12. An automated and fast approach to detect single-trial visual evoked potentials with application to brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiheng; Hung, Yeung Sam; Hu, Li; Huang, Gan; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-12-01

    This study aims (1) to develop an automated and fast approach for detecting visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in single trials and (2) to apply the single-trial VEP detection approach in designing a real-time and high-performance brain-computer interface (BCI) system. The single-trial VEP detection approach uses common spatial pattern (CSP) as a spatial filter and wavelet filtering (WF) a temporal-spectral filter to jointly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of single-trial VEPs. The performance of the joint spatial-temporal-spectral filtering approach was assessed in a four-command VEP-based BCI system. The offline classification accuracy of the BCI system was significantly improved from 67.6±12.5% (raw data) to 97.3±2.1% (data filtered by CSP and WF). The proposed approach was successfully implemented in an online BCI system, where subjects could make 20 decisions in one minute with classification accuracy of 90%. The proposed single-trial detection approach is able to obtain robust and reliable VEP waveform in an automatic and fast way and it is applicable in VEP based online BCI systems. This approach provides a real-time and automated solution for single-trial detection of evoked potentials or event-related potentials (EPs/ERPs) in various paradigms, which could benefit many applications such as BCI and intraoperative monitoring. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forward calculation of gravity and its gradient using polyhedral representation of density interfaces: an application of spherical or ellipsoidal topographic gravity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Chao

    2018-02-01

    A density interface modeling method using polyhedral representation is proposed to construct 3-D models of spherical or ellipsoidal interfaces such as the terrain surface of the Earth and applied to forward calculating gravity effect of topography and bathymetry for regional or global applications. The method utilizes triangular facets to fit undulation of the target interface. The model maintains almost equal accuracy and resolution at different locations of the globe. Meanwhile, the exterior gravitational field of the model, including its gravity and gravity gradients, is obtained simultaneously using analytic solutions. Additionally, considering the effect of distant relief, an adaptive computation process is introduced to reduce the computational burden. Then features and errors of the method are analyzed. Subsequently, the method is applied to an area for the ellipsoidal Bouguer shell correction as an example and the result is compared to existing methods, which shows our method provides high accuracy and great computational efficiency. Suggestions for further developments and conclusions are drawn at last.

  14. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  15. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  16. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  18. High temperature investigation of the solid/liquid transition in the PuO2-UO2-ZrO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaini, A.; Guéneau, C.; Gossé, S.; Sundman, B.; Manara, D.; Smith, A. L.; Bottomley, D.; Lajarge, P.; Ernstberger, M.; Hodaj, F.

    2015-12-01

    The solid/liquid transitions in the quaternary U-Pu-Zr-O system are of great interest for the analysis of core meltdown accidents in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) fuelled with uranium-dioxide and MOX. During a severe accident the Zr-based cladding can become completely oxidised due to the interaction with the oxide fuel and the water coolant. In this framework, the present analysis is focused on the pseudo-ternary system UO2-PuO2-ZrO2. The melting/solidification behaviour of five pseudo-ternary and one pseudo-binary ((PuO2)0.50(ZrO2)0.50) compositions have been investigated experimentally by a laser heating method under pre-set atmospheres. The effects of an oxidising or reducing atmosphere on the observed melting/freezing temperatures, as well as the amount of UO2 in the sample, have been clearly identified for the different compositions. The oxygen-to-metal ratio is a key parameter affecting the melting/freezing temperature because of incongruent vaporisation effects. In parallel, a detailed thermodynamic model for the UO2-PuO2-ZrO2 system has been developed using the CALPHAD method, and thermodynamic calculations have been performed to interpret the present laser heating results, as well as the high temperature behaviour of the cubic (Pu,U,Zr)O2±x-c mixed oxide phase. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data points. This work enables an improved understanding of the major factors relevant to severe accident in nuclear reactors.

  19. Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): a New Rapid and Greener Method for Extracting Two Steviol Glycosides (Stevioside and Rebaudioside A) from Stevia Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Vitulano, Manuela; Andolfi, Anna; DellaGreca, Marina; Conte, Esterina; Ciaravolo, Martina; Naviglio, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main diterpene glycosides present in the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana plant, which is used in the production of foods and low-calorie beverages. The difficulties associated with their extraction and purification are currently a problem for the food processing industries. The objective of this study was to develop an effective and economically viable method to obtain a high-quality product while trying to overcome the disadvantages derived from the conventional transformation processes. For this reason, extractions were carried out using a conventional maceration (CM) and a cyclically pressurized extraction known as rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) by the Naviglio extractor (NE). After only 20 min of extraction using the NE, a quantity of rebaudioside A and stevioside equal to 1197.8 and 413.6 mg/L was obtained, respectively, while for the CM, the optimum time was 90 min. From the results, it can be stated that the extraction process by NE and its subsequent purification developed in this study is a simple, economical, environmentally friendly method for producing steviol glycosides. Therefore, this method constitutes a valid alternative to conventional extraction by reducing the extraction time and the consumption of toxic solvents and favouring the use of the extracted metabolites as food additives and/or nutraceuticals. As an added value and of local interest, the experiment was carried out on stevia leaves from the Benevento area (Italy), where a high content of rebaudioside A was observed, which exhibits a sweet taste compared to stevioside, which has a significant bitter aftertaste.

  20. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High temperature investigation of the solid/liquid transition in the PuO{sub 2}–UO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaini, A. [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guéneau, C., E-mail: christine.gueneau@cea.fr [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gossé, S. [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sundman, B. [INSTN, CEA Saclay (France); Manara, D.; Smith, A.L.; Bottomley, D.; Lajarge, P.; Ernstberger, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hodaj, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Grenoble INP, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-15

    The solid/liquid transitions in the quaternary U-Pu-Zr-O system are of great interest for the analysis of core meltdown accidents in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) fuelled with uranium-dioxide and MOX. During a severe accident the Zr-based cladding can become completely oxidised due to the interaction with the oxide fuel and the water coolant. In this framework, the present analysis is focused on the pseudo-ternary system UO{sub 2}–PuO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2}. The melting/solidification behaviour of five pseudo-ternary and one pseudo-binary ((PuO{sub 2}){sub 0.50}(ZrO{sub 2}){sub 0.50}) compositions have been investigated experimentally by a laser heating method under pre-set atmospheres. The effects of an oxidising or reducing atmosphere on the observed melting/freezing temperatures, as well as the amount of UO{sub 2} in the sample, have been clearly identified for the different compositions. The oxygen-to-metal ratio is a key parameter affecting the melting/freezing temperature because of incongruent vaporisation effects. In parallel, a detailed thermodynamic model for the UO{sub 2}–PuO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} system has been developed using the CALPHAD method, and thermodynamic calculations have been performed to interpret the present laser heating results, as well as the high temperature behaviour of the cubic (Pu,U,Zr)O{sub 2±x}-c mixed oxide phase. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data points. This work enables an improved understanding of the major factors relevant to severe accident in nuclear reactors.

  2. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Sohlenius, Gustav; Omberg, Lars-Gunnar; Borgiel, Mikael; Grolander, Sara; Norden, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K d data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K d values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K d resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K d values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K d values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K d values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  3. Evolution in the design of a low sheath-flow interface for CE-MS and application to biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz, Víctor; Codesido, Santiago; Rudaz, Serge; Schappler, Julie

    2018-03-01

    Although several interfaces for CE-MS hyphenation are commercially available, the development of new versatile, simple and yet efficient and sensitive alternatives remains an important field of research. In a previous work, a simple low sheath-flow interface was developed from inexpensive parts. This interface features a design easy to build, maintain, and adapt to particular needs. The present work introduces an improved design of the previous interface. By reducing the diameter of the separation capillary and the emitter, a smaller Taylor cone is spontaneously formed, minimizing the zone dispersion while the analytes go through the interface and leading to less peak broadening associated to the ESI process. Numerical modeling allowed studying the mixing and diffusion processes taking place in the Taylor cone. The analytical performance of this new interface was tested with pharmaceutically relevant molecules and endogenous metabolites. The interface was eventually applied to the analysis of neural cell culture samples, allowing the identification of a panel of neurotransmission-related molecules. An excellent migration time repeatability was obtained (intra-day RSD 10 with an injected volume of 6.7 nL of biological extract. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Playful Interfaces : Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  5. Optimizing the Detection of Wakeful and Sleep-Like States for Future Electrocorticographic Brain Computer Interface Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Kusner, Matthew; Hacker, Carl D; Bundy, David T; Weinberger, Kilian Q; Leuthardt, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest stable and robust control of a brain-computer interface (BCI) can be achieved using electrocorticography (ECoG). Translation of this technology from the laboratory to the real world requires additional methods that allow users operate their ECoG-based BCI autonomously. In such an environment, users must be able to perform all tasks currently performed by the experimenter, including manually switching the BCI system on/off. Although a simple task, it can be challenging for target users (e.g., individuals with tetraplegia) due to severe motor disability. In this study, we present an automated and practical strategy to switch a BCI system on or off based on the cognitive state of the user. Using a logistic regression, we built probabilistic models that utilized sub-dural ECoG signals from humans to estimate in pseudo real-time whether a person is awake or in a sleep-like state, and subsequently, whether to turn a BCI system on or off. Furthermore, we constrained these models to identify the optimal anatomical and spectral parameters for delineating states. Other methods exist to differentiate wake and sleep states using ECoG, but none account for practical requirements of BCI application, such as minimizing the size of an ECoG implant and predicting states in real time. Our results demonstrate that, across 4 individuals, wakeful and sleep-like states can be classified with over 80% accuracy (up to 92%) in pseudo real-time using high gamma (70-110 Hz) band limited power from only 5 electrodes (platinum discs with a diameter of 2.3 mm) located above the precentral and posterior superior temporal gyrus.

  6. Optimizing the Detection of Wakeful and Sleep-Like States for Future Electrocorticographic Brain Computer Interface Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pahwa

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest stable and robust control of a brain-computer interface (BCI can be achieved using electrocorticography (ECoG. Translation of this technology from the laboratory to the real world requires additional methods that allow users operate their ECoG-based BCI autonomously. In such an environment, users must be able to perform all tasks currently performed by the experimenter, including manually switching the BCI system on/off. Although a simple task, it can be challenging for target users (e.g., individuals with tetraplegia due to severe motor disability. In this study, we present an automated and practical strategy to switch a BCI system on or off based on the cognitive state of the user. Using a logistic regression, we built probabilistic models that utilized sub-dural ECoG signals from humans to estimate in pseudo real-time whether a person is awake or in a sleep-like state, and subsequently, whether to turn a BCI system on or off. Furthermore, we constrained these models to identify the optimal anatomical and spectral parameters for delineating states. Other methods exist to differentiate wake and sleep states using ECoG, but none account for practical requirements of BCI application, such as minimizing the size of an ECoG implant and predicting states in real time. Our results demonstrate that, across 4 individuals, wakeful and sleep-like states can be classified with over 80% accuracy (up to 92% in pseudo real-time using high gamma (70-110 Hz band limited power from only 5 electrodes (platinum discs with a diameter of 2.3 mm located above the precentral and posterior superior temporal gyrus.

  7. Development of a clinical applicable graphical user interface to automatically detect exercise oscillatory ventilation: The VOdEX-tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Justien; Denis, Tim; Beckers, Paul; Vrints, Christiaan; Vissers, Dirk; Goossens, Maggy

    2017-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) gained importance in the prognostic assessment of especially patients with heart failure (HF). A meaningful prognostic parameter for early mortality in HF is exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV). This abnormal respiratory pattern is recognized by hypo- and hyperventilation during CPET. Up until now, assessment of EOV is mainly done upon visual agreement or manual calculation. The purpose of this research was to automate the interpretation of EOV so this prognostic parameter could be readily investigated during CPET. Preliminary, four definitions describing the original characteristics of EOV, were selected and integrated in the "Ventilatory Oscillations during Exercise-tool" (VOdEX-tool), a graphical user interface that allows automate calculation of EOV. A Discrete Meyer Level 2 wavelet transformation appeared to be the optimal filter to apply on the collected breath-by-breath minute ventilation CPET data. Divers aspects of the definitions i.e. cycle length, amplitude, regularity and total duration of EOV were combined and calculated. The oscillations meeting the criteria were visualised. Filter methods and cut-off criteria were made adjustable for clinical application and research. The VOdEX-tool was connected to a database. The VOdEX-tool provides the possibility to calculate EOV automatically and to present the clinician an overview of the presence of EOV at a glance. The computerized analysis of EOV can be made readily available in clinical practice by integrating the tool in the manufactures existing CPET software. The VOdEX-tool enhances assessment of EOV and therefore contributes to the estimation of prognosis in especially patients with HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Easy-to-use interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, D O; Blattner, M M; Tong, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future

  9. Surface and Interface Engineering of Conjugated Polymers and Nanomaterials in Applications of Supercapacitors and Surface-functionalization

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Yuanfang

    2016-05-23

    In this dissertation, three aspects about surface and interface engineering of conjugated polymers and nanomaterials will be discussed. (i) There is a significant promise for electroactive conjugated polymers (ECPs) in applications of electrochemical devices including energy harvesting, electrochromic displays, etc. Among these, ECPs has also been developed as electroactive materials in electrochemical supercapacitors (ESCs). Compared with metal oxides, ECPs are attractive because they have good intrinsic conductivity, low band-gaps, relatively fast doping-and-undoping process, the ease of synthesis, and tunable electronic and structural properties through structural modifications. Here, Multiple-branch-chain 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) derivatives was designed as crosslinkers in the co-electropolymerization of EDOT to optimize its morphology and improve the cycling stability of PEDOT in the supercapacitor applications. High-surface-area π-conjugated polymeric networks can be synthesized via the electrochemical copolymerization of the 2D (trivalent) motifs benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b’:5,6-b’’]trithiophene (BTT) and tris-EDOT-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b’:5,6-b’’]trithiophene (TEBTT) with EDOT. Of all the material systems studied, P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks achieved the highest areal capacitance with values as high as 443.8 mF cm-2 (at 1 mA cm-2), higher than those achieved by the respective homopolymers (PTEBTT and PEDOT) in the same experimental conditions of electrodeposition (PTEBTT: 271.1 mF cm-2 (at 1 mA cm-2); PEDOT: 12.1 mF cm-2 (at 1 mA cm-2). (ii) In electrochemical process, the suitable choice of appropriate electrolytes to enlarge the safe working potential window with electrolyte stability is well known to improve ECPs’ performance in ESCs applications. Ionic liquids (ILs) are ion-composed salts and usually fluid within a wide temperature range with low melting points. There are many unique characteristics for these intrinsic ion conductors

  10. User Interface Composition with COTS-UI and Trading Approaches: Application for Web-Based Environmental Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Javier; Padilla, Nicolás; Iribarne, Luis; Asensio, Jose-Andrés

    Due to the globalization of the information and knowledge society on the Internet, modern Web-based Information Systems (WIS) must be flexible and prepared to be easily accessible and manageable in real-time. In recent times it has received a special interest the globalization of information through a common vocabulary (i.e., ontologies), and the standardized way in which information is retrieved on the Web (i.e., powerful search engines, and intelligent software agents). These same principles of globalization and standardization should also be valid for the user interfaces of the WIS, but they are built on traditional development paradigms. In this paper we present an approach to reduce the gap of globalization/standardization in the generation of WIS user interfaces by using a real-time "bottom-up" composition perspective with COTS-interface components (type interface widgets) and trading services.

  11. Bi-layered constructs of poly(glycerol-sebacate)-β-tricalcium phosphate for bone-soft tissue interface applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tevlek, Atakan [Bioengineering Division, Institute of Science and Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Hosseinian, Pezhman; Ogutcu, Cansel [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Institute of Science and Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Turk, Mustafa [Biology Department, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale (Turkey); Aydin, Halil Murat, E-mail: hmaydin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Environmental Engineering Department, Bioengineering Division, Centre for Bioengineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to establish a facile protocol for the preparation of a bi-layered poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) construct and to investigate its potential for bone-soft tissue engineering applications. The layered structure was prepared by distributing the ceramic particles within a prepolymer synthesized in a microwave reactor followed by a cross-linking of the final construct in vacuum (< 10 mbar). The vacuum stage led to the separation of cross-linked elastomer (top) and ceramic (bottom) phases. Results showed that addition of β-TCP particles to the elastomer matrix after the polymerization led to an increase in compression strength (up to 14 ± 2.3 MPa). Tensile strength (σ), Young's modulus (E), and elongation at break (%) values were calculated as 0.29 ± 0.03 MPa and 0.21 ± 0.03; 0.38 ± 0.02 and 1.95 ± 0.4; and 240 ± 50% and 24 ± 2% for PGS and PGS/β-TCP bi-layered constructs, respectively. Morphology was characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). Tomography data revealed an open porosity of 35% for the construct, mostly contributed from the ceramic phase since the elastomer side has no pore. Homogeneous β-TCP distribution within the elastomeric structure was observed. Cell culture studies confirmed biocompatibility with poor elastomer-side and good bone-side cell attachment. In a further study to investigate the osteogenic properties, the construct were loaded with BMP-2 and/or TGF-β1. The PGS/β-TCP bi-layered constructs with improved mechanical and biological properties have the potential to be used in bone-soft tissue interface applications where soft tissue penetration is a problem. - Highlights: • Biodegradable bi-layered constructs with elastomer and ceramic sides were prepared. • The constructs could be a promising material in guided bone regeneration. • Elastomer side of the construct acts as a barrier to prevent soft tissue ingrowth.

  12. Liquid phase stabilization versus bubble formation at a nanoscale curved interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Luo, Tengfei

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the nature of vapor bubble formation near a nanoscale-curved convex liquid-solid interface using two models: an equilibrium Gibbs model for homogenous nucleation, and a nonequilibrium dynamic van der Waals-diffuse-interface model for phase change in an initially cool liquid. Vapor bubble formation is shown to occur for sufficiently large radius of curvature and is suppressed for smaller radii. Solid-fluid interactions are accounted for and it is shown that liquid-vapor interfacial energy, and hence Laplace pressure, has limited influence over bubble formation. The dominant factor is the energetic cost of creating the solid-vapor interface from the existing solid-liquid interface, as demonstrated via both equilibrium and nonequilibrium arguments.

  13. The development of photoemission spectroscopy and its application to the study of semiconductor interfaces Observations on the interplay between basic and applied research (Welch Memorial Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    A sketch is given of the development of photoemission electron spectroscopy (PES) with emphasis on the author's own experience. Emphasis is placed: (1) on the period between 1958-1970; (2) on the various developments which were required for PES to emerge; and (3) on the strong interactions between applied/fundamental and knowledge/empirically based research. A more detailed discussion is given of the recent (1975-present) application of PES to study the interfaces of III-V semiconductors.

  14. Binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium for the systems formed by succinic acid, urea and diethylene glycol: Determination and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanxun; Li, Congcong; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was determined. • Solubility of succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol was determined. • Three ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the ternary system. • The ternary phase diagrams were correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solid-liquid phase equilibrium for binary system of succinic acid + diethylene glycol at the temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 333.15) K and ternary system of (succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol) at 298.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K was built by using the isothermal saturation method under atmospheric pressure (101.2 kPa), and the solubilities were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography. The solid-phases formed in the ternary system of ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) were confirmed by Schreinemaker’s method of wet residue, which corresponded to urea, succinic acid, and adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid (mole ratio). Three isothermal phase diagrams for the ternary system were constructed based on the measured mutual solubility. Each isothermal phase diagram included six crystallization fields, three invariant curves, two invariant points and two co-saturated points. The crystalline region of adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid is larger than those of the other two solids. The solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was correlated with the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation and NRTL model; and the mutual solubility of the ternary ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) system was correlated and calculated by the NRTL model. The interaction parameters’ values of succinic acid-urea were acquired. The value of RMSD was 7.11 × 10 −3 for the ternary system. The calculation results had good agreement with the experiment values. Furthermore, the densities of equilibrium liquid phase were acquired. The phase diagrams and the thermodynamic model of the ternary system could provide the basis for design of

  15. Experimental and theoretical exploration of mechanical stability of Pt/NbO2 interfaces for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Schmidt, Paul; Saksena, Aparna

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stability criteria for metallic contacts, namely a minimised thermal stress and an enhanced interfacial strength, have been appraised for sputtered, x-ray amorphous NbO 2 thermoelectric thin films in contact with a polycrystalline Pt electrode utilising experimental and theoretical methods. Thermal stress built at these Pt/NbO 2 interfaces with approximately 50 MPa is minute even at 800 °C, the maximum operation temperature. There are no coordination changes of Pt and its metallic character is only marginally altered upon the interface formation. In addition, Nb–O bonds at the interface sustain their covalent-ionic dioxide bonding nature. Hence, even though there are no considerable modifications in the electronic structure of the individual components at these interfaces, Pt/NbO 2 interfacial bonds of metallic and partly covalent character are strong with a work of separation reaching 2 J m −2 . Based on the synergic experimental and theoretical results, it is therefore expected that these interfaces are mechanically stable during operation of these thermoelectric devices. This strategy is of general importance for designing mechanically stable electrical contacts. (paper)

  16. Effects of Force Fields on Interface Dynamics, in view of Two-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement and Phase Management for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, P.; Saccone, G.

    2017-11-01

    On earth, gravity barely influences the dynamics of interfaces. For what concerns bubbles, buoyancy governs the dynamics of boiling mechanism and thus affects boiling heat transfer capacity. While, for droplets, the coupled effects of wettability and gravity affects interface exchanges. In space, in the lack of gravity, rules are changed and new phenomena come into play. The present work is aimed to study the effects of electric field on the shape and behaviour of bubbles and droplets in order to understand how to handle microgravity applications; in particular, the replacement of gravity with electric field and their coupled effects are evaluated. The experiments spread over different setups, gravity conditions, working fluids, interface conditions. Droplets and bubbles have been analysed with and without electric field, with and without (adiabatic) heat and mass transfer across the interface. Furthermore, the results of the 4 ESA Parabolic Flight Campaigns (PFC 58, 60, 64 & 66), for adiabatic bubbles, adiabatic droplets and evaporating droplets, will be summarized, discussed, and compared with the ground tests.

  17. Linking data repositories - an illustration of agile data curation principles through robust documentation and multiple application programming interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Servilla, M. S.; Vanderbilt, K.; Wheeler, J.

    2015-12-01

    The growing volume, variety and velocity of production of Earth science data magnifies the impact of inefficiencies in data acquisition, processing, analysis, and sharing workflows, potentially to the point of impairing the ability of researchers to accomplish their desired scientific objectives. The adaptation of agile software development principles (http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html) to data curation processes has significant potential to lower barriers to effective scientific data discovery and reuse - barriers that otherwise may force the development of new data to replace existing but unusable data, or require substantial effort to make data usable in new research contexts. This paper outlines a data curation process that was developed at the University of New Mexico that provides a cross-walk of data and associated documentation between the data archive developed by the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Office (PASTA - http://lno.lternet.edu/content/network-information-system) and UNM's institutional repository (LoboVault - http://repository.unm.edu). The developed automated workflow enables the replication of versioned data objects and their associated standards-based metadata between the LTER system and LoboVault - providing long-term preservation for those data/metadata packages within LoboVault while maintaining the value-added services that the PASTA platform provides. The relative ease with which this workflow was developed is a product of the capabilities independently developed on both platforms - including the simplicity of providing a well-documented application programming interface (API) for each platform enabling scripted interaction and the use of well-established documentation standards (EML in the case of PASTA, Dublin Core in the case of LoboVault) by both systems. These system characteristics, when combined with an iterative process of interaction between the Data Curation Librarian (on the LoboVault side of the process

  18. Application of a generalized interface module to the coupling of PARCS with both RELAP5 and TRAC-M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.A.; Wang, W. [SCIENTECH, Inc. (United States); Miller, R.M.; Downar, T.J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Joo, H.G. [Korean Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mousseau, V.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ebert, D.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-04-01

    In an effort to more easily assess various combinations of 3-D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic codes, the USNRC has sponsored the development of a generalized interface module for the coupling of any thermal-hydraulics code to any spatial kinetics code. In this design, the thermal-hydraulics, general interface, and spatial kinetics codes function independently and utilize the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software to manage inter-process communication. Using this interface, the USNRC version of the 3D neutron kinetics code, PARCS, has been coupled to the USNRC system analysis codes RELAP5 and TRAC-M. RELAP5/PARCS assessment results are presented for an OECD/NEA main steam line break benchmark problem. The assessment of TRAC-M/PARCS has only recently been initiated; nonetheless, the capabilities of the coupled code are presented for the OECD/NEA main steam line break benchmark problem.

  19. Application of a generalized interface module to the coupling of PARCS with both RELAPS and TRAC-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.A.; Wang, W.; Miller, R.M.; Downar, T.J.; Joo, H.G.; Mousseau, V.A.; Ebert, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In an effort to more easily assess various combinations of 3-D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic codes, the USNRC has sponsored the development of a generalized interface module for the coupling of any thermal-hydraulics code to any spatial kinetics code. In this design, the thermal-hydraulics, general interface, and spatial kinetics codes function independently and utilize the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software to manage inter-process communication. Using this interface, the USNRC version of the 3D neutron kinetics code, PARCS, has been coupled to the USNRC system analysis codes RELAP5 and TRAC-M. RELAP5/PARCS assessment results are presented for an OECD/NEA main steam line break benchmark problem. The assessment of TRAC-M/PARCS has only recently been initiated; nonetheless, the capabilities of the coupled code are presented for the OECD/NEA main steam line break benchmark problem

  20. Development of a 3-D x-ray micro-tomography system and its application to trabecular bone/cement interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Yong Ki; Cho, Gyuseong

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the interface analysis of micro-structure based objects is an important research in osteoporosis, vascular imaging since a 3-D X-ray micro-tomography system was developed. However, the micro-tomographic image shows the white-out appearance in case of imaging of similar density objects with low energy X-ray. Therefore these images must be analyzed about the interface between microstructure based objects for its application to biomechanical study. Many published studies suggested approximately assumed model of interface and predicted mechanical failure by means of Finite Element Method (FEM) but these FEM analysis has not used for modeling the real structure and interface between objects such as roughness, voids and pores of objects. We developed micro-tomography system and suggest the application of micro-tomographic image for predicting mechanical failure at the interface. The micro-tomography system consists of a 5 μm micro-focus X-ray tube, a CMOS-based image sensor and a rotating sample holder controlled by a precision motor. CMOS image sensor has 62x62 mm 2 sensing area and uses optical lenses system for increasing resolution. The sample which was manufactured by implanting cement in a pig hip bone was used and its fracture is considered to be an important cause of loosening of hip joint replacement in orthopedic implants. A Feldkamp's cone-beam reconstruction algorithm on the equispatial detector case was used for bone/cement 3D volume data and the analysis of a trabecular bone/cement interface containing white-out appearance was performed by using multiple criterion segmentation of region and volume. Finally, the segmented data can be used for fracture prediction of FEM by determining node of hexahedron meshing. In this paper, we present development of a 3-D cone beam micro-tomographic system with CMOS image sensor and its application to a complex structure of a trabecular bone and implanted cement for predicting the failure mechanism of