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Sample records for solid-liquid extraction analysis

  1. Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Esterina

    2017-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a

  2. Digital microfluidics platform for interfacing solid-liquid extraction column with portable capillary electropherograph for analysis of soil amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsova, Jelena; Jaanus, Martin; Vaher, Merike; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the concept of a field-portable analyzer is proposed that operates with milliliter amounts of solvents and samples. The need to develop such an analyzer is not only driven by specific extraterrestrial analysis but also, for example, by forensics applications where the amount of liquid that can be taken to the field is severely limited. The prototype of the proposed analyzer consists of a solid-liquid extractor, the output of which is connected to the micropump, which delivers droplets of extracts to digital microfluidic platform (DMFP). In this way, world-to-chip interfacing is established. Further, the sample droplets are transported to CE capillary inlet port, separated and detected via a contactless conductivity detector. Working buffers and other solvents needed to perform CE analysis are also delivered as droplets to the DMFP and transported through the CE capillary. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by analysis of amino acids in sand matrices. The recovery of the spiked amino acids from the inert sand sample was from 34 to 51% with analysis LOD from 0.2 to 0.6 ppm and migration time RSD from 0.2 to 6.0%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  4. Preliminary Study on Kinetic Solid-Liquid Extraction and Bio-Active Components Analysis of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Haizulizam Suradi; Syazwan Aizad Abdul Mutalib; Zetty Shafiqa Othman; Norshahida Bustaman; Wan Ros Maryana Wan Musa

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or commonly known as 'Hibiscus' is a kind of decorative flowers which often grown in a subtropical countries. This plant is often used in the preparation of traditional medicine because of its pharmacological properties that are capable of treating number of health problems. The plant contains several essential bio-active substances and nutrients especially in its flowers and leaves. One of the bioactive substances is β-sitosterol which is abundant in the leaf crude extract. Hibiscus leaves water extract yielded mucilage which is widely used in lowering high body temperature due to fever (antipyretic). Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to determine the maximum concentration of mucilage and time of exhaustive extraction from fresh and dried leaves using a Peleq's mathematical model. Moreover, several analyses were conducted such as qualitative analysis to determine the presence of bioactive substances using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of functional groups by means of fourier transform infrared method (FTIR). Physical properties of the extracts were evaluated to determine its acidity and viscosity of the mucilage with respect to different shear stress. The result show that the extract of dried Hibiscus leaves exhibited high in its concentrations even though the achieved exhaustive extraction was relatively slow as compared to fresh leaves (p < 0.05). Based on the HPLC analysis, the main bio-active substances of β-sitosterol was only existed in fresh leaves samples. The absence of β-sitosterol in dried leaves extract was caused by the loss of other important bio-active substances which possess surfactant capability, due to thermal degradation of drying process or the component itself was deteriorated during the pre-preparation drying process. Furthermore, the FTIR analysis shows that the same composition of the absorption peaks for both extracts with the highest absorption of O-H bonds was

  5. Simultaneous analysis of carotenoids and tocopherols in botanical species using one step solid-liquid extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, Izaskun; Bustamante, María Ángeles; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; Nájera, Ana Isabel; de Renobales, Mertxe; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2015-04-15

    Carotenoids and tocopherols from botanical species abundant in Atlantic mountain grasslands were simultaneously extracted using one-step solid-liquid phase. A single n-hexane/2-propanol extract containing both types of compounds was injected twice under two different sets of HPLC conditions to separate the tocopherols by normal-phase chromatography and carotenoids by reverse-phase mode. The method allowed reproducible quantification in plant samples of very low amounts of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols (LOD from 0.0379 to 0.0720 μg g(-1) DM) and over 15 different xanthophylls and carotene isomers. The simplified one-step extraction without saponification significantly increased the recovery of tocopherols and carotenoids, thereby enabling the determination of α-tocopherol acetate in plant samples. The two different sets of chromatographic analysis provided near baseline separation of individual compounds without interference from other lipid compounds extracted from plants, and a very sensitive and accurate detection of tocopherols and carotenoids. The detection of minor individual components in botanical species from grasslands is nowadays of high interest in searching for biomarkers for foods derived from grazing animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  7. Solid/liquid extraction equilibria of phenolic compounds with trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated in polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-06-01

    Trioctylphosphine oxide based extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) were used for extraction of phenol and its methyl, hydroxyl and chloride substituted derivatives. The distribution coefficients of the phenols varied from 2 to 234, in the order of 1-napthol > p-chlorophenol > m-cresol > p-cresol > o-cresol > phenol > catechol > pyrogallol > hydroquinone, when initial phenols loadings was varied in 100-2000 mg/L. An extraction model, based on the law of mass action, was formulated to predict the equilibrium distribution of the phenols. The model was in excellent agreement (R(2) > 0.97) with the experimental results at low phenols concentrations ( 0.95), which signified high mass transfer resistance in the EIMs. Examination of the effects of ring substitution on equilibrium, and bivariate statistical analysis between the amounts of phenols extracted into the EIMs and factors affecting phenols interaction with TOPO, indicated the dominant role of hydrophobicity in equilibrium determination. These results improve understanding of the solid/liquid equilibrium process between phenols and the EIMs, and these will be useful in designing phenol recovery process from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enhanced mass transfer during solid-liquid extraction of gamma-irradiated red beetroot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Chetan A.; Chethana, S.; Rastogi, N.K.; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure to gamma-irradiation pretreatment increases cell wall permeabilization, resulting in loss of turgor pressure, which led to the increase of extractability of betanin from red beetroot. The degree of extraction of betanin was investigated using gamma irradiation as a pretreatment prior to the solid-liquid extraction process and compared with control beetroot samples. The beetroot subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kGy) and control was dipped in an acetic acid medium (1% v/v) to extract the betanin. The diffusion coefficients for betanin as well as ionic component were estimated considering Fickian diffusion. The results indicated an increase in the diffusion coefficient of betanin (0.302x10 -9 -0.463x10 -9 m 2 /s) and ionic component (0.248x10 -9 -0.453x10 -9 m 2 /s) as the dose rate increased (from 2.5 to 10.0 kGy). The degradation constant was found to increase (0.050-0.079 min -1 ) with an increase gamma-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy), indicating lower stability of the betanin as compared to control sample at 65 deg. C

  10. Numerical simulation analysis of four-stage mutation of solid-liquid two-phase grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Liu, Yang; Hou, Jikun; Hu, Jinglei; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase abrasive grain polishing and abrupt change tube, in this paper, the fourth order abrupt change tube was selected as the research object, using the fluid mechanics software to simulate,based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow dynamics, study on the mechanism of AFM micromachining a workpiece during polishing.Analysis at different inlet pressures, the dynamic pressure distribution pipe mutant fourth order abrasive flow field, turbulence intensity, discuss the influence of the inlet pressure of different abrasive flow polishing effect.

  11. Solid-Liquid Extraction Kinetics of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC from Red Dates

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    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red dates are one of the most famous herbal plants in making traditional Chinese medicine. They contain large amount of bioactive compounds. The objectives of this research were to optimise the crude extract yield and total phenolic compounds (TPC yield from red dates using response surface methodology (RSM and model the extraction kinetics of TPC yield from red dates. Date fruits were dried in an oven under temperatures 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C until a constant weight was obtained. The optimum drying temperature was 60°C as it gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield. Besides that, single factor experiments were used to determine the optimum range of four extraction parameters which were: liquid-solid ratio (10-30 ml/g; ultrasonic power (70-90%; extraction temperature (50-70°C; and extraction time (40-60min. The optimum range of the four parameters were further optimised using the Box-Behken Design (BBD of RSM. The extraction conditions that gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield were chosen. The optimum value for liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time were 30ml/g, 70%, 60°C and 60 min respectively. The two equations generated from RSM were reliable and can be used to predict the crude extract yield and TPC yield. The higher the extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time and lower ultrasonic power, the higher the crude extract and TPC yield. Finally, the results of TPC yield versus time based on the optimum extraction parameters from RSM optimisation were fitted into three extraction kinetic models (Peleg’s model, Page’s model and Ponomaryov’s model. It was found that the most suitable kinetic model to represent the extraction process of TPC from red dates was Page’s model due to its coefficient of determination (R2 was the closest to unity, 0.9663 while its root mean square error (RMSE was the closest to zero, 0.001534.

  12. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

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    Zoran Zeković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume, temperature (40–80 °C and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity from black mulberry (Morus nigra L. leaves. Experimental values of total phenolic content were in the range from 18.6 to 48.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents per g of dried leaves and total flavonoids in the range from 6.0 to 21.4 mg of rutin eqivalents per g of dried leaves. Antioxidant activity expressed as the inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50 value was in the range from 0.019 to 0.078 mg of mulberry extract per mL. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions and to investigate the effect of different variables on the observed properties of mulberry leaf extracts. The results show a good fit to the proposed model (R˄2>0.90. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids were within the experimental range. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the used model and the success of RSM in optimizing the investigated extraction conditions.

  13. Selective solid-liquid extraction of lithium halide salts using a ditopic macrobicyclic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Beatty, Alicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2004-11-29

    A ditopic salt receptor that is known to bind and extract solid NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr into organic solution as their contact ion pairs is now shown by NMR and X-ray crystallography to bind and extract solid LiCl and LiBr as water-separated ion pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane with a cation selectivity of K+ > Na+ > Li+. However, the selectivity order is strongly reversed when the receptor extracts solid alkali metal chlorides and bromides into organic solution. For a three-component mixture of solid LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, the ratio of salts extracted and complexed to the receptor in CDCl3 was 94:4:2, respectively. The same strong lithium selectivity was also observed in the case of a three-component mixture of solid LiBr, NaBr, and KBr where the ratio of extracted salts was 92:5:3. This observation is attributed to the unusually high solubility of lithium salts in organic solvents. The study suggests that ditopic receptors with an ability to extract solid salts as associated ion pairs may have application in separation processes.

  14. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amino acids separation with the tetracarboxylic derived of the para-ter-butylcalix[4]arene by means of solid-liquid extraction assisted with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal R, R. del C.

    2014-01-01

    The tetracarboxylic derived of the para-ter-butylcalix[4]arene (B 4 ACEbL 4 ) does not exist commercially for what was synthesized and characterized at laboratory level. The separation of the L-tyrosine amino acid was studied by means of a solid-liquid extraction system with the B 4 ACEbL 4 as solid phase, in function of ph (2.5-7.5) and contact time (5 and 15 hours) to temperature of 15-17 grades C. Resulted that the ph and the contact time were decisive in the extraction percentage of water tyrosine. The lowest percentage was 49% to ph 4 and the highest percentage was 61% to ph 7.5 with 15 hours of contact. In a contact time of 5 hours the extraction was inferior to 32% (ph 4) and of 47% to ph 6.5. The europium effect (Eu (III)) was studied to ph acid in the tyrosine separation and was found that the tyrosine extraction is not increased neither decomposes in europium presence, this is simultaneously extracted by the calixarene but it does not enter in competition for the calixarene with the amino acid. The separate solid phases: calixarene-tyrosine was analyzed by Far infrared radiation (Fir), Mid-Infrared (Mir) spectroscopy and luminescence to check the tyrosine presence in the separate solids as well as the nature of the connection calixarene-tyrosine. In this way was possible to check the tyrosine presence and to propose the formed molecular species tyrosine-calixarene, those which interact mainly by means of hydrogen connections and Van der Waals forces. The liquid phases before and after the extraction were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and luminescence. The Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the europium content in the solid and liquid phases of extractions in europium presence. The tyrosine degradation also shows dependence with the ph, obtaining 88% degradation to the 24 hours to ph 7.5, while to ph 3 is degraded the 54% of tyrosine present in the sample. The europium presence does not affect the tyrosine extraction but if its photo

  16. Comparison between 2 methods of solid-liquid extraction for the production of Cinchona calisaya elixir: an experimental kinetics and numerical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Formato, Andrea; Gallo, Monica

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the extraction process for the production of China elixir starting from the same vegetable mixture, as performed by conventional maceration or a cyclically pressurized extraction process (rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction) using the Naviglio Extractor. Dry residue was used as a marker for the kinetics of the extraction process because it was proportional to the amount of active principles extracted and, therefore, to their total concentration in the solution. UV spectra of the hydroalcoholic extracts allowed for the identification of the predominant chemical species in the extracts, while the organoleptic tests carried out on the final product provided an indication of the acceptance of the beverage and highlighted features that were not detectable by instrumental analytical techniques. In addition, a numerical simulation of the process has been performed, obtaining useful information about the timing of the process (time history) as well as its mathematical description. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): a New Rapid and Greener Method for Extracting Two Steviol Glycosides (Stevioside and Rebaudioside A) from Stevia Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Vitulano, Manuela; Andolfi, Anna; DellaGreca, Marina; Conte, Esterina; Ciaravolo, Martina; Naviglio, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main diterpene glycosides present in the leaves of the Stevia rebaudiana plant, which is used in the production of foods and low-calorie beverages. The difficulties associated with their extraction and purification are currently a problem for the food processing industries. The objective of this study was to develop an effective and economically viable method to obtain a high-quality product while trying to overcome the disadvantages derived from the conventional transformation processes. For this reason, extractions were carried out using a conventional maceration (CM) and a cyclically pressurized extraction known as rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) by the Naviglio extractor (NE). After only 20 min of extraction using the NE, a quantity of rebaudioside A and stevioside equal to 1197.8 and 413.6 mg/L was obtained, respectively, while for the CM, the optimum time was 90 min. From the results, it can be stated that the extraction process by NE and its subsequent purification developed in this study is a simple, economical, environmentally friendly method for producing steviol glycosides. Therefore, this method constitutes a valid alternative to conventional extraction by reducing the extraction time and the consumption of toxic solvents and favouring the use of the extracted metabolites as food additives and/or nutraceuticals. As an added value and of local interest, the experiment was carried out on stevia leaves from the Benevento area (Italy), where a high content of rebaudioside A was observed, which exhibits a sweet taste compared to stevioside, which has a significant bitter aftertaste.

  18. A validated solid-liquid extraction method for the HPLC determination of polyphenols in apple tissues Comparison with pressurised liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Barranco, Alejandro; Corta, Edurne; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2005-02-15

    A solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (DAD) for the determination of polyphenols in freeze-dried apple peel and pulp is reported. The extraction step consists in sonicating 0.5g of freeze-dried apple tissue with 30mL of methanol-water-acetic acid (30:69:1, v/v/v) containing 2g of ascorbic acid/L, for 10min in an ultrasonic bath. The whole method was validated, concluding that it is a robust method that presents high extraction efficiencies (peel: >91%, pulp: >95%) and appropriate precisions (within day: R.S.D. (n = 5) <5%, and between days: R.S.D. (n = 5) <7%) at the different concentration levels of polyphenols that can be found in apple samples. The method was compared with one previously published, consisting in a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by RP-HPLC-DAD determination. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed.

  19. Numerical Thermodynamic Analysis of Two-Phase Solid-Liquid Abrasive Flow Polishing in U-Type Tube

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    Junye Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available U-type tubes are widely used in military and civilian fields and the quality of the internal surface of their channel often determines the merits and performance of a machine in which they are incorporated. Abrasive flow polishing is an effective method for improving the channel surface quality of a U-type tube. Using the results of a numerical analysis of the thermodynamic energy balance equation of a two-phase solid-liquid flow, we carried out numerical simulations of the heat transfer and surface processing characteristics of a two-phase solid-liquid abrasive flow polishing of a U-type tube. The distribution cloud of the changes in the inlet turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, and dynamic pressure near the wall of the tube were obtained. The relationships between the temperature and the turbulent kinetic energy, between the turbulent kinetic energy and the velocity, and between the temperature and the processing velocity were also determined to develop a theoretical basis for controlling the quality of abrasive flow polishing.

  20. The solid-liquid extraction separation of lithium isotopes by porous composite materials doped with ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Ling Gu; Dan Qiu; Dong-Hong Ren; Zaijun Li; Zhi-Guo Gu; Jiangnan University, Wuxi

    2015-01-01

    A green and efficient solid-liquid extraction method of lithium isotopes separation by porous composite materials doped with imidazolium ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5 has been reported in this paper. The composite materials of mesoporous silica and impregnated resin were synthesized by sol-gel and direct impregnation process, respectively. Various extraction parameters such as the concentration of lithium salt, anion of lithium salt, initial pH, time and temperature were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the maximum single-stage separation factor of 6 Li/ 7 Li was 1.048 ± 0.002, the maximum extraction efficiency was 15.86 %. The sorbents can be regenerated easily with HCl solution and reused repeatedly. (author)

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of fructans from agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul at different ultrasound powers and solid-liquid ratios

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    Miguel Ángel SÁNCHEZ-MADRIGAL

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE at different ultrasound power densities (UPDs; 40, 80, and 120 mW/mL and solid:liquid (S:L ratio (1:2, 1:3, and 1:6 on the extraction of carbohydrates from Agave tequilana plant of different ages were evaluated. Extracts obtained (6- and 7-year-old plant were analyzed in the yield of carbohydrates (YC, fructan (FRU content, simple sugars, fructan profile and the average degree of polymerization (DPn. UPD, S:L ratio, and plant age all affected YC, FRU, and DPn. Maximum YC and FRU were obtained from the older agave with UPD and S:L ratio of 120 mW/mL and 1:6, respectively; while glucose, fructose, and sucrose were highly released from the younger plant. Agave of 7-year-old presented the highest DPn. Fructan degradation occurred at high UPD, increasing the simple sugars and decreasing the DPn. Thermal-traditional extraction without sonication caused more fructan degradation; and overall, ultrasound enhanced fructan extraction and minimized fructan damage, representing a technological alternative for fructan extraction from agave.

  2. Organically Modified Silica with Pyrazole-3-carbaldehyde as a New Sorbent for Solid-Liquid Extraction of Heavy Metals

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    Smaail Radi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new chelating matrix, SiNP, has been prepared by immobilizing 1.5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carbaldehyde on silica gel modified with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane. This new chelating material was well characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, cross polarization magic angle spinning solid state 13C-NMR, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, BET surface area, BJH pore size, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The new product exhibits good chemical and thermal stability as determined by thermogravimetry curves (TGA. The new prepared material was used as an adsorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE of Pb(II, Cd(II, Cu(II and Zn(II from aqueous solutions using a batch method, prior to their determination by flame atomic adsorption spectrometry. The adsorption capacity was investigated using kinetics and pH effects. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with separation and determination.

  3. Solid-Liquid Separation Properties of Thermoregulated Dicationic Ionic Liquid as Extractant of Dyes from Aqueous Solution

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    Rui Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two thermoregulated dicationic ionic liquids were synthesized and applied for effective extraction of the common dye malachite green oxalate (MG. The extraction parameters such as amount of ionic liquids, pH of water phase, extraction time, cooling time, and centrifugal time on the extraction efficiency were investigated systematically. It revealed that the dye has been successfully extracted into the ionic liquids, with high extraction efficiency higher than 98%, and recovery of 98.2%–100.8%, respectively. Furthermore, these ionic liquids can be recycled easily after elution. The reusable yields were 87.1% and 88.7%. The extraction of the dye into the thermoregulated ionic liquid provides a method of minimizing pollution of waste water potentially.

  4. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds in food-contact recycled-paper materials by focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, David; Fernández-Recio, Miguel Ángel; Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2012-09-15

    Focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF-MS) was applied to the determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in food-contact recycled-paper materials. Recycled paper is a potential source of EDCs. Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and their derivatives bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) are used for the production of epoxy resins employed in the formulation of printing inks. The FUSLE of bisphenol-type EDCs from packaging is reported for the first time. First, different extraction solvents were studied and methanol was selected. Then, the main FUSLE factors affecting the extraction efficiency (solvent volume, extraction time and ultrasonic irradiation power) were studied by means of a central composite design. The FUSLE conditions selected for further experiments were 20 ml of methanol at ultrasonic amplitude of 100% for 5s. Finally, the number of extraction cycles necessary for complete extraction was established in two. The analysis of the FUSLE extracts was carried out by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with electrospray ionization and the determination of the four analytes took place in only 4 min. The FUSLE and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was validated and applied to the analysis of different food-contact recycled-paper-based materials and packaging. The proposed method provided recoveries from 72% to 97%, repeatability and intermediate precision under 9% and 14%, respectively, and detection limits of 0.33, 0.16, 0.65 and 0.40 μg/g for BPA, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE, respectively. The analysis of paper and cardboard samples confirmed the presence of EDCs in these packaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous determination of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds in carrot, lettuce and amended soil by means of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction as simplified clean-up strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, L; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2015-04-10

    The present study is focused on the development of an analytical method based on focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) optimised for the simultaneous analysis of certain endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS) and several hormones and sterols in vegetables (lettuce and carrot) and amended soil samples. Different variables affecting the chromatographic separation, the electrospray ionisation and mass spectrometric detection were optimised in order to improve the sensitivity of the separation and detection steps. Under the optimised extraction conditions (sonication of 5min at 33% of power with pulse times on of 0.8s and pulse times off of 0.2s in 10mL of n-hexane:acetone (30:70, v:v) mixture using an ice bath), different dSPE clean-up sorbents, such as Florisil, Envi-Carb, primary-secondary amine bonded silica (PSA) and C18, or combinations of them were evaluated for FUSLE extracts before LC-MS/MS. Apparent recoveries and precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSDs %) of the method were determined at two different fortification levels (according to the matrix and the analyte) and values in the 70-130% and 2-27% ranges, respectively, were obtained for most of the target analytes and matrices. Matrix-matched calibration approach and the use of labelled standards as surrogates were needed for the properly quantification of most analytes and matrices. Method detection limits (MDLs), estimated with fortified samples, in the ranges of 0.1-100ng/g for carrot, 0.2-152ng/g for lettuce and 0.9-31ng/g for amended soil were obtained. The developed methodology was applied to the analysis of 11 EDCs in both real vegetable bought in a local market and in compost (from a local wastewater treatment plant, WWTP) amended soil samples. Copyright © 2015

  7. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2014-08-15

    An analytical method is proposed to determine ten perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) [nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] in corn, popcorn and microwave popcorn packaging by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS). Selected PFAAs were extracted efficiently in only one 10-s cycle by FUSLE, a simple, safe and inexpensive technique. The developed method was validated for microwave popcorn bags matrix as well as corn and popcorn matrices in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and recovery values. The method showed good accuracy with recovery values around 100% except for the lowest chain length PFAAs, satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs under 16%, and sensitivity with limits of detection in the order of hundreds picograms per gram of sample (between 0.2 and 0.7ng/g). This method was also applied to the analysis of six microwave popcorn bags and the popcorn inside before and after cooking. PFCAs contents between 3.50ng/g and 750ng/g were found in bags, being PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) the most abundant of them. However, no PFAAs were detected either corn or popcorn, therefore no migration was assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical Simulation of 3D Solid-Liquid Turbulent Flow in a Low Specific Speed Centrifugal Pump: Flow Field Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Shi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For numerically simulating 3D solid-liquid turbulent flow in low specific speed centrifugal pumps, the iteration convergence problem caused by complex internal structure and high rotational speed of pump is always a problem for numeral simulation researchers. To solve this problem, the combination of three measures of dynamic underrelaxation factor adjustment, step method, and rotational velocity control means according to residual curves trends of operating parameters was used to improve the numerical convergence. Numeral simulation of 3D turbulent flow in a low specific speed solid-liquid centrifugal pump was performed, and the results showed that the improved solution strategy is greatly helpful to the numerical convergence. Moreover, the 3D turbulent flow fields in pumps have been simulated for the bottom ash-particles with the volume fraction of 10%, 20%, and 30% at the same particle diameter of 0.1 mm. The two-phase calculation results are compared with those of single-phase clean water flow. The calculated results gave the main region of the abrasion of the impeller and volute casing and improve the hydraulic design of the impeller in order to decrease the abrasion and increase the service life of the pump.

  9. A simple and rapid technique for recovery of 99mTc from low specific activity (n,γ)99Mo based on solid-liquid extraction and column chromatography methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Das, Sujata Saha; Barua, Luna

    2010-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method has been developed for the separation of 99m Tc from 99 Mo produced from the neutron activation of 98 Mo by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo nuclear reaction. The recovery of 99m Tc was performed by solid-liquid extraction based on alumina column chromatography. The overall radiochemical yield for the complete separation of 99m Tc was 85-97% (n=5). The separated Na[ 99m Tc]TcO 4 was of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities. The method can be adopted for routine processing and use of 99m Tc in radiopharmacy operations.

  10. A twin purification/enrichment procedure based on two versatile solid/liquid extracting agents for efficient uptake of ultra-trace levels of lorazepam and clonazepam from complex bio-matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Maryam; Rajabi, Maryam; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-11-17

    In this research work, two consecutive dispersive solid/liquid phase microextractions based on efficient extraction media were developed for the influential and clean pre-concentration of clonazepam and lorazepam from complicated bio-samples. The magnetism nature of the proposed nanoadsorbent proceeded the clean-up step conveniently and swiftly (∼5min), pursued by a further enrichment via a highly effective and rapid emulsification microextraction process (∼4min) based on a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Finally, the instrumental analysis step was practicable via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The solid phase used was an adequate magnetic nanocomposite termed as polythiophene-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate/iron oxide (PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 ), easily and cost-effectively prepared by the impressive co-precipitation method followed by the efficient in situ sonochemical oxidative polymerization approach. The identification techniques viz. FESEM, XRD, and EDX certified the supreme physico-chemical properties of this effective nanosorbent. Also the powerful liquid extraction agent, DES, based on bio-degradable choline chloride, possessed a high efficiency, tolerable safety, low cost, and facile and mild synthesis route. The parameters involved in this versatile hyphenated procedure, efficiently evaluated via the central composite design (CCD), showed that the best extraction conditions consisted of an initial pH value of 7.2, 17mg of the PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite, 20 air-agitation cycles (first step), 245μL of methanol, 250μL of DES, 440μL of THF, and 8 air-agitation cycles (second step). Under the optimal conditions, the understudied drugs could be accurately determined in the wide linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) of 4.0-3000ngmL -1 and 2.0-2000ngmL -1 for clonazepam and lorazepam, respectively, with low limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.7 to 1.0ngmL -1 . The enrichment factor (EF) and percentage extraction recovery (%ER

  11. Simultaneous determination of four trace estrogens in feces, leachate, tap and groundwater using solid-liquid extraction/auto solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Shi, Yue-e; Li, Mengyan; Zhang, Ting-di; Gao, Song

    2015-10-01

    A simple and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous measurement of trace levels of four estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estriol and 17α-ethynyl estradiol) in environmental matrices. For feces samples, solid-liquid extraction was applied with a 1:1 v/v mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. For liquid samples (e.g., leachate and groundwater), hydrophobic/lipophilic balanced automated solid-phase extraction disks were selected due to their high recoveries compared to conventional C18 disks. Chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed-phase C18 column gradient-eluted with a 45:55 v/v mixture of acetonitrile and water. The detection limits were down to 1.1 × 10(-2) (estrone), 4.11 × 10(-4) (estradiol), 5.2 × 10(-3) (estriol) and 7.18 × 10(-3) μg/L (17α-ethynyl estradiol) at excitation/emission wavelengths of 288/310 nm, with recoveries in the range of 96.9 ± 3.2-105.4 ± 3.2% (n = 3). The method was successfully applied to determine estrogens in feces and water samples collected at livestock farms and a major river in Northeast China. We observed relatively high abundance and widespread distribution of all four estrogens in our sample collections, implying the urgency for a comprehensive and intricate investigation of estrogenic fate and contamination in our researched area. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Micro-focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (muFUSLE) combined with HPLC and fluorescence detection for PAHs determination in sediments: optimization and linking with the analytical minimalism concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, J L; Galesio, M M; Felisberto, G M; Vaz, C; Pessoa, J Costa

    2005-06-15

    Analytical minimalism is a concept that deals with the optimization of all stages of an analytical procedure so that it becomes less time, cost, sample, reagent and energy consuming. The guide-lines provided in the USEPA extraction method 3550B recommend the use of focused ultrasound (FU), i.e., probe sonication, for the solid-liquid extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs, but ignore the principle of analytical minimalism. The problems related with the dead sonication zones, often present when high volumes are sonicated with probe, are also not addressed. In this work, we demonstrate that successful extraction and quantification of PAHs from sediments can be done with low sample mass (0.125g), low reagent volume (4ml), short sonication time (3min) and low sonication amplitude (40%). Two variables are here particularly taken into account for total extraction: (i) the design of the extraction vessel and (ii) the solvent used to carry out the extraction. Results showed PAHs recoveries (EPA priority list) ranged between 77 and 101%, accounting for more than 95% for most of the PAHs here studied, as compared with the values obtained after soxhlet extraction. Taking into account the results reported in this work we recommend a revision of the EPA guidelines for PAHs extraction from solid matrices with focused ultrasound, so that these match the analytical minimalism concept.

  13. Numerical Simulation Analysis of High-precision Dispensing Needles for Solid-liquid Two-phase Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Hu, Jinglei; Wang, Binyu; Sheng, Liang; Zhang, Xinming

    2018-03-01

    In order to investigate the effect of abrasive flow polishing surface variable diameter pipe parts, with high precision dispensing needles as the research object, the numerical simulation of the process of polishing high precision dispensing needle was carried out. Analysis of different volume fraction conditions, the distribution of the dynamic pressure and the turbulence viscosity of the abrasive flow field in the high precision dispensing needle, through comparative analysis, the effectiveness of the abrasive grain polishing high precision dispensing needle was studied, controlling the volume fraction of silicon carbide can change the viscosity characteristics of the abrasive flow during the polishing process, so that the polishing quality of the abrasive grains can be controlled.

  14. Molecular dynamics analysis of the influence of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions on the work of adhesion at the solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surblys, Donatas; Leroy, Frédéric; Yamaguchi, Yasutaka; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the solid-liquid work of adhesion of water on a model silica surface by molecular dynamics simulations, where a methodology previously developed to determine the work of adhesion through thermodynamic integration was extended to a system with long-range electrostatic interactions between solid and liquid. In agreement with previous studies, the work of adhesion increased when the magnitude of the surface polarity was increased. On the other hand, we found that when comparing two systems with and without solid-liquid electrostatic interactions, which were set to have approximately the same total solid-liquid interfacial energy, former had a significantly smaller work of adhesion and a broader distribution in the interfacial energies, which has not been previously reported in detail. This was explained by the entropy contribution to the adhesion free energy; i.e., the former with a broader energy distribution had a larger interfacial entropy than the latter. While the entropy contribution to the work of adhesion has already been known, as a work of adhesion itself is free energy, these results indicate that, contrary to common belief, wetting behavior such as the contact angle is not only governed by the interfacial energy but also significantly affected by the interfacial entropy. Finally, a new interpretation of interfacial entropy in the context of solid-liquid energy variance was offered, from which a fast way to qualitatively estimate the work of adhesion was also presented.

  15. Quantitative analysis of liquid penetration kinetics and slaking of aggregates as related to solid-liquid interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Marc-O.; Woche, Susanne K.; Bachmann, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    SummaryAggregate stability is frequently shown to be enhanced by strong soil water repellency, however, there is limited systematic evidence on this effect for moderately (subcritically) water repellent soils. This study aimed to investigate the specific effects of interfacial properties on the liquid penetration kinetics in relation to the stability of subcritically water repellent aggregates (4-6.3 mm) from various arable and forest soils against breakdown by slaking. In contrast to many other studies, where aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving, we here assessed the stability by immersion of air-dry aggregates in water-ethanol solutions with surface tensions ranging from 30 to 70 mN m-1. This approach allowed a highly sensitive discrimination of different stability levels and the determination of breakdown kinetics also for less stable aggregates. Interfacial properties were characterized in terms of contact angle measured on crushed aggregates, θc, and calculated for intact aggregates, θi, based on infiltration measurements with water and ethanol. Aggregate stability turned out to be higher in forest soils compared to arable soils with topsoil aggregates generally found to be more stable than subsoil aggregates. For water repellent aggregates, characterized by contact angles >40° and low water infiltration rates (aggregates after 30 s of immersion was generally below 10%, whereas in case of the more wettable aggregates, characterized by contact angles 0.25 mm3 s-0.5) more than 80% of the aggregates were disrupted. In accordance, we found a close relationship between aggregate stability and wettability with differences between θc and θi being generally small. In addition, aggregate stability turned out to be related to organic carbon content. However, correlation analysis revealed that both persistence of aggregate stability and kinetics of aggregate breakdown were more strongly affected by the contact angle, θc (r = 0.90 and r = -0

  16. Determination of rifampicin in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection after automatized solid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, B; Fernandez, C; Zahr, N; Sauvageon-Martre, H; Maslanka, P; Faure, P; Mourah, S; Goldwirt, L

    2016-12-01

    A precise and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification method of rifampicin in human plasma was developed and validated using ultraviolet detection after an automatized solid-phase extraction. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, extraction recovery, linearity, intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, lower limit of quantification and stability. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Chromolith RP 8 column using a mixture of 0.05 m acetate buffer pH 5.7-acetonitrile (35:65, v/v) as mobile phase. The compounds were detected at a wavelength of 335 nm with a lower limit of quantification of 0.05 mg/L in human plasma. Retention times for rifampicin and 6,7-dimethyl-2,3-di(2-pyridyl) quinoxaline used as internal standard were respectively 3.77 and 4.81 min. This robust and exact method was successfully applied in routine for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated with rifampicin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in nutmeg by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Shu-Yu; Qiu, Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-07

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction and immunoaffinity column clean-up coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization-fluorescence detection (USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD) has been developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 13 edible and medicinal nutmeg samples marketed in China. AFs and OTA were extracted from nutmeg samples by ultrasonication using a methanol : water (80 : 20, v/v) solution, followed by an IAC clean-up step. Different USL extraction conditions, pre-processing ways for nutmeg sample and clean-up columns for mycotoxins, as well as HPLC-PCD-FLD parameters (mobile phase, column temperature, elution procedure, excitation and emission wavelengths) were optimized. This method, which was appraised for analyzing nutmeg samples, showed satisfactory results with reference to limits of detection (LODs) (from 0.02 to 0.25 μg kg(-1)), limits of quantification (LOQs) (from 0.06 to 0.8 μg kg(-1)), linear ranges (up to 30 ng mL(-1) for AFB1, AFG1 and OTA and 9 ng mL(-1) for AFB2 and AFG2), intra- and inter-day variability (all application of developed method in nutmeg samples have elucidated that four samples were detected with contamination of AFs and one with OTA. AFB1 was the most frequently found mycotoxin in 30.8% of nutmeg samples at contamination levels of 0.73-16.31 μg kg(-1). At least two different mycotoxins were co-occurred in three samples, and three AFs were simultaneously detected in one sample.

  18. Separation and Pre-concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc by Solid-Liquid Extraction of their Cocrystallized Naphthalene Dithizone Chelate in Saline Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Antônio C. Spínola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in brine samples has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of metal ions onto dithizone co-crystallized with microcrystalline naphthalene, in the pH range 8.5-9.1. Nitric acid is used to back-extract the cations from the solid phase, which are measured by ICP-OES. Various parameters, such as the effect of pH, stirring time, and amounts of solid phase, have been studied in detail, to optimize the conditions for the determination of trace amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in synthetic brine samples. The limits of detection values expressed in mug L-1 are 44 (Zn, 11 (Ni, 30 (Cd, 47 (Pb and 11 (Cu. The precision of the procedure was determined by running 10 replicate samples, each one containing 250 mug L-1 of each element and the relative standard deviations were 2.71 % (Cd, 2.15 % (Cu, 1.53 % (Pb, 2.47 % (Ni, and 2.78 % (Zn. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying the analyte additions method and the results indicated that quantitative recoveries (superscript three 95 % were obtained.

  19. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of solid-liquid separation process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu, koeki bunriho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among researches on solvent extraction and liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in development of a solid-liquid separation technology. In the research of operation of a centrifugal separation device, a solid-liquid separation test was performed on slurry extracted from the Australian Wandoan coal being sub-bituminous coal. The deliming rate has reached 99% equilibrium at an addition rate of 20% by weight of anti-solvent (a kind of normal paraffin, which reduces solubility of part of coal extracts and enhances removal rates of ash and solids by utilizing coagulating action of the extracts). Asphaltene among the liquefaction formed materials may be recovered nearly completely, but the recovery rate for pre-asphaltene was lower. An operation test was also carried out by using slurry extracted in a 1 t/d experimental plant. In the study on operation of a 5-l/h continuous sedimentation and separation device, a maximum effect was derived with addition of anti-solvent at 25% by weight and at a stirring rate of 700 rpm. The solid-liquid separability changes depending on the kind of slurry. The low conversion rate slurry becomes difficult of separation because its viscosity is high and the difference in density between solids and liquid is small. Furthermore, the high conversion rate slurry has become difficult of separation due to small particle size of the solids. (NEDO)

  20. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  1. Amino acids separation with the tetracarboxylic derived of the para-ter-butylcalix[4]arene by means of solid-liquid extraction assisted with lanthanides; Separacion de aminoacidos con el derivado tetracarboxilico del para-ter-butilcalix[4]areno mediante extraccion solido-liquido asistida con lantanidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal R, R. del C.

    2014-07-01

    The tetracarboxylic derived of the para-ter-butylcalix[4]arene (B{sub 4}ACEbL{sup 4}) does not exist commercially for what was synthesized and characterized at laboratory level. The separation of the L-tyrosine amino acid was studied by means of a solid-liquid extraction system with the B{sub 4}ACEbL{sup 4} as solid phase, in function of ph (2.5-7.5) and contact time (5 and 15 hours) to temperature of 15-17 grades C. Resulted that the ph and the contact time were decisive in the extraction percentage of water tyrosine. The lowest percentage was 49% to ph 4 and the highest percentage was 61% to ph 7.5 with 15 hours of contact. In a contact time of 5 hours the extraction was inferior to 32% (ph 4) and of 47% to ph 6.5. The europium effect (Eu (III)) was studied to ph acid in the tyrosine separation and was found that the tyrosine extraction is not increased neither decomposes in europium presence, this is simultaneously extracted by the calixarene but it does not enter in competition for the calixarene with the amino acid. The separate solid phases: calixarene-tyrosine was analyzed by Far infrared radiation (Fir), Mid-Infrared (Mir) spectroscopy and luminescence to check the tyrosine presence in the separate solids as well as the nature of the connection calixarene-tyrosine. In this way was possible to check the tyrosine presence and to propose the formed molecular species tyrosine-calixarene, those which interact mainly by means of hydrogen connections and Van der Waals forces. The liquid phases before and after the extraction were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and luminescence. The Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the europium content in the solid and liquid phases of extractions in europium presence. The tyrosine degradation also shows dependence with the ph, obtaining 88% degradation to the 24 hours to ph 7.5, while to ph 3 is degraded the 54% of tyrosine present in the sample. The europium presence does not affect the tyrosine extraction

  2. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  3. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Five-Step Variable-Diameter Pipe with Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Abrasive Flow Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling; Hu, Jinglei; Liu, Yang; Sun, Zhihui

    2018-01-01

    In many areas of precision machining abrasive flow polishing technology has an important role. In order to study the influence of abrasive flow on the polishing effect of variable diameter parts, the fifth step variable diameter tube was taken as the research object to analyze the dynamic pressure and turbulent kinetic energy distribution of inlet velocity on the fifth-order variable diameter tube influences. Through comparative analysis, the abrasive flow polished variable diameter pipe parts have very effective and significant polishing effect and the higher the inlet speed, the more significant the polishing effect.

  4. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin; Akbulut, Sezen

    2008-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient (Γ), solid-liquid interfacial energy (σ SL ) and grain boundary energy (σ gb ) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 ± 0.5) x 10 -8 K m, (8.5 ± 1.3) x 10 -3 J m -2 and (16.5 ± 2.8) x 10 -3 J m -2 , respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature

  5. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Akbulut, Sezen [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: marasli@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-03-21

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ({gamma}), solid-liquid interfacial energy ({sigma}{sub SL}) and grain boundary energy ({sigma}{sub gb}) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -8} K m, (8.5 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2} and (16.5 {+-} 2.8) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2}, respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature.

  6. Selective extraction of actinides by calixarenes: application to bioassay analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of nuclear workers monitoring, the aim of this PhD was to selectively isolate U, Pu, and Am from urine to propose a new analytical procedure to the Medical and Biology Analysis Laboratories. The 1,3,5-OCH 3 -2,4,6-OCH 2 CONHOH-p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene molecule has been selected as a promising extractant for U, Pu, and Am. Its physico-chemical properties and its affinity for UO 2 2+ have been studied through two approaches, one theoretical (molecular modelling at DFT level), and one experimental. The extractions of the three actinides by the hydroxamic calix[6]arene were quantitative in liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Their separation has also been shown possible and efficient. After optimization, the proposed procedure should allow the laboratories to carry out the chemical treatment of urine, before the measurement, in one day instead of the three days needed nowadays. (author)

  7. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in extraction and analysis of phenolic compounds from plant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Cong-Cong; WANG Bing; PU Yi-Qiong; TAO Jian-Sheng; ZHANG Tong

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds,the most abundant secondary metabolites in plants,have received more and more attention in recent years because of their distinct bioactivities.This review summarizes different types of phenolic compounds and their extraction and analytical methods used in the recent reports,involving 59 phenolic compounds from 52 kinds of plants.The extraction methods include solid-liquid extraction,ultrasound-assisted extractions,microwave-assisted extractions,supercritical fluid extraction,and other methods.The analysis methods include spectrophotometry,gas chromatography,liquid chromatography,thin-layer chromatography,capillary electrophoresis,and near-infrared spectroscopy.After illustrating the specific conditions of the analytical methods,the advantages and disadvantages of each method are also summarized,pointing out their respective suitability.This review provides valuable reference for identification and/or quantification of phenolic compounds from natural products.

  9. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  10. Extraction and Analysis of Gigantol from Dendrobium officinale with Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the extraction of gigantol from Dendrobium officinale, the influence of methanol concentration, ultrasonic temperature, and liquid ratio on extraction efficiency was analysed by the response surface analysis method. The results show that the extraction rate reached a maximum when the methanol concentration was 92.98%, the solid-liquid ratio was 27.2 mL/g, and the extraction temperature was 41.41 °C. The content of gigantol of Dendrobium officinale in leaves was significantly higher than that in stems, reaching 4.7942 μg/g. The content of gigantol in Dendrobium huoshanensis Fengdou was significantly higher than that of other species of Fengdou. This experiment has practical significance for improving the utilization rate of Dendrobium officinale, and provides a reference for the study of the pharmacological and biological activity of gigantol.

  11. Solid-liquid phase equilibria of Fe-Cr-Al alloys and spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, J. W.; Hu, R.; Ushakov, S. V.; Shin, D.; Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-08-01

    Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are candidate accident tolerant cladding materials. There is a paucity of data concerning the melting behavior for FeCrAl and its oxides. Analysis tools have therefore had to utilize assumptions for simulations using FeCrAl cladding. The focus of this study is to examine in some detail the solid-liquid phase equilibria of FeCrAl alloys and spinels with the aim of improving the accuracy of severe accident scenario computational studies.

  12. Kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments have been reviewed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic framework. This framework is based on the premise that radiocaesium is almost exclusively and highly-selectively bound to the frayed particle edges of illitic clay minerals in the sediments. Several processes with distinctly different rates can be distinguished in radiocaesium sorption to sediments. 2- and 3-box kinetic models can describe both the overall solid/liquid partitioning in sediments and the reversible (exchangeable) and irreversible (nonexchangeable or 'fixed') fractions of radiocaesium in sediments over time scales relevant for natural aquatic systems. The obtained rate parameters indicate that reversible partitioning of radiocaesium dominates over the first few days following a contamination event, whereas irreversible kinetics becomes important over time scales of weeks to months. The slow process, which reduces the exchangeability of sediment-bound radiocaesium over time, is believed to result from a migration of radiocaesium from exchangeable sites on the frayed edges of illite towards less-exchangeable interlayer sites. Long-term extraction of radiocaesium from historically contaminated sediments has given evidence for a reverse (remobilization) process with a half-life of the order of tens of years. These findings suggest that the long-term exchangeability of radiocaesium in sediments may be higher than the few % which is generally assumed. (orig.)

  13. Optimization and validation of the solid-liquid extraction technique for determination of picloram in soils by high performance liquid chromatography Otimização e validação da técnica extração sólido-líquido para a determinação do picloram em solos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C Assis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize and validate the solid-liquid extraction (ESL technique for determination of picloram residues in soil samples. At the optimization stage, the optimal conditions for extraction of soil samples were determined using univariate analysis. Ratio soil/solution extraction, type and time of agitation, ionic strength and pH of extraction solution were evaluated. Based on the optimized parameters, the following method of extraction and analysis of picloram was developed: weigh 2.00 g of soil dried and sieved through a sieve mesh of 2.0 mm pore, add 20.0 mL of KCl concentration of 0.5 mol L-1, shake the bottle in the vortex for 10 seconds to form suspension and adjust to pH 7.00, with alkaline KOH 0.1 mol L-1. Homogenate the system in a shaker system for 60 minutes and then let it stand for 10 minutes. The bottles are centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3,500 rpm. After the settlement of the soil particles and cleaning of the supernatant extract, an aliquot is withdrawn and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The optimized method was validated by determining the selectivity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The ESL methodology was efficient for analysis of residues of the pesticides studied, with percentages of recovery above 90%. The limits of detection and quantification were 20.0 and 66.0 mg kg-1 soil for the PVA, and 40.0 and 132.0 mg kg-1 soil for the VLA. The coefficients of variation (CV were equal to 2.32 and 2.69 for PVA and TH soils, respectively. The methodology resulted in low organic solvent consumption and cleaner extracts, as well as no purification steps for chromatographic analysis were required. The parameters evaluated in the validation process indicated that the ESL methodology is efficient for the extraction of picloram residues in soils, with low limits of detection and quantification.O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar e validar a t

  14. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  15. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting tempera...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume.......We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...

  16. Solid-liquid separation in the mining industry

    CERN Document Server

    Concha A , Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This book covers virtually all of the engineering science and technological aspects of separating water from particulate solids in the mining industry. It starts with an introduction to the field of mineral processing and the importance of water in mineral concentrators. The consumption of water in the various stages of concentration is discussed, as is the necessity of recovering the majority of that water for recycling. The book presents the fundamentals under which processes of solid-liquid separation are studied, approaching mixtures of discrete finely divided solid particles in water as a basis for dealing with sedimentation in particulate systems. Suspensions, treated as continuous media, provide the basis of sedimentation, flows through porous media and filtration. The book also considers particle aggregations, and thickening is analyzed in depth. Lastly, two chapters cover the fundamentals and application of rheology and the transport of suspensions.  This work is suitable for researchers and profess...

  17. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  18. Some aspects of the solid - liquid transition; Quelques aspects de la transition solide-liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicter, P [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrochimie et d' Electrometallurgie, 38 - Grenoble (France); Malmejac, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-05-01

    Current theories of fusion are analysed and grouped by analogies using a unified symbolism to facilitate comparisons. Theories are presented based on solid state vibrational models nucleation models, order-disorder models, vacancies and dislocations. For each model the authors have separated out the hypotheses underlying the theoretical analysis and defined the essential parts of the theoretical development. Principal results are compared with experimental data.(authors) [French] Les theories de la fusion les plus courantes sont analysees et groupees par analogies; la symbolique a ete unifiee pour faciliter les comparaisons. Sont presentes les modeles derivant des theories harmoniques de l'etat solide, des theories communautaires, de la theorie de l'ordre-desordre ainsi que des modeles en lacunes et en dislocations. Les auteurs ont pour chaque modele, degage les hypotheses, limite a l'essentiel les developpements theoriques, et presente les resultats principaux, confrontes avec les valeurs experimentales. (auteurs)

  19. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  20. Chromatographic analysis of wheatgrass extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Shah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wheatgrass (WG is the shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. belongs to the family Gramineae, and possess high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers etc., It has been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, antioxidant, and anti-arthritic activity due to the presence of biologically active compounds, and minerals. Therefore, in the present study, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis have been proposed, which will help in quality evaluation of wheat grass extract. Materials and Methods: Samples for analysis were prepared in methanol and water simply by sonication. These were applied on pre-coated silica plate and chromatograms were developed using toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid. HPLC analysis was done on Waters HPLC system using water, methanol, and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Merck C18 column has been used. Results: HPTLC finger printing of alcoholic extracts of WG was carried out and found 10–11 spots at different wavelengths 254, 366, and 435 nm. HPLC fingerprinting produced 22 peaks at 256 nm. Quantitative HPTLC analysis was done to determine the gallic acid content, and was found to be 0.077% w/w in aqueous extract. By HPLC, the content of gallic acid and rutin was found to be 0.07%, and 0.04% w/w in aqueous extract of WG. Conclusion: The developed HPLC and HPTLC fingerprinting method can be used for the quality control, and standardization of WG and its extracts used as nutritional supplement.

  1. Wastewater Triad Project: Solid-Liquid Separator FY 2000 Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The Wastewater Triad Project (WTP) consists of three operational units: the cesium removal (CsR) system, the out-of-tank evaporator (OTE) system, and the solid/liquid separation (SLS) system. These systems were designed to reduce the volume and radioactivity of low-level liquid waste (LLLW) stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and are operated independently or in series in order to accomplish the treatment goals. Each is a modular, skid-mounted system that is self-contained, individually shielded, and designed to be decontaminated and removed once the project has been completed. The CsR and OTE systems are installed inside Building 7877; the SLS system is installed adjacent to the east side of the MVST 7830 vault cover. The CsR, which consists of ion-exchange equipment for removing 137 Cs from LLLW, was demonstrated in 1997. During the Cesium Removal Demonstration, 30,853 gal of radioactive supernate was processed and 1142 Ci of 137 Cs was removed from the supernate and loaded onto 70 gal of a crystalline silicotitanate sorbent manufactured by UOP, Inc. The OTE system is a subatmospheric single-stage evaporator system designed to concentrate LLLW to smaller volumes. It was previously demonstrated in 1996 and was operated in 1998 to process about 80,000 gal of LLLW. The SLS system was designed to filter and remove suspended solids from LLLW in order to minimize further accumulation of sludge in new storage tanks or to prevent fouling of CsR and OTE systems. The SLS was installed and demonstrated in 1999; ∼45,000 gal of radioactive supernate was processed during the demonstration

  2. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O: IV. Differential thermal analysis of the sylvite liquidus in the KCl-H2O binary, the liquidus in the NaCl-KCl-H2O ternary, and the solidus in the NaCl-KCl binary to 2 kb pressure, and a summary of experimental data for thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at elevated P-T conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sterner, S.M.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1992-01-01

    The sylvite liquidus in the binary system KCl-H2O and the liquidus in the ternary system NaCl-KCl-H2O were determined by using isobaric differential thermal analysis (DTA) cooling scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Sylvite solubilities along the three-phase curve in the binary system KCl-H2O were obtained by the intersection of sylvite-liquidus isopleths with the three-phase curve in a P-T plot. These solubility data can be represented by the equation Wt.% KCl (??0.2) = 12.19 + 0.1557T - 5.4071 ?? 10-5 T2, where 400 ??? T ??? 770??C. These data are consistent with previous experimental observations. The solidus in the binary system NaCl-KCl was determined by using isobaric DTA heating scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Using these liquidus and solidus data and other published information, a thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high pressures and temperatures for the ternary system has been performed and is presented in an accompanying paper (Part V of this series). However, all experimental liquidus, solidus, and solvus data used in this analysis are summarized in this report (Part IV) and they are compared with the calculated values based on the analysis. ?? 1992.

  3. Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Neville J; Peel, Louise L; Swann, Marcus J; Cross, Graham H; Reeves, Andrew; Brand, Stuart; Lu, Jian R

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for the analysis of thin biological films, called dual polarization interferometry (DPI), is described. This high resolution (<1 A), laboratory-based technique allows the thickness and refractive index (density) of biological molecules adsorbing or reacting at the solid-liquid interface to be measured in real time (up to 10 measurements per second). Results from the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on to a silicon oxynitride chip surface are presented to demonstrate how time dependent molecular behaviour can be examined using DPI. Mechanistic and structural information relating to the adsorption process is obtained as a function of the solution pH

  4. The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can de- crease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.

  5. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  6. Determination of the solid-liquid-vapor triple point pressure of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed experimental study of the triple point pressure of carbon using laser heating techniques has been completed. Uncertainties and conflict in previous investigations have been addressed and substantial data presented which places the solid-liquid-vapor carbon triple point at 107 +- 2 atmospheres. This is in agreement with most investigations which have located the triple point pressure between 100 and 120 atmospheres, but is in disagreement with recent low pressure carbon experiments. The absence of any significant polymorphs of carbon other than graphite suggests that the graphite-liquid-vapor triple point has been measured. Graphite samples were melted in a pressure vessel using a 400 W Nd:YAG continuous-wave laser focused to a maximum power density of approximately 80 kW/cm 2 . Melt was confirmed by detailed microstructure analysis and x-ray diffraction of the recrystallized graphite. Experiments to determine the minimum melt pressure of carbon were completed as a function of sample size, type of inert gas, and laser power density to asure that laser power densities were sufficient to produce melt at the triple point pressure of carbon, and the pressure of carbon at the surface of the sample was identical to the measured pressure of the inert gas in the pressure vessel. High-speed color cinematography of the carbon heating revealed the presence of a laser-generated vapor or particle plume in front of the sample. The existence of this bright plume pevented the measurement of the carbon triple point temperature

  7. Invariance of the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting probed via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Olivier, Gloria K; Frechette, Joelle

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation is employed to probe the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting on dielectric. The height of an annular water meniscus formed via capillary condensation inside the surface force apparatus is measured as a function of the potential applied across the meniscus and the dielectric stack where the meniscus is formed. According to the Kelvin equation, a decrease in the solid-liquid interfacial energy at constant temperature and relative humidity should lead to an increase in the meniscus height. Our experimental results on nanometer-sized meniscus are in agreement with the work of Mugele [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2007, 19, 375112] and unequivocally demonstrate that the real contact angle (or the solid-liquid interfacial energy) remains unaltered in electrowetting on dielectric.

  8. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  9. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  10. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Formamide-Acetophenone System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevská, I.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Řehák, K.; Vrbka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, 9 (2006) , s. 1350-1358 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibria * liquid-liquid equilibria * metastable Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  11. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, AF; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, Damien; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P; Boshoven, JG; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D

    2017-01-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2–ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the

  12. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  13. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  14. All about Solids, Liquids & Gases. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In All About Solids, Liquids and Gases, young students will be introduced to the three common forms of matter. They'll learn that all things are made up of tiny particles called atoms and that the movement of these particles determines the form that matter takes. In solids, the particles are packed tightly together and move very little. The…

  15. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Selective extraction of actinides by calixarenes: application to bioassay analysis; Extraction selective des actinides par les calixarenes: application a l'analyse radiotoxicologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, B

    2006-01-15

    In the context of nuclear workers monitoring, the aim of this PhD was to selectively isolate U, Pu, and Am from urine to propose a new analytical procedure to the Medical and Biology Analysis Laboratories. The 1,3,5-OCH{sub 3}-2,4,6-OCH{sub 2}CONHOH-p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene molecule has been selected as a promising extractant for U, Pu, and Am. Its physico-chemical properties and its affinity for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} have been studied through two approaches, one theoretical (molecular modelling at DFT level), and one experimental. The extractions of the three actinides by the hydroxamic calix[6]arene were quantitative in liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Their separation has also been shown possible and efficient. After optimization, the proposed procedure should allow the laboratories to carry out the chemical treatment of urine, before the measurement, in one day instead of the three days needed nowadays. (author)

  17. A technical review of liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation equipment in the field of nuclear-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid/liquid extraction is generally accepted as the preferred method in nuclear-fuel reprocessing. However, although many types of liquid/liquid contactors are available, only a few meet the stringent specifications set by the nuclear industry. This report discusses the criteria for contactor selection and then reviews the most important types, namely packed columns, pulsed columns, mixer-setters and centrifugal contactors. Finally, a short section concerned with solid/liquid separations is included because of the possible deleterious effects caused by solids in liquid/liquid contactors

  18. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  19. Accelerated Metastable Solid-liquid Interdiffusion Bonding with High Thermal Stability and Power Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Smet, Vanessa; Kawamoto, Satomi; Pulugurtha, Markondeya R.; Tummala, Rao R.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging high-performance systems are driving the need for advanced packaging solutions such as 3-D integrated circuits (ICs) and 2.5-D system integration with increasing performance and reliability requirements for off-chip interconnections. Solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding resulting in all-intermetallic joints has been proposed to extend the applicability of solders, but faces fundamental and manufacturing challenges hindering its wide adoption. This paper introduces a Cu-Sn SLID interconnection technology, aiming at stabilization of the microstructure in the Cu6Sn5 metastable phase rather than the usual stable Cu3Sn phase. This enables formation of a void-free interface yielding higher mechanical strength than standard SLID bonding, as well as significantly reducing the transition time. The metastable SLID technology retains the benefits of standard SLID with superior I/O pitch scalability, thermal stability and current handling capability, while advancing assembly manufacturability. In the proposed concept, the interfacial reaction is controlled by introducing Ni(P) diffusion barrier layers, designed to effectively isolate the metastable Cu6Sn5 phase preventing any further transformation. Theoretical diffusion and kinetic models were applied to design the Ni-Cu-Sn interconnection stack to achieve the targeted joint composition. A daisy chain test vehicle was used to demonstrate this technology as a first proof of concept. Full transition to Cu6Sn5 was successfully achieved within a minute at 260°C as confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) analysis. The joint composition was stable through 10× reflow, with outstanding bond strength averaging 90 MPa. The metastable SLID interconnections also showed excellent electromigration performance, surviving 500 h of current stressing at 105 A/cm2 at 150°C.

  20. Dynamic data evaluation for solid-liquid equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Kang, Jeong Won

    The accuracy and reliability of the measured data sets to be used in regression of model parameters is an important issue related to modeling of phase equilibria. It is clear that good parameters for any model cannot be obtained from low quality data. A thermodynamic consistency test for solid...... and parameter regression. The paper will highlight the data collection, the data analysis for SLE data and the thermodynamic model performance (such as NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC)....... studies considering the methodology proposed for SLE thermodynamic consistency tests and data from open literature and databases such as NIST-TDE®, DIPPR® and DECHEMA® are presented. The SLE consistency test and data evaluation is performed in a software containing option for data analysis, model analysis...

  1. The influence of protruding filamentous bacteria on floc stability and solid-liquid separation in the activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Wilhelm; Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Scales, Peter J; Martin, Gregory J O; Stickland, Anthony D; Gras, Sally L

    2017-10-15

    Filamentous bacteria can impact on the physical properties of flocs in the activated sludge process assisting solid-liquid separation or inducing problems when bacteria are overabundant. While filamentous bacteria within the flocs are understood to increase floc tensile strength, the relationship between protruding external filaments, dewatering characteristics and floc stability is unclear. Here, a quantitative methodology was applied to determine the abundance of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants. An automated image analysis procedure was applied to identify filaments and flocs and calculate the length of the protruding filamentous bacteria (PFB) relative to the floc size. The correlation between PFB and floc behavior was then assessed. Increased filament abundance was found to increase interphase drag on the settling flocs, as quantified by the hindered settling function. Additionally, increased filament abundance was correlated with a lower gel point concentration leading to poorer sludge compactability. The floc strength factor, defined as the relative change in floc size upon shearing, correlated positively with filament abundance. This influence of external protruding filamentous bacteria on floc stability is consistent with the filamentous backbone theory, where filamentous bacteria within flocs increase floc resistance to shear-induced breakup. A qualitative correlation was also observed between protruding and internal filamentous structure. This study confirms that filamentous bacteria are necessary to enhance floc stability but if excessively abundant will adversely affect solid-liquid separation. The tools developed here will allow quantitative analysis of filament abundance, which is an improvement on current qualitative methods and the improved method could be used to assist and optimize the operation of waste water treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Petigny

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant.

  3. Designing solid-liquid interphases for sodium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-10-06

    Secondary batteries based on earth-abundant sodium metal anodes are desirable for both stationary and portable electrical energy storage. Room-temperature sodium metal batteries are impractical today because morphological instability during recharge drives rough, dendritic electrodeposition. Chemical instability of liquid electrolytes also leads to premature cell failure as a result of parasitic reactions with the anode. Here we use joint density-functional theoretical analysis to show that the surface diffusion barrier for sodium ion transport is a sensitive function of the chemistry of solid–electrolyte interphase. In particular, we find that a sodium bromide interphase presents an exceptionally low energy barrier to ion transport, comparable to that of metallic magnesium. We evaluate this prediction by means of electrochemical measurements and direct visualization studies. These experiments reveal an approximately three-fold reduction in activation energy for ion transport at a sodium bromide interphase. Direct visualization of sodium electrodeposition confirms large improvements in stability of sodium deposition at sodium bromide-rich interphases.

  4. Engineering evaluation of solids/liquids separation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study looks at the solids/liquids separation unit operations after the acid dissolution of the K Basin sludge treatment. Unit operations considered were centrifugation, filtration (cartridge, cross flow, and high shear filtration) and gravity settling. The recommended unit operations for the solids/liquids separations are based upon the efficiency, complexity, and off-the-shelf availability and adaptability. The unit operations recommended were a Robatel DPC 900 centrifuge followed by a nuclearized 31WM cartridge filter. The Robatel DPC 900 has been successfully employed in the nuclear industry on a world wide scale. The 31WM cartridge filter has been employed for filtration campaigns in both the government and civilian nuclear arenas

  5. Solid-Liquid equilibrium of n-alkanes using the Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a solid phase in liquid mixtures with large paraffinic molecules is a phenomenon of interest in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological industries among onters. Efforts to model the solid-liquid equilibrium in these systems have been mainly empirical and with different...... degrees of success.An attempt to describe the equilibrium between the high temperature form of a paraffinic solid solution, commonly known as rotator phase, and the liquid phase is performed. The Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model (CDLP) is developed allowing a successful description of the solid-liquid...... equilibrium of n-alkanes ranging from n-C_20 to n-C_40.The model is further modified to achieve a more correct temperature dependence because it severely underestimates the excess enthalpy. It is shown that the ratio of excess enthalpy and entropy for n-alkane solid solutions, as happens for other solid...

  6. Homogeneous nucleation ahead of the solid-liquid interface during rapid solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; Elmer, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    In recent rapid solidification experiments on Al-5%Be alloys, a Liquid Phase Nucleation (LPN) model was developed to explain the formation of periodic arrays of randomly-oriented Be-rich particles in an Al-rich matrix. In the LPN model, Be droplets were assumed to nucleate in the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface, but no justification for this was given. Here the authors present a model which considers the geometric constraints (imposed by proximity to the interface) on the number of solute atoms available to form a nucleus. Calculations based on this model predict that nucleation of second-phase particles can be most likely a short distance ahead of the interface in immiscible binary systems such as Al-Be. As part of the nucleation calculations, a semi-empirical method of calculating solid-liquid surface tensions in binary systems was developed, and is presented in the Appendix

  7. Numerical simulation of polishing U-tube based on solid-liquid two-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-ye; Meng, Wen-qing; Wu, Gui-ling; Hu, Jing-lei; Wang, Bao-zuo

    2018-03-01

    As the advanced technology to solve the ultra-precision machining of small hole structure parts and complex cavity parts, the abrasive grain flow processing technology has the characteristics of high efficiency, high quality and low cost. So this technology in many areas of precision machining has an important role. Based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow coupling, a solid-liquid two-phase MIXTURE model is used to simulate the abrasive flow polishing process on the inner surface of U-tube, and the temperature, turbulent viscosity and turbulent dissipation rate in the process of abrasive flow machining of U-tube were compared and analyzed under different inlet pressure. In this paper, the influence of different inlet pressure on the surface quality of the workpiece during abrasive flow machining is studied and discussed, which provides a theoretical basis for the research of abrasive flow machining process.

  8. In situ scanning probe spectroscopy at nanoscale solid/liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, W.; Hugelmann, M.; Hugelmann, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry provides unique features for the preparation of low-dimensional structures, but in situ spectroscopy with atomic/molecular resolution at such structures is at present not well established yet. This paper shows that in situ scanning probe spectroscopy at solid/liquid interfaces can be utilized to study electronic properties at nanoscale, if appropriate conditions are applied. Tunneling spectroscopy provides information about tunneling barrier heights and electronic states in the tunneling gap, as shown on Au(1 1 1) substrates, contact spectroscopy allows for transport measurements at single nanostructures, as shown at Au/n-Si(1 1 1) nanodiodes. The influence of the electrolytic environment on spectroscopic investigations is not a principal limitation, but offers additional degrees of freedom, which allow, for example, spectroscopic studies of potential dependent surface phenomena at solid/liquid interfaces

  9. Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Systems with an Ionic Liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Sauton, H.; Hynek, V.; Malijevská, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), s. 657-664 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0444; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : experimental data * solid-liquid equlibrium * 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  10. Solid-Liquid Equilibria in Systems [Cxmim][Tf2N] with Diethylamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotrekl, Jan; Vrbka, P.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Wagner, Zdeněk; Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2015), s. 453-460 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Symposium on Solubility Phenomena 2014. Karlsruhe, 20.07.2014-24.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094; GA MŠk LG13060 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * solid-liquid equilibria * COSMO-RS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  11. Data Extraction Based on Page Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yichao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The information we need has some confusing problems such as dispersion and different organizational structure. In addition, because of the existence of unstructured data like natural language and images, extracting local content pages is extremely difficult. In the light of of the problems above, this article will apply a method combined with page structure analysis algorithm and page data extraction algorithm to accomplish the gathering of network data. In this way, the problem that traditional complex extraction model behave poorly when dealing with large-scale data is perfectly solved and the page data extraction efficiency is also boosted to a new level. In the meantime, the article will also make a comparison about pages and content of different types between the methods of DOM structure based on the page and HTML regularities of distribution. After all of those, we may find a more efficient extract method.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, S.M.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  13. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect; La structure de l'interface solide-liquide: effet de taille atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique

    2002-09-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size ({sigma}) and energy ({epsilon}) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites ({chi}={sigma}{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 2}) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the {chi} value. (authors)

  14. (Liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid), and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria of systems containing cyclic ether (tetrahydrofuran or 1,3-dioxolane), water, and a biological buffer MOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altway, Saidah; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MOPS buffer induced liquid phase splitting for mixtures of water with THF or 1,3-dioxolane. • Phase boundaries of LLE, SLE, and SLLE were determined experimentally. • Tie-lines at LLE and at SLLE were also measured. • Phase diagrams of MOPS + water + THF or 1,3-dioxolane are prepared. • LLE tie-line data are correlated satisfactorily with the NRTL model. - Abstract: Two liquid phases were formed as the addition of a certain amount of biological buffer 3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) in the aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-dioxolane. To evaluate the feasibility of recovering the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions with the aid of MOPS, we determined experimentally the phase diagrams of the ternary systems of {cyclic ether (THF or 1,3-dioxolane) + water + MOPS} at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. In this study, the solubility data of MOPS in water and in the mixed solvents of water/cyclic ethers were obtained from the results of a series of density measurements, while the (liquid + liquid) and the (solid + liquid + liquid) phase boundaries were determined by visually inspection. Additionally, the tie-line results for (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and for (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (SLLE) were measured using an analytical method. The reliability of the experimental LLE tie-line results data was validated by using the Othmer–Tobias correlation. These LLE tie-line values were correlated well with the NRTL model. The phase diagrams obtained from this study reveal that MOPS is a feasible green auxiliary agent to recover the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions, especially for 1,3-dioxolane

  15. Electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy method for characterising particles in solid-liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yanlin [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249 (China); Wang, Mi [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (China); Yao, Jun [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-04-11

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is one of the process tomography techniques to provide an on-line non-invasive imaging for multiphase flow measurement. With EIT measurements, the images of impedance real part, impedance imaginary part, phase angle, and magnitude can be obtained. However, most of the applications of EIT in the process industries rely on the conductivity difference between two phases in fluids to obtain the concentration profiles. It is not common to use the imaginary part or phase angle due to the dominant change in conductivity or complication in the use of other impedance information. In a solid-liquid two phases system involving nano- or submicro-particles, characterisation of particles (e.g. particle size and concentration) have to rely on the measurement of impedance phase angle or imaginary part. Particles in a solution usually have an electrical double layer associated with their surfaces and can form an induced electrical dipole moment due to the polarization of the electrical double layer under the influence of an alternating electric field. Similar to EIT, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement can record the electrical impedance data, including impedance real part, imaginary part and phase angle (θ), which are caused by the polarization of the electrical double layer. These impedance data are related to the particle characteristics e.g. particle size, particle and ionic concentrations in the aqueous medium, therefore EIS method provides a capability for characterising the particles in suspensions. Electrical impedance tomography based on EIS measurement or namely, electrical impedance tomography spectroscopy (EITS) could image the spatial distribution of particle characteristics. In this paper, a new method, including test set-up and data analysis, for characterisation of particles in suspensions are developed through the experimental approach. The experimental results on tomographic imaging of colloidal particles

  16. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  17. Optical fingerprints of solid-liquid interfaces: a joint ATR-IR and first principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Niu, F.; Tecklenburg, S.; Pander, M.; Nayak, S.; Erbe, A.; Wippermann, S.; Gygi, F.; Galli, G.

    Despite the importance of understanding the structural and bonding properties of solid-liquid interfaces for a wide range of (photo-)electrochemical applications, there are presently no experimental techniques available to directly probe the microscopic structure of solid-liquid interfaces. To develop robust strategies to interpret experiments and validate theory, we carried out attenuated total internal reflection (ATR-IR) spectroscopy measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the vibrational properties of interfaces between liquid water and well-controlled prototypical semiconductor substrates. We show the Ge(100)/H2O interface to feature a reversible potential-dependent surface phase transition between Ge-H and Ge-OH termination. The Si(100)/H2O interface is proposed as a model system for corrosion and oxidation processes. We performed AIMD calculations under finite electric fields, revealing different pathways for initial oxidation. These pathways are predicted to exhibit unique spectral signatures. A significant increase in surface specificity can be achieved utilizing an angle-dependent ATR-IR experiment, which allows to detect such signatures at the interfacial layer and consequently changes in the hydrogen bond network. Funding from DOE-BES Grant No. DE-SS0008939 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (RESOLV, EXC 1069) are gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  19. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCadbe, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing

  20. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lichun; Malfliet, Annelies; Wollants, Patrick; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel was studied by adding Te to liquid steel before Al deoxidation at 1873 K. After water-quenching, the spatial distribution homogeneity of alumina inclusions in the steel matrix was characterized using the Dirichlet tessellation method. The deterioration of this homogeneity with increasing the addition of Te indicates that Te facilitates pushing of alumina inclusions. This phenomenon was discussed based on the thermodynamics of an asymmetric thin liquid film confined by an advancing solid-liquid interface and a particle. The surface excesses of Te at the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfaces were theoretically demonstrated to decrease when an alumina inclusion moves towards the solid-liquid interface, thereby weakening the effect of Te on the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfacial energies. Based on this, effect of surfactants was incorporated in the models predicting the critical velocity V_C.

  2. A high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experimental method for characterization of solid-liquid interfaces demonstrated with a Li-ion battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maibach, Julia; Xu, Chao; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Edström, Kristina [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Susanna K. [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Åhlund, John [VG Scienta AB, Box 15120, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Siegbahn, Hans; Rensmo, Håkan; Hahlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.hahlin@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    We report a methodology for a direct investigation of the solid/liquid interface using high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS). The technique was demonstrated with an electrochemical system represented by a Li-ion battery using a silicon electrode and a liquid electrolyte of LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) cycled versus metallic lithium. For the first time the presence of a liquid electrolyte was realized using a transfer procedure where the sample was introduced into a 2 mbar N{sub 2} environment in the analysis chamber without an intermediate ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) step in the load lock. The procedure was characterized in detail concerning lateral drop gradients as well as stability of measurement conditions over time. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the solid substrate and the liquid electrolyte can be observed simultaneously. The results show that the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition for the wet electrode is stable within the probing time and generally agrees well with traditional UHV studies. Since the methodology can easily be adjusted to various high pressure photoelectron spectroscopy systems, extending the approach towards operando solid/liquid interface studies using liquid electrolytes seems now feasible.

  3. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of PMMA/n-heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCM for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization and thermal properties of microencapsulated n-heptadecane with polymethylmethacrylate shell. The PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules were synthesized as novel solid-liquid microencapsulated phase change material (microPCMs) by emulsion polymerization method. The chemical and thermal characterization of the microPCMs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The diameters of microPCMs were found in the narrow range (0.14-0.40 μm) under the stirring speed of 2000 rpm. The spherical surfaces of microPCMs were smooth and compact. The DSC results show that microPCMs have good energy storage capacity. Thermal cycling test showed that the microPCMs have good thermal reliability with respect to the changes in their thermal properties after repeated 5000 thermal cycling. TGA analyses also indicated that the microPCMs degraded in three steps and have good thermal stability. Based on all results, it can be considered that the PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCMs have good energy storage potential.

  4. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  5. Neutron reflectivity as method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutberlet, Thomas; Klösgen, Beate Maria; Krastev, Rumen

    2004-01-01

    variation. It was observed that the method was capable of visualizing the adsorption of phospholipid layers to different solid-liquid interfaces and to resolve structural details at Angstroem resolution. The results depended strongly on a sufficiently good signal-to-noise ratio of the specific measurements......The use of neutron reflectivity as a method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces was analyzed. The most important advantage of neutron reflectometry is the possibility to very the refractive index of the specific sample by isotope exchange, called contrast...

  6. Supercritical extraction of oleaginous: parametric sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy has become universal and competitive, thus the industries of vegetable oil extraction must advance in the sense of minimising production costs and, at the same time, generating products that obey more rigorous patterns of quality, including solutions that do not damage the environment. The conventional oilseed processing uses hexane as solvent. However, this solvent is toxic and highly flammable. Thus the search of substitutes for hexane in oleaginous extraction process has increased in the last years. The supercritical carbon dioxide is a potential substitute for hexane, but it is necessary more detailed studies to understand the phenomena taking place in such process. Thus, in this work a diffusive model for semi-continuous (batch for the solids and continuous for the solvent isothermal and isobaric extraction process using supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and submitted to a parametric sensitivity analysis by means of a factorial design in two levels. The model parameters were disturbed and their main effects analysed, so that it is possible to propose strategies for high performance operation.

  7. Analysis of Water Extraction From Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, U.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of water concentration on the Moon is currently an area of active research. Recent studies suggest the presence of ice particles, and perhaps even ice blocks and ice-cemented regolith on the Moon. Thermal extraction of the in-situ water is an attractive means of sa tisfying water requirements for a lunar mission. In this paper, a model is presented to analyze the processes occurring during the heat-up of icy regolith and extraction of the evolved water vapor. The wet regolith is assumed to be present in an initially evacuated and sealed cell which is subsequently heated. The first step of the analysis invol ves calculating the gradual increase of vapor pressure in the closed cell as the temperature is raised. Then, in the second step, the cell is evacuated to low pressure (e.g., vacuum), allowing the water vapor to leave the cell and be captured. The parameters affecting water vap or pressure build-up and evacuation for the purpose of extracting water from lunar regolith are discussed in the paper. Some comparisons wi th available experimental measurements are also made.

  8. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  9. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size (σ) and energy (ε) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites (χ=σ 1 /σ 2 ) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the χ value. (authors)

  10. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...... out from the proces and usually dewatered before further handling. The separation process is costly. Moreover, the separation process depends on the composition and the properties of the sludge. The best separation is obtained for sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells...... and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Polyvalent ions improve the floc strangth and improve the separation whereas monovalent ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion and industry) reduces impair the separation. Further high pH impairs the separation process due to floc disintegration...

  11. Multi-Response Extraction Optimization Based on Anti-Oxidative Activity and Quality Evaluation by Main Indicator Ingredients Coupled with Chemometric Analysis on Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-Li; Shen, Meng; Ren, Xue-Yang; He, Ting; Wang, Le; Fan, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiu-Huan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Sui, Hong; She, Gai-Mei

    2018-04-19

    Thymus quinquecostatus Celak is a species of thyme in China and it used as condiment and herbal medicine for a long time. To set up the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , the response surface methodology (RSM) based on its 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was introduced to optimize the extraction condition, and the main indicator components were found through an UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS n method. The ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction time on optimum conditions were 42.32%, 1:17.51, and 1.8 h, respectively. 35 components having 12 phenolic acids and 23 flavonoids were unambiguously or tentatively identified both positive and negative modes to employ for the comprehensive analysis in the optimum anti-oxidative part. A simple, reliable, and sensitive HPLC method was performed for the multi-component quantitative analysis of T. quinquecostatus using six characteristic and principal phenolic acids and flavonoids as reference compounds. Furthermore, the chemometrics methods (principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA)) appraised the growing areas and harvest time of this herb closely relative to the quality-controlled. This study provided full-scale qualitative and quantitative information for the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , which would be a valuable reference for further study and development of this herb and related laid the foundation of further study on its pharmacological efficacy.

  12. ATR-IR spectroscopic cell for in situ studies at solid-liquid interface at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koichumanova, Kamila; Visan, Aura; Geerdink, Bert; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Mojet, Barbara; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2017-01-01

    An in situ ATR-IR spectroscopic cell suitable for studies at solid-liquid interface is described including the design and experimental details in continuous flow mode at elevated temperatures (230 °C) and pressures (30 bar). The design parameters considered include the cell geometry, the procedure

  13. Molecular dynamics study of solid-liquid heat transfer and passive liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudasan Daisy, Sumith

    equilibrium canonical ensemble (NVT) is simulated using thermostat algorithms. For research in heat transfer involving solid liquid interaction, we need to perform non equilibrium MD (NEMD) simulations. In such NEMD simulations, the methods used for simulating heating from a surface is very important and must capture proper physics and thermodynamic properties. Development of MD simulation techniques to simulate solid-liquid heating and the study of fundamental mechanism of passive flow is the main focus of this thesis. An accurate surface-heating algorithm was developed for water which can now allow the study of a whole new set of fundamental heat transfer problems at the nanoscale like surface heating/cooling of droplets, thin-films, etc. The developed algorithm is implemented in the in-house developed C++ MD code. A direct two dimensional local pressure estimation algorithm is also formulated and implemented in the code. With this algorithm, local pressure of argon and platinum interaction is studied. Also, the surface tension of platinum-argon (solid-liquid) was estimated directly from the MD simulations for the first time. Contact angle estimation studies of water on platinum, and argon on platinum were also performed. A thin film of argon is kept above platinum plate and heated in the middle region, leading to the evaporation and pressure reduction thus creating a strong passive flow in the near surface region. This observed passive liquid flow is characterized by estimating the pressure, density, velocity and surface tension using Eulerian mapping method. Using these simulation, we have demonstrated the fundamental nature and origin of surface-driven passive flow. Heat flux removed from the surface is also estimated from the results, which shows a significant improvement can be achieved in thermal management of electronic devices by taking advantage of surface-driven strong passive liquid flow. Further, the local pressure of water on silicon di-oxide surface is

  14. Fuel reprocessing: safety analysis of extraction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, B.; Mauborgne, B.; Baron, P.; Mercier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    An essential part of the safety analysis related to the extraction cycles of reprocessing plants, is the analysis of their behaviour during steady-state and transient operations, by means of simulation codes. These codes are based on the chemical properties of the main species involved (distribution coefficient and kinetics) and the hydrodynamics inside the contactors (mixer-settlers and pulsed columns). These codes have been consolidated by comparison of calculations with experimental results. The safety analysis is essentially performed in two steps. The first step is a parametric sensitivity analysis of the chemical flowsheet operated: the effect of a misadjustment (flowrate of feed, solvent, etc) is evaluated by successive steady-state calculations. These calculations help the identification of the sensitive parameters for the risk of plutonium accumulation, while indicating the permissible level of misadjustment. These calculations also serve to identify the parameters which should be measured during plant operation. The second step is the study of transient regimes, for the most sensitive parameters related to plutonium accumulation risk. The aim is to confirm the conclusions of the first step and to check that the characteristic process parameters chosen effectively allow, the early and reliable detection of any drift towards a plutonium accumulating regime. The procedures to drive the process backwards to a specified convenient steady-state regime from a drifting-state are also verified. The identification of the sensitive parameters, the process status parameters and the process transient analysis, allow a good control of process operation. This procedure, applied to the first purification cycle of COGEMA's UP3-A La Hague plant has demonstrated the total safety of facility operations

  15. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of niobium oxides by solid/liquid state oxygen source and lithium assisted metal-halide chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Greenlee, Jordan D.; Shank, Joshua C.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-09-01

    In order to consistently grow high quality niobium oxides and lithium niobium oxides, a novel solid/liquid state oxygen source, LiClO4, has been implemented in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. LiClO4 is shown to decompose into both molecular and atomic oxygen upon heating. This allows oxidation rates similar to that of molecular oxygen but at a reduced overall beam flux, quantified by in situ Auger analysis. LiClO4 operation is decomposition limited to less than 400 °C, and other material limitations are identified. The design of a custom near-ambient NbCl5 effusion cell is presented, which improves both short and long term stability. Films of Nb oxidation state +2, +3, and +5 are grown using these new tools, including the multi-functional sub-oxide LiNbO2.

  17. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  19. Interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal by solid-liquid casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solid-liquid method was used to prepare the continuous casting of copper cladding aluminium by liquid aluminum alloy and solid copper, and the interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal at different pouring temperatures (700, 750, 800 oC was investigated by means of metallograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS methods. The results showed that the pouring temperature of aluminum melt had an important influence on the element diffusion of Cu from the solid Cu to Al alloy melt and the reactions between Al and Cu, as well as the morphology of the Al-Cu interface. When the pouring temperature was 800 oC, there were abundant Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs near the interface. However, a lower pouring temperature (700 oC resulted in the formation of cavities which was detrimental to the bonding and mechanical properties. Under the conditions in this study, the good metallurgical bonding of Al-Cu was achieved at a pouring temperature of 750 oC.

  20. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  1. In situ reflectivity investigations of solid/liquid interface during laser backside etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.; Otto, T.; Zimmer, K.

    2006-01-01

    In situ reflectivity measurements of the solid/liquid interface with a pump-probe setup were performed during laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) of fused silica with KrF excimer laser using toluene as absorbing liquid. The intensity, the temporal shape, and the duration of the reflected light measured in dependence on the laser fluence are discussed referring to the surface modification and the bubble formation. The vaporisation of the superheated liquid at the solid interface causes a considerable increase of the reflectivity and gives information about the bubble lifetime. The alterations of the reflectivity after bubbles collapse can be explained with the changed optical properties due to surface modifications of the solid surface. Comparative studies of the reflectivity at different times and the etch rate behaviour in dependence on the laser fluence show that the in situ measured surface modification begins just at the etch threshold fluence and correlates further with etch rate behaviour and the etched surface appearance. The already observed surface modification at LIBWE due to a carbon deposition and structural changes of the near surface region are approved by the changes of the interface reflectivity and emphasizes the importance of the modified surface region in the laser-induced backside wet etching process

  2. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  3. Dynamic covalent chemistry of bisimines at the solid/liquid interface monitored by scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; El Garah, Mohamed; Haar, Sébastien; Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic covalent chemistry relies on the formation of reversible covalent bonds under thermodynamic control to generate dynamic combinatorial libraries. It provides access to numerous types of complex functional architectures, and thereby targets several technologically relevant applications, such as in drug discovery, (bio)sensing and dynamic materials. In liquid media it was proved that by taking advantage of the reversible nature of the bond formation it is possible to combine the error-correction capacity of supramolecular chemistry with the robustness of covalent bonding to generate adaptive systems. Here we show that double imine formation between 4-(hexadecyloxy)benzaldehyde and different α,ω-diamines as well as reversible bistransimination reactions can be achieved at the solid/liquid interface, as monitored on the submolecular scale by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging. Our modular approach enables the structurally controlled reversible incorporation of various molecular components to form sophisticated covalent architectures, which opens up perspectives towards responsive multicomponent two-dimensional materials and devices.

  4. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  5. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-01

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: P m 3 ¯ m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic "Na" potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of "Na" potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Moreover, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  6. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the inhibitory effect of total ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on proliferation of colon cancer HT29 cells. By reflux extraction method and with ethanol as extraction solvent, different extracts were obtained at different ethanol concentrations, different solid-liquid ratios, and at different ...

  8. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Ternary System Acetic Acid-Propanoic Acid-Formamide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Malijevská, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 261, 1-2 (2007) , s. 129-132 ISSN 0378-3812. [International Conference on Properties and Phase Equilibria for Product and Process Design PPEPPD 2007 /11./. Hersonissos, Crete, 20.05.2007-25.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibrium * ternary system * solid adduct Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2007

  9. Optimizing the extraction of antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zhikai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and distilled water were used to extract antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber. Compounds extracted using acetone showed the greatest antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, measured by inhibition zone diameter. Three extraction parameters including temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were optimized through orthogonal experiment based on single factor investigations for achieving maximum active substance extraction rate and bacteriostatic effect. Results showed that using acetone, the optimum extraction conditions for temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were 45°C, 8 h, and 1:40 (g/ml, respectively.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of Cr(VI) extraction using TOPO impregnated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee, E-mail: chelohkc@nus.edu.sg

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) extraction by extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) was investigated. • EIM exhibited high extraction efficiency, mass transfer rate and stability. • Mass transfer mechanism was proposed based on kinetics and equilibrium data. • Uptake of Cr(VI) by EIMs was endothermic and spontaneous. • Cr(VI) extraction by EIMs was dominated by physical interactions. - Abstract: Solid/liquid extraction of Cr(VI) was accomplished using trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Extraction of 100–500 mg/L Cr(VI) by the extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) was characterized by high uptake rate and capacity, and equilibrium was attained within 45 min of contact. Extraction equilibrium was pH-dependent (at an optimal pH 2), whereas stripping using 0.2 M sodium hydroxide yielded the highest recovery of 98% within 60 min. The distribution coefficient was independent of initial Cr(VI) concentration, and the linear distribution equilibrium isotherm could be modeled using Freundlich isotherm. The mass transfer kinetics of Cr(VI) was examined using pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models and a mass transfer mechanism was deduced. The distribution coefficient increased with temperature, which indicated endothermic nature of the reaction. Enthalpy and entropy change during Cr(VI) extraction were positive and varied in the range of 37–49 kJ/mol and 114–155 J/mol, respectively. The free energy change was negative, confirming the feasibility and spontaneity of the mass transfer process. Results obtained suggest that EIMs are efficient and sustainable for extraction of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

  11. ZnO nanoneedle/H2O solid-liquid heterojunction-based self-powered ultraviolet detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays were grown vertically on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by hydrothermal method at a relatively low temperature. A self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector was fabricated using the ZnO nanoneedles as the active photoanode and H2O as the electrolyte. This solid-liquid heterojunction offers an enlarged ZnO/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. High photosensitivity, excellent spectral selectivity, and fast photoresponse at zero bias are observed in this UV detector. The self-powered behavior can be well explained by the formation of a space charge layer near the interface of the solid-liquid heterojunction, which results in a built-in potential and makes the solid-liquid heterojunction work in photovoltaic mode. PMID:24103153

  12. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  13. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O2+y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, A.; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, D.; Scheinost, A.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P.; Boshoven, J.; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M.; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D.

    2017-10-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2sbnd ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the only study available in the literature on the whole pseudo-binary system. In addition, a minimum melting point is identified here for compositions near (U0.6Zr0.4)O2+y, around 2800 K. The solidus line is rather flat on a broad range of compositions around the minimum. It increases for compositions closer to the pure end members, up to the melting point of pure UO2 (3130 K) on one side and pure ZrO2 (2970 K) on the other. Solid state phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-monoclinic) have also been observed in the ZrO2-rich compositions X-ray diffraction. Investigations under 0.3 MPa air (0.063 MPa O2) revealed a significant decrease in the melting points down to 2500 K-2600 K for increasing uranium content (x(UO2)> 0.2). This was found to be related to further oxidation of uranium dioxide, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For example, a typical oxidised corium composition U0.6Zr0.4O2.13 was observed to solidify at a temperature as low as 2493 K. The current results are important for assessing the thermal stability of the system fuel - cladding in an oxide based nuclear reactor, and for simulating the system behaviour during a hypothetical severe accident.

  14. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabnikova, O.; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment

  15. Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S; Cook, J; Juratovac, J; Goodwillie, J; Burke, T

    2011-10-25

    Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities

  16. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  17. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    OROIAN, MIRCEA; Escriche Roberto, Mª Isabel

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Recently many review papers regarding antioxidants fromdifferent sources and different extraction and quantification procedures have been published. However none of them has all the information regarding antioxidants (chemistry, sources, extraction and quantification). This article tries to take a different perspective on antioxidants for the new researcher involved in this field. Antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and beverages play an important role in human health, fo...

  18. Food Fish Identification from DNA Extraction through Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment exposed 3rd and 4th y undergraduates and graduate students taking a course in advanced food analysis to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analysis. Students provided their own fish sample, purchased from local grocery stores, and the class as a whole extracted DNA, which was then subjected to PCR,…

  19. The methodology of semantic analysis for extracting physical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkova, M. A.; Kamaev, V. A.; Korobkin, D. M.; Fomenkov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper represents new methodology of semantic analysis for physical effects extracting. This methodology is based on the Tuzov ontology that formally describes the Russian language. In this paper, semantic patterns were described to extract structural physical information in the form of physical effects. A new algorithm of text analysis was described.

  20. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Recently many review papers regarding antioxidants from different sources and different extraction and quantification procedures have been published. However none of them has all the information regarding antioxidants (chemistry, sources, extraction and quantification). This article tries to take a different perspective on antioxidants for the new researcher involved in this field. Antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and beverages play an important role in human health, for example preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and lowering the incidence of different diseases. In this paper the main classes of antioxidants are presented: vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenols. Recently, many analytical methodologies involving diverse instrumental techniques have been developed for the extraction, separation, identification and quantification of these compounds. Antioxidants have been quantified by different researchers using one or more of these methods: in vivo, in vitro, electrochemical, chemiluminescent, electron spin resonance, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance, near infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Analysis of Intracellular Metabolites from Microorganisms: Quenching and Extraction Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Aggio, Raphael

    2017-10-23

    Sample preparation is one of the most important steps in metabolome analysis. The challenges of determining microbial metabolome have been well discussed within the research community and many improvements have already been achieved in last decade. The analysis of intracellular metabolites is particularly challenging. Environmental perturbations may considerably affect microbial metabolism, which results in intracellular metabolites being rapidly degraded or metabolized by enzymatic reactions. Therefore, quenching or the complete stop of cell metabolism is a pre-requisite for accurate intracellular metabolite analysis. After quenching, metabolites need to be extracted from the intracellular compartment. The choice of the most suitable metabolite extraction method/s is another crucial step. The literature indicates that specific classes of metabolites are better extracted by different extraction protocols. In this review, we discuss the technical aspects and advancements of quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolite analysis from microbial cells.

  2. Analysis of Intracellular Metabolites from Microorganisms: Quenching and Extraction Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana R. Pinu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is one of the most important steps in metabolome analysis. The challenges of determining microbial metabolome have been well discussed within the research community and many improvements have already been achieved in last decade. The analysis of intracellular metabolites is particularly challenging. Environmental perturbations may considerably affect microbial metabolism, which results in intracellular metabolites being rapidly degraded or metabolized by enzymatic reactions. Therefore, quenching or the complete stop of cell metabolism is a pre-requisite for accurate intracellular metabolite analysis. After quenching, metabolites need to be extracted from the intracellular compartment. The choice of the most suitable metabolite extraction method/s is another crucial step. The literature indicates that specific classes of metabolites are better extracted by different extraction protocols. In this review, we discuss the technical aspects and advancements of quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolite analysis from microbial cells.

  3. Analysis of volatiles from irradiated yeast extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Tao; Li Xin; Zu Xiaoyan; Chen Yuxia; Geng Shengrong

    2013-01-01

    The method for determination volatiles from irradiated yeast extract (YE) using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed in this paper. The extraction conditions were optimized with reference to the peak area and number of volatiles as aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, acid, ester and sulfur compounds. The optimized conditions of HS-SPME for volatiles in irradiated YE were: divinyl benzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber, extration time 40 min, extraction temperature 40℃. The volatiles from YE irradiated by 0-19.8 kGy were detected using HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS. The results showed that only 15 volatiles were detected from no irradiated YE and main compounds were acetic acid, 2, 3-butanediol and 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-. There were 40 volatiles detected from irradiated YE and the main compounds were acetic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, heptanal and nonanal. Compare to no irradiated yeast extract, the aldehyde, ketone, alkene and disulfide, dimethyl were produced by irradiating process. (authors)

  4. Neutron activation analysis for the optimal sampling and extraction of extractable organohalogens in human hari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Sun, H.B.; Xu, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Many persistent organohalogen compounds such as DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls have caused seriously environmental pollution problem that now involves all life. It is know that neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very convenient method for halogen analysis and is also the only method currently available for simultaneously determining organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in one extract. Human hair is a convenient material to evaluate the burden of such compounds in human body and dan be easily collected from people over wide ranges of age, sex, residential areas, eating habits and working environments. To effectively extract organohalogen compounds from human hair, in present work the optimal Soxhelt-extraction time of extractable organohalogen (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogen (EPOX) from hair of different lengths were studied by NAA. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhelt-extraction time of EOX and EPOX from human hair was 8-11 h, and the highest EOX and EPOX contents were observed in hair powder extract. The concentrations of both EOX and EPOX in different hair sections were in the order of hair powder ≥ 2 mm > 5 mm, which stated that hair samples milled into hair powder or cut into very short sections were not only for homogeneous. hair sample but for the best hair extraction efficiency.

  5. Box-Behnken design based statistical modeling for ultrasound-assisted extraction of corn silk polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Manikandan, S; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Vigna Nivetha, C; Dinesh, R

    2013-01-30

    In this study, ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) conditions on the yield of polysaccharide from corn silk were studied using three factors, three level Box-Behnken response surface design. Process parameters, which affect the efficiency of UAE such as extraction temperature (40-60 °C), time (10-30 min) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1:30 g/ml) were investigated. The results showed that, the extraction conditions have significant effects on extraction yield of polysaccharide. The obtained experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis with high coefficient of determination value (R(2)) of 0.994. An optimization study using Derringer's desired function methodology was performed and the optimal conditions based on both individual and combinations of all independent variables (extraction temperature of 56 °C, time of 17 min and solid-liquid ratio of 1:20 g/ml) were determined with maximum polysaccharide yield of 6.06%, which was confirmed through validation experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  7. Optimisation of beryllium-7 gamma analysis following BCR sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Blake, W.H.; Keith-Roach, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Showing decrease in analytical uncertainty using the optimal (combined preconcentrated sample extract) method. nv (no value) where extract activities were 7 Be geochemical behaviour is required to support tracer studies. ► Sequential extraction with natural 7 Be returns high analytical uncertainties. ► Preconcentrating extracts from a large sample mass improved analytical uncertainty. ► This optimised method can be readily employed in studies using low activity samples. - Abstract: The application of cosmogenic 7 Be as a sediment tracer at the catchment-scale requires an understanding of its geochemical associations in soil to underpin the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Sequential extractions offer a readily accessible means of determining the associations of 7 Be with operationally defined soil phases. However, the subdivision of the low activity concentrations of fallout 7 Be in soils into geochemical fractions can introduce high gamma counting uncertainties. Extending analysis time significantly is not always an option for batches of samples, owing to the on-going decay of 7 Be (t 1/2 = 53.3 days). Here, three different methods of preparing and quantifying 7 Be extracted using the optimised BCR three-step scheme have been evaluated and compared with a focus on reducing analytical uncertainties. The optimal method involved carrying out the BCR extraction in triplicate, sub-sampling each set of triplicates for stable Be analysis before combining each set and coprecipitating the 7 Be with metal oxyhydroxides to produce a thin source for gamma analysis. This method was applied to BCR extractions of natural 7 Be in four agricultural soils. The approach gave good counting statistics from a 24 h analysis period (∼10% (2σ) where extract activity >40% of total activity) and generated statistically useful sequential extraction profiles. Total recoveries of 7 Be fell between 84 and 112%. The stable Be data demonstrated that the

  8. Asymptotic analysis of an ion extraction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, N.; Mas-Gallic, S.; Raviart, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for ion extraction from a plasma is analyzed. The order of magnitude of the plasma parameters leads to a singular perturbation problem for a semilinear elliptic equation. We first prove existence of solutions for the perturbed problem and uniqueness under certain conditions. Then we prove the convergence of these solutions, when the parameters go to zero, towards the solution of a Child-Langmuir problem

  9. Fuzzy concept analysis for semantic knowledge extraction

    OpenAIRE

    De Maio, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    2010 - 2011 Availability of controlled vocabularies, ontologies, and so on is enabling feature to provide some added values in terms of knowledge management. Nevertheless, the design, maintenance and construction of domain ontologies are a human intensive and time consuming task. The Knowledge Extraction consists of automatic techniques aimed to identify and to define relevant concepts and relations of the domain of interest by analyzing structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructu...

  10. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Maliar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax seed is an important source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human physiology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of major parameters of the lipid extraction from flax seed, in relation to the recovery of oil as well as the oil quality properties. The independent variables of extraction were proposed as: organic solvents, temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio. The following quantitative and qualitative parameters were chosen as dependent variables: yield of the lipid fraction, acid value of oil and the absorbance at 490 nm. After calculating the optimal values of the extraction, the validation analysis was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variables were in agreement with the optimal extraction parameters.doi:10.5219/168

  11. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for Many-component Mixtures Using Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fettouhi, André; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    In the creation of liquefied natural gas the formation of solids play a substantial role, hence detailed knowledge is needed about solid-liquid equilibria (SLE). In this abstract we shortly summarize the work we have carried out at CERE over the past year with SLE for many-component mixtures usin...... the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state. Components used in this work are highly relevant to the oil and gas industry and include light and heavy hydrocarbons, alcohols, water and carbon dioxide....

  12. Density of Ni-Al Alloys in Liquid and Solid-Liquid Coexistence State Measured by a Modified Pycnometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Feng XIAO; Zushu LI; Zainan TAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of Ni-Al alloys in both liquid state and solid-liquid coexistence state was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It was found that the density of NI-Al alloys decreases with increasing temperature and Al concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Al binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and Al concentration. The partial molar volume of Al in NI-Al binary alloy was calculated approximately. The molar volume of liquid NI-Al alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear molar volume.

  13. Bubble Induced Disruption of a Planar Solid-Liquid Interface During Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.

    2013-01-01

    Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiments were conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station with the intent of better understanding the role entrained porosity/bubbles play during controlled directional solidification. The planar interface in a slowing growing succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% water alloy was being observed when a nitrogen bubble traversed the mushy zone and remained at the solid-liquid interface. Breakdown of the interface to shallow cells subsequently occurred, and was later evaluated using down-linked data from a nearby thermocouple. These results and other detrimental effects due to the presence of bubbles during solidification processing in a microgravity environment are presented and discussed.

  14. Probing alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures of peptides at solid/liquid interfaces with SFG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jie; Sniadecki, Jason J; Even, Mark A; Chen, Zhan

    2005-03-29

    We demonstrated that sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy can distinguish different secondary structures of proteins or peptides adsorbed at solid/liquid interfaces. The SFG spectrum for tachyplesin I at the polystyrene (PS)/solution interface has a fingerprint peak corresponding to the B1/B3 mode of the antiparallel beta-sheet. This peak disappeared upon the addition of dithiothreitol, which can disrupt the beta-sheet structure. The SFG spectrum indicative of the MSI594 alpha-helical structure was observed at the PS/MSI594 solution interface. This research validates SFG as a powerful technique for revealing detailed secondary structures of interfacial proteins and peptides.

  15. Distribution functions to estimate radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils: the case of Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Mart i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the revision of the IAEA TRS 364 (Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments), a database of radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in soils was compiled with data coming from field and laboratory experiments, from references mostly from 1990 onwards, including data from reports, reviewed papers, and grey literature. The K{sub d} values were grouped for each radionuclide according to two criteria. The first criterion was based on the sand and clay mineral percentages referred to the mineral matter, and the organic matter (OM) content in the soil. This defined the 'texture/OM' criterion. The second criterion was to group soils regarding specific soil factors governing the radionuclide-soil interaction ('cofactor' criterion). The cofactors depended on the radionuclide considered. An advantage of using cofactors was that the variability of K{sub d} ranges for a given soil group decreased considerably compared with that observed when the classification was based solely on sand, clay and organic matter contents. The K{sub d} best estimates were defined as the calculated GM values assuming that K{sub d} values were always log-normally distributed. Risk assessment models may require as input data for a given parameter either a single value (a best estimate) or a continuous function from which not only individual best estimates but also confidence ranges and data variability can be derived. In the case of the K{sub d} parameter, a suitable continuous function which contains the statistical parameters (e.g. arithmetical/geometric mean, arithmetical/geometric standard deviation, mode, etc.) that better explain the distribution among the K{sub d} values of a dataset is the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). To our knowledge, appropriate CDFs has not been proposed for radionuclide K{sub d} in soils yet. Therefore, the aim of this works is to create CDFs for

  16. Optimisation of beryllium-7 gamma analysis following BCR sequential extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A. [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Blake, W.H., E-mail: wblake@plymouth.ac.uk [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Keith-Roach, M.J. [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Kemakta Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-30

    Graphical abstract: Showing decrease in analytical uncertainty using the optimal (combined preconcentrated sample extract) method. nv (no value) where extract activities were extraction with natural {sup 7}Be returns high analytical uncertainties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preconcentrating extracts from a large sample mass improved analytical uncertainty. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This optimised method can be readily employed in studies using low activity samples. - Abstract: The application of cosmogenic {sup 7}Be as a sediment tracer at the catchment-scale requires an understanding of its geochemical associations in soil to underpin the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Sequential extractions offer a readily accessible means of determining the associations of {sup 7}Be with operationally defined soil phases. However, the subdivision of the low activity concentrations of fallout {sup 7}Be in soils into geochemical fractions can introduce high gamma counting uncertainties. Extending analysis time significantly is not always an option for batches of samples, owing to the on-going decay of {sup 7}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 53.3 days). Here, three different methods of preparing and quantifying {sup 7}Be extracted using the optimised BCR three-step scheme have been evaluated and compared with a focus on reducing analytical uncertainties. The optimal method involved carrying out the BCR extraction in triplicate, sub-sampling each set of triplicates for stable Be analysis before combining each set and coprecipitating the {sup 7}Be with metal oxyhydroxides to produce a thin source for gamma analysis. This method was applied to BCR extractions of natural {sup 7}Be in four agricultural soils. The approach gave good counting statistics from a 24 h analysis period ({approx}10% (2

  17. Qualitative analysis of hexane flour extract of spelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Đura N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of the hexane flour extract of three samples of spelt. All the three samples were first treated with hexane and the obtained extracts were used for the analysis of the fatty acid lipid components. The transesterification reaction was performed using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol, and the fatty acids were esterified from acylglycerol to methyl-esters. In all analyzed extracts, the predominant component was methyl linoleate, followed by methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. The subsequent tests, performed by cluster analysis, were used to compare the hexane flour extracts of different types of spelt. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46005 i br. TR 31066

  18. Atomic simulations for configurations and solid-liquid interface of Li-Fe and Li-Cu icosahedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianyu, E-mail: hnieyjy@aliyun.com [Hunan Institute of Engineering (China); Hu, Wangyu [Hunan University, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Dai, Xiongying [Hunan Institute of Engineering, College of Science (China)

    2017-04-15

    The melting point of Li is lower than that of Fe (or Cu); thus, solid-liquid interfaces can be easily formed on Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys. In this work, the configurations and solid-liquid interfaces of Li-Fe and Li-Cu icosahedra are studied using Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods. The atomic interactions are described by the analytic embedded-atom method. The dependence of composition, temperature, and nanoparticle size on the configurations and thermal stabilities of nanoalloys is discussed. The behavior of the Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys in segregation, configuration, and thermal stability is investigated. A different behavior of surface segregation of Li atoms is observed for the two types of nanoalloys. The interface between the Li and Fe atoms is clear. Mixing of Li with Cu at larger nanoparticle sizes is found because of low heat of formation in the system. The configurations of the Li-Fe and Li-Cu nanoalloys are related to the competition between surface segregation and alloying. The thermal stability of Li in the two types of nanoalloys is enhanced by the support of the Fe (or Cu) solid substrate.

  19. A critical compilation and review of default soil solid/liquid partition coefficients, Kd, for use in environmental assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, D.H.; Sheppard, M.I.; Smith, P.A.

    1990-03-01

    Environmental assessments of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analyses of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the geosphere, unconsolidated overburden and soil use models requiring solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the solid materials. This report presents element-specific soil solid/liquid partition coefficients based on a detailed survey of the literature. Values for clays, silt, sand and organic soils are summarized. Partition coefficients for the following elements are presented: americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, curium, europium, iodine, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, phosphorus, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, tellurium, terbium, thorium, tin, tritium, uranium, zinc, and zirconium. The values compiled in this study are compared with earlier K d value compendiums and are the values recommended for the use in the soil, deep sediment and overburden models for the Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

  20. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  1. Redox process at solid-liquid interfaces: studies with thin layers of green rusts electrodeposited on inert substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peulon, S.; Taghdai, Y.; Mercier, F.; Barre, N.; Legrand, L.; Chauss, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The redox reactions which can occur between radioelements and natural phases in the environment are taken still little into account although their importance is established on natural sites; the consequences are significant since they can modify radically the behaviour of the species by increasing or decreasing their migration. The iron compounds are very implicated in these redox processes because iron is one of the most abundant element on earth; moreover, it is also present in the containers used for the storage of the nuclear waste. We exhibited in previous works that electrochemistry is a convenient way to generate the main iron oxidation compounds as thin layers on different inert substrates. The electrochemical behaviour of these deposits that are adherent, homogeneous and well crystallized [1-3], was investigated with the principle advantage that iron metal and its reactivity is eliminate. Moreover, they could be analysed directly by techniques like IRRAS, XRD, SEM, EDS and XPS without any preparation. In the present study, we develop an original way to investigate redox processes at solid-liquid interfaces based on the utilisation of these thin layers; the samples are more commonly powders and/or pieces of corroded steel in the literature. Results obtained with two different systems, chromate and uranyl ions, in interaction with thin layers of sulfated green rusts are presented. Green rusts is chosen because it is a mixed Fe(II-III) compound which could be formed in anoxic conditions like in the case of the storage of the nuclear waste. After various contact times with the solutions containing the reactive species, the thin layers are characterised by different ex-situ methods. The results show clearly the oxidation of the green rust into a Fe(III) compound and the formation of a new solid phase on the electrode due to the reduction and the precipitation of the reactive species present initially in solution. Because thin

  2. Solid-phase extraction procedures in systematic toxicological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1998-01-01

    In systematic toxicological analysis (STA) the substance(s) present is (are) not known at the start of the analysis. in such an undirected search the extraction procedure cannot be directed to a given substance but must be a general procedure where a compromise must be reached in that the substances

  3. A comparison of accelerated solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinchao; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-11-01

    The performance of accelerated solvent extraction in the analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco samples was investigated and compared with those of Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonically assisted extraction with respect to yield, extraction time, reproducibility and solvent consumption. The results indicate that although the highest yield was achieved by Soxhlet extraction, ASE appears to be a promising alternative to classical methods since it is faster and uses less solvent, especially when applied to the investigation of large batch tobacco samples. However, Soxhlet extraction is still the preferred method for analyzing sterols since it gives a higher extraction efficiency than other methods.

  4. Smart Extraction and Analysis System for Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Ali, Taqdir; Jamshed, Arif; Lee, Sungyoung

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs), there is a growing need to expand the utilization of EHR data to support clinical research. The key challenge in achieving this goal is the unavailability of smart systems and methods to overcome the issue of data preparation, structuring, and sharing for smooth clinical research. We developed a robust analysis system called the smart extraction and analysis system (SEAS) that consists of two subsystems: (1) the information extraction system (IES), for extracting information from clinical documents, and (2) the survival analysis system (SAS), for a descriptive and predictive analysis to compile the survival statistics and predict the future chance of survivability. The IES subsystem is based on a novel permutation-based pattern recognition method that extracts information from unstructured clinical documents. Similarly, the SAS subsystem is based on a classification and regression tree (CART)-based prediction model for survival analysis. SEAS is evaluated and validated on a real-world case study of head and neck cancer. The overall information extraction accuracy of the system for semistructured text is recorded at 99%, while that for unstructured text is 97%. Furthermore, the automated, unstructured information extraction has reduced the average time spent on manual data entry by 75%, without compromising the accuracy of the system. Moreover, around 88% of patients are found in a terminal or dead state for the highest clinical stage of disease (level IV). Similarly, there is an ∼36% probability of a patient being alive if at least one of the lifestyle risk factors was positive. We presented our work on the development of SEAS to replace costly and time-consuming manual methods with smart automatic extraction of information and survival prediction methods. SEAS has reduced the time and energy of human resources spent unnecessarily on manual tasks.

  5. Microstructure and transport current characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-x thick films prepared by modified solid-liquid melt growth and powder melt process routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhorn, J.; McGinn, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    From the characterization of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thick films processed by melt texturing on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates from YBCO precursors it is clear that the properties are highly dependent on the precursor powder. Increased YBCO grain sizes have been induced in thick films processed from by modified solid-liquid melt growth (SLMG) and powder melt (PMP) processes with respect to those processed from pre-reacted YBCO materials. The SLMG and PMP routes utilize precursors consisting of BaCuO 2 -CuO flux material mixed with Y 2 O 3 and Y 2 BaCuO 5 respectively. Cross-sectional analysis of films textured by these routes shows a decreased Y 2 BaCuO 5 size and an increased homogeneity within the matrix with respect to films processed from YBCO powder. Such microstructural improvements lead to an improvement of both the flux pinning and current-carrying characteristics of the processed YBCO films. (author)

  6. Extractables analysis of single-use flexible plastic biocontainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghitoiu, Liliana; Liu, Jian; Lee, Hans; Perez, Lourdes; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Ronk, Michael; Hammond, Matthew R; Nunn, Heather; Lower, Asher; Rogers, Gary; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the extractable profiles of bioprocessing components have become an integral part of drug development efforts to minimize possible compromise in process performance, decrease in drug product quality, and potential safety risk to patients due to the possibility of small molecules leaching out from the components. In this study, an effective extraction solvent system was developed to evaluate the organic extractable profiles of single-use bioprocess equipment, which has been gaining increasing popularity in the biopharmaceutical industry because of the many advantages over the traditional stainless steel-based bioreactors and other fluid mixing and storage vessels. The chosen extraction conditions were intended to represent aggressive conditions relative to the application of single-use bags in biopharmaceutical manufacture, in which aqueous based systems are largely utilized. Those extraction conditions, along with a non-targeted analytical strategy, allowed for the generation and identification of an array of extractable compounds; a total of 53 organic compounds were identified from four types of commercially available single-use bags, the majority of which are degradation products of polymer additives. The success of this overall extractables analysis strategy was reflected partially by the effectiveness in the extraction and identification of a compound that was later found to be highly detrimental to mammalian cell growth. The usage of single-use bioreactors has been increasing in biopharmaceutical industry because of the appealing advantages that it promises regarding to the cleaning, sterilization, operational flexibility, and so on, during manufacturing of biologics. However, compared to its conventional counterparts based mainly on stainless steel, single-use bioreactors are more susceptible to potential problems associated with compound leaching into the bioprocessing fluid. As a result, extractable profiling of the single-use system has become

  7. Effect of Direct Current on Solid-Liquid Interfacial Tension and Wetting Behavior of Ga–In–Sn Alloy Melt on Cu Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of direct current (DC on the wetting behavior of Cu substrate by liquid Ga–25In–13Sn alloy at room temperature is investigated using a sessile drop method. It is found that there is a critical value for current intensity, below which the decrease of contact angle with increasing current intensity is approximately linear and above which contact angle tends to a stable value from drop shape. Current polarity is a negligible factor in the observed trend. Additionally, the observed change in contact angles is translated into the corresponding change in solid-liquid interfacial tension using the equation of state for liquid interfacial tensions. The solid-liquid interfacial tension decreases under DC. DC-induced promotion of solute diffusion coefficient is likely to play an important role in determining the wettability and solid-liquid interfacial tension under DC.

  8. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSE-GAS EXTRACTS FROM LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to make qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic biologically active substances (BAS in the extracts produced from lime flowers with condensed gases, using method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and methods: materials for this study were the extracts obtained by consequent processing of the herbal drug and marcs thereof with various condensed gases: difluorochloromethane (Freon R22, difluoromethane (Freon R32, azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane with pentafluoroethane (Freon 410A and freon-ammonium mixture. Extracts obtained with the latter were subjected to further fractionation by liquidliquid separation into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-alcohol phases. Besides, the supercritical СО2 extract, obtained from the herbal drug under rather strong conditions (at temperature 60°С and pressure 400 bar, was studied in our previous research. Presence of phenolic BAS and their quantity in the researched samples were determined by method of HPLC with UVspectrometric detection. Results and discussion: It has been found that Freon R22 extracted trace amounts of rutin from lime flowers – its content was only 0.08% of the total extract weight. On the other hand, Freons R32 and R410А showed good selectivity to moderately polar BAS of lime flowers (derivatives of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids: in particular, the extract obtained with freon R32 contained about 1.3% of the total phenolic substances, and it was the only one of the investigated condensed gases used by us which took the basic flavonoid of lime flowers tiliroside – its content was 0.42% of extract weight. Also Freons R32 and R410А were able to withdraw another compound dominating among phenolic substances in the yielded extracts. Its quantity was rather noticeable – up to 0.87% of extract weight. This substance was not identified by existing database, but its UV-spectrum was similar to those of

  9. Detection of different oxidation states of individual manganese porphyrins during their reaction with oxygen at a solid/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Duncan; Li, Min; Habets, Thomas; Iavicoli, Patrizia; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M; Speller, Sylvia; Amabilino, David B; De Feyter, Steven; Elemans, Johannes A A W

    2013-07-01

    Manganese porphyrins have been extensively investigated as model systems for the natural enzyme cytochrome P450 and as synthetic oxidation catalysts. Here, we report single-molecule studies of the multistep reaction of manganese porphyrins with molecular oxygen at a solid/liquid interface, using a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) under environmental control. The high lateral resolution of the STM, in combination with its sensitivity to subtle differences in the electronic properties of molecules, allowed the detection of at least four distinct reaction species. Real-space and real-time imaging of reaction dynamics enabled the observation of active sites, immobile on the experimental timescale. Conversions between the different species could be tuned by the composition of the atmosphere (argon, air or oxygen) and the surface bias voltage. By means of extensive comparison of the results to those obtained by analogous solution-based chemistry, we assigned the observed species to the starting compound, reaction intermediates and products.

  10. Multifilamentary superconducting (NbTa)-Sn composite wire by solid-liquid reaction for possible application above 20 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Hull, G.W. Jr.; Fuchs, E.O.; Holthuis, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nb alloyed with Ta was employed in fabricating multifilamentary composite wires of (NbTa)-Sn using the liquid-infiltration process. The superconducting A15 phase was formed with subsequent heat treatments at 800-950 0 C by the solid-liquid reaction. High inductive Tsub(c)'s of 18.2 K with sharp transition width ( 4 A/cm 2 at 2O T and 4.2 K were obtained. It was found that 2 wt.% Ta in the Nb was sufficient in the enhancement of the overall Jsub(c) at the high fields and in increasing the Hsub(c2) (4.2 K) to 25 T. (Auth.)

  11. Multifilamentary superconducting (NbTa)-Sn composite wire by solid-liquid reaction for possible application above 20 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Hull, G.W. Jr.; Fuchs, E.O.; Holthuis, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nb alloyed with Ta was employed in fabricating multifilamentary composite wires of (NbTa)-Sn using the liquid-infiltration process. The superconducting A15 phase was formed with subsequent heat treatments at 800-950 0 C by the solid-liquid reaction. High inductive Tsub(c)'s of 18.2 K with sharp transition width ( 4 A/cm 2 at 20 T and 4.2 K were obtained. It was found that 2 wt.% Ta in the Nb was sufficient in the enhancement of the overall Jsub(c) at the high fields and in increasing the Hsub(c2) (4.2 K) to 25 T. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of solid-liquid interfacial energy in the In-Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasli, N; Akbulut, S; Ocak, Y; Keslioglu, K; Boeyuek, U; Kaya, H; Cadirli, E

    2007-01-01

    The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) x 10 -7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) x 10 -3 J m -2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) x 10 -3 J m -2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 deg. C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus

  13. An in-plane solid-liquid-solid growth mode for self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linwei; Alet, Pierre-Jean; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2009-03-27

    We report an in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mode for obtaining self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires (SiNW) in a reacting-gas-free annealing process, where the growth of SiNWs is guided by liquid indium drops that transform the surrounding a-SiratioH matrix into crystalline SiNWs. The SiNWs can be approximately mm long, with the smallest diameter down to approximately 22 nm. A high growth rate of >10(2) nm/s and rich evolution dynamics are revealed in a real-time in situ scanning electron microscopy observation. A qualitative growth model is proposed to account for the major features of this IPSLS SiNW growth mode.

  14. Temperature and compositional dependence of solid-liquid interfacial energy: application of the Cahn-Hilliard theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, I.; Takei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic method to estimate the solid-liquid interfacial energy (or interfacial tension) is proposed, based on the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In the model, the liquid is treated as a regular solution, and the interfacial layers are assumed to have liquid-like thermodynamic properties. In eutectic systems, interfacial adsorption occurs within a few atomic layers, and interfacial energy monotonously increases with decreasing concentration of the solid species in the liquid phase. If non-ideal atomic interaction is strong and the liquid immiscibility region appears in the phase diagrams (this is the case of monotectic systems), the interfacial thickness drastically increases and the interfacial energy is reduced around the immiscibility gap

  15. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel 718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, were investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  16. Analysis preliminary phytochemical raw extract of leaves Nephrolepis pectinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natally Marreiros Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nephrolepis pectinata popularly known as paulista fern, ladder-heaven, cat tail, belongs to the family Davalliaceae. For the beauty of the arrangements of their leaves ferns are quite commercialized in Brazil, however, have not been described in the literature studies on their pharmacological potential. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze the phytochemical properties of the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata. To perform the phytochemical analysis were initially made the collection of the vegetable, preparation of voucher specimen, washing, drying and grinding. Then, extraction by percolation method and end the phytochemical analysis. Preliminary results phytochemicals the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata tested positive for reducing sugars, phenols/tannins (catechins tannins and catechins.

  17. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly ( P essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  18. Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract from Cocos nucifera L. Davi Oliveira e Silva, Gabriel Rocha Martins, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva, Daniela Sales Alviano, Rodrigo Pires Nascimento, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho Kaplan, Celuta Sales Alviano ...

  19. Analysis of the Extracts of Isatis tinctoria by New Analytical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods of extraction, separation and analysis of alkaloids and indole glucosinolates (GLs) of Isatis tinctoria were reviewed. Different analytical approaches such as High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS), Electrospray ...

  20. Chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The dried root of Maesa perlaria var. formosana was extracted with 95 % ethanol for composition analysis under the following optimum GC-MS conditions: 250 °C inlet temperature, 250 °C MSD detector temperature, and GC oven temperature programmed as follows: initial temperature held at 70 °C for 15 min, ...

  1. Analysis of Coastline Extraction from Landsat-8 OLI Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin Liu

    2017-10-01

    of −4.23 m and optimal MAD of 13.54 m. Further comparisons with single-band thresholding (Band 6, AWEI, and ISODATA also confirmed the superiority of strategy 3. For the various used pansharpening algorithms, five multiresolution analysis MRA-based pansharpening algorithms are more efficient than the component substitution CS-based pansharpening algorithms for coastline extraction from Landsat-8 OLI imagery. Among the five MRA-based fusion methods, the coastlines extracted from the fused images generated by Indusion, additive à trous wavelet transform (ATWT and additive wavelet luminance proportional (AWLP produced the most accurate and visually realistic representation. Therefore, pansharpening approaches can improve the accuracy of coastline extraction from Landsat-8 OLI imagery, and downscaling the PAN band to finer spatial resolution is able to further improve the coastline extraction accuracy, especially in crenulated coasts.

  2. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  3. Gas chromatographic analysis of extractive solvent in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlet, B.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a reprocessing plant using the Purex process is recalled and analytical controls for optimum performance are specified. The aim of this thesis is the development of analytical methods using gas chromatography required to follow the evolution of the extraction solvent during spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent at different concentrations, is analysed along the reprocessing lines in organic or aqueous phases. Solvent degradation interferes with extraction and decomposition products are analysed. The solvent becomes less and less efficient, also it is distilled and quality is checked. Traces of solvent should also be checked in waste water. Analysis are made as simple as possible to facilitate handling of radioactive samples [fr

  4. A modified free-volume-based model for predicting vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for size asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to present a free-volume combinatorial term in predicting vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of polymer/solvent and light and heavy hydrocarbon/hydrocarbon mixtures. The proposed term is based on a modification of the original Freed ...

  5. Pre-Service Primary Science Teachers' Understandings of the Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore pre-service primary teachers' understandings of the effect of temperature and pressure on the solid-liquid phase transition of water. In the study a survey approach was used, and the sample consisted of one-hundred and three, third year pre-service primary science teachers. As a tool for data collection, a test…

  6. Solid-liquid phase equilibrium in the systems of LiBr-H2O and LiCl-H2O

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Jaroslav; Klomfar, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 250, - (2006), s. 138-149 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : salt-water system * solubility * solid-liquid system * lithium bromide * litthium chloride Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.680, year: 2006

  7. Surface composition variation and high-vacuum performance of DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings: Influence of space irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiufang; Wang Liping; Pu Jibin; Xue Qunji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a DLC/ionic liquid (DLC/ILs) solid-liquid lubricating coating and investigated the effect of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV), proton and electron irradiations on composition, structure, morphology and tribological properties of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings. A ground-based simulation facility was employed to carry out the irradiation experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), Raman spectra, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyzed the structure and composition changes of DLC film and IL lubricant before and after irradiations. The tribological behavior of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coating before and after irradiations was investigated by a vacuum tribometer with the pressure of 10 -5 Pa. The experimental results revealed that irradiations induced the structural changes, including oxidation, bond break and crosslinking reactions of DLC film and IL lubricant. The damage of proton and AO irradiations to lubricating materials were the most serious, and UV irradiation was the slightest. After irradiations, the friction coefficient of the solid-liquid lubricating coatings decreased (except for AO irradiation), but the disc wear rate increased compared with non-irradiation coatings.

  8. Analysis of Feature Extraction Methods for Speaker Dependent Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Speech recognition is about what is being said, irrespective of who is saying. Speech recognition is a growing field. Major progress is taking place on the technology of automatic speech recognition (ASR. Still, there are lots of barriers in this field in terms of recognition rate, background noise, speaker variability, speaking rate, accent etc. Speech recognition rate mainly depends on the selection of features and feature extraction methods. This paper outlines the feature extraction techniques for speaker dependent speech recognition for isolated words. A brief survey of different feature extraction techniques like Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC, Linear Predictive Coding Coefficients (LPCC, Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP, Relative Spectra Perceptual linear Predictive (RASTA-PLP analysis are presented and evaluation is done. Speech recognition has various applications from daily use to commercial use. We have made a speaker dependent system and this system can be useful in many areas like controlling a patient vehicle using simple commands.

  9. Analysis of cesium extracting solvent using GCMS and HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Herman, C.C.; Crump, S.L.; Marinik, A.R.; Lambert, D.P.; Eibling, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    A high-level waste (HLW) remediation process scheduled to begin in 2007 at the Savannah River Site is the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The MCU will use a hydrocarbon solvent (diluent) containing a cesium extractant, a calix[4]arene compound, to extract radioactive cesium from caustic HLW. The resulting decontaminated HLW waste or raffinate will be processed into grout at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The cesium containing CSSX stream will undergo washing with dilute nitric acid followed by stripping of the cesium nitrate into a very dilute nitric acid or the strip effluent stream and the CSSX solvent will be recycled. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will receive the strip effluent stream and immobilize the cesium into borosilicate glass. Excess CSSX solvent carryover from the MCU creates a potential flammability problem during DWPF processing. Bench-scale DWPF process testing was performed with simulated waste to determine the fate of the CSSX solvent components. A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to identify the modifier (which is used to increase Cs extraction and extractant solubility) and extractant within the DWPF process. The diluent and trioctylamine (which is used to suppress impurity effect and ion-pair disassociation) were determined using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS). To close the organic balance, two types of sample preparation methods were needed. One involved extracting aqueous samples with methylene chloride or hexane, and the second was capturing the off gas of the DWPF process using carbon tubes and rinsing the tubes with carbon disulfide for analysis. This paper addresses the development of the analytical methods and the bench-scale simulated waste study results. (author)

  10. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  11. Method Development for Extraction and Quantification of Glycosides in Leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmah Moosa; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Norazlina Noordin

    2015-01-01

    A solid-liquid extraction and an UHPLC method for determination of glycosides from the leave parts of Stevia rebaudiana were developed. Steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia are natural sweetener and commercially sold as sugar substitutes. Extraction of the glycosides consisted of solvent extraction of leaf powder using various solvents followed by its concentration using rotary evaporator and analysis using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). Existing analytical methods are mainly focused on the quantification of either rebaudioside A or stevioside, whereas other glycosides, such as rebaudioside B and rebaudioside D present in the leaves also contribute to sweetness or its biological activity. Therefore, we developed an improved method by changing the UHPLC conditions to enable a rapid and reliable determination of four steviol glycosides rather than just two using an isocratic UHPLC method. (author)

  12. High temperature investigation of the solid/liquid transition in the PuO2-UO2-ZrO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaini, A.; Guéneau, C.; Gossé, S.; Sundman, B.; Manara, D.; Smith, A. L.; Bottomley, D.; Lajarge, P.; Ernstberger, M.; Hodaj, F.

    2015-12-01

    The solid/liquid transitions in the quaternary U-Pu-Zr-O system are of great interest for the analysis of core meltdown accidents in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) fuelled with uranium-dioxide and MOX. During a severe accident the Zr-based cladding can become completely oxidised due to the interaction with the oxide fuel and the water coolant. In this framework, the present analysis is focused on the pseudo-ternary system UO2-PuO2-ZrO2. The melting/solidification behaviour of five pseudo-ternary and one pseudo-binary ((PuO2)0.50(ZrO2)0.50) compositions have been investigated experimentally by a laser heating method under pre-set atmospheres. The effects of an oxidising or reducing atmosphere on the observed melting/freezing temperatures, as well as the amount of UO2 in the sample, have been clearly identified for the different compositions. The oxygen-to-metal ratio is a key parameter affecting the melting/freezing temperature because of incongruent vaporisation effects. In parallel, a detailed thermodynamic model for the UO2-PuO2-ZrO2 system has been developed using the CALPHAD method, and thermodynamic calculations have been performed to interpret the present laser heating results, as well as the high temperature behaviour of the cubic (Pu,U,Zr)O2±x-c mixed oxide phase. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data points. This work enables an improved understanding of the major factors relevant to severe accident in nuclear reactors.

  13. High temperature investigation of the solid/liquid transition in the PuO{sub 2}–UO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaini, A. [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guéneau, C., E-mail: christine.gueneau@cea.fr [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gossé, S. [CEA, DANS/DPC/SCCME/LM2T, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sundman, B. [INSTN, CEA Saclay (France); Manara, D.; Smith, A.L.; Bottomley, D.; Lajarge, P.; Ernstberger, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hodaj, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Grenoble INP, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-15

    The solid/liquid transitions in the quaternary U-Pu-Zr-O system are of great interest for the analysis of core meltdown accidents in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) fuelled with uranium-dioxide and MOX. During a severe accident the Zr-based cladding can become completely oxidised due to the interaction with the oxide fuel and the water coolant. In this framework, the present analysis is focused on the pseudo-ternary system UO{sub 2}–PuO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2}. The melting/solidification behaviour of five pseudo-ternary and one pseudo-binary ((PuO{sub 2}){sub 0.50}(ZrO{sub 2}){sub 0.50}) compositions have been investigated experimentally by a laser heating method under pre-set atmospheres. The effects of an oxidising or reducing atmosphere on the observed melting/freezing temperatures, as well as the amount of UO{sub 2} in the sample, have been clearly identified for the different compositions. The oxygen-to-metal ratio is a key parameter affecting the melting/freezing temperature because of incongruent vaporisation effects. In parallel, a detailed thermodynamic model for the UO{sub 2}–PuO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} system has been developed using the CALPHAD method, and thermodynamic calculations have been performed to interpret the present laser heating results, as well as the high temperature behaviour of the cubic (Pu,U,Zr)O{sub 2±x}-c mixed oxide phase. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data points. This work enables an improved understanding of the major factors relevant to severe accident in nuclear reactors.

  14. Solid-liquid transition in Nb powder determined by third harmonic susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.A.M.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N.; Ortiz, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the third harmonic of the AC-susceptibility were employed to determine the boundaries of the linear regime of the magnetic response of Nb powder. Non-linear contributions to the magnetic response reveal the occurrence of a structured phase, disappearing as the vortex lattice melts to the liquid state. A systematic study of the third harmonic was conducted to determine how its onset temperature depends on experimental parameters, such as the frequency and amplitude of the excitation field. The melting line (ML) has been extracted from the onset temperature measured at low-frequencies and low-excitation fields in the presence of DC magnetic fields. The study indicates that the ML can be described by a 3D vortex-glass model, except at lower fields, where the system experiences a depinning crossover, and the best description of the experimental data is provided by a 3D Bose-glass model

  15. Solid-liquid transition in Nb powder determined by third harmonic susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: ana@df.ufscar.br; Lisboa-Filho, P.N. [Laboratorio de Materiais Supercondutores, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Measurements of the third harmonic of the AC-susceptibility were employed to determine the boundaries of the linear regime of the magnetic response of Nb powder. Non-linear contributions to the magnetic response reveal the occurrence of a structured phase, disappearing as the vortex lattice melts to the liquid state. A systematic study of the third harmonic was conducted to determine how its onset temperature depends on experimental parameters, such as the frequency and amplitude of the excitation field. The melting line (ML) has been extracted from the onset temperature measured at low-frequencies and low-excitation fields in the presence of DC magnetic fields. The study indicates that the ML can be described by a 3D vortex-glass model, except at lower fields, where the system experiences a depinning crossover, and the best description of the experimental data is provided by a 3D Bose-glass model.

  16. Fetal source extraction from magnetocardiographic recordings by dependent component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Draulio B de [Department of Physics and Mathematics, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Barros, Allan Kardec [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil); Estombelo-Montesco, Carlos [Department of Physics and Mathematics, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Zhao, Hui [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Filho, A C Roque da Silva [Department of Physics and Mathematics, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Department of Physics and Mathematics, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Wakai, Ronald [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ohnishi, Noboru [Department of Information Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan)

    2005-10-07

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) has been extensively reported in the literature as a non-invasive, prenatal technique that can be used to monitor various functions of the fetal heart. However, fMCG signals often have low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and are contaminated by strong interference from the mother's magnetocardiogram signal. A promising, efficient tool for extracting signals, even under low SNR conditions, is blind source separation (BSS), or independent component analysis (ICA). Herein we propose an algorithm based on a variation of ICA, where the signal of interest is extracted using a time delay obtained from an autocorrelation analysis. We model the system using autoregression, and identify the signal component of interest from the poles of the autocorrelation function. We show that the method is effective in removing the maternal signal, and is computationally efficient. We also compare our results to more established ICA methods, such as FastICA.

  17. Structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface of dispersed triglyceride nanocrystals with small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiele, Martin; Schindler, Torben; Unruh, Tobias; Busch, Sebastian; Morhenn, Humphrey; Westermann, Martin; Steiniger, Frank; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Schweins, Ralf; Boesecke, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Dispersions of crystalline nanoparticles with at least one sufficiently large unit cell dimension can give rise to Bragg reflections in the small-angle scattering range. If the nanocrystals possess only a small number of unit cells along these particular crystallographic directions, the corresponding Bragg reflections will be broadened. In a previous study of phospholipid stabilized dispersions of β-tripalmitin platelets [Unruh, J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR0021-889810.1107/S0021889807044378 40, 1008 (2007)], the x-ray powder pattern simulation analysis (XPPSA) was developed. The XPPSA method facilitates the interpretation of the rather complicated small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) curves of such dispersions of nanocrystals. The XPPSA method yields the distribution function of the platelet thicknesses and facilitates a structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface between the nanocrystals and the dispersion medium from the shape of the broadened 001 Bragg reflection. In this contribution an improved and extended version of the XPPSA method is presented. The SAXS and small-angle neutron scattering patterns of dilute phospholipid stabilized tripalmitin dispersions can be reproduced on the basis of a consistent simulation model for the particles and their phospholipid stabilizer layer on an absolute scale. The results indicate a surprisingly flat arrangement of the phospholipid molecules in the stabilizer layer with a total thickness of only 12 Å. The stabilizer layer can be modeled by an inner shell for the fatty acid chains and an outer shell including the head groups and additional water. The experiments support a dense packing of the phospholipid molecules on the nanocrystal surfaces rather than isolated phospholipid domains.

  18. Study of solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces in Cu–isoleucine complex by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Pilar; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.

    2013-01-01

    The enzymes could be understood like structures formed by amino acids bonded with metals, which act as active sites. The research on the coordination of metal–amino acid complexes will bring light on the behavior of metal enzymes, due to the close relation existing between the atomic structure and the functionality. The Cu–isoleucine bond is considered as a good model system to attain a better insight into the characteristics of naturally occurring copper metalloproteins. The surface structure of metal–amino acid complex could be considered as a more realistic model for real systems under biologic working conditions, since the molecular packing is decreased. In the surface, the structural constrains are reduced, keeping the structural capability of surface complex to change as a function of the surrounding environment. In this work, we present a surface X-ray diffraction study on Cu–isoleucine complex under different ambient conditions. Cu(Ile) 2 crystals of about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm have been growth, by seeding method in a supersaturated solution, presenting a surface of high quality. The sample for the surface diffraction study was mounted on a cell specially designed for solid/liquid or solid/gas interface analysis. The Cu–isoleucine crystal was measured under a protective dry N 2 gas flow and in contact with a saturated metal amino acid solution. The bulk and the surface signals were compared, showing different atomic structures. In both cases, from surface diffraction data, it is observed that the atomic structure of the top layer undergoes a clear structural deformation. A non-uniform surface relaxation is observed producing an inhomogeneous displacement of the surface atoms towards the surface normal.

  19. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-12-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass-solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed.

  20. [Automatic Extraction and Analysis of Dosimetry Data in Radiotherapy Plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhao, Di; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Biyun; Ma, Jun; Yu, Dahai

    To improve the efficiency and accuracy of extraction and analysis of dosimetry data in radiotherapy plans for a batch of patients. With the interface function provided in Matlab platform, a program was written to extract the dosimetry data exported from treatment planning system in DICOM RT format and exported the dose-volume data to an Excel file with the SPSS compatible format. This method was compared with manual operation for 14 gastric carcinoma patients to validate the efficiency and accuracy. The output Excel data were compatible with SPSS in format, the dosimetry data error for PTV dose interval of 90%-98%, PTV dose interval of 99%-106% and all OARs were -3.48E-5 ± 3.01E-5, -1.11E-3 ± 7.68E-4, -7.85E-5 ± 9.91E-5 respectively. Compared with manual operation, the time required was reduced from 5.3 h to 0.19 h and input error was reduced from 0.002 to 0. The automatic extraction of dosimetry data in DICOM RT format for batch patients, the SPSS compatible data exportation, quick analysis were achieved in this paper. The efficiency of clinical researches based on dosimetry data analysis of large number of patients will be improved with this methods.

  1. Electrochemical determination of the glass transition temperature of thin polyelectrolyte brushes at solid-liquid interfaces by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-García, Teodoro; Rodríguez-Presa, María José; Gervasi, Claudio; Moya, Sergio; Azzaroni, Omar

    2013-07-16

    Devising strategies to assess the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyelectrolyte assemblies at solid-electrolyte interfaces is very important to understand and rationalize the temperature-dependent behavior of polyelectrolyte films in a wide range of settings. Despite the evolving perception of the importance of measuring Tg under aqueous conditions in thin film configurations, its straightforward measurement poses a challenging situation that still remains elusive in polymer and materials science. Here, we describe a new method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to estimate the glass transition temperature of planar polyelectrolyte brushes at solid-liquid interfaces. To measure Tg, the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of a redox probe diffusing through the polyelectrolyte brush was measured, and the temperature corresponding to the discontinuous change in Rct was identified as Tg. Furthermore, we demonstrate that impedance measurements not only facilitate the estimation of Tg but also enable a reliable evaluation of the transport properties of the polymeric interface, i.e., determination of diffusion coefficients, close to the thermal transition. We consider that this approach bridges the gap between electrochemistry and the traditional tools used in polymer science and offers new opportunities to characterize the thermal behavior of complex polymeric interfaces and macromolecular assemblies.

  2. Mass Transfer Process by Magneto-convection at a Solid-liquid Interface in a Heterogeneous Vertical Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Morisaki, Shigeyoshi; Aogaki, Ryoichi

    2003-08-01

    When an external magnetic field is vertically imposed on a solid-liquid interface, the mass transfer process of a solute dissolving from or depositing on the interface was theoretically examined. In a heterogeneous vertical magnetic field, a material receives a magnetic force in proportion to the product of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetic flux density B and its gradient (dB/dz). As the reaction proceeds, a diffusion layer of the solute with changing susceptibility is formed at the interface because of the difference of the the magnetic susceptibility on the concentration of the solute. In the case of an unstable condition where the dimensionless number of magneto-convection S takes a positive value, the magnetic force is applied to the layer and induces numerous minute convection cells. The mass transfer of the solute is thus accelerated, so that it is predicted that the mass flux increases with the 1/3rd order of B(dB/dz) and the 4/3rd order of the concentration. The experiment was then performed by measuring the rate of the dissolution of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal in water.

  3. Simulation of solid-liquid flows in a stirred bead mill based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, S.; Widiyastuti, W.; Septiani, E. L.; Nurtono, T.

    2018-05-01

    The selection of simulation model is an important step in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain an agreement with experimental work. In addition, computational time and processor speed also influence the performance of the simulation results. Here, we report the simulation of solid-liquid flow in a bead mill using Eulerian model. Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) was also used to model the interaction between moving (shaft and disk) and stationary (chamber exclude shaft and disk) zones. Bead mill dimension was based on the experimental work of Yamada and Sakai (2013). The effect of shaft rotation speed of 1200 and 1800 rpm on the particle distribution and the flow field was discussed. For rotation speed of 1200 rpm, the particles spread evenly throughout the bead mill chamber. On the other hand, for the rotation speed of 1800 rpm, the particles tend to be thrown to the near wall region resulting in the dead zone and found no particle in the center region. The selected model agreed well to the experimental data with average discrepancies less than 10%. Furthermore, the simulation was run without excessive computational cost.

  4. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides isoproturon and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Cindy M; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14C-isoproturon and 14C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (Kd range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (Kd range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography.

  5. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Cindy M.; Shaw, George; Collins, Chris D.

    2004-01-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of 14 C-isoproturon and 14 C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K d values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K d range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K d range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances

  6. Study on solid-liquid two-phase unsteady flow characteristics with different flow rates in screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R N; Wang, H Y; Han, W; Shen, Z J; Ma, W

    2013-01-01

    The screw centrifugal pump is used as an object, and the unsteady numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase flow is carried out under different flow rate conditions in one circle by choosing the two-phase flow of sand and water as medium, using the software FLUENT based on the URANS equations, combining with sliding mesh method, and choosing the Mixture multiphase flow model and the SIMPLE algorithm. The results show that, with the flow rate increasing, the change trends for the pressure on volute outlet are almost constant, the fluctuation trends of the impeller axial force have a little change, the pressure and the axial force turn to decrease on the whole, the radial force gradually increases when the impeller maximum radius passes by half a cycle near the volute outlet, and the radial force gradually decreases when the maximum radius passes by the other half a cycle in a rotation cycle. The distributions of the solid particles are very uneven under a small flow rate condition on the face. The solid particles under a big flow rate condition are distributed more evenly than the ones under a small flow rate condition on the back. The theoretical basis and reference are provided for improving its working performance

  7. A fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of a wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor dust using on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haug, Line Småstuen

    2016-05-06

    A fast and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 18 traditional and 6 alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using solid-liquid extraction (SLE), off-line clean-up using activated carbon and on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-TOF-MS) was developed. The extraction efficiency was studied and recoveries in range the 58-114% were obtained. Extraction and injection volumes were also optimized to 2mL and 400μL, respectively. The method was validated by spiking dust from a vacuum cleaner bag that had been found to contain low levels of the PFASs in focus. Low method detection limits (MDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) in the range 0.008-0.846ngg(-1) and 0.027-2.820ngg(-1) were obtained, respectively. For most of the PFASs, the accuracies were between 70 and 125% in the range from 2 to100ngg(-1) dust. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in general well below 30%. Analysis of a Standard Reference Material (SRM 2585) showed high accordance with results obtained by other laboratories. Finally, the method was applied to seven indoor dust samples, and PFAS concentrations in the range 0.02-132ngg(-1) were found. The highest median concentrations were observed for some of the alternative PFASs, such as 6:2-diPAP (25ngg(-1)), 8:2-diPAP (49ngg(-1)), and PFOPA (23ngg(-1)), illustrating the importance of inclusion of new PFASs in the analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  9. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  10. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  11. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahramanloo KH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kourosh Hasanzadeh Ghahramanloo,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,2 Hamid Akbari Javar,3 Riyanto Teguh Widodo,1 Keivan Majidzadeh,4 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Genetics Department, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS, 4Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%–61.85% and oleic acid (1.64%–18.97%. Thymoquinone (0.72%–21.03% was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that achieved by the solvent extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique. Keywords: Nigella sativa L., essential oil extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, solvent extraction, fatty acid composition, thymoquinone, linoleic acid

  12. Independent component analysis for automatic note extraction from musical trills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith C.; Smaragdis, Paris

    2004-05-01

    The method of principal component analysis, which is based on second-order statistics (or linear independence), has long been used for redundancy reduction of audio data. The more recent technique of independent component analysis, enforcing much stricter statistical criteria based on higher-order statistical independence, is introduced and shown to be far superior in separating independent musical sources. This theory has been applied to piano trills and a database of trill rates was assembled from experiments with a computer-driven piano, recordings of a professional pianist, and commercially available compact disks. The method of independent component analysis has thus been shown to be an outstanding, effective means of automatically extracting interesting musical information from a sea of redundant data.

  13. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  14. Prominent feature extraction for review analysis: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Basant; Mittal, Namita

    2016-05-01

    Sentiment analysis (SA) research has increased tremendously in recent times. SA aims to determine the sentiment orientation of a given text into positive or negative polarity. Motivation for SA research is the need for the industry to know the opinion of the users about their product from online portals, blogs, discussion boards and reviews and so on. Efficient features need to be extracted for machine-learning algorithm for better sentiment classification. In this paper, initially various features are extracted such as unigrams, bi-grams and dependency features from the text. In addition, new bi-tagged features are also extracted that conform to predefined part-of-speech patterns. Furthermore, various composite features are created using these features. Information gain (IG) and minimum redundancy maximum relevancy (mRMR) feature selection methods are used to eliminate the noisy and irrelevant features from the feature vector. Finally, machine-learning algorithms are used for classifying the review document into positive or negative class. Effects of different categories of features are investigated on four standard data-sets, namely, movie review and product (book, DVD and electronics) review data-sets. Experimental results show that composite features created from prominent features of unigram and bi-tagged features perform better than other features for sentiment classification. mRMR is a better feature selection method as compared with IG for sentiment classification. Boolean Multinomial Naïve Bayes) algorithm performs better than support vector machine classifier for SA in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  15. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of extract from cow hair and dander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, P; Weeke, B; Loewenstein, H [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis used for the analysis of a dialysed, centrifuged and freeze-dried extract from cow hair and dander revealed 17 antigens. Five of these were identified as serum proteins. Partial identity to antigens of serum and extract from hair and dander of goat, sheep, swine, horse, dog, cat, and guinea pig, and to antigens of house dust was demonstrated. Sera from 36 patients with manifest allergy to cow hair and dander selected on the basis of case history, RAST, skin and provocation test, were examined in crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE); sera from five persons with high serum IgE, but without allergy to cow hair and dander, and sera from five normal individuals were controls. 31/36 of the sera contained IgE with specific affinity for two of the antigens of the extract. Further, two major and six minor allergens were identified. The control sera showed no specific IgE binding. A significant positive correlation was found between RAST and CRIE for the first group of patients. The approximate molecular weights of the four major allergens obtained by means of gel chromatography were: 2.4 x 10/sup 4/, 2 x 10/sup 4/, 2 x 10/sup 5/ dalton, respectively. Using Con-A and Con-A Sepharose in crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, eight of the antigens were revealed to contain groups with affinity for Con-A.

  16. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of extract from cow hair and dander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahl, P.; Weeke, B.; Loewenstein, H.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis used for the analysis of a dialysed, centrifuged and freeze-dried extract from cow hair and dander revealed 17 antigens. Five of these were identified as serum proteins. Partial identity to antigens of serum and extract from hair and dander of goat, sheep, swine, horse, dog, cat, and guinea pig, and to antigens of house dust was demonstrated. Sera from 36 patients with manifest allergy to cow hair and dander selected on the basis of case history, RAST, skin and provocation test, were examined in crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE); sera from five persons with high serum IgE, but without allergy to cow hair and dander, and sera from five normal individuals were controls. 31/36 of the sera contained IgE with specific affinity for two of the antigens of the extract. Further, two major and six minor allergens were identified. The control sera showed no specific IgE binding. A significant positive correlation was found between RAST and CRIE for the first group of patients. The approximate molecular weights of the four major allergens obtained by means of gel chromatography were: 2.4 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 5 dalton, respectively. Using Con-A and Con-A Sepharose in crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, eight of the antigens were revealed to contain groups with affinity for Con-A. (author)

  17. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  18. Enhanced spot preparation for liquid extractive sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; King, Richard C.

    2015-09-22

    A method for performing surface sampling of an analyte, includes the step of placing the analyte on a stage with a material in molar excess to the analyte, such that analyte-analyte interactions are prevented and the analyte can be solubilized for further analysis. The material can be a matrix material that is mixed with the analyte. The material can be provided on a sample support. The analyte can then be contacted with a solvent to extract the analyte for further processing, such as by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  19. Fetal ECG extraction using independent component analysis by Jade approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Guzmán, Jader; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.; Lasprilla, Gloria Isabel Bautista; Kotas, Marian

    2017-11-01

    Fetal ECG monitoring is a useful method to assess the fetus health and detect abnormal conditions. In this paper we propose an approach to extract fetal ECG from abdomen and chest signals using independent component analysis based on the joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices approach. The JADE approach avoids redundancy, what reduces matrix dimension and computational costs. Signals were filtered with a high pass filter to eliminate low frequency noise. Several levels of decomposition were tested until the fetal ECG was recognized in one of the separated sources output. The proposed method shows fast and good performance.

  20. [Analysis of triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum by microwave-assisted continuous extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-fang; An, Jing; Jiang, Ye

    2015-04-01

    For further improving the extraction efficiency of microwave extraction, a microwave-assisted contijuous extraction (MACE) device has been designed and utilized. By contrasting with the traditional methods, the characteristics and extraction efficiency of MACE has also been studied. The method was validated by the analysis of the triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum. The extraction conditions of MACE were: using 95% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 200 W and radiation time 14.5 min (5 cycles). The extraction results were subsequently compared with traditional heat reflux extraction ( HRE) , soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction ( UE) as well as the conventional microwave extraction (ME). For triterpenoids, the two methods based on the microwaves (ME and MACE) were in general capable of finishing the extraction in 10, 14.5 min, respectively, while other methods should consume 60 min and even more than 100 min. Additionally, ME can produce comparable extraction results as the classical HRE and higher extraction yield than both SE and UE, however, notably lower extraction yield than MASE. More importantly, the purity of the crud extract by MACE is far better than the other methods. MACE can effectively combine the advantages of microwave extraction and soxhlet extraction, thus enabling a more complete extraction of the analytes of TCMs in comparison with ME. And therefore makes the analytic result more accurate. It provides a novel, high efficient, rapid and reliable pretreatment technique for the analysis of TCMs, and it could potentially be extended to ingredient preparation or extracting techniques of TCMs.

  1. Mathematical model to analyze the dissolution behavior of metastable crystals or amorphous drug accompanied with a solid-liquid interface reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Daiki; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-04-30

    Metastable crystals and the amorphous state of poorly water-soluble drugs in solid dispersions (SDs), are subject to a solid-liquid interface reaction upon exposure to a solvent. The dissolution behavior during the solid-liquid interface reaction often shows that the concentration of drugs is supersaturated, with a high initial drug concentration compared with the solubility of stable crystals but finally approaching the latter solubility with time. However, a method for measuring the precipitation rate of stable crystals and/or the potential solubility of metastable crystals or amorphous drugs has not been established. In this study, a novel mathematical model that can represent the dissolution behavior of the solid-liquid interface reaction for metastable crystals or amorphous drug was developed and its validity was evaluated. The theory for this model was based on the Noyes-Whitney equation and assumes that the precipitation of stable crystals at the solid-liquid interface occurs through a first-order reaction. Moreover, two models were developed, one assuming that the surface area of the drug remains constant because of the presence of excess drug in the bulk and the other that the surface area changes in time-dependency because of agglomeration of the drug. SDs of Ibuprofen (IB)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared and their dissolution behaviors under non-sink conditions were fitted by the models to evaluate improvements in solubility. The model assuming time-dependent surface area showed good agreement with experimental values. Furthermore, by applying the model to the dissolution profile, parameters such as the precipitation rate and the potential solubility of the amorphous drug were successfully calculated. In addition, it was shown that the improvement in solubility with supersaturation was able to be evaluated quantitatively using this model. Therefore, this mathematical model would be a useful tool to quantitatively determine the supersaturation

  2. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  3. Effect of solvent on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of hazelnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Tripodo, Giusy; Russo, Marina; Della Posta, Susanna; Pasqualetti, Valentina; De Gara, Laura

    2018-03-22

    Hazelnut kernel phenolic compounds were recovered applying two different extraction approaches, namely ultrasound-assisted solid/liquid extraction (UA-SLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Different solvents were tested evaluating total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids contents together to antioxidant activity. The optimum extraction conditions, in terms of the highest value of total phenolic compounds extracted together to other parameters like simplicity and cost were selected for method validation and individual phenolic compounds analysis. The UA-SLE protocol performed using 0.1 g of defatted sample and 15 mL of extraction solvent (1 mL methanol/1 mL water/8 mL methanol 0.1% formic acid/5 mL acetonitrile) was selected. The analysis of hazelnut kernel individual phenolic compounds was obtained by HPLC coupled with DAD and MS detections. Quantitative analysis was performed using a mixture of six phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic classes' representative of hazelnut. Then, the method was fully validated and the resulting RSD% values for retention time repeatability were below 1%. A good linearity was obtained giving R 2 no lower than 0.997.The accuracy of the extraction method was also assessed. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of phenolic compounds in three different hazelnut kernel varieties observing a similar qualitative profile with differences in the quantity of detected compounds. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Studies on the interactions between bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin and chitosan at the solid-liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campina, Jose M., E-mail: jpina@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Souza, Hileia K.S., E-mail: hsouza@fe.up.p [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Borges, Joao, E-mail: jborges@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Martins, Ana, E-mail: amartins@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Goncalves, Maria Pilar, E-mail: pilarg@fe.up.p [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Silva, Fernando, E-mail: afssilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ), Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-12-01

    Chitosan ultrathin films have been formed on polycrystalline Au substrates using the LbL technique with the purpose of studying its interaction with bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin ({beta}-LG) at the solid-liquid interface. The immobilization of chitosan was followed by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with energy dissipation (QCM-D), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of the chitosan films in the presence of {beta}-LG solutions with different bulk concentrations ([{beta}-LG]), ionic strength (I), and pH has been investigated using the same techniques plus Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results showed that for pHs lower than protein's pI, weak intermolecular forces (H bonding, Van der Waals, hydrophobic, etc.) are established between {beta}-LG and chitosan (especially close to the pI) leading to low coverage nonspecific adsorption. On the contrary when pH > pI, strong ionic bonding through attractive electrostatic interactions lead to high coverage adsorbed phases composed of large {beta}-LG aggregates. The adsorption process was shown to consist of a relatively fast step (in which these interactions are predominant) which is followed, once the {beta}-LG monolayer is exceeded, by the slow formation of thicker and increasingly viscoelastic films through {beta}-LG self-aggregation. QCM-D and AFM experiments unveiled the role of [{beta}-LG] and I on the formation of these aggregates. The adsorption isotherm built from impedance data in the medium-low [{beta}-LG] range (0.001-0.3 mg mL{sup -1}), showed good fitting to the Langmuir model confirming that the formation of one {beta}-LG monolayer is achieved in this concentration range.

  5. Studies on the interactions between bovine β-lactoglobulin and chitosan at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campina, Jose M.; Souza, Hileia K.S.; Borges, Joao; Martins, Ana; Goncalves, Maria Pilar; Silva, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan ultrathin films have been formed on polycrystalline Au substrates using the LbL technique with the purpose of studying its interaction with bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) at the solid-liquid interface. The immobilization of chitosan was followed by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with energy dissipation (QCM-D), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of the chitosan films in the presence of β-LG solutions with different bulk concentrations ([β-LG]), ionic strength (I), and pH has been investigated using the same techniques plus Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results showed that for pHs lower than protein's pI, weak intermolecular forces (H bonding, Van der Waals, hydrophobic, etc.) are established between β-LG and chitosan (especially close to the pI) leading to low coverage nonspecific adsorption. On the contrary when pH > pI, strong ionic bonding through attractive electrostatic interactions lead to high coverage adsorbed phases composed of large β-LG aggregates. The adsorption process was shown to consist of a relatively fast step (in which these interactions are predominant) which is followed, once the β-LG monolayer is exceeded, by the slow formation of thicker and increasingly viscoelastic films through β-LG self-aggregation. QCM-D and AFM experiments unveiled the role of [β-LG] and I on the formation of these aggregates. The adsorption isotherm built from impedance data in the medium-low [β-LG] range (0.001-0.3 mg mL -1 ), showed good fitting to the Langmuir model confirming that the formation of one β-LG monolayer is achieved in this concentration range.

  6. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb [ECOMatters Inc., Pinawa (Canada); Sohlenius, Gustav [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  7. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) for selected soils and sediments at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Long, Jeff; Sanipelli, Barb; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2009-03-01

    Soil and sediment solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. The Kd data are inherently extremely variable, but also vary systematically with key environmental attributes. For soil Kd, the key variables are pH, clay content and organic carbon content. For sediment Kd, water type (freshwater versus marine) and sediment type (benthic versus suspended) are important. This report summarized Kd data for soils and sediments computed from indigenous stable element concentrations measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites. These were then compared to several literature sources of Kd data for Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ho, I, La, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, Tm, U and Yb. The Kd data computed from indigenous stable element concentrations may be especially relevant for assessment of long-lived radionuclides from deep disposal of waste, because the long time frame for the potential releases is more consistent with the steady state measured using indigenous stable elements. For almost every one of these elements in soils, a statistically meaningful regression equation was developed to allow estimation of Kd for any soil given a modest amount of information about the soil. Nonetheless, the median residual geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 4.3-fold, implying confidence bounds of about 18-fold above and below the best estimate Kd. For sediment, the values are categorised simply by water type and sediment type. The median GSD for sediment Kd as measured at the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites was 2.5-fold, but the median GSD among literature values was as high as 8.6-fold. Clearly, there remains considerable uncertainty in Kd values, and it is important to account for this in assessment applications

  8. Preliminary design and analysis of a process for the extraction of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Dang, V.D.

    1975-09-01

    The U.S. demand for lithium by the industrial sector and by a fusion power economy in the future is discussed. For a one million MW(e) CTR (D-T fuel cycle) economy, growing into the beginning of the next century (the years 2000 to 2030), the cumulative demand for lithium is estimated to range from (0.55 to 4.7) x 10 7 to 1.0 x 10 9 kg. Present estimates of the available U.S. supply are 6.9 x 10 8 kg of lithium from mineral resources and 4.0 x 10 9 kg of lithium from concentrated natural brines. There is, however, a vast supply of lithium in seawater: 2.5 x 10 14 kg. A preliminary process design for the extraction of lithium from seawater is presented: seawater is first evaporated by solar energy to increase the concentration of lithium and to decrease the concentration of other cations in the bittern which then passes into a Dowex-50 ion exchange bed for cation adsorption. Lithium ions are then eluted with dilute hydrochloric acid forming an aqueous lithium chloride which is subsequently concentrated and electrolyzed. The energy requirement for lithium extraction varies between 0.08 and 2.46 kWh(e)/gm for a range of production rates varying between 10 4 and 10 8 kg/y; this is small compared to the energy produced from the use of lithium in a CTR having a value of 3400 kWh(e)/g Li. Production cost of the process is estimated to be in the range of 2.2 to 3.2 cents/g Li. As a basis for the process design, it is recommended that a phase equilibria study of the solid--liquid crystallization processes of seawater be conducted. Uncertainties exist in the operation of large solar ponds for concentrating large quantities of seawater. A search for a highly selective adsorbent or extractant for Li from low concentration aqueous solutions should be made. Other physical separation processes such as using membranes should be investigated. 9 tables

  9. High-throughput multipesticides residue analysis in earthworms by the improvement of purification method: Development and application of magnetic Fe3 O4 -SiO2 nanoparticles based dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuhan; Qi, Peipei; Cang, Tao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiangyun; Yang, Xuewei; Wang, Lidong; Xu, Xiahong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan; Zhao, Changshan

    2018-06-01

    As a key representative organism, earthworms can directly illustrate the influence of pesticides on environmental organisms in soil ecosystems. The present work aimed to develop a high-throughput multipesticides residue analytical method for earthworms using solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile as the solvent and magnetic material-based dispersive solid-phase extraction for purification. Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were modified with a thin silica layer to form Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 nanoparticles, which were fully characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 nanoparticles were used as the separation media in dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine and ZrO 2 as the cleanup adsorbents to eliminate matrix interferences. The amounts of nanoparticles and adsorbents were optimized for the simultaneous determination of 44 pesticides and six metabolites in earthworms by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The method performance was systematically validated with satisfactory results. The limits of quantification were 20 μg/kg for all analytes studied, while the recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 65.1 to 127% with relative standard deviation values lower than 15.0%. The developed method was subsequently utilized to explore the bioaccumulation of bitertanol in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil, verifying its feasibility for real sample analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtuwene, J. P. A.; Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Manoppo, C. T. M.; Salaki, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    The current growth of data and information occurs rapidly in varying amount and media. These types of development will eventually produce large number of data better known as the Big Data. Business Intelligence (BI) utilizes large number of data and information for analysis so that one can obtain important information. This type of information can be used to support decision-making process. In practice a process integrating existing data and information into data warehouse is needed. This data integration process is known as Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL). In practice, many applications have been developed to carry out the ETL process, but selection which applications are more time, cost and power effective and efficient may become a challenge. Therefore, the objective of the study was to provide comparative analysis through comparison between the ETL process using Microsoft SQL Server Integration Service (SSIS) and one using Pentaho Data Integration (PDI).

  11. Extracting Credible Dependencies for Averaged One-Dependence Estimator Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous proposals to improve the accuracy of naive Bayes (NB by weakening the conditional independence assumption, averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE demonstrates remarkable zero-one loss performance. However, indiscriminate superparent attributes will bring both considerable computational cost and negative effect on classification accuracy. In this paper, to extract the most credible dependencies we present a new type of seminaive Bayesian operation, which selects superparent attributes by building maximum weighted spanning tree and removes highly correlated children attributes by functional dependency and canonical cover analysis. Our extensive experimental comparison on UCI data sets shows that this operation efficiently identifies possible superparent attributes at training time and eliminates redundant children attributes at classification time.

  12. THERMODYNAMIC TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION OF MAXIMUM BOILING AZEOTROPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Shen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a feasibility study of azeotropic mixture separation based on a topological analysis combining thermodynamic knowledge of residue curve maps, univolatility and unidistribution curves, and extractive profiles. Thermodynamic topological features related to process operations for typical ternary diagram classes 1.0-2 are, for the first time, discussed. Separating acetone/chloroform is presented as an illustrative example; different entrainers are investigated: several heavy ones, a light one, and water, covering the Serafimov classes 1.0-2, 1.0-1a and 3.1-4, respectively. The general feasibility criterion that was previously established for ternary mixtures including only one azeotrope (1.0-1a or 1.0-2 is now, for the first time, extended to that including three azeotropes (class 3.1–4.

  13. Extraction and identification of flavonoids from parsley extracts by HPLC analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.

    2012-02-01

    Flavonoids are phenolic compounds isolated from a wide variety of plants, and are valuable for their multiple properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In the present work, parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) extracts were obtained by three different extraction techniques: maceration, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted solvent extractions. The extractions were performed with ethanol-water mixtures in various ratios. From these extracts, flavonoids like the flavones apigenin and luteolin, and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol were identified using an HPLC Shimadzu apparatus equipped with PDA and MS detectors. The separation method involved a gradient step. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: acetonitrile and distilled water with 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a RP-C18 column.

  14. Extracting neuronal functional network dynamics via adaptive Granger causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhattar, Alireza; Miran, Sina; Liu, Ji; Fritz, Jonathan B; Shamma, Shihab A; Kanold, Patrick O; Babadi, Behtash

    2018-04-24

    Quantifying the functional relations between the nodes in a network based on local observations is a key challenge in studying complex systems. Most existing time series analysis techniques for this purpose provide static estimates of the network properties, pertain to stationary Gaussian data, or do not take into account the ubiquitous sparsity in the underlying functional networks. When applied to spike recordings from neuronal ensembles undergoing rapid task-dependent dynamics, they thus hinder a precise statistical characterization of the dynamic neuronal functional networks underlying adaptive behavior. We develop a dynamic estimation and inference paradigm for extracting functional neuronal network dynamics in the sense of Granger, by integrating techniques from adaptive filtering, compressed sensing, point process theory, and high-dimensional statistics. We demonstrate the utility of our proposed paradigm through theoretical analysis, algorithm development, and application to synthetic and real data. Application of our techniques to two-photon Ca 2+ imaging experiments from the mouse auditory cortex reveals unique features of the functional neuronal network structures underlying spontaneous activity at unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Our analysis of simultaneous recordings from the ferret auditory and prefrontal cortical areas suggests evidence for the role of rapid top-down and bottom-up functional dynamics across these areas involved in robust attentive behavior.

  15. Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis (ISEE) of Organics from Regolith Simulant Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Carolina; Hintze, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    ISEE is an instrument with the potential to perform extractions from regolith found on the surface of asteroids and planets, followed by characterization and quantitation of the extracts using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and chromatography (SFC). SFE is a developed technique proven to extract a wide range of organic compounds. SFC is similar to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) but has the advantage of performing chiral separations without needing to derivatize the chiral compounds. CO2 will be the solvent for both stages as it is readily available in the Mars atmosphere. ISEE will capture CO2 from the environment, and use it for SFE and SFC. If successful, this would allow ISEE to perform analysis of organic compounds without using consumables. This paper will present results on a preliminary, proof-of-principle effort to use SFE and SFC to extract and analyze lunar regolith simulant spiked with organic compounds representing a range of organics that ISEE would expect to characterize. An optimization of variables for the extraction of the organics from the spiked regolith was successfully developed, using 138 bar pressure and 40 C temperature. The extraction flow rate was optimized at 2% SLPM with 30% methanol modifier. The extractions were successful with a value of 77.3+/- 0.9% of organics extracted. However, the recovery of organics after the extraction was very low with only 48.5+/-14.2%. Moreover, three columns were selected to analyze multiple samples at a time; two of them are Viridis HSS C18 SB and Torus DIOL, and the third column, specific for chiral separations, has not yet been selected yet.

  16. Big data extraction with adaptive wavelet analysis (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongya; Chen, Genda; Ni, Yiqing

    2015-04-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and sensing technology have been increasingly applied to characterize material properties and detect local damage in structures. More often than not, they generate images or data strings that are difficult to see any physical features without novel data extraction techniques. In the literature, popular data analysis techniques include Short-time Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform, and Hilbert Transform for time efficiency and adaptive recognition. In this study, a new data analysis technique is proposed and developed by introducing an adaptive central frequency of the continuous Morlet wavelet transform so that both high frequency and time resolution can be maintained in a time-frequency window of interest. The new analysis technique is referred to as Adaptive Wavelet Analysis (AWA). This paper will be organized in several sections. In the first section, finite time-frequency resolution limitations in the traditional wavelet transform are introduced. Such limitations would greatly distort the transformed signals with a significant frequency variation with time. In the second section, Short Time Wavelet Transform (STWT), similar to Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), is defined and developed to overcome such shortcoming of the traditional wavelet transform. In the third section, by utilizing the STWT and a time-variant central frequency of the Morlet wavelet, AWA can adapt the time-frequency resolution requirement to the signal variation over time. Finally, the advantage of the proposed AWA is demonstrated in Section 4 with a ground penetrating radar (GPR) image from a bridge deck, an analytical chirp signal with a large range sinusoidal frequency change over time, the train-induced acceleration responses of the Tsing-Ma Suspension Bridge in Hong Kong, China. The performance of the proposed AWA will be compared with the STFT and traditional wavelet transform.

  17. Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)

  18. Strategies for the extraction and analysis of non-extractable polyphenols from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, Gloria; Marina, María Luisa; Plaza, Merichel

    2017-09-08

    The majority of studies based on phenolic compounds from plants are focused on the extractable fraction derived from an aqueous or aqueous-organic extraction. However, an important fraction of polyphenols is ignored due to the fact that they remain retained in the residue of extraction. They are the so-called non-extractable polyphenols (NEPs) which are high molecular weight polymeric polyphenols or individual low molecular weight phenolics associated to macromolecules. The scarce information available about NEPs shows that these compounds possess interesting biological activities. That is why the interest about the study of these compounds has been increasing in the last years. Furthermore, the extraction and characterization of NEPs are considered a challenge because the developed analytical methodologies present some limitations. Thus, the present literature review summarizes current knowledge of NEPs and the different methodologies for the extraction of these compounds, with a particular focus on hydrolysis treatments. Besides, this review provides information on the most recent developments in the purification, separation, identification and quantification of NEPs from plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiscale Phenomena in the Solid-Liquid Transition State of a Granular Material: Analysis, Modeling and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-21

    receiving PHDs NAME Maya Muthuswamy 1Total Number: Names of other research staff PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Sub Contractors...upper and lower bounds for the stability of a non- conservative system; and a facinating set of DEM simulations and photoelastic experiments. The

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer during Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of n-Alkanes in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Rune

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this project has been to study heat and mass transfer during solid-liquid phase transition of n-alkanes in the in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} range. Phase transitions of both mixtures and pure components have been investigated. All experiments and simulations have been performed without any convection. Thermal conductivities have been determined at the melting point for solid and liquid unbranched alkanes ranging from C{sub 16} to C{sub 19}. An assessment of the error of the method has been performed. The measurements of solid conductivities are in accordance with measurements reported previously and confirm the applicability of the method. Liquid conductivities are higher than extrapolated values from the literature. The enhanced conductivity is believed to be caused by structural changes close to the melting point which is not taken into account when extrapolating values from the literature. Experiments have been performed for the purpose of investigating the freezing of mixtures of n-alkanes in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 19} range. The positions of the solid-liquid interfaces have been measured as freezing occurred. Calculations of the ratio of liquid and solid conductivities show that the solid structure of mixtures of the investigated n-alkanes is predominantly in a rotator structure at the temperatures investigated. There are indications of a transformation into an orthorhombic structure at lower temperatures. The temperatures on the solid-liquid interface have been measured, and compared with calculated values from chapter 4. The temperature of the interface is represented better by the measured interfacial temperatures than by the calculated interfacial temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion of heat is the limiting mechanism of phase transition. This result in a homogeneous liquid composition. A numerical model has been developed in order to simulate the experimental freezing of mixtures. The model represents the results

  2. Preliminary thermal analysis of grids for twin source extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ravi; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun K.

    2017-01-01

    The TWIN (Two driver based Indigenously built Negative ion source) source provides a bridge between the operational single driver based negative ion source test facility, ROBIN in IPR and an ITER-type multi driver based ion source. The source is designed to be operated in CW mode with 180kW, 1MHz, 5s ON/600s OFF duty cycle and also in 5Hz modulation mode with 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle for 3 such cycle. TWIN source comprises of ion source sub-assembly (consist of driver and plasma box) and extraction system sub-assembly. Extraction system consists of Plasma grid (PG), extraction grid (EG) and Ground grid (GG) sub assembly. Negative ion beams produced at plasma grid seeing the plasma side of ion source will receive moderate heat flux whereas the extraction grid and ground grid would be receiving majority of heat flux from extracted negative ion and co-extracted electron beams. Entire Co-extracted electron beam would be dumped at extraction grid via electron deflection magnetic field making the requirement of thermal and hydraulic design for extraction grid to be critical. All the three grids are made of OFHC Copper and would be actively water cooled keeping the peak temperature rise of grid surface within allowable limit with optimum uniformity. All the grids are to be made by vacuum brazing process where joint strength becomes crucial at elevated temperature. Hydraulic design must maintain the peak temperature at the brazing joint within acceptable limit

  3. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  4. Optimization Extracting Technology of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. Saponins by Ultrasonic and Determination of Saponins Content in Samples with Different Source

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Wang; Qingwei Wei; Xinqiang Zhu; Chunmei Wang; Yonggang Wang; Peng Lin; Lin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Extraction process was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiment (L9 (34)). Moreover, the content determination was studied in methodology. The optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions were: ethanol concentration of 75%, ultrasonic power of 420 w, the solid-liquid ratio of 1:15, extraction duration of 45 min, extraction temperature of 90°C and extraction for 2 times. Saponins content in Guazhou samples was significantly higher than those in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia. Meanwhile, G...

  5. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gentiana scabra bge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yuewei; Song, Haiyan; Zhou, Hongli; Zhong, Fangli; Hu, Haobin; Feng, Yu

    2016-12-01

    In this study, optimization of smashing tissue extraction (STE), preliminary chemical characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from Gentiana scabra bge (G. scabra) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: sample particle size of 80mesh, solid/liquid ratio of 1:34, extraction voltage of 157.09V and extraction time of 130.38s. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS had reached 15.03±0.14% (n=3). Chemical composition analysis indicated CPS was mainly composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glcose, galactose, arabinose and fucose in a molar ratio of 1.00:9.89:51.59:35.37:38.06:99.13:21.34, respectively. The average molecular weight of CPS was estimated to be 3.8×10 4 Da. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of CPS extracted by STE were demonstrated by DPPH radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Overall, this study provided an effective extraction technique for G. scabra polysaccharides which would be explored as a promising natural antioxidant agent applied in functional foods or medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%; solid-liquid ratio, 1 : 20; number of extractions, 2 times; extraction time, 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid was 6.13±0.58 and 1.32±0.17 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that high amounts of phenolic compounds can be extracted from I. helenium by ultrasound-assisted extraction technology.

  7. Comparative analysis of protocols for DNA extraction from soybean caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J; Valmorbida, I; da Costa, I F D; Guedes, J V C

    2016-04-07

    Genomic DNA extraction is crucial for molecular research, including diagnostic and genome characterization of different organisms. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze protocols of DNA extraction based on cell lysis by sarcosyl, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, and to determine the most efficient method applicable to soybean caterpillars. DNA was extracted from specimens of Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania using the aforementioned three methods. DNA quantification was performed using spectrophotometry and high molecular weight DNA ladders. The purity of the extracted DNA was determined by calculating the A260/A280 ratio. Cost and time for each DNA extraction method were estimated and analyzed statistically. The amount of DNA extracted by these three methods was sufficient for PCR amplification. The sarcosyl method yielded DNA of higher purity, because it generated a clearer pellet without viscosity, and yielded high quality amplification products of the COI gene I. The sarcosyl method showed lower cost per extraction and did not differ from the other methods with respect to preparation times. Cell lysis by sarcosyl represents the best method for DNA extraction in terms of yield, quality, and cost effectiveness.

  8. Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil | Shivani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, extraction of Jatropha oil from seeds was optimized using organic solvents. The effects of parameters on the oil extraction namely type of organic solvents and different techniques were also investigated to optimize the processing conditions for achieving maximum oil yield. The acid value and antioxidant ...

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Santos, Joao L.M. [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C., E-mail: limajlfc@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Zagatto, Elias A.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 96, Piracicaba 13400-970 (Brazil)

    2009-10-12

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  10. GC-MS Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ogundare adebola

    dried and crushed into smaller pieces using mortar and pestle. The plant was weighed and extracted using serial exhaustive extraction method by moving from a non-polar (hexane) solvent to a medium polar solvent (ethyl acetate) and then to a polar solvent. (methanol). Phytochemical screening: Preliminary phytochemical.

  11. Microanalytical techniques applied to phase identification and measurement of solute redistribution at the solid/liquid interface of frozen Fe-4.3Ni doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Faryna, M; Okane, T

    2002-01-01

    A Fe-4.3M alloy has been solidified directionally by using the Bridgman system. The solidification conditions were chosen to obtain an oriented cellular structure of delta-ferrite. These are: a positive temperature gradient of about 60 K/cm and a growth rate of 6.6 mu m/s. A change in these conditions can lead either to the formation of austenite or to the competitive growth of delta-ferrite/gamma-austenite. The solid/liquid interface of delta-ferrite cells has been frozen and double instability has been revealed at the tip of the cells. The instability is described as the first harmonic wave of fundamental undulation, which appeared at the formerly planar solid/liquid interface. This means that a doublet structure is formed only with the imposed specific conditions of solidification. The Ni-solute redistribution after back-diffusion has been measured across the delta-ferrite doublet. Results of energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) measurements on the distribution of Ni and Fe correspond well to the theoretical pred...

  12. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Solid-Liquid Interface Thermal Resistance Affects the Evaporation Rate of Droplets from a Surface: A Study of Perfluorohexane on Chromium Using Molecular Dynamics and Continuum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoxue; Schlawitschek, Christiane; Katyal, Naman; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2017-05-30

    We study the role of solid-liquid interface thermal resistance (Kapitza resistance) on the evaporation rate of droplets on a heated surface by using a multiscale combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical continuum theory. We parametrize the nonbonded interaction potential between perfluorohexane (C 6 F 14 ) and a face-centered-cubic solid surface to reproduce the experimental wetting behavior of C 6 F 14 on black chromium through the solid-liquid work of adhesion (quantity directly related to the wetting angle). The thermal conductances between C 6 F 14 and (100) and (111) solid substrates are evaluated by a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics approach for a liquid pressure lower than 2 MPa. Finally, we examine the influence of the Kapitza resistance on evaporation of droplets in the vicinity of a three-phase contact line with continuum theory, where the thermal resistance of liquid layer is comparable with the Kapitza resistance. We determine the thermodynamic conditions under which the Kapitza resistance plays an important role in correctly predicting the evaporation heat flux.

  14. Extraction of trapped gases in ice cores for isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, M.; Bourg, C.; Francey, R.; Wahlen, M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ice cores for paleoclimatic investigations is discussed in terms of their application for dating, temperature indication, spatial time marker synchronization, trace gas fluxes, solar variability indication and changes in the Dole effect. The different existing techniques for the extraction of gases from ice cores are discussed. These techniques, all to be carried out under vacuum, are melt-extraction, dry-extraction methods and the sublimation technique. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods are listed. An extensive list of references is provided for further detailed information. (author)

  15. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  16. The decision to extract: part II. Analysis of clinicians' stated reasons for extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L; Maxwell, R

    1996-04-01

    In a recently reported study, the pretreatment records of each subject in a randomized clinical trial of 148 patients with Class I and Class II malocclusions presenting for orthodontic treatment were evaluated independently by five experienced clinicians (drawn from a panel of 14). The clinicians displayed a higher incidence of agreement with each other than had been expected with respect to the decision as to whether extraction was indicated in each specific case. To improve our understanding of how clinicians made their decisions on whether to extract or not, the records of a subset of 72 subjects randomly selected from the full sample of 148, have now been examined in greater detail. In 21 of these cases, all five clinicians decided to treat without extraction. Among the remaining 51 cases, there were 202 decisions to extract (31 unanimous decision cases and 20 split decision cases). The clinicians cited a total of 469 reasons to support these decisions. Crowding was cited as the first reason in 49% of decisions to extract, followed by incisor protrusion (14%), need for profile correction (8%), Class II severity (5%), and achievement of a stable result (5%). When all the reasons for extraction in each clinician's decision were considered as a group, crowding was cited in 73% of decisions, incisor protrusion in 35%, need for profile correction in 27%, Class II severity in 15% and posttreatment stability in 9%. Tooth size anomalies, midline deviations, reduced growth potential, severity of overjet, maintenance of existing profile, desire to close the bite, periodontal problems, and anticipation of poor cooperation accounted collectively for 12% of the first reasons and were mentioned in 54% of the decisions, implying that these considerations play a consequential, if secondary, role in the decision-making process. All other reasons taken together were mentioned in fewer than 20% of cases. In this sample at least, clinicians focused heavily on appearance

  17. Landslide stability analysis on basis of LIDAR data extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas M.; Dong, Mei; Azzam, Rafig

    2010-05-01

    important role during surface construction for further more precise analysis purpose. 3D geological model can be built based on the connection between surface model and geological data like borehole data in GOCAD. Regarding the bench stability analysis, LEM (Limit Equilibrium Method) analysis using Janbu and FEM (Finite Element Method) have been adopted during this analyzing task. A program was developed to convert GOCAD 2D section data directly into the FEM software. The meshed model is then used for stability analysis. In one quarry, 3 cross sections have been extracted on basis of LIDAR original data (original 3 cross sections). To evaluate the advantages of LIDAR data for slope analysis, the results of safety factor (SF) were compared to simplified slope models as they are used normally. The comparison showed that variations of the SF reach up to 9%. Additionally, conservative evaluation demonstrated by SF results based on simplified model is not adaptive for decision making of filling.

  18. Anthocyanin extractability assesment of grape skins by texture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rolle

    2008-09-01

    Significance and impact of study: The possibility of having an easy way to determine maturity index able to estimate the extractability of phenol compounds with sufficient reliability, can be a valuable tool for the enological community.

  19. Extraction and analysis of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMONDI-GUYA

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... spectrophotometer (Model JENWAY6705, multi-cell changer) against a blank ... All the tea seed oil extracts were golden yellow in color and liquid at .... respectively, the two being products of oxidative rancidity. (Chindo et al.

  20. Analysis of human muscle extracts by proton NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Barany, M.; Arus, C.

    1986-01-01

    Perchloric acid extracts were prepared from pooled human muscle biopsies from patients diagnosed with scoliosis (SCOL) and cerebral palsy (CP). After neutralization with KOH and removal of perchlorate, the extracts were concentrated by freeze drying and dissolved in 2 H 2 O to contain 120 O.D. units at 280 nm per 0.5 ml. 1 H NMR spectroscopy was performed with the 5 mm probe of a Varian XL300 instrument. Creatine, lactate, carnosine, and choline were the major resonances in the one-dimensional spectra of both extracts. With creatine as reference, 2.5-fold more lactate was found in SCOL than in CP, and a much smaller difference was also found in their carnosine content. Two-dimensional COSY comparison revealed several differences between the two extracts. Taurine, N-acetyl glutamate, glycerophosphoryl choline (or phosphoryl choline) and an unidentified spot were present only in the extract from SCOL but not in that from CP. On the other hand, aspartate, hydroxy-proline, carnitine and glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine were only present in CP but absent in SCOL. Alanine, cysteine, lysine and arginine appeared in both extracts without an apparent intensity difference

  1. Analysis of solvent extracts from coal liquefaction in a flowing solvent reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Ke-Chang [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, No. 79 Yingze West Street, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kandiyoti, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College, University of London, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-15

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents, tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) at two temperatures 350 and 450 C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. The three solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilise free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. The extracts were prepared in a flowing solvent reactor to minimise secondary thermal degradation of the primary extracts. Analysis of the pentane-insoluble fractions of the extracts was achieved by size exclusion chromatography, UV-fluorescence spectroscopy in NMP solvent and probe mass. With increasing extraction temperature, the ratio of the amount having big molecular weight to that having small molecular weight in tetralin extracts was increased; the tetralin extract yield increased from 12.8% to 75.9%; in quinoline, increasing extraction temperature did not have an effect on the molecular weight of products but there was a big increase in extract yield. The extracts in NMP showed the enhanced solvent extraction power at both temperatures, with a shift in the ratio of larger molecules to smaller molecules with increasing extraction temperature and with the highest conversion of Point of Ayr coal among these three solvents at both temperatures. Solvent adducts were detected in the tetralin and quinoline extracts by probe mass spectrometry; solvent products were formed from NMP at both temperatures.

  2. Extraction of intracellular protein from Glaciozyma antarctica for proteomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizura, S. Nor; Farahayu, K.; Faizal, A. B. Mohd; Asmahani, A. A. S.; Amir, R.; Nazalan, N.; Diba, A. B. Farah; Muhammad, M. Nor; Munir, A. M. Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Two preparation methods of crude extracts of psychrophilic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica were compared in order to obtain a good recovery of intracellular proteins. Extraction with mechanical procedures using sonication was found to be more effective for obtaining good yield compare to alkaline treatment method. The procedure is simple, rapid, and produce better yield. A total of 52 proteins were identified by combining both extraction methods. Most of the proteins identified in this study involves in the metabolic process including glycolysis pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, pyruyate decarboxylation and also urea cyle. Several chaperons were identified including probable cpr1-cyclophilin (peptidylprolyl isomerase), macrolide-binding protein fkbp12 and heat shock proteins which were postulate to accelerate proper protein folding. Characteristic of the fundamental cellular processes inferred from the expressed-proteome highlight the evolutionary and functional complexity existing in this domain of life.

  3. Solid-phase extraction versus matrix solid-phase dispersion: Application to white grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Jagodziñska, A; Klepczyñska, J; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-11-15

    The use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was tested to, separately, extract phenolic compounds and organic acids from white grapes. This method was compared with a more conventional analytical method previously developed that combines solid liquid extraction (SL) to simultaneously extract phenolic compounds and organic acids followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate the two types of compounds. Although the results were qualitatively similar for both techniques, the levels of extracted compounds were in general quite lower on using MSPD, especially for organic acids. Therefore, SL-SPE method was preferred to analyse white "Vinho Verde" grapes. Twenty samples of 10 different varieties (Alvarinho, Avesso, Asal-Branco, Batoca, Douradinha, Esganoso de Castelo Paiva, Loureiro, Pedernã, Rabigato and Trajadura) from four different locations in Minho (Portugal) were analysed in order to study the effects of variety and origin on the profile of the above mentioned compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied separately to establish the main sources of variability present in the data sets for phenolic compounds, organic acids and for the global data. PCA of phenolic compounds accounted for the highest variability (77.9%) with two PCs, enabling characterization of the varieties of samples according to their higher content in flavonol derivatives or epicatechin. Additionally, a strong effect of sample origin was observed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was used for differentiation of grapes according to the origin and variety, resulting in a correct classification of 100 and 70%, respectively.

  4. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn S. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa repens were collected, taxonomically identified and extracts prepared. Effects of the extracts on cell viability were quantitated in prostate cell lines using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay. Combinations of two botanical extracts of the four most active extracts were tested in the 22Rv1 cell line and their interactions assessed using isobolographic analysis. Each extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner except repens. The most active extracts, baicalensis, D. morifolium, G. uralensis and R. rubescens were tested as two-extract combinations. baicalensis and D. morifolium when combined were additive with a trend toward synergy, whereas D. morifolium and R. rubescens together were additive. The remaining two-extract combinations showed antagonism. The four extracts together were significantly more effective than the two-by-two combinations and the individual extracts alone. Combining the four herbal extracts significantly enhanced their activity in the cell lines tested compared with extracts alone. The less predictable nature of the two-way combinations suggests a need for careful characterization of the effects of each individual herb based on their intended use.

  5. Chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study analyzes the chemical composition of ethanol root extracts of Maesa perlaria var. formosana by .... obtained over a scanning range of 50 to 550 amu at 2 scans/s. .... 142.53 (2,2,6-Trimethyl-bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1-yl)-methanol.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Tenofovir by Titrimetric, Extractive Ion-pair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Tenofovir disoproxil forms a complex of 1:1 molar ratio with fumaric acid that was employed in its aqueous titration with sodium hydroxide. Non-aqueous titration was also employed for its determination. Extractive ion-pair spectrophotometric technique using methyl orange was similarly employed to evaluate ...

  7. Physicochemical Analysis of the Aqueous Extracts of Six Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Extracts of Picralima nitida seeds, Detarium microcarpum stem bark, Aframomum melagueta seeds, Terminalia catappa leaves, Acacia nilotica pods, and Morinda lucida stem bark, are under consideration for development into suitable dosage forms for treating diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia and malaria.

  8. IN SITU SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of 1-L samples. A 1-L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition.We have developed an on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-s

  9. Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... a mechanical method and defatted in a soxhlet apparatus. The extraction was carried out by using three different solvents such as hexane, isopropanol and petroleum ether. The process continued for 6 h. Solvent was removed by vacuum evaporation and exposure to heat in a drying oven at 50°C. The ...

  10. Analysis of vapor extraction data from applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, D.; Gudemann, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses vapor extraction, an in-situ process to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC) from soils of the vadose zone, applied in Europe since the early 1980s. In a vapor extraction well a negative differential pressure is created by a blower or similar device. The differential pressure generates a steady flow of soil gas towards the extraction well and thus provides a flushing of the soil with air undersaturated in respect to the contaminant concentration. Contaminants will evaporate into the gaseous phase both form the liquid phase and form the soil. Differential pressures applied range from 15 inches - 350 inches of water. The contaminated discharge air can be treated by activated carbon or other suitable methods. The effective radius of vapor extraction systems (VES) ranges typically form 20 feet to 150 feet underneath non-sealed - and up to 300 feet underneath sealed surfaces. Contamination from volatile organic compounds (VOC) have turned out to be widespread due to their almost ubiquitous presence in industrial processes. Specifically, VOC include halogenated hydrocarbons like TCE, PCE or TCA, aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, xylene and volatile fuels like gasoline

  11. Comparative analysis of extracted heights from topographic maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic maps represent the three-dimensional landscape by providing relief information in the form of contours in addition to plan information on which natural and man-made landmarks are quite accurately represented. Height information, extractible from topographic maps, comes in handy for most land use planning.

  12. Phytochemical Analysis And Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluko B. T.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD. Collection and identification of .... ition o f h yd rogen p eroxid e rad ical. Concentraion µg / ml. EXTRACT. BHT. 0. 0.2. 0.4. 0.6. 0.8. 1. 0 .... activity of commercial soft and hard wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected ...

  13. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material. Extraction and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, F A; Barrett, F C

    1967-09-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol-water-aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether-formic acid-2-methylpropan-2-ol-water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5'-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract simulating that

  14. Effect of ageing on the gastro-intestinal transit of a lactulose-supplemented mixed solid-liquid meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M; Börsch, G; Schaffstein, J; Lüth, I; Rickels, R; Ricken, D

    1988-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal transit of a mixed solid-liquid meal containing wheat bread, scrambled eggs, coffee labelled with 99mTc, orange juice with lactulose and indigocarmine was evaluated in 21 young control (mean age 33.5 years) and 25 elderly subjects (mean age 81.7 years) without gastrointestinal complaints or severe medical illness. The rate of gastric emptying was determined by an anterior gamma camera technique, mouth-to-caecum transit by the hydrogen breath test and whole-gut transit by the first stool passage of indigocarmine. Gastric emptying was significantly prolonged in older subjects: t1/2 = 136 +/- (SEM) 13 versus 81 +/- 4 min; p less than 0.001. Concerning mouth-to-caecum or whole-gut transit time, significant differences between the two study groups were not detected.

  15. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 3: miscellany of radionuclides (Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, I, Se, Sb, Pu, Am, and others)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Garcia, C.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.

    2009-01-01

    New best estimates for the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) for a set of radionuclides are proposed, based on a selective data search and subsequent calculation of geometric means. The K d best estimates are calculated for soils grouped according to the texture and organic matter content. For a limited number of radionuclides this is extended to consider soil cofactors affecting soil-radionuclide interaction, such as pH, organic matter content, and radionuclide chemical speciation. Correlations between main soil properties and radionuclide K d are examined to complete the information derived from the best estimates with a rough prediction of K d based on soil parameters. Although there are still gaps for many radionuclides, new data from recent studies improve the calculation of K d best estimates for a number of radionuclides, such as selenium, antimony, and iodine.

  16. THE PROCESS OF MASS TRANSFER ON THE SOLID-LIQUID BOUNDARY LAYER DURING THE RELEASE OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE FROM TABLETS IN A PADDLE APPARATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina; Zimmer, Lukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The release study of diclofenac sodium (DIC) and papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from two formulations of the tablets in the paddle apparatus using different rotation speeds to characterize the process of mass transfer on the solid-liquid boundary layer was carried out. The dissolution process of active substances was described by values of mass transfer coefficients, the diffusion boundary layer thickness and dimensionless numbers (Sh and Re). The values of calculated parameters showed that the release of DIC and PAP from tablets comprising potato starch proceeded faster than from tablets containing HPMC and microcrystalline cellulose. They were obtained by direct dependencies between Sh and Re in the range from 75 rpm to 125 rpm for both substances from all tablets. The description of the dissolution process with the dimensionless numbers make it possible to plan the drug with the required release profile under given in vitro conditions.

  17. Numerical investigation of solid-liquid two phase flow in a non-clogging centrifugal pump at off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, B J; Chen, H L; Hou, D H; Huang, Z F

    2012-01-01

    The solid-liquid two-phase flow fields in the non-clogging centrifugal pump with a double-channel impeller have been investigated numerically for the design condition and also off-design conditions, in order to study the solid-liquid two-phase flow pattern and non-clogging mechanism in non-clogging centrifugal pumps. The main conclusions include: The sand volume fraction distribution is extremely inhomogeneous in the whole flow channel of the pump at off-design conditions. In the impeller, particles mainly flow along the pressure surface and hub; In the volute, particles mainly accumulate in the region near to the exit of volute, the largest sand volume fraction is observed at the tongue, and a large number of particles collide with volute wall and exit the volute after circling around the volute for several times. When the particle diameter increases, particles tend to accumulate on the pressure side of the impeller, and more particles crash with the pressure side of the blade. And larger sand volume fraction gratitude is also observed in the whole flow channel of the pump. With the decrease of the inlet sand volume fraction, particles tend to accumulate on the suction side of the blade. Compared with the particle diameter, the inlet sand volume fraction has less influence on the sand volume fraction gratitude in the whole channel of the pump. At the large flow rate, the minimum and maximum sand volume fraction in the whole flow channel of the model pump tends to be smaller than that at the small flow rate. Thus, it is concluded that the water transportation capacity increases with the flow rate. This research will strengthen people's understanding of the multiphase flow pattern in non-clogging centrifugal pumps, thus provides a theoretical basis for the optimal design of non-clogging centrifugal pumps.

  18. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    J Živković; I Mujić; G Nikolić; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  19. Conformational analysis of amide extractants by NMR in organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, C.

    1993-08-01

    This study deals with nuclear fuel reprocessing. We have essentially used NMR spectroscopy. We want to understand which kind of conformational parameters control selectivity and efficiency of amide extractant. The symmetric monoamides used are DOBA (C 3 H 7 CON (CH 2 CH(C 2 H 5 ) C 4 H 9 ) 2 ), DOiBA ((CH 3 ) 2 CCHON (CH 2 CH(C 2 H 5 )C 4 H 9 ) 2 ) and DOTA ((CH 3 ) 3 CCH 2 CON(CH 2 CH(C 2 H 5 )C 4 H 9 ) 2 ). Each gives two quasi equivalent conformers (cis and trans) in organic phases. The selected malonamide DMDBTDMA ((C 4 H 9 (CH 3 )NCO) 2 CHC 14 H 29 ) has four conformers because of its twice disymmetric amide functions. Weak interactions between monoamides which yield to dimer formation. The malonamide also gives dimers but forms aggregates too. Nitric acid extraction is due to the competitive formation of six species L, L 2 , L 2 (HNO 3 ), L(HNO 3 ), L(HNO 3 ) 2 , L(HNO 3 ) 3 (L: monoamide). Complexation between lanthanides (III) and monoamides yields to the stoichiometries L 3 Ln(NO 3 ) 3 and L 2 Ln(NO 3 ) 3 . Their ratio depend of steric hindrance on the carbonyl and the metal ionic radius. The same thing is observed of Pu 4+ and Th 4+ extraction in non acidic media. L 2 An(NO 3 ) 4 is the main stoichiometric except for the Th 4+ - DOBA system where the species (DOBA) 3 Th(NO 3 ) 4 appear. Exchange rates between the ligand and the complex are pointed out. The monoamide conformations obtained with lanthanide and plutonium nitrate can explain the difference in extracting power of this molecule between An 4+ and Ln 3+ . (author). 162 refs., 87 figs., 44 tabs., 7 annexes

  20. Analysis of Extracting Prior BRDF from MODIS BRDF Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Zhang; Ziti Jiao; Yadong Dong; Peng Du; Yang Li; Yi Lian; Tiejun Cui

    2016-01-01

    Many previous studies have attempted to extract prior reflectance anisotropy knowledge from the historical MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product based on land cover or Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. In this study, the feasibility of the method is discussed based on MODIS data and archetypal BRDFs. The BRDF is simplified into six archetypal BRDFs that represent different reflectance anisotropies. Five-year time series of MODIS BRDF data over ...

  1. Evaluation of sample extraction methods for proteomics analysis of green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-05-01

    Many protein extraction methods have been developed for plant proteome analysis but information is limited on the optimal protein extraction method from algae species. This study evaluated four protein extraction methods, i.e. direct lysis buffer method, TCA-acetone method, phenol method, and phenol/TCA-acetone method, using green algae Chlorella vulgaris for proteome analysis. The data presented showed that phenol/TCA-acetone method was superior to the other three tested methods with regards to shotgun proteomics. Proteins identified using shotgun proteomics were validated using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) technique. Additionally, SWATH provides protein quantitation information from different methods and protein abundance using different protein extraction methods was evaluated. These results highlight the importance of green algae protein extraction method for subsequent MS analysis and identification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  3. Cluster Analysis of Customer Reviews Extracted from Web Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shivashankar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As e-commerce is gaining popularity day by day, the web has become an excellent source for gathering customer reviews / opinions by the market researchers. The number of customer reviews that a product receives is growing at very fast rate (It could be in hundreds or thousands. Customer reviews posted on the websites vary greatly in quality. The potential customer has to read necessarily all the reviews irrespective of their quality to make a decision on whether to purchase the product or not. In this paper, we make an attempt to assess are view based on its quality, to help the customer make a proper buying decision. The quality of customer review is assessed as most significant, more significant, significant and insignificant.A novel and effective web mining technique is proposed for assessing a customer review of a particular product based on the feature clustering techniques, namely, k-means method and fuzzy c-means method. This is performed in three steps : (1Identify review regions and extract reviews from it, (2 Extract and cluster the features of reviews by a clustering technique and then assign weights to the features belonging to each of the clusters (groups and (3 Assess the review by considering the feature weights and group belongingness. The k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering techniques are implemented and tested on customer reviews extracted from web pages. Performance of these techniques are analyzed.

  4. Impact of Strontium Nitrate and Sodium Permanganate Addition on Solid-Liquid Separation of SRS High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    As a pretreatment step for the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet, the process contacts the incoming salt solution containing entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and actinides. An operation filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. Previous work for the River Protection Program at Hanford suggests that addition of strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate for strontium and actinide removal, rather than MST, improves the filtration rate for comparable waste streams

  5. Analysis of the servo-spill control for slow beam extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of servo-spill control system for the slow beam extraction from the KEK PS. Transfer function of extraction process is derived from measurement of the closed-loop characteristic using measured frequency response of each equipment. Result indicates the restriction of the present servo-spill control and give a guide line for the improvement. (author)

  6. Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Noncovalent Protein Complexes Directly from Dried Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Griffiths, Rian L.; Edwards, Rebecca L.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is a promising tool for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates. Here, we demonstrate native LESA mass spectrometry of noncovalent protein complexes of myoglobin and hemoglobin from a range of surfaces. Holomyoglobin, in which apomyoglobin is noncovalently bound to the prosthetic heme group, was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of myoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride surfaces. Tetrameric hemoglobin [(αβ)2 4H] was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of hemoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surfaces, and from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Heme-bound dimers and monomers were also observed. The `contact' LESA approach was particularly suitable for the analysis of hemoglobin tetramers from DBS.

  7. MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR TRACE ANALYSIS OF DIAZINON IN DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahiminejad ، S. J. Shahtaheri ، M. R. Ganjali ، A. Rahimi Forushani ، F. Golbabaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amongst organophosphate pesticides, the one most widely used and common environmental contaminant is diazinon; thus methods for its trace analysis in environmental samples must be developed. Use of diazinon imprinted polymers such as sorbents in solid phase extraction, is a prominent and novel application area of molecular imprinted polymers. For diazinon extraction, high performance liquid chromatography analysis was demonstrated in this study. During optimization of the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure for efficient solid phase extraction of diazinon, Plackett-Burman design was conducted. Eight experimental factors with critical influence on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction performance were selected, and 12 different experimental runs based on Plackett-Burman design were carried out. The applicability of diazinon imprinted polymers as the sorbent in solid phase extraction, presented obtained good recoveries of diazinon from LC-grade water. An increase in pH caused an increase in the recovery on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction. From these results, the optimal molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure was as follows: solid phase extraction packing with 100 mg diazinon imprinted polymers; conditioning with 5 mL of methanol and 6 mL of LC-grade water; sample loading containing diazinon (pH=10; washing with 1 mL of LC-grade water, 1 mL LC- grade water containing 30% acetonitrile and 0.5 mL of acetonitrile, respectively; eluting with 1 mL of methanol containing 2% acetic acid. The percentage recoveries obtained by the optimized molecular imprinted solid phase extraction were more than 90% with drinking water spiked at different trace levels of diazinon. Generally speaking, the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure and subsequent high performance liquid chromatography analysis can be a relatively fast and proper approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diazinon in

  8. Optimization of a flow injection analysis system for multiple solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, T.M.; Shelly, D.C.; Warner, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a multistage flow injection analysis solvent extraction system has been optimized. The effect of solvent segmentation devices, extraction coils, and phase separators on performance characteristics is discussed. Theoretical consideration is given to the effects and determination of dispersion and the extraction dynamics within both glass and Teflon extraction coils. The optimized system has a sample recovery similar to an identical manual procedure and a 1.5% relative standard deviation between injections. Sample throughput time is under 5 min. These characteristics represent significant improvements over the performance of the same system before optimization. 6 figures, 2 tables

  9. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  10. Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts for their antibacterial and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahubban, M; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q; Fakurazi, S; Zakry, F A

    2013-09-01

    Leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform to assess their potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the methanolic extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus leaves gave the highest amounts of andrographolide and rosmarinic acid, respectively. These leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and, at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL), showed greater inhibitory effects against the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus than 10% acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata and O. stamineus methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts also showed the strongest antioxidant activity as compared with the other extracts tested. The bioactive compounds present in these leaf extracts have the potential to be developed into natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents that may have applications in animal and human health.

  11. Feature Extraction and Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some greater extent.

  12. Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath M. Vega Gutierrez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones.

  13. Alkaline Extraction of DNA from Pathogenic Fungi for PCR-RFLP Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Mishima, Shinobu; Matsuyama, Nobuaki; 松元, 賢; 松山, 宣明

    1997-01-01

    For the preparation of DNA samples from fungal mycelia alkaline extraction method was applied and assessed its usefulness for PCR-RFLP analysis. Using alkaline treatment protocols, 18S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA) derived from fungal genomic DNA of Pyricularia oryzae, P. zingiberi, Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae were PCR-amplified and digested with Hha I, Msp I and Hae ill. RFLP analysis with HhaI showed the divergent polymorphism between genus Pyricularia and Rhizoctonia. The alkaline DNA extract...

  14. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2009-01-01

    of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface....

  15. A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Kinga; Woods, Peter H.

    1990-07-01

    A method has been developed to extract soil water for determination of deuterium (D) and 18O content. The principle of this method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1°C, but are completely immiscible at ambient temperature. In a specially designed distillation apparatus, the soil water is distilled at 84.1°C with toluene and is separated quantitatively in the collecting funnel at ambient temperature. Traces of toluene are removed and the sample can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Kerosene may be substituted for toluene. The accuracy of this technique is ± 2 and ± 0.2‰, respectively, for δD and δ 18O. Reduced accuracy is obtained at low water contents.

  16. Techniques to extract physical modes in model-independent analysis of rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-X.

    2004-01-01

    A basic goal of Model-Independent Analysis is to extract the physical modes underlying the beam histories collected at a large number of beam position monitors so that beam dynamics and machine properties can be deduced independent of specific machine models. Here we discuss techniques to achieve this goal, especially the Principal Component Analysis and the Independent Component Analysis.

  17. Extraction optimization and pixel-based chemometric analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter; Tomasi, Giorgio; Kristensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we tested the combination of solid phase extraction (SPE) with dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME), or with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), as an extraction method for semi-VOCs in groundwater. Combining SPE with DLLME or SBSE resulted in better separation of peaks...... in an unresolved complex mixture. SPE-DLLME was chosen as the preferred extraction method. SPE-DLLME covered a larger polarity range (logKo/w 2.0-11.2), had higher extraction efficiency at logKo/w 2.0-3.8 and 5.8-11.2, and was faster compared to SPE-SBSE. SPE-DLLME extraction combined with chemical analysis by gas...... chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pixel-based data analysis of summed extraction ion chromatograms (sEICs) was tested as a new method for chemical fingerprinting of semi-VOCs in 15 groundwater samples. The results demonstrate that SPE-DLLME-GC-MS provides an excellent compromise between compound...

  18. Optimization of the cooling circuit and thermo-mechanical analysis for the extraction grid of ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, R.; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Froeschle, M.; Riedl, R.

    2011-01-01

    The NNBI test facility ELISE ('Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment'), presently under construction at IPP, will have an extraction area with the same width and half the height of the ITER source, acceleration up to 60 kV, for 10 s, every 180 s, and plasma generation up to 1 h. Electrons are co-extracted from the ion source. Suppression magnets in the extraction grid deflect the electrons onto the extraction grid surface. For 30 mA/cm 2 extracted electron current density and 10 kV extraction voltage, localized power density is in the order of 39 MW/m 2 near the grid apertures and a total heat load of 150 kW is deposited onto each extraction grid segment. Heat removal is provided by a water circuit inside the grid. For ELISE, a new cooling circuit has been developed to provide a more reliable operation. The optimization of the cooling circuit and the thermo-mechanical analysis of the extraction grid of ELISE, considering maximum grid temperature, mechanical stresses and grid deformation, has been performed using the codes KOBRA3, TrajAn, the ANSYS finite element package and the fluid dynamics code CFX.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  20. EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM [Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah K Darusman3

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated.This research consisted of two steps: (1 extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2 analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis.Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v was applied.Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v.

  1. Lipids and Fatty Acids in Algae: Extraction, Fractionation into Lipid Classes, and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of biochemical studies exploring algal lipids and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and profiles, analytical methods used by phycologists for this purpose are often diverse and incompletely described. Potential confusion and potential variability of the results between studies can therefore occur due to change of protocols for lipid extraction and fractionation, as well as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) preparation before gas chromatography (GC) analyses. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure for the profiling of neutral and polar lipids using techniques such as solid-liquid extraction (SLE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). As an example, in this protocol chapter, analyses of neutral and polar lipids from the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri (an EPA/DHA-rich haptophyte) will be outlined to describe the distribution of fatty acid residues within its major lipid classes. This method has been proven to be a reliable technique to assess changes in lipid and fatty acid profiles in several other microalgal species and seaweeds.

  2. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.S.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. PSVE takes advantage of the naturally occurring tendency of soil vapor to leave the subsurface during periods of low barometric pressure. PSVE seeks to expedite the release of volatile contaminants through the use of boreholes and technological enhancements. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of PSVE to the remediation problems they face. The report provides: stakeholders' final evaluation of the acceptability of PSVE in light of the technology's field test; stakeholders' principal comments concerning PSVE; requirements that stakeholders have of any remediation technology. Technology decision makers should take these conclusions into account in evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of any remedial method proposed for their site. In addition, the report presents data requirements for the technology's field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on PSVE from stakeholders from Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  3. Analysis of synchronized charge extraction for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Lihua; Yang, Yaowen

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, various power conditioning circuits have been proposed to improve the efficiency of piezoelectric energy harvesting, among which the synchronized charge extraction (SCE) technique has been enthusiastically pursued. In the literature, the SCE technique is investigated based on the uncoupled or in-phase assumptions. The uncoupled assumption is only valid for weak electromechanical coupling and the in-phase assumption is not applicable for energy harvesting at off-resonance. In this paper, we derive an accurate analytical solution for the piezoelectric energy harvesting systems with the SCE technique. Based on this solution, we investigate the applicability of the SCE technique for different cases, i.e. the piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) with various degrees of electromechanical coupling and the PEH excited at various frequencies. Circuit simulation is also conducted with an accurate circuit model derived for PEHs and the results validate the analytical outcomes. Both the accurate analytical solution and the circuit simulation show that the SCE technique cannot improve or even reduces the power output at resonance if the coupling of the PEH is not negligible. The SCE technique is found capable of significantly boosting the efficiency of energy harvesting only for the PEH vibrating at off-resonance frequencies or with weak coupling

  4. Phytochemical analysis and gastroprotective activity of an olive leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA ARSIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Some medicinal features of olive leaf have been known for centuries. It has been traditionally used as an antimicrobial and to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and heart disease. Whether olive leaf, a natural antioxidant, influences the gastric defense mechanism and exhibits gastroprotection against experimentally-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. In this study, the content of total phenols, total flavonoids and tannins in olive leaf extract (OLE were determined. Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified (oleuropein, caffeic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin, and chryseriol. Furthermore, the protective activity of the OLE in gastric mucosal injury induced by a corrosive concentration of ethanol was investigated. In relation to the control group, pretreatment with OLE (40, 80 and 120 mg kg-1 significantly (p < 0.001 attenuated the gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The protective effect of the OLE was similar to that obtained with a reference drug, ranitidine. The results obtained indicate that OLE possesses significant gastroprotective activity, and that the presence of compounds with antioxidative properties would probably explain this effect.

  5. Removal of iron interferences by solvent extraction for geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Iron is a common interferent in the determination of many elements in geochemical samples. Two approaches for its removal have been taken. The first involves removal of iron by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from hydrochloric acid medium, leaving the analytes in the aqueous phase. The second consists of reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) by ascorbic acid to minimize its extraction into MIBK, so that the analytes may be isolated by extraction. Elements of interest can then be determined using the aqueous solution or the organic extract, as appropriate. Operating factors such as the concentration of hydrochloric acid, amounts of iron present, number of extractions, the presence or absence of a salting-out agent, and the optimum ratio of ascorbic acid to iron have been determined. These factors have general applications in geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. ?? 1985.

  6. Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract drying with different carrier agent: Drying rate evaluation and color analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different carrier agents on roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa L.extract drying. Carrier agent was used for reducing stickiness of material and avoiding agglomeration as well as improving stability. The method consisted of two steps involving roselle extraction and drying process. The liquid roselle extract was mixed with carrier agent (maltodextrin-arabic gum) in various composition. The mixture was then dried at different air temperature ranging 40 - 80°C. As a response, moisture content in the extract was observed by gravimetry every 10 minutes during90 minutes. The procedurewas repeated for the drying without carrieragent. The result showed that constant rate of drying with carrier agent was higher up to l.7 times than that of without carrier agent. Based on the color analysis,roselle extract drying with carrier agent also showed reasonable quality.

  7. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction in the analysis of agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ling-Xiao; Fang, Rou; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2013-08-01

    The molecular imprinting technique is a highly predeterminative recognition technology. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be applied to the cleanup and preconcentration of analytes as the selective adsorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE). In recent years, a new type of SPE has formed, molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (MISPE), and has been widely applied to the extraction of agrochemicals. In this review, the mechanism of the molecular imprinting technique and the methodology of MIP preparations are explained. The extraction modes of MISPE, including offline and online, are discussed, and the applications of MISPE in the analysis of agrochemicals such as herbicides, fungicides and insecticides are summarized. It is concluded that MISPE is a powerful tool to selectively isolate agrochemicals from real samples with higher extraction and cleanup efficiency than commercial SPE and that it has great potential for broad applications.

  8. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  9. A novel murmur-based heart sound feature extraction technique using envelope-morphological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hao-Dong; Ma, Jia-Li; Fu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Hai-Yang; Dong, Ming-Chui

    2015-07-01

    Auscultation of heart sound (HS) signals serves as an important primary approach to diagnose cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for centuries. Confronting the intrinsic drawbacks of traditional HS auscultation, computer-aided automatic HS auscultation based on feature extraction technique has witnessed explosive development. Yet, most existing HS feature extraction methods adopt acoustic or time-frequency features which exhibit poor relationship with diagnostic information, thus restricting the performance of further interpretation and analysis. Tackling such a bottleneck problem, this paper innovatively proposes a novel murmur-based HS feature extraction method since murmurs contain massive pathological information and are regarded as the first indications of pathological occurrences of heart valves. Adapting discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and Shannon envelope, the envelope-morphological characteristics of murmurs are obtained and three features are extracted accordingly. Validated by discriminating normal HS and 5 various abnormal HS signals with extracted features, the proposed method provides an attractive candidate in automatic HS auscultation.

  10. Optimising the Use of TRIzol-extracted Proteins in Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization (SELDI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlaky Laszlo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research with clinical specimens is always hampered by the limited availability of relevant samples, necessitating the use of a single sample for multiple assays. TRIzol is a common reagent for RNA extraction, but DNA and protein fractions can also be used for other studies. However, little is known about using TRIzol-extracted proteins in proteomic research, partly because proteins extracted from TRIzol are very resistant to solubilization. Results To facilitate the use of TRIzol-extracted proteins, we first compared the ability of four different common solubilizing reagents to solubilize the TRIzol-extracted proteins from an osteosarcoma cell line, U2-OS. Then we analyzed the solubilized proteins by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization technique (SELDI. The results showed that solubilization of TRIzol-extracted proteins with 9.5 M Urea and 2% CHAPS ([3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate] (UREA-CHAPS was significantly better than the standard 1% SDS in terms of solubilization efficiency and the number of detectable ion peaks. Using three different types of SELDI arrays (CM10, H50, and IMAC-Cu, we demonstrated that peak detection with proteins solubilized by UREA-CHAPS was reproducible (r > 0.9. Further SELDI analysis indicated that the number of ion peaks detected in TRIzol-extracted proteins was comparable to a direct extraction method, suggesting many proteins still remain in the TRIzol protein fraction. Conclusion Our results suggest that UREA-CHAPS performed very well in solubilizing TRIzol-extracted proteins for SELDI applications. Protein fractions left over after TRIzol RNA extraction could be a valuable but neglected source for proteomic or biochemical analysis when additional samples are not available.

  11. Determination of organophosphate flame retardants in soil and fish using ultrasound-assisted extraction, solid-phase clean-up, and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda

    2018-03-22

    A solid-liquid extraction method in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized for extraction and analysis of organophosphorus flame retardants in soil and fish. Methanol was chosen as the optimum extraction solvent, not only in terms of extraction efficiency, but also for its broader analyte coverage. The subsequent clean-up by solid-phase extraction is required to eliminate matrix coextractives and reduce matrix effects. Recoveries of the optimized method were 50-121% for soil and 47-123% for biota, both with high precision (RSDs solid-phase extraction cartridge clogging that increase variability and analysis time. The method was successfully applied for the determination of organophosphorus flame retardants in soil and fish from L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Target compounds were detected in all soil and fish samples with values varying from 13.8 to 89.7 ng/g dry weight and from 3.3 to 53.0 ng/g wet weight, respectively. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  13. Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Solanumbetaceum Cav. Fruits from Panama by Head-Space Micro Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando A. Durant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the volatile compounds of two varieties of Solanum betaceum Cav. by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS i s presented. The HS-SPME method for extraction of the volatiles compounds was optimized by using a 2 3 central composite design. Maximum extraction of volatile compounds was achieved by using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, extraction temperature 76° C, incubation time 44 min, and extraction time of 46 min. The main types of compounds detected in both varieties are terpenoids, followed by aromatics, esters, and aldehydes. Golden-yellow cultivars contained higher levels of esters and terpenes, while the reddish-purple variety contained a significant amount of aromatic compounds. The data structure of the chemical information obtained as well as the relationship between variables was evaluated by means of principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

  14. Effects of solid/liquid phase fractionation on pH and aqueous species molality in subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X.; Galvez, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Metamorphic fluids are a crucial ingredient of geodynamic evolution, i.e. heat transfer, rock mechanics and metamorphic/metasomatic reactions. During crustal evolution at elevated P and T, rock forming components can be effectively fractionated from the reactive rock system by at least two processes: 1. extraction from porous rocks by liquid phases such as solute-bearing (e.g. Na+, Mg2+) aqueous fluids or partial melts. 2. isolation from effective bulk rock composition due to slow intragranular diffusion in high-P refractory phases such as garnet. The effect of phase fractionation (garnet, partial melt and aqueous species) on fluid - rock composition and properties remain unclear, mainly due to a high demand in quantitative computations of the thermodynamic interactions between rocks and fluids over a wide P-T range. To investigate this problem, we build our work on an approach initially introduced by Galvez et al., (2015) with new functionalities added in a MATLAB code (Rubisco). The fluxes of fractionated components in fluid, melt and garnet are monitored along a typical prograde P-T path for a model crustal pelite. Some preliminary results suggest a marginal effect of fractionated aqueous species on fluid and rock properties (e.g. pH, composition), but the corresponding fluxes are significant in the context of mantle wedge metasomatism. Our work provides insight into the role of high-P phase fractionation on mass redistribution between the surface and deep Earth in subduction zones. Existing limitations relevant to our liquid/mineral speciation/fractionation model will be discussed as well. ReferencesGalvez, M.E., Manning, C.E., Connolly, J.A.D., Rumble, D., 2015. The solubility of rocks in metamorphic fluids: A model for rock-dominated conditions to upper mantle pressure and temperature. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 430, 486-498.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and some phytochemical analysis of two extracts Vinca minor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antimicrobial activity as well as some phytochemical analysis of ethanol and diethyl ether extracts from plant species Vinca minor L. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts was studied on 20 strains of microorganisms (16 bacteria and four yeasts. Testing was performed by microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC were determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Tested G- bacteria and yeasts were not sensitive to the action of the extracts or the sensitivity was insignificant. Phytochemical analysis involved determining the amount of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins, as well as the determination of antioxidant activity monitoring capability to neutralize free radicals (DPPH and the reductive potential. Phytochemical examination indicates that the total phenolic compounds were more in the ethanolic extract and the content of flavonoids and tannins marginally higher in the diethyl ether extract. The antioxidant activity (DPPH of the ethanolic extract of V. minor was significantly stronger as compared to the diethyl ether extract, and the reduction potential was approximately the same.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Quinones from Compost for Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Ratna Juliasih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was used to extract quinones from compost to monitor the microbial community dynamics during composting. The 0.3 g of dried compost was extracted using 3 mL min−1 of carbon dioxide (90% and methanol (10% at 45°C and 25 MPa for a 30 min extraction time. The extracted quinones were analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC with 0.3 mL min−1 of methanol mobile phase for a 50 min chromatographic run time. A comparable detected amount of quinones was obtained using the developed method and an organic solvent extraction method, being 36.06 μmol kg−1 and 34.54 μmol kg−1, respectively. Significantly low value of dissimilarity index (D between the two methods (0.05 indicated that the quinone profile obtained by both methods was considered identical. The developed method was then applied to determine the maturity of the compost by monitoring the change of quinone during composting. The UQ-9 and MK-7 were predominant quinones in the initial stage of composting. The diversity of quinone became more complex during the cooling and maturation stages. This study showed that SFE had successfully extracted quinones from a complex matrix with simplification and rapidity of the analysis that is beneficial for routine analysis.

  17. Cleanup and analysis of sugar phosphates in biological extracts by using solid phase extraction and anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Hans Peter; Cohen, A.; Buttler, T.

    1998-01-01

    of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained by using cold methanol as quenching agent and chloroform as extraction solvent. It was shown that pretreatment of the cell extract with SPE markedly improved the quality of the liquid chromatography analysis with recoveries of the sugar phosphates close to 100%. Furthermore...

  18. Music video shot segmentation using independent component analysis and keyframe extraction based on image complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Wenjun; Shi, Yunyu; Li, Jun

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, Music video data is increasing at an astonishing speed. Shot segmentation and keyframe extraction constitute a fundamental unit in organizing, indexing, retrieving video content. In this paper a unified framework is proposed to detect the shot boundaries and extract the keyframe of a shot. Music video is first segmented to shots by illumination-invariant chromaticity histogram in independent component (IC) analysis feature space .Then we presents a new metric, image complexity, to extract keyframe in a shot which is computed by ICs. Experimental results show the framework is effective and has a good performance.

  19. Streamlined Membrane Proteome Preparation for Shotgun Proteomics Analysis with Triton X-100 Cloud Point Extraction and Nanodiamond Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While mass spectrometry (MS plays a key role in proteomics research, characterization of membrane proteins (MP by MS has been a challenging task because of the presence of a host of interfering chemicals in the hydrophobic protein extraction process, and the low protease digestion efficiency. We report a sample preparation protocol, two-phase separation with Triton X-100, induced by NaCl, with coomassie blue added for visualizing the detergent-rich phase, which streamlines MP preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis of intact MP and shot-gun proteomic analyses. MP solubilized in the detergent-rich milieu were then sequentially extracted and fractionated by surface-oxidized nanodiamond (ND at three pHs. The high MP affinity of ND enabled extensive washes for removal of salts, detergents, lipids, and other impurities to ensure uncompromised ensuing purposes, notably enhanced proteolytic digestion and down-stream mass spectrometric (MS analyses. Starting with a typical membranous cellular lysate fraction harvested with centrifugation/ultracentrifugation, MP purities of 70%, based on number (not weight of proteins identified by MS, was achieved; the weight-based purity can be expected to be much higher.

  20. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hesami; Maryam Ayatollahi; Bita Geramizadeh; Akram Jamshidzadeh; Akbar Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis ...

  1. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of (Pb, Sn)Te Thermoelectric Modules with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film Sn Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. H.; Lin, H. J.; Chuang, C. H.; Yeh, W. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    A (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element plated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer has been joined with a Cu electrode coated with Ag and Sn thin films using a solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding method. This method allows the interfacial reaction between Ag and Sn such that Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds form at low temperature and are stable at high temperature. In this study, the bonding strength was about 6.6 MPa, and the specimens fractured along the interface between the (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element and the Ni barrier layer. Pre-electroplating a film of Sn with a thickness of about 1 μm on the thermoelectric element and pre-heating at 250°C for 3 min ensures the adhesion between the thermoelectric material and the Ni barrier layer. The bonding strength is thus increased to a maximal value of 12.2 MPa, and most of the fractures occur inside the thermoelectric material. During the bonding process, not only the Ag3Sn intermetallics but also Cu6Sn5 forms at the Ag3Sn/Cu interface, which transforms into Cu3Sn with increases in the bonding temperature or bonding time.

  3. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  4. Pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction combined with anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of lead and cadmium in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Es’haghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is presented for the determination of low concentrations of lead and cadmium in water samples. Ligand assisted pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction using sol–gel sorbent reinforced with carbon nanotubes was combined with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in tap water, and Darongar river water samples. In the present work, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE was used in order to determine the ultra trace level of lead and cadmium ions in real samples. This method is based on accumulation of lead and cadmium ions on the electrode using different ligands; Quinolin-8-ol, 5,7-diiodo quinoline-8-ol, 4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2(3H-one and 2-{[2-(2-Hydroxy-ethylamino-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenol as the complexing agent. The optimized conditions were obtained. The relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 0.05–500 ng mL−1 for Cd (II and Pb (II. The limits of detection for lead and cadmium were 0.015 ng mL−1 and 0.012 ng mL−1, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the pre-concentration factors are 2440 and 3710 for Cd (II and Pb (II in 5 mL of water sample, respectively.

  5. The existence of a plastic phase and a solid-liquid dynamical bistability region in small fullerene cluster (C60)7: molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatek, A; Dawid, A; Gburski, Z

    2006-01-01

    We have simulated (by the molecular dymanics (MD) method) the dynamics of fullerenes (C 60 ) in an extremely small cluster composed of only as many as seven C 60 molecules. The interaction is taken to be the full 60-site pairwise additive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential which generates both translational and anisotropic rotational motions of each molecule. Our atomically detailed MD simulations discover the plastic phase (no translations but active reorientations of fullerenes) at low energies (temperatures) of the (C 60 ) 7 cluster. We provide the in-depth evidence of the dynamical solid-liquid bistability region in the investigated cluster. Moreover, we confirm the existence of the liquid phase in (C 60 ) 7 , the finding of Gallego et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 5258) obtained earlier on the basis of Girifalco's model, which assumes single-site only and spherically symmetrical interaction between C 60 molecules. We have calculated the translational and angular velocity autocorrelation functions and estimated the diffusion coefficient of fullerene in the liquid phase

  6. [Gastric emptying of a solid-liquid meal in normal subjects: validity of the labeling (99mTc) of chicken liver by a multipuncture technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostein, J; Capony, P; Busquet, G; Bost, R; Fournet, J

    1985-04-01

    For gastric emptying studies of a solid-liquid meal by the scintigraphic method, a valid isotope labeling method for each phase of the meal must be obtained. The aim of this study was to validate a simple chicken liver labeling method in normal subjects by multipuncture technic with 99mtechnetium. Labeling according to Meyer's method was chosen as a reference. Simultaneously, a study of the quality of liquid phase labeling by 111indium was done. The labeling process quality for each phase of the meal was assessed: a) in vitro, after incubation of the meal with human gastric juice (n = 12); b) in vivo, after meal ingestion and sequential collection of gastric contents by aspiration (n = 4). Furthermore, in 8 healthy volunteers, gastric emptying curves of the solid and liquid phases of the meal were determined scintigraphically and compared. Our results showed: a) for the solid phase: a good specificity of the marker, which was assessed in vitro and in vivo, after liver labeling with multipuncture technique (89 p. 100 and 92 p. 100 after 180 min, respectively); b) for the liquid phase: a good specificity of the marker in vitro and a poor specificity in vivo (82 p. 100 and 27 p. 100 after 180 min, respectively); c) similar half-gastric emptying times and cumulative percentages for the solid and liquid phases with both liver labeling methods. In conclusion, the multipuncture technique for chicken liver labeling may be used for gastric emptying studies in humans.

  7. Experimental Quantification of Pore-Scale Flow Phenomena in 2D Heterogeneous Porous Micromodels: Multiphase Flow Towards Coupled Solid-Liquid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 within saline aquifers is a viable technology for reducing CO2 emissions. Central to this goal is accurately predicting both the fidelity of candidate sites pre-injection of CO2 and its post-injection migration. Moreover, local fluid pressure buildup may cause activation of small pre-existing unidentified faults, leading to micro-seismic events, which could prove disastrous for societal acceptance of CCS, and possibly compromise seal integrity. Recent evidence shows that large-scale events are coupled with pore-scale phenomena, which necessitates the representation of pore-scale stress, strain, and multiphase flow processes in large-scale modeling. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions, over a range of wettability conditions in 2D heterogeneous micromodels that reflect the complexity of a real sandstone. High-speed fluorescent microscopy, complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A flexible micromodel is also designed and fabricated, to be used in conjunction with the micro-PIV technique, enabling the quantification of coupled solid-liquid interactions.

  8. Determination of solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for the herbicides inspiration and trifluralin in five UK agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Cindy M. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cindy.cooke@imperial.ac.uk; Shaw, George [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    Isoproturon and trifluralin are herbicides of contrasting chemical characters and modes of action. Standard batch sorption procedures were carried out to investigate the individual sorption behaviour of {sup 14}C-isoproturon and {sup 14}C-trifluralin in five agricultural soils (1.8-4.2% OC), and the soil solid-liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d} values) were determined. Trifluralin exhibited strong partitioning to the soil solid phase (K{sub d} range 106-294) and low desorption potential, thus should not pose a threat to sensitive waters via leaching, although particle erosion and preferential flow pathways may facilitate transport. For isoproturon, soil adsorption was low (K{sub d} range 1.96-5.75) and desorption was high, suggesting a high leaching potential, consistent with isoproturon being the most frequently found pesticide in UK surface waters. Soil partitioning was directly related to soil organic carbon (OC) content. Accumulation isotherms were modelled using a dual-phase adsorption model to estimate adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. Associations between herbicides and soil humic substances were also shown using gel filtration chromatography. - Capsule: Herbicide soil sorption described by a dual-phase adsorption model reflected soil partitioning, as influenced by soil OC and humic substances.

  9. Numerical research on the effects of impeller pump-out vanes on axial force in a solid-liquid screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X R; Li, R N; Gao, Y; Guo, W L

    2013-01-01

    A commercial CFD code has been used to predict the performance of a screw centrifugal pump with pump-out vanes, especially when changing regularity of impeller axial force based on the solid-liquid two-phase flow. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach has been applied to solve the unsteady, incompressible, three-dimensional turbulent. The SIMPLEC algorithm, standard wall functions and mix two-phase flow model were applied. The RNG k ε-model was used to account the turbulence effects. By changing the number of impeller pump-out vanes and width, six different screw centrifugal pump numerical simulation projects were given, and each scheme in the different solid volume fraction were calculated respectively. The change rules of axial force, velocity and pressure distribution of flow field were obtained on the different condition and different volume fraction. The results showed that the axial forces values based solid-fluid two-phase greater than based single-phase clear water, but both changing regularity of the axial force were consistent; as same condition, the same solid-phase volume concentration, with the increase of pump-out vanes number or width, the impeller axial force increased as well. Meanwhile the number of the pump-out vanes and the width of pump-out vanes in balancing the impeller axial force, there are the most optimal value

  10. Kinetics, morphology and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition of non-metals. Progress report, March 1, 1979-February 28, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekerka, R.F.

    1979-08-01

    Some previous work on Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth was documented. New calculations have been made to show that for large rf skin depths, the temperature of the sample depends in a systematic way on only three dimensionless parameters; these characterize the rf power level, the surface heat transfer coefficient, and the ambient temperature. Critical values are given for the ambient temperature below which curves of sample temperature versus RF power level are S-shaped. Based on this improvement in understanding, our previous numerical results, valid for arbitrary skin depths, are being prepared for publication. Work continues toward the measurement of the solid-liquid surface tensions of non-metallic materials via the grain-boundary groove technique. Degassed samples of GeO 2 have been obtained, but the necessary temperature caused damage to the quartz tube in our present apparatus, necessitating a new design. While the new apparatus is under construction, sodium sulfate will be used as a prototype material to enable work on the optical system. Use of an astronomical telescope in conjunction with the optical viewpoint leads to poor image quality so we are considering the substitution of a microscope with a large working distance. Previous difficulties with numerical calculation of the temperature profiles in the system have been alleviated by using finer grid sizes for the finite difference scheme. Further effort has been expended to form the basis of new work on the application of Onsager's theory of reciprocity to transport phenomena in solids

  11. Multiphase flow towards coupled solid-liquid interactions in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels: a fluorescent microscopy and micro-PIV measurement at pore scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth; Kenneth Christensen, Notre Dame Team

    2017-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is relevant to a range of applications in the energy and environmental sectors. Recently, the interest has been renewed by geological storage of CO2 within saline aquifers. Central to this goal is predicting the fidelity of candidate sites pre-injection of CO2 and its post-injection migration. Moreover, local pressure buildup may cause micro-seismic events, which could prove disastrous, and possibly compromise seal integrity. Evidence shows that the large-scale events are coupled with pore-scale phenomena, necessitating the understanding of pore-scale stress, strain, and flow processes and their representation in large-scale modeling. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions over a range of wettability conditions in 2D heterogeneous micromodels that reflect the complexity of real sandstone. High-speed fluorescent microscopy, complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allows for simultaneous measurement of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A flexible micromodel is also designed, to be used in conjunction with the micro-PIV technique, enabling the quantification of coupled solid-liquid interactions. This work was supported as part of the GSCO2, an EFRC funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, and partially supported by WPI-I2CNER.

  12. Academic vocabulary in learner writing from extraction to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paquot, Magali

    2010-01-01

    Academic vocabulary is in fashion, as witnessed by the increasing number of books published on the topic. In the first part of this book, Magali Paquot scrutinizes the concept of academic vocabulary and proposes a corpus-driven procedure based on the criteria of keyness, range and evenness of distribution to select academic words that could be part of a common-core academic vocabulary syllabus. In the second part, the author offers a thorough analysis of academic vocabulary in the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) and describes the factors that account for learners difficulties in

  13. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities extracts of mangrove leaf against the growth of some pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Noorbakhsh, Hamid; Vasiee, Alireza; Alghooneh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effects of water, ethanol, methanol and glycerin at five levels (0, 31.25, 83.33, 125 and 250 ml) were investigated on the efficiency of mangrove leaf extraction using mixture optimal design. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The mangrove leaf extraction components were identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phytochemical analysis (alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides) were evaluated based on qualitative methods. Antioxidant activity of extracts was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods. Maximum antimicrobial effect was observed in Enterococcus faecium and highest resistance against mangrove leaf extract in Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. Increasing concentration of mangrove extracts had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) on inhibition zone diameter. The MICs of the mangrove leaf extraction varied from 4 mg/ml to 16 mg/ml. The optimum formulation was found to contain glycerin (0 ml), water (28.22 ml), methanol (59.83 ml) and ethanol (161.95 ml). The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was related to optimum extract of mangrove leaf and ethanolic extract respectively. The results of phytochemical screening of Avicennia marina leaves extract showed the existence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides. 2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl- was the major compound of Avicennia marina. The results of non-significant lack of fit tests, and F value (14.62) indicated that the model was sufficiently accurate. In addition, the coefficient of variations (16.8%) showed an acceptable reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  15. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E., E-mail: anne.ware@nrel.gov; Sykes, Robert [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Peter, Gary F. [School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Davis, Mark [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  16. Comparative analysis of different methods of extraction of present hydrocarbons in industrial residual waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa, Judith Rocio; Serrano, Martin; Stashenko, Elena

    2002-01-01

    A comparison among four extraction techniques such as: liquid - liquid (LLE) continuous and for lots, solid phase extraction (SPE), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (S-HS) was carried out. The main purpose of this research was to determine the highest recovery efficiencies and how reproducible the tests are while varying parameters such as time, extraction technique, type of solvents and others. Chromatographic parameters were optimized in order to carry out the analyses. Hydrocarbon's quantification of residual waters was achieved by using a high-resolution gas chromatography with a gas flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID). Validation of the method was carried out by analyzing real samples taken in different sampling places of the residual waters treatment plant of Ecopetrol - Barrancabermeja. The use of extraction methods that require big solvent quantities and long time for analysis are losing validity day by day. Techniques such as the HS-SPME and static HS are offered as alternatives for quantifying hydrocarbons. They show total lack of solvents, high sensibility, selectivity and the techniques are reproducible. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (static HS) techniques were chosen as the extraction techniques to validate the method in real samples. Both techniques showed similar results for the determination of total hydrocarbons (in the gasoline range)

  17. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  18. Double-phase liquid membrane extraction for the analysis of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Nurul Auni Zainal Abidin; Heng, See Hong; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    A simple and solvent minimized sample preparation technique based on two-phase hollow fiber-protected liquid-phase micro extraction was investigated for HPLC analysis of selected pesticides in water samples. Four pesticides (procymidon, methidathion, quinalphos, and vinclozolin) were considered as target analysts. Parameters such as extraction solvent, salt concentration, stirring speed, extraction time, and pH value were optimized using spiked deionised water samples. The analysts were extracted from 12 mL water samples through organic solvent (n-hexane and isooctane) immobilized in the pores of a porous polypropylene hollow fiber into 50 μL acceptor phase present inside the hollow fiber. Excellent separations of analytes were obtained on C18 column using acetonitrile-water ratio of 55:45 v/v at elevated flow rate of 0.8 mL/ min. (author)

  19. Investigation of actinide extraction by calixarenes. Application to radio-toxicological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinse, Christelle

    1999-01-01

    As measurement of uranium in urine is one of the controls performed for a dosimetric survey of workers exposed to risk of internal contamination, this research thesis aimed at the selection of a new ligand able to selectively extract uranium (even traces of uranium) from urine. Optimal extraction conditions have been achieved and an analysis protocol has been proposed. A calixarene compound comprising three carboxylic functions has been chosen as selective ligand for the uranyl ion. Extraction properties of this calixarene have been studied in a two phase system. The influence of complexing anions generally present in urines (such as chloride, sulphate or phosphate ions) has been assessed. This protocol allows uranium to be isolated in a more repeatable, while simpler and quicker way. Moreover, after de-extraction, uranium measurement can be quickly performed by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) [fr

  20. Automatic knowledge extraction in sequencing analysis with multiagent system and grid computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roberto; Zato, Carolina; Benito, Rocío; Bajo, Javier; Hernández, Jesús M; De Paz, Juan F; Vera, Vicente; Corchado, Juan M

    2012-12-01

    Advances in bioinformatics have contributed towards a significant increase in available information. Information analysis requires the use of distributed computing systems to best engage the process of data analysis. This study proposes a multiagent system that incorporates grid technology to facilitate distributed data analysis by dynamically incorporating the roles associated to each specific case study. The system was applied to genetic sequencing data to extract relevant information about insertions, deletions or polymorphisms.

  1. Automatic knowledge extraction in sequencing analysis with multiagent system and grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in bioinformatics have contributed towards a significant increase in available information. Information analysis requires the use of distributed computing systems to best engage the process of data analysis. This study proposes a multiagent system that incorporates grid technology to facilitate distributed data analysis by dynamically incorporating the roles associated to each specific case study. The system was applied to genetic sequencing data to extract relevant information about insertions, deletions or polymorphisms.

  2. Light-Induced Contraction/Expansion of 1D Photoswitchable Metallopolymer Monitored at the Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garah, Mohamed El; Borré, Etienne; Ciesielski, Artur; Dianat, Arezoo; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane; Mauro, Matteo; Samorì, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The use of a bottom-up approach to the fabrication of nanopatterned functional surfaces, which are capable to respond to external stimuli, is of great current interest. Herein, the preparation of light-responsive, linear supramolecular metallopolymers constituted by the ideally infinite repetition of a ditopic ligand bearing an azoaryl moiety and Co(II) coordination nodes is described. The supramolecular polymerization process is followed by optical spectroscopy in dimethylformamide solution. Noteworthy, a submolecularly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of the in situ reversible trans-to-cis photoisomerization of a photoswitchable metallopolymer that self-assembles into 2D crystalline patterns onto a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is achieved for the first time. The STM analysis of the nanopatterned surfaces is corroborated by modeling the physisorbed species onto a graphene slab before and after irradiation by means of density functional theory calculation. Significantly, switching of the monolayers consisting of supramolecular Co(II) metallopolymer bearing trans-azoaryl units to a novel pattern based on cis isomers can be triggered by UV light and reversed back to the trans conformer by using visible light, thereby restoring the trans-based supramolecular 2D packing. These findings represent a step forward toward the design and preparation of photoresponsive "smart" surfaces organized with an atomic precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction of scutellarin from Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz and its determination by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Min; Huang Wei; RoyChowdhury, Moytri; Liu Chunzhao

    2007-01-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique has been developed to extract scutellarin from Erigeron breviscapus for rapid determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum yield of scutellarin reached 1.02% in 40 min under the optimal MAE conditions with 80 deg. C of extraction temperature and 1:10 (w/v) of the solid/liquid ratio. The MAE showed obvious advantages in terms of short duration and high efficiency to extract scutellarin in comparison with heat-flux extraction. The mechanism of the enhanced extraction by microwave assistance was discussed by detecting particle size and specific surface area of plant materials and observing cell destruction of plant material by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the plant materials were significantly destroyed due to the cell rupture after MAE treatment. Afterward, the method validation for HPLC-UV analysis was developed. Calibration range was 0.1-100 μg mL -1 for scutellarin, and correlation coefficient R was 0.9993. Limit of detection was less than 0.01 μg mL -1 . The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of scutellarin detection ranged from 1.58% to 2.96% and from 3.32% to 4.19%, respectively. The recovery of the method for scutellarin ranged from 96.7% to 101.9%

  4. Magnetic graphene oxide modified by imidazole-based ionic liquids for the magnetic-based solid-phase extraction of polysaccharides from brown alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Li, Guizhen; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic graphene oxide was modified by four imidazole-based ionic liquids to synthesize materials for the extraction of polysaccharides by magnetic solid-phase extraction. Fucoidan and laminarin were chosen as the representative polysaccharides owing to their excellent pharmaceutical value and availability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the synthesized materials. Single-factor experiments showed that the extraction efficiency of polysaccharides was affected by the amount of ionic liquids for modification, solid-liquid ratio of brown alga and ethanol, the stirring time of brown alga and ionic liquid-modified magnetic graphene oxide materials, and amount of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide materials added to the brown alga sample solution. The results indicated that 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide possessed better extraction ability than graphene oxide, magnetic graphene oxide, and other three ionic-liquid-modified magnetic graphene oxide materials. The highest extraction recoveries of fucoidan and laminarin extracted by 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide were 93.3 and 87.2%, respectively. In addition, solid materials could be separated and reused easily owing to their magnetic properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip

    2016-04-07

    Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic

  6. Use of solvent mixtures for total lipid extraction of Chlorella vulgaris and gas chromatography FAME analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Kheibari, Narges; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-09-01

    Lipid extraction is the bottleneck step for algae-based biodiesel production. Herein, 12 solvent mixture systems (mixtures of three non-polar and two polar organic solvents) were examined to evaluate their effects on the total lipid yield from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Moreover, the extraction yields of three solvent systems with maximum extraction efficiency of esterifiable lipids were determined by acidic transesterification and GC-FID analysis. Three solvent systems, which resulted in a higher extraction yield, were further subjected to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The total lipid extraction yields (based on dry biomass) were (38.57 ± 1.51), (25.33 ± 0.58), and (25.17 ± 1.14) %, for chloroform-methanol (1:2) (C1M2), hexane-methanol (1:2) (H1M2), and chloroform-methanol (2:1) (C2M1), respectively. The extraction efficiency of C1M2 was approximately 1.5 times higher than H1M2 and C2M1, whereas the FAME profile of extracted lipids by H1M2 and C1M2 were almost identical. Moreover, the esterifiable lipid extraction yields of (18.14 ± 2.60), (16.66 ± 0.35), and (13.22 ± 0.31) % (based on dry biomass) were obtained for C1M2, H1M2, and C2M1 solvent mixture systems, respectively. The biodiesel fuel properties produced from C. vulgaris were empirically predicted and compared to that of the EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard specifications.

  7. Method of gentle extraction and subsequent concentration at low temperature of natural compounds in the extract from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2007-01-01

    A unit performing a simple and effective way to extract active phytochemicals from the plant specimens has been developed. The unit is mobile enabling operation near the place of collection of plant specimens reducing waste of potential valuable phytochemicals. The design is based on counter...... as solid/liquid extraction is developed on the basis similar to sugar extraction from sugar beets, albeit in a much more compact form. The equipment has been tested on extraction of ethereal oils from dried, stored oregano and extraction of natural compounds from freshly harvested Artemesia with 96% Et......OH as the solvent. Preliminary results from a continuous oregano extraction show efficiency between 55% and 85% of a more ideal laboratory batch extraction of a marker compound like carvacrol, which is most abundant in the ethereal oil. The operation can be repeated with another liquid in order to extract compounds...

  8. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2015-01-01

    extracted directly from tissue sections. PLESA uses a sealed and pressurized sampling probe that enables the use of chloroform-containing extraction solvents for efficient in situ lipid microextraction with a spatial resolution of 400 μm. Quantification of lipid species is achieved by the inclusion...

  9. Solvent extraction of aromatics from middle distillates: equilibria prediction method by group contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.; Mikitenko, P.; Asselineau, L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of calculating liquid-liquid aromatics extraction of a middle distillate is described. The group contribution models of the ASOG and UNIFAC type are investigated. Four vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE), two solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE), three binary and six ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) have been measured. The parameters of the models are based mainly on the data of the systems having 10-20 carbon number. VLE, SLE, and infinite dilution activity coefficient data (17-245/sup 0/C) have been used for calculating interaction parameters between hydrocarbon groups and LLE data (20-80/sup 0/C) for interaction parameters of dimethylformamide-hydrocarbon groups. Middle distillate representation is based on mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic analysis and on limited data of middle distillate-DMF liquid-liquid equilibrium. It is shown that the performance of ASOG and UNIFAC models are sufficiently valid in representation of data base and in extraction calculations. Considering the predictive character and the rapidity of its application this method can be useful in the preliminary study of extraction processes. 34 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  10. Solvent. I. Extraction systems applied to uranium analysis. I. Extraction studies with Tributyl phosphate-Methyl-isobutyl-ketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    A factorial study of the selective extraction of uranium with a mixture of TBP-MIC was carried out using 0,8 N nitric acid and different salting agents. We use the most suitable salting agent to develop new factorial experiments in order to get an equation involving the percent of extracted uranium, E, the concentration of the extraction agent in the organic phase, c, and the concentration of the slating agent in the aqueous phase, n. (Author) 3 refs

  11. Application of crown ethers to selective extraction and quantitative analysis of technetium 99, iodine 129 and cesium 135 in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet, P.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of crown ethers are first recalled. Then extraction of technetium 99 is studied in actual radioactive effluents. Quantitative analysis is carried out by liquid scintillation and interference of tritium is corrected. Iodine 129 is extracted from radioactive effluents and determined by gamma spectrometry. Finally cesium 135 is extracted and determined by thermo ionization mass spectroscopy

  12. Solvent-extraction methods applied to the chemical analysis of uranium. III. Study of the extraction with inert solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    The extraction of uranium on the trace level is studied by using tributylphosphate as active agent under conditions aiming the attainment of quantitative extraction by means of a single step process using a number of salting-out agents and keeping inside the general lines as reported in two precedent papers. Two inert solvents were investigated, benzene and cyclohexane, which allowed to derive the corresponding empirical equations describing the extraction process and the results obtained were compared with those previously reported for solvents which, like ethyl acetate and methylisobuthylketone, favour to a more or less extend the extraction of uranium. (Author) 4 refs

  13. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction in Pesticide Residues Analysis:1. Optimisation of Extraction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS/SPME was successfully used in a simultaneous multicomponent analysis of hexachlorobenzene (HCB, tefluthrin, heptachlor, aldrin, chlorpyrifos, fenthion and bifenthrin in aqueous medium. Measurementswere performed using a nonpolar polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS fiber. Detection and quantification were done by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS.Optimal conditions for HS/SPME were determined both by performing extraction at different temperatures and examining extraction time profiles at constant temperature. Optimal extraction temperature for each pesticide studied was determined as follows: 60°C for HCB and for heptachlor, 80°C for aldrin and for chlorpyrifos, fenthion and tefluthrin, and temperature exceeding 80°C for bifenthrin. For the pesticide mixture studied, 60°C was identified as the optimum extraction temperature.Based on the time profiles obtained, it was confirmed that satisfactory extraction sensitivity can be obtained even for extraction times shorter than the time required to reach a sorption equilibrium. This conclusion was confirmed by linear concentration profiles obtained for the following ranges: 0.05-10 ng/ml (HCB, 0.05-25 ng/ml (tefluthrin, 0.05-40 ng/ml (heptachlor, 0.05-40 ng/ml (aldrin, 0.05-25 ng/ml (chlorpyrifos, 0.05-25 ng/ml (fenthionand 0.05-25 ng/ml (bifenthrin.Relative standard deviation (RSD values for triplicate measurements did not exceed 15%.

  14. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

  15. Analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance in different extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Lin, L. J.; Huang, X. B.; Li, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    It was developed for the analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance extracted by steam distillation (SD), ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with retention index (RI) method. There were multiple volatile components of the oils extracted by the three above-mention methods respectively identified; meanwhile, each one was quantified by area normalization method. The results indicated that the content of 1,8-Cineole, the index constituent, by SD was similar as SFE, and higher than UAE. Although UAE was less time consuming and consumed less energy, the oil quality was poorer due to the use of organic solvents was hard to degrade. In addition, some constituents could be obtained by SFE but could not by SD. In conclusion, essential oil of different extraction methods from the same batch of materials had been proved broadly similarly, however, there were some differences in composition and component ratio. Therefore, development and utilization of different extraction methods must be selected according to the functional requirements of products.

  16. Effect of graphene layer thickness and mechanical compliance on interfacial heat flow and thermal conduction in solid-liquid phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzoha, Ronald J; Fleischer, Amy S

    2014-08-13

    Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs) are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage and electronics cooling applications but have limited applicability in state-of-the-art technologies due to their low intrinsic thermal conductivities. Recent efforts to incorporate graphene and multilayer graphene into PCMs have led to the development of thermal energy storage materials with remarkable values of bulk thermal conductivity. However, the full potential of graphene as a filler material for the thermal enhancement of PCMs remains unrealized, largely due to an incomplete understanding of the physical mechanisms that govern thermal transport within graphene-based nanocomposites. In this work, we show that the number of graphene layers (n) within an individual graphene nanoparticle has a significant effect on the bulk thermal conductivity of an organic PCM. Results indicate that the bulk thermal conductivity of PCMs can be tuned by over an order of magnitude simply by adjusting the number of graphene layers (n) from n = 3 to 44. Using scanning electron microscopy in tandem with nanoscale analytical techniques, the physical mechanisms that govern heat flow within a graphene nanocomposite PCM are found to be nearly independent of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the graphene nanoparticle itself and are instead found to be dependent on the mechanical compliance of the graphene nanoparticles. These findings are critical for the design and development of PCMs that are capable of cooling next-generation electronics and storing heat effectively in medium-to-large-scale energy systems, including solar-thermal power plants and building heating and cooling systems.

  17. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Steve (ECOMatters Inc. (Canada)); Sohlenius, Gustav (Sveriges geologiska undersoekning (Sweden)); Omberg, Lars-Gunnar (ALS Scandinavia AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K{sub d}) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K{sub d} data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K{sub d} values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K{sub d} resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K{sub d} values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K{sub d} values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K{sub d} values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  18. Solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) and plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) for selected soils, tills and sediments at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Steve; Sohlenius, Gustav; Omberg, Lars-Gunnar; Borgiel, Mikael; Grolander, Sara; Norden, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d ) are used to indicate the relative mobility of radionuclides and elements of concern from nuclear fuel waste, as well as from other sources. To indicate the uptake of radionuclides in biota concentration ratios (CR) between soil and biota are used. This report summarized K d data for regolith and marine sediments based on concentrations of 69 indigenous stable elements measured from samples collected at the Forsmark site and CR data concerning cereals growing on these soils. The samples included 50 regolith samples from agricultural land and wetlands, 8 samples of till collected at different depths, and two marine sediment samples. In addition, cereal grains, stems and roots were collected from 4 sites for calculation of CRs. The regolith samples represented the major 5 deposits, which can be used as arable land, at the site (clayey till, glacial clay, clay gyttja and peat (cultivated and undisturbed)). K d values were generally lower for peat compared to clay soils. There were also clear differences in K d resulting from differences in soil chemistry within each regolith type. Soil pH was the most important factor, and K d values for many elements were lower in acidic clay soils compared to basic clay soils. Although there were only a few samples of sandy till and marine sediment, the K d values were generally consistent with the corresponding regolith K d values. Of the different cereal parts the grain always had the lowest CR. In most cases, the root CR was significantly higher than the grain CR, whereas only for a few elements were the grain and stem CR values different

  19. Phytochemical Analysis, Identification and Quantification of Antibacterial Active Compounds in Betel Leaves, Piper betle Methanolic Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahidah, A; Saad, C R; Hassan, M D; Rukayadi, Y; Norazian, M H; Kamarudin, M S

    2017-01-01

    The problems of bacterial diseases in aquaculture are primarily controlled by antibiotics. Medicinal plants and herbs which are seemed to be candidates of replacements for conventional antibiotics have therefore gained increasing interest. Current study was performed to investigate the presence of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle . Qualitative phytochemical analysis was firstly carried out to determine the possible active compounds in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major compounds from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then assessed using TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity were determined simultaneously by HPLC method. The use of methanol has proved to be successful in extracting numerous bioactive compounds including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography assay revealed the inhibitory action of two compounds which were identified as hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The $-caryophyllene however was totally inactive against all the tested bacterial species. In this study, the concentration of hydroxychavicol in extract was found to be 374.72±2.79 mg g-1, while eugenol was 49.67±0.16 mg g-1. Based on these findings, it could be concluded that hydroxychavicol and eugenol were the responsible compounds for the promising antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. This inhibitory action has significantly correlated with the amount of the compounds in extract. Due to its potential, the extract of P. betle leaves or it compounds can be alternative source of potent natural antibacterial agents for aquaculture disease management.

  20. Environmental analysis of raw cork extraction in cork oak forests in southern Europe (Catalonia--Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Jesús; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Ivan; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2012-11-15

    Cork oak grows endemically in a narrow region bordering the western Mediterranean, and especially in the Iberian Peninsula. The importance of cork agro-forestry systems lies in the fact that a natural and renewable raw material - cork - can be extracted sustainably without endangering the tree or affecting biodiversity. This paper describes an environmental analysis of the extraction of raw cork in cork oak forests in Catalonia, using data from five representative local forest exploitations. The evaluation was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and all the forestry management required to obtain a tonne of raw cork was included. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts - in terms of global warming, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, and so on - caused by cork extraction and determine the carbon dioxide balance of these forestry systems, with a tree lifespan of about 200 years. During the life cycle extraction of cork in Catalonia, 0.2 kg of CO(2) eq. was emitted per kg of raw cork extracted. Moreover, cork cannot be extracted without the tree, which will be fixing carbon dioxide throughout its technological useful life (200 years), despite the fact that the bark is removed periodically: every 13-14 years. If the emission from extraction and the carbon contained in the material is discounted, the carbon dioxide balance indicates that 18 kg of CO(2) are fixed per kg of raw cork extracted. Therefore, cork is a natural, renewable and local material that can replace other non-renewable materials, at local level, to reduce the environmental impacts of products, and particularly to reduce their carbon footprint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytochemical screening and analysis of antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of wheatgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Hoda, Muddasarul; Shakya, Garima; Babu, Sankar Pajaniradje Preedia; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2014-09-01

    To screen the phytochemical constituents and study antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the wheatgrass. The current study was focused on broad parameters namely, phytochemical analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and antioxidant properties in order to characterize the aqueous extract of wheatgrass as a potential free radical quencher. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of wheatgrass showed the presence of various secondary metabolites but the absence of sterols and quinone in general. Wheatgrass was proved to be an effective radical scavenger in all antioxidant assays. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of diverse category of bioactive compounds such as squalene, caryophyllene and amyrins in varying percentage. From the results obtained, we conclude that wheatgrass aqueous extract contains various effective compounds. It is a potential source of natural antioxidants. Further analysis of this herb will help in finding new effective compounds which can be of potent use in pharmacological field. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Susan K.; Domingue, Julia O.

    1988-01-01

    Software tools have been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center to extract topographic structure and to delineate watersheds and overland flow paths from digital elevation models. The tools are specialpurpose FORTRAN programs interfaced with general-purpose raster and vector spatial analysis and relational data base management packages.

  3. Preliminary analysis of proton magnetic resonance 1D spectra of cerebrospinal fluid and brain cancer extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toczylowska, B.; Jozwik, A.; Kierul, K.; Matysiak, Z.; Sidor, M.; Wojcik, J.

    1999-01-01

    In series of cerebrospinal fluid samples from 25 patients proton spectra of magnetic resonance were measured. The spectra were measured also for series of brain tumor tissue extracts received from another 25 patients. This paper presents an attempt to apply statistical methods of image recognition for spectra analysis of the two measured series

  4. Regularized generalized eigen-decomposition with applications to sparse supervised feature extraction and sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    We propose a general technique for obtaining sparse solutions to generalized eigenvalue problems, and call it Regularized Generalized Eigen-Decomposition (RGED). For decades, Fisher's discriminant criterion has been applied in supervised feature extraction and discriminant analysis, and it is for...

  5. Ecological observations and GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of Sacoglossan Elysia bangtawaensis (Swennen)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Desai, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    H and temperature (air and water). Moreover, GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of E. bangtawaensis showed major constituents of fatty acids such as myristic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, etc. The presence of such bioactive compounds (identified...

  6. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on

  7. Analysis of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Soils: Optimization of Extraction and Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes the development of an analytical method for the determination of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in soil. The sensitive and selective determination of the telomer alcohols was performed by extraction with mthyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and analysis of the ext...

  8. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran radioactivity in soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Nashriyah Mat

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran insecticide or nematicide sprayed onto soil in the agroecosystem will be taken up by plant. Carbofuran residue will pollute the environment and organisms in the food chain. Extraction and analysis of 14 C-carbofuran in soil from lysimeter were carried out. The Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was used to measure radioactivity of 14 C-carbofuran in soil sample. (Author)

  9. Selective extraction of phospholipids from dairy products by micro-solid phase extraction based on titanium dioxide microcolumns followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima; Jensen, Ole; Zambonin, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    A new micro-solid phase extraction (micro-SPE) procedure based on titanium dioxide microcolumns was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids (PLs) from dairy products before matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. All...... the extraction steps (loading, washing, and elution) have been optimized using a synthetic mixture of PLs standard and the procedure was subsequently applied to food samples such as milk, chocolate milk and butter. The whole method demonstrated to be simpler than traditional approaches and it appears very...

  10. Study of the Qualitative and Semi-quantitative Analysis of Grape Seed Extract by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Sorolla, Sílvia; Flores, Antònia; Canals Parelló, Trini; Cantero Gómez, María Rosa; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Ollé Otero, Lluís; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to carry out a qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of tannin extracts as an alternative to the official analysis method ISO 14088 – IUC 32, so that a correlation between the two methods is established. From the point of view of the chemical composition, tannins are classified into two major groups: i) condensed tannins, also called flavanols or catechins, and ii) hydrolysable tannins, also called pyrogallic tannins. Today, the most widely used convent...

  11. WikiSent : Weakly Supervised Sentiment Analysis Through Extractive Summarization With Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Subhabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a weakly supervised system for sentiment analysis in the movie review domain. The objective is to classify a movie review into a polarity class, positive or negative, based on those sentences bearing opinion on the movie alone. The irrelevant text, not directly related to the reviewer opinion on the movie, is left out of analysis. Wikipedia incorporates the world knowledge of movie-specific features in the system which is used to obtain an extractive summary of the review...

  12. Multi-scale Analysis of High Resolution Topography: Feature Extraction and Identification of Landscape Characteristic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Sangireddy, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of digital terrain data, detailed information on terrain characteristics and on scale and location of geomorphic features is available over extended areas. Our ability to observe landscapes and quantify topographic patterns has greatly improved, including the estimation of fluxes of mass and energy across landscapes. Challenges still remain in the analysis of high resolution topography data; the presence of features such as roads, for example, challenges classic methods for feature extraction and large data volumes require computationally efficient extraction and analysis methods. Moreover, opportunities exist to define new robust metrics of landscape characterization for landscape comparison and model validation. In this presentation we cover recent research in multi-scale and objective analysis of high resolution topography data. We show how the analysis of the probability density function of topographic attributes such as slope, curvature, and topographic index contains useful information for feature localization and extraction. The analysis of how the distributions change across scales, quantified by the behavior of modal values and interquartile range, allows the identification of landscape characteristic scales, such as terrain roughness. The methods are introduced on synthetic signals in one and two dimensions and then applied to a variety of landscapes of different characteristics. Validation of the methods includes the analysis of modeled landscapes where the noise distribution is known and features of interest easily measured.

  13. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  14. Pfaff equation and Fourier analysis to phase extraction from an interferogram with carrier frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara-Cortez, Francisco; Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Rodriguez-Zurita, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    In the phase extraction techniques, one of the steps most used is to calculate the phase unwrapping from the wrapped phase, which is generally obtained via the inverse tangent function. With the idea to avoid this process, in the present manuscript a method based in the solution of the Pfaff equations is proposed. It is shown that the Pfaff equation is formed with the phase gradient and an auxiliary vector. The phase gradient is obtained from an interference patron with carrier frequency by applying the Fourier transform method and the partial derivatives. In the present manuscript, mathematical analysis, numerical simulation, and the phase extraction of some experimental interferograms are shown.

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TURN EXTRACTION FROM THE PROTON SYNCHROTRON TO THE SUPER PROTON SYNCHROTRON

    CERN Document Server

    Abernethy, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Within CERN's accelerator complex, the extraction from the Proton Synchrotron to the Super Proton Synchrotron has been done using the so-called ``Continuous Transfer" (CT) method since the 1970's. A new technique, known as Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE), has now been implemented and is in full operation. This report examines a holistic performance analysis of the novel technique in multiple aspects of the accelerator complex, as well as a direct comparison with its predecessor, CT, from the implementation of MTE in 2010 until the end of 2015.

  16. Information analysis of iris biometrics for the needs of cryptology key extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Saša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rigorous analysis of iris biometric information for the synthesis of an optimized system for the extraction of a high quality cryptology key. Estimations of local entropy and mutual information were identified as segments of the iris most suitable for this purpose. In order to optimize parameters, corresponding wavelets were transformed, in order to obtain the highest possible entropy and mutual information lower in the transformation domain, which set frameworks for the synthesis of systems for the extraction of truly random sequences of iris biometrics, without compromising authentication properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32054 i br. III44006

  17. Analysis of Free Amino Acids in Different Extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Leaves by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Halim, Nor Hidayah Ab; Zakaria, Norhidayah; Ismail, Zhari

    2017-10-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that OS leaves possess antioxidant, cytotoxic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and uricosuric effects. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids, and flavonoids. To develop and validate an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method combined with solid-phase extraction that involves precolumn derivatization with O -phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of free amino acids in OS leaves extracts. OS leaves were extracted with water (OS-W), ethanol (OS-E), methanol (OS-M), 50% ethanol (OS-EW), and 50% methanol (OS-MW). The extracts were treated by C18 cartridge before derivatization, resulting in great improvement of separation by Zorbox Eclipse XDB-C 18 column. The HPLC-DAD method was successfully developed and validated for analyzing the contents of free amino acids in OS extracts. The results showed that l-aspartic acid with 0.93 ± 0.01 nmol/mg was the major free amino acid in OS-W extract. However, in OS-E, OS-M, OS-EW, and OS-MW, l-glutamic acid with 3.53 ± 0.16, 2.17 ± 0.10, 4.01 ± 0.12, and 2.49 ± 0.12 nmol/mg, respectively, was the major free amino acid. Subsequently, l-serine, which was detected in OS-W, OS-E, and OS-M, was the minor free amino acid with 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.12 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 nmol/mg, respectively. However, l-threonine with 0.26 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.08 nmol/mL in OS-EW and OS-MW, respectively, had the lowest concentration compared with other amino acid components. All validation parameters of the developed method indicate that the method is reliable and efficient to simultaneously determine the free amino acids content for routine analysis of OS extracts. The HPLC-DAD method combined with solid phase extraction was successfully developed and validated for simultaneous determination and

  18. A Swellable Microneedle Patch to Rapidly Extract Skin Interstitial Fluid for Timely Metabolic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao; Zheng, Mengjia; Yu, Xiaojun; Than, Aung; Seeni, Razina Z; Kang, Rongjie; Tian, Jingqi; Khanh, Duong Phan; Liu, Linbo; Chen, Peng; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-10-01

    Skin interstitial fluid (ISF) is an emerging source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Microneedle (MN) patch has been identified as an ideal platform to extract ISF from the skin due to its pain-free and easy-to-administrated properties. However, long sampling time is still a serious problem which impedes timely metabolic analysis. In this study, a swellable MN patch that can rapidly extract ISF is developed. The MN patch is made of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and further crosslinked through UV irradiation. Owing to the supreme water affinity of MeHA, this MN patch can extract sufficient ISF in a short time without the assistance of extra devices, which remarkably facilitates timely metabolic analysis. Due to covalent crosslinked network, the MN patch maintains the structure integrity in the swelling hydrated state without leaving residues in skin after usage. More importantly, the extracted ISF metabolites can be efficiently recovered from MN patch by centrifugation for the subsequent offline analysis of metabolites such as glucose and cholesterol. Given the recent trend of easy-to-use point-of-care devices for personal healthcare monitoring, this study opens a new avenue for the development of MN-based microdevices for sampling ISF and minimally invasive metabolic detection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Phytochemical analysis of Binahong (Anredera Cordifolia) leaves extract to inhibit In Vitro growth of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta Br; Lesmana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is one of the medicinal plants commonly used to treat the disease of living organisms. The secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves has been shown antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves showing antibacterial and analysis the effectiveness of antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. A paper disc soaked in a solution of A. cordifolia leaves extract was used to test in vitro at a concentration of 0% (w/v), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and positive control of antibiotic (oxytetracycline), respectively. The extracts then placed on a tryptone soy agar (TSA) medium containing bacteria A. hydrophila and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In vitro test showed that A. cordifolia leaves extract inhibited the growth of bacteria A. hydrophila with an inhibition area around the paper disc. The inhibition growth of A. hydrophila increased with the increasing of extract concentration. Bacterial growth was inhibited in the diameter zone of A. hydrophila under different levels of the extracts were 0 mm (0 % negative control), 8.4 mm (0.2 %), 9.4 mm (0.4 %), 10.5 mm (0.6 %), 11.9 mm (0.8 %), 27.5 mm (positive control), respectively. Phytochemical screening of A. cordifolia leaves extract indicated that the extracts contained flavonoid, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, and β-sitosterol. Our in vitro study demonstrated the inhibition growth of A. hydrophila that caused the disease of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS).

  20. [Dan'e-fukang soft extract for dysmenorrhea: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Zhang, Zhen-dong; Xiao, Zheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Zheng-long

    2014-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of Dan'e-fukang soft extract for dysmenorrhea by meta-analysis. Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, VIP, Wanfang Data, and CNKI databases were searched. Results of randomized controlled trials were also harvested from pharmaceutical companies by manual search. Meta-analysis was carried out according to the method provided by the Cochrane Collaboration with RevMan5.0 software. Twelve Chinese papers were selected, and 1213 patients were included. Significant difference in recovery rate was found between Dan'e-fukang soft extract group and other drugs group (RR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.02-1.75, P0.05). No statistical difference was noticed in total effective rate between two groups (RR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.00-1.08, P>0.05). A statistical difference in improvement of dysmenorrhea symptoms was found before and after treatment in both Dan'e-fukang soft extract group and other drugs group (MD=5.79, 95%CI: 5.01-6.56, P0.05) and after treatment (MD=-0.94, 95%CI: -2.11-0.23, P>0.05). Oral administration of Dan'e-fukang soft extract caused only mild gastrointestinal discomfort, but other drugs had more adverse effects including serious gastrointestinal reaction, severe liver dysfunction, vaginal bleeding, and female masculinity. The existing evidence shows that Dan'e-fukang soft extract has the same efficacy as other drugs in treatment of dysmenorrheal. Because of the quality of the included studies was limited, the evidence of the efficacy and safety of Dan'e-fukang soft extract was not strong, and high-quality randomized trials with large samples are needed.

  1. Comparison of two commercial DNA extraction kits for the analysis of nasopharyngeal bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Crandall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of microbial communities via next-generation sequencing (NGS requires an extraction ofmicrobial DNA. Methodological differences in DNA extraction protocols may bias results and complicate inter-study comparisons. Here we compare the effect of two commonly used commercial kits (Norgen and Qiagenfor the extraction of total DNA on estimatingnasopharyngeal microbiome diversity. The nasopharynxis a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses and a key player in understandingairway microbial dynamics. Total DNA from nasal washes corresponding to 30 asthmatic children was extracted using theQiagenQIAamp DNA and NorgenRNA/DNA Purification kits and analyzed via IlluminaMiSeq16S rRNA V4 ampliconsequencing. The Norgen samples included more sequence reads and OTUs per sample than the Qiagen samples, but OTU counts per sample varied proportionallybetween groups (r = 0.732.Microbial profiles varied slightly between sample pairs, but alpha- and beta-diversity indices (PCoAand clustering showed highsimilarity between Norgen and Qiagenmicrobiomes. Moreover, no significant differences in community structure (PERMANOVA and adonis tests and taxa proportions (Kruskal-Wallis test were observed betweenkits. Finally, aProcrustes analysis also showed low dissimilarity (M2 = 0.173; P< 0.001 between the PCoAs of the two DNA extraction kits. Contrary to what has been observed in previous studies comparing DNA extraction methods, our 16S NGS analysis of nasopharyngeal washes did not reveal significant differences in community composition or structure between kits. Our findingssuggest congruence between column-based chromatography kits and supportthe comparison of microbiomeprofilesacross nasopharyngeal metataxonomic studies.

  2. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  3. Analysis of Time n Frequency EEG Feature Extraction Methods for Mental Task Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglar Uyulan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many endogenous and external components may affect the physiological, mental and behavioral states in humans. Monitoring tools are required to evaluate biomarkers, identify biological events, and predict their outcomes. Being one of the valuable indicators, brain biomarkers derived from temporal or spectral electroencephalography (EEG signals processing, allow for the classification of mental disorders and mental tasks. An EEG signal has a nonstationary nature and individual frequency feature, hence it can be concluded that each subject has peculiar timing and data to extract unique features. In order to classify data, which are collected by performing four mental task (reciting the alphabet backwards, imagination of rotation of a cube, imagination of right hand movements (open/close and performing mathematical operations, discriminative features were extracted using four competitive time-frequency techniques; Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD, Morlet Wavelet Transform (MWT, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Wavelet Filter Bank (WFB, respectively. The extracted features using both time and frequency domain information were then reduced using a principal component analysis for subset reduction. Finally, the reduced subsets were fed into a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MP-NN trained with back propagation (BP algorithm to generate a predictive model. This study mainly focuses on comparing the relative performance of time-frequency feature extraction methods that are used to classify mental tasks. The real-time (RT conducted experimental results underlined that the WPD feature extraction method outperforms with 92% classification accuracy compared to three other aforementioned methods for four different mental tasks.

  4. Comparison of Different Protein Extraction Methods for Gel-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ganoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Saidi, Noor Baity; Usuldin, Siti Rokhiyah Ahmad; Hussin, Siti Nahdatul Isnaini Said; Yusoff, Noornabeela Md; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-04-01

    Ganoderma species are a group of fungi that have the ability to degrade lignin polymers and cause severe diseases such as stem and root rot and can infect economically important plants and perennial crops such as oil palm, especially in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little is known about the complex interplay between oil palm and Ganoderma in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Proteomic technologies are simple yet powerful tools in comparing protein profile and have been widely used to study plant-fungus interaction. A critical step to perform a good proteome research is to establish a method that gives the best quality and a wide coverage of total proteins. Despite the availability of various protein extraction protocols from pathogenic fungi in the literature, no single extraction method was found suitable for all types of pathogenic fungi. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for 2-DE gel analysis of Ganoderma spp., three previously reported protein extraction protocols were compared: trichloroacetic acid, sucrose and phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol. The third method was found to give the most reproducible gels and highest protein concentration. Using the later method, a total of 10 protein spots (5 from each species) were successfully identified. Hence, the results from this study propose phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol as the most effective protein extraction method for 2-DE proteomic studies of Ganoderma spp.

  5. Multi-class multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in meat using enhanced matrix removal lipid cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limian; Lucas, Derick; Long, David; Richter, Bruce; Stevens, Joan

    2018-05-11

    This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60-120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42-58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with 30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Chromatographic Analysis of Extracts from Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritiel Corrêa da Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%, fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. Results: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. Conclusions: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds.

  8. MICELLE-MEDIATED EXTRACTION AS A TOOL FOR SEPARATION AND PRECONCENTRATION IN COPPER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmadia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A cloud point extraction method was presented for preconcentration of copper in various samples. After complexation with 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazoline-5-one (ADPP or N-Benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPA  in water, analyte ions are quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in Triton X-114 after centrifugation. 2.0 mol L-1 HNO3 solution in methanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The adopted concentrations for ADPP, Triton X-114, HNO3 and parameters such as bath temperature, centrifuge rate and time were optimized. Detection limits (3SDb/m of 1.3 and 1.9 ng mL-1 for ADPP and BPA along with enrichment factors of 30 and 38 for ADPP and BPA were achieved. The high efficiency of cloud point extraction to carry out the determination of analyte in complex matrices was demonstrated. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of biological, industrial, natural and wastewater, soil and blood samples.   Keywords: 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazoline-5-one (ADPP, N-Benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPA ,   Cloud Point Extraction, Triton X-114, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

  9. Needle trap extraction for GC analysis of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Daikuan; Lou, Dawei; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2012-07-01

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment, food, and most of the natural products. Extraction of the acids from aqueous solution is required for their isotope analysis by the gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To this objective, we have previously developed a purge-and-trap technique using the dynamic solid-phase microextraction technology, the NeedlEX. The extraction efficiency, however, remains unexamined. Here, we address this question using the flame ionization detector and isotope ratio mass spectrometer while comparing it with that of the CAR/PDMS fiber. The results show that the NeedlEX is applicable at a wide range of concentration through coordination of purge volume given the minimum amount 3.7 ng and 1.8 ng of formic and acetic, respectively, is extracted. The efficiency of NeedlEX was 6-7 times lower than the fiber at 1000 μg/mL depending on the analyte. It is, however, superior to the latter at 10 μg/mL or less owing to its lower detection limit. The extraction efficiency of both acids is equivalent in molar amount. This is, however, disguised by the different response of the flame ionization detector. The isotope ratio mass spectrometor overcomes this problem but is compromised by relatively large errors. These results are particularly useful for isotopic analysis of carboxylic acids. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Quantitative analysis of perfumes in talcum powder by using headspace sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Khim Hui; Heng, Audrey; Osborne, Murray

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of perfume dosage in talcum powder has been a challenge due to interference of the matrix and has so far not been widely reported. In this study, headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) was validated as a solventless sample preparation method for the extraction and enrichment of perfume raw materials from talcum powder. Sample enrichment is performed on a thick film of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coated onto a magnetic stir bar incorporated in a glass jacket. Sampling is done by placing the PDMS stir bar in the headspace vial by using a holder. The stir bar is then thermally desorbed online with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The HSSE method is based on the same principles as headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Nevertheless, a relatively larger amount of extracting phase is coated on the stir bar as compared to SPME. Sample amount and extraction time were optimized in this study. The method has shown good repeatability (with relative standard deviation no higher than 12.5%) and excellent linearity with correlation coefficients above 0.99 for all analytes. The method was also successfully applied in the quantitative analysis of talcum powder spiked with perfume at different dosages. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Two-Phase Extraction for Comprehensive Analysis of the Plant Metabolome by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Jan; Dagnino, Denise

    2018-01-01

    Metabolomics is the area of research, which strives to obtain complete metabolic fingerprints, to detect differences between them, and to provide hypothesis to explain those differences [1]. But obtaining complete metabolic fingerprints is not an easy task. Metabolite extraction is a key step during this process, and much research has been devoted to finding the best solvent mixture to extract as much metabolites as possible.Here a procedure is described for analysis of both polar and apolar metabolites using a two-phase extraction system. D 2 O and CDCl 3 are the solvents of choice, and their major advantage is that, for the identification of the compounds, standard databases can be used because D 2 O and CDCl 3 are the solvents most commonly used for pure compound NMR spectra. The procedure enables the absolute quantification of components via the addition of suitable internal standards. The extracts are also suitable for further analysis with other systems like LC-MS or GC-MS.

  12. Binary and ternary solid-liquid phase equilibrium for the systems formed by succinic acid, urea and diethylene glycol: Determination and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanxun; Li, Congcong; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was determined. • Solubility of succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol was determined. • Three ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the ternary system. • The ternary phase diagrams were correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: In this work, the solid-liquid phase equilibrium for binary system of succinic acid + diethylene glycol at the temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 333.15) K and ternary system of (succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol) at 298.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K was built by using the isothermal saturation method under atmospheric pressure (101.2 kPa), and the solubilities were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography. The solid-phases formed in the ternary system of ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) were confirmed by Schreinemaker’s method of wet residue, which corresponded to urea, succinic acid, and adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid (mole ratio). Three isothermal phase diagrams for the ternary system were constructed based on the measured mutual solubility. Each isothermal phase diagram included six crystallization fields, three invariant curves, two invariant points and two co-saturated points. The crystalline region of adduct 2:1 urea-succinic acid is larger than those of the other two solids. The solubility of succinic acid in diethylene glycol was correlated with the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation and NRTL model; and the mutual solubility of the ternary ((succinic acid + urea + diethylene glycol)) system was correlated and calculated by the NRTL model. The interaction parameters’ values of succinic acid-urea were acquired. The value of RMSD was 7.11 × 10 −3 for the ternary system. The calculation results had good agreement with the experiment values. Furthermore, the densities of equilibrium liquid phase were acquired. The phase diagrams and the thermodynamic model of the ternary system could provide the basis for design of

  13. Form-stable paraffin/high density polyethylene composites as solid-liquid phase change material for thermal energy storage: preparation and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites as form-stable, solid-liquid phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage and with determination of their thermal properties. In such a composite, the paraffin (P) serves as a latent heat storage material and the HDPE acts as a supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin because of providing structural strength. Therefore, it is named form-stable composite PCM. In this study, two kinds of paraffins with melting temperatures of 42-44 deg. C (type P1) and 56-58 deg. C (type P2) and latent heats of 192.8 and 212.4 J g -1 were used. The maximum weight percentage for both paraffin types in the PCM composites without any seepage of the paraffin in the melted state were found as high as 77%. It is observed that the paraffin is dispersed into the network of the solid HDPE by investigation of the structure of the composite PCMs using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The melting temperatures and latent heats of the form-stable P1/HDPE and P2/HDPE composite PCMs were determined as 37.8 and 55.7 deg. C, and 147.6 and 162.2 J g -1 , respectively, by the technique of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, to improve the thermal conductivity of the form-stable P/HDPE composite PCMs, expanded and exfoliated graphite (EG) by heat treatment was added to the samples in the ratio of 3 wt.%. Thereby, the thermal conductivity was increased about 14% for the form-stable P1/HDPE and about 24% for the P2/HDPE composite PCMs. Based on the results, it is concluded that the prepared form-stable P/HDPE blends as composite type PCM have great potential for thermal energy storage applications in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties and improved thermal conductivity. Furthermore, these composite PCMs added with EG can be considered cost effective latent heat storage materials since they do not require encapsulation and extra cost to enhance

  14. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction.

  15. Kinetics of Ultrasound-Assisted Flavonoid Extraction from Agri-Food Solid Wastes Using Water/Glycerol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P. Makris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red grape pomace (RGP and onion solid wastes (OSW were used as raw material to produce flavonoid-enriched extracts, using ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. The extraction medium used was composed of water and glycerol and under the conditions used the extraction of flavonoids from both materials was shown to obey first-order kinetics. Maximum diffusivities (De values were 4.01 × 10−11 and 2.35 × 10−11 m2·s−1, for RGP and OSW extraction, respectively, while the corresponding activation energies (Ea were 14.00 and 15.23 kJ·mol−1.

  16. Automated CO2 extraction from air for clumped isotope analysis in the atmo- and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Magdalena; Ziegler, Martin; Pons, Thijs; Lourens, Lucas; Röckmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The conventional stable isotope ratios 13C/12C and 18O/16O in atmospheric CO2 are a powerful tool for unraveling the global carbon cycle. In recent years, it has been suggested that the abundance of the very rare isotopologue 13C18O16O on m/z 47 might be a promising tracer to complement conventional stable isotope analysis of atmospheric CO2 [Affek and Eiler, 2006; Affek et al. 2007; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Yeung et al., 2009]. Here we present an automated analytical system that is designed for clumped isotope analysis of atmo- and biospheric CO2. The carbon dioxide gas is quantitatively extracted from about 1.5L of air (ATP). The automated stainless steel extraction and purification line consists of three main components: (i) a drying unit (a magnesium perchlorate unit and a cryogenic water trap), (ii) two CO2 traps cooled with liquid nitrogen [Werner et al., 2001] and (iii) a GC column packed with Porapak Q that can be cooled with liquid nitrogen to -30°C during purification and heated up to 230°C in-between two extraction runs. After CO2 extraction and purification, the CO2 is automatically transferred to the mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometric analysis of the 13C18O16O abundance is carried out in dual inlet mode on a MAT 253 mass spectrometer. Each analysis generally consists of 80 change-over-cycles. Three additional Faraday cups were added to the mass spectrometer for simultaneous analysis of the mass-to-charge ratios 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 and 49. The reproducibility for δ13C, δ18O and Δ47 for repeated CO2 extractions from air is in the range of 0.11o (SD), 0.18o (SD) and 0.02 (SD)o respectively. This automated CO2 extraction and purification system will be used to analyse the clumped isotopic signature in atmospheric CO2 (tall tower, Cabauw, Netherlands) and to study the clumped isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis (leaf chamber experiments) and soil respiration. References Affek, H. P., Xu, X. & Eiler, J. M., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 5033

  17. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hesami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats. Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4 intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1 at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001 decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats

  18. Extraction and isotopic analysis of medium molecular weight hydrocarbons from Murchison using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Iain; Pillinger, Colin

    1993-03-01

    The large variety of organic compounds present in carbonaceous chondrites poses particular problems in their analysis not the least of which is terrestrial contamination. Conventional analytical approaches employ simple chromatographic techniques to fractionate the extractable compounds into broad classes of similar chemical structure. However, the use of organic solvents and their subsequent removal by evaporation results in the depletion or loss of semi-volatile compounds as well as requiring considerable preparative work to assure solvent purity. Supercritical fluids have been shown to provide a powerful alternative to conventional liquid organic solvents used for analytical extractions. A sample of Murchison from the Field Museum was analyzed. Two interior fragments were used; the first (2.85 g) was crushed in an agate pestel and mortar to a grain size of ca. 50-100 micron, the second (1.80 g) was broken into chips 3-8 mm in size. Each sample was loaded into a stainless steel bomb and placed in the extraction chamber of an Isco supercritical fluid extractor maintained at 35 C. High purity (99.9995 percent) carbon dioxide was used and was pressurized using an Isco syringe pump. The samples were extracted dynamically by flowing CO2 under pressure through the bomb and venting via a 50 micron fused filica capillary into 5 mls of hexane used as a collection solvent. The hexane was maintained at a temperature of 0.5 C. A series of extractions were done on each sample using CO2 of increasing density. The principal components extracted in each fraction are summarized.

  19. The application of extraction chromatography for analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, B.; Cukovic, M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for rapid analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates is proposed. The method is based on the use of an HDEHP extraction chromatographic column, which makes possible quantitative separations of alkaline earth ions from macroamounts of uranium(VI). Composition of alkaline earth uranates, based on regression analysis, are presented. The results, which show that under the given experimental conditions alkaline earth triuranates precipitate, are in good agreement with previous data from same laboratory. In addition the HDEHP extraction chromatographic column can be suggested as a tool for separation of representative fission products from irradiated uranium for the purpose of determination of the burn-up factor of nuclear reactor materials. (T.G.)

  20. Analysis of Influence Factors on Extraction Rate of Lutein from Marigold and Optimization of Saponification Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xian-Qing; Li Man; Liu Yan-Yan; Liang Ying

    2015-01-01

    After lutein esters extracted by ultrasonic-assisted organic solvent from marigold powder, saponification conditions such as saponification solution concentration, saponification lipuid dosage, saponification temperature and saponification time were optimized by response surface analysis. The results showed that the optimal saponification conditions are saponification solution concentration 10%, saponification lipuid dosage 200 mL, saponification temperature 50°C, saponification time 2 h. Und...

  1. Zero drift and solid Earth tide extracted from relative gravimetric data with principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjuan Yu; Jinyun Guo; Jiulong Li; Dapeng Mu; Qiaoli Kong

    2015-01-01

    Zero drift and solid Earth tide corrections to static relative gravimetric data cannot be ignored. In this paper, a new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm is presented to extract the zero drift and the solid Earth tide, as signals, from static relative gravimetric data assuming that the components contained in the relative gravimetric data are uncorrelated. Static relative gravity observations from Aug. 15 to Aug. 23, 2014 are used as statistical variables to separate the signal and...

  2. Feasibility analysis of vacuum sieve tray for tritium extraction in the HCLL test blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okino, Fumito, E-mail: fumito.okino@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University Institute of Advanced Energy, 611-0011 Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Calderoni, Pattrick [Fusion For Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University Institute of Advanced Energy, 611-0011 Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The authors discovered faster mass transport on a droplet falling in a vacuum. • Primary cause of the hydrogen release from droplet is by the oscillation of a droplet. • The spherical oscillation induces the internal advection and enhances mass transfer. • This assumption agreed with previous experimental results. - Abstract: This paper describes the quantitative analysis for the design of a tritium extraction system that uses liquid PbLi droplets in vacuum (Vacuum Sieve Tray, VST), for application to the ITER helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) test blanket system (TBS). The parametric dependences of tritium extraction efficiency from the main geometrical features such as initial droplet velocity, nozzle head height, nozzle diameter, and flow rate are discussed. With nozzle diameters between 0.4 and 0.6 mm, extraction efficiency is estimated from 0.77 to 0.96 at the falling height of 0.5 m, with flow rate between 0.2 and 1.0 kg/s. The device has a height of 1.6 m, within the external dimensions of the HCLL Test Blanket Module (TBM), and no additional pumping power is required. The attained results are considered attractive not only for ITER, but also in view of the application of the VST concept as a candidate tritium extraction system for the European Union's demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). The extraction efficiency of a single droplet column, which is the basis of the design analysis presented, has been validated experimentally with hydrogen. However, further experiments are required on an integrated system with size relevant to the proposed HCLL-TBS design to validate system-level effects, particularly regarding the desorption process in an array of multiple droplets.

  3. Optimisation of a Naviglio-assisted extraction followed by determination of piperine content in Piper longum extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Pagiotti, Rita; Persia, Diana; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2017-01-01

    Studies were made to increase the yield of piperine extraction using Naviglio Extractor® solid-liquid dynamic extractor (SLDE) from fruits of Piper longum. The effects of ratio w/v were investigated and optimised for the best method. The maximum yield of piperine (317.7 mg/g) from P. longum fruits was obtained in SLDE 1:50 ethanol extract. Extraction yields of piperine obtained from Soxhlet extraction, decotion (International Organization for Standardization) and conventional maceration extraction methods were found to be 233.7, 231.8 and 143.6 mg/g, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Naviglio Extractor® is an effective technique for the extraction of piperine from long pepper.

  4. Comparison of RNA Extraction Methods for Molecular Analysis of Oral Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: The aim of this study was to compare three methods of RNA extraction for molecular analysis of oral cytology to establish the best technique, considering its concentration and purity for molecular tests of oral lesions such as real-time reverse transcriptase reaction. Material and methods: The sample included exfoliative cytology from the oral cavity mucosa of patients with no visible clinical changes, using Orcellex Rovers Brush®. The extraction of total RNA was performed using the following three techniques: 30 samples were extracted by Trizol® technique, 30 by the DirectzolTM RNA Miniprep system and 30 by the RNeasy mini Kit. The absorbance was measured by spectrophotometer to estimate the purity. The estimated RNA concentration was obtained by multiplying the value of A260 (ng/mL by 40. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.03 software with Student t, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests, considering p ≤0.05. Results: Trizol® group revealed higher average concentration, followed by Direct-zolTM and Rneasy group. It was observed that the RNA Direct-zolTM group had the highest purity, followed by RNeasy and Trizol® groups, allowing for the two ratios. Conclusion: Considering all aspects, concentration, purity and time spent in the procedures, the Direct-zolTM group showed the best results.

  5. Enhanced detergent extraction for analysis of membrane proteomes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Kimberly K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of hydrophobic membrane proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has long been hampered by the concept of inherent difficulty due to solubility issues. We have optimized extraction protocols by varying the detergent composition of the solubilization buffer with a variety of commercially available non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents and detergent-like phospholipids. Results After initial analyses by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, quantitative two-dimensional analyses of human erythrocyte membranes, mouse liver membranes, and mouse brain membranes, extracted with buffers that included the zwitterionic detergent MEGA 10 (decanoyl-N-methylglucamide and the zwitterionic lipid LPC (1-lauroyl lysophosphatidylcholine, showed selective improvement over extraction with the common 2-DE detergent CHAPS (3 [(3-cholamidopropyldimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. Mixtures of the three detergents showed additive improvements in spot number, density, and resolution. Substantial improvements in the analysis of a brain membrane proteome were observed. Conclusion This study demonstrates that an optimized detergent mix, coupled with rigorous sample handling and electrophoretic protocols, enables simple and effective analysis of membrane proteomes using two-dimensional electrophoresis.

  6. Feature extraction through parallel Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis for heart disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Muhammad Saqlain; Batool, Safeera; Khan, Imran; Ashraf, Muhammad Usman; Abbas, Syed Hussnain; Hussain, Syed Adnan

    2017-09-01

    Automatic diagnosis of human diseases are mostly achieved through decision support systems. The performance of these systems is mainly dependent on the selection of the most relevant features. This becomes harder when the dataset contains missing values for the different features. Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA) has reputation to deal with the problem of missing values of attributes. This research presents a methodology which uses the results of medical tests as input, extracts a reduced dimensional feature subset and provides diagnosis of heart disease. The proposed methodology extracts high impact features in new projection by using Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA). PPCA extracts projection vectors which contribute in highest covariance and these projection vectors are used to reduce feature dimension. The selection of projection vectors is done through Parallel Analysis (PA). The feature subset with the reduced dimension is provided to radial basis function (RBF) kernel based Support Vector Machines (SVM). The RBF based SVM serves the purpose of classification into two categories i.e., Heart Patient (HP) and Normal Subject (NS). The proposed methodology is evaluated through accuracy, specificity and sensitivity over the three datasets of UCI i.e., Cleveland, Switzerland and Hungarian. The statistical results achieved through the proposed technique are presented in comparison to the existing research showing its impact. The proposed technique achieved an accuracy of 82.18%, 85.82% and 91.30% for Cleveland, Hungarian and Switzerland dataset respectively.

  7. Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils II: optimization of chromatography and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, John W; Henderson, W Matthew; Ellington, J Jackson; Jenkins, Thomas M; Evans, John J

    2008-02-15

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary phases, two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems, and eight combinations of sample-extract pretreatments, extractions and cleanups on three test soils. For the columns and systems we tested, we achieved the greatest analytical sensitivity for PFCAs using a column with a C(18) stationary phase in a Waters LC/MS/MS. In this system we achieved an instrument detection limit for PFOA of 270 ag/microL, equating to about 14 fg of PFOA on-column. While an elementary acetonitrile/water extraction of soils recovers PFCAs effectively, natural soil organic matter also dissolved in the extracts commonly imparts significant noise that appears as broad, multi-nodal, asymmetric peaks that coelute with several PFCAs. The intensity and elution profile of this noise is highly variable among soils and it challenges detection of low concentrations of PFCAs by decreasing the signal-to-noise contrast. In an effort to decrease this background noise, we investigated several methods of pretreatment, extraction and cleanup, in a variety of combinations, that used alkaline and unbuffered water, acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, dispersed activated carbon and solid-phase extraction. For the combined objectives of complete recovery and minimization of background noise, we have chosen: (1) alkaline pretreatment; (2) extraction with acetonitrile/water; (3) evaporation to dryness; (4) reconstitution with tetrabutylammonium-hydrogen-sulfate ion-pairing solution; (5) ion-pair extraction to methyl-tert-butyl ether; (6) evaporation to dryness; (7) reconstitution with 60/40 acetonitrile/water (v/v); and (8) analysis by LC/MS/MS. Using this method, we

  8. Antimicrobial potential and phyto chemical analysis of different solvent extracted samples of viola pilosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Panni, M. K.; Shafi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of susceptibility of medicinal plants for bacterial pathogens is significant for suitable choice of treatment. Different solvent extracted samples of Viola pilosa shoots were investigated for their antibacterial and phytochemical activities using 0.5, 1 and 2 mg disc-1 concentrations. The antibacterial bioassay was assayed by disc diffusion method against six microbes. The studies revealed that ethyl acetate extracted fractions resulted in maximum growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at 2000 mu g disc-1 concentration. Similarly, Xanthomonas campestris and Klebsiella pneumonia were found more susceptible to n-butanol extract. Maximum reduction in the activity of B. subtilis and E. coli was recorded by n-hexane fractions at two mg per disc. The most susceptible microbe was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results further revealed that all the tested microbes were found completely resistant to water extracted fractions at all the tested concentrations measuring 0% ZI. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of various bioactive compounds including flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, fats, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins. (author)

  9. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  10. Direct mass spectrometric screening of antibiotics from bacterial surfaces using liquid extraction surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Marco; González, Ignacio; Genilloud, Olga; Singh, Sheo B; Svatoš, Aleš

    2012-10-30

    There is a need to find new antibiotic agents to fight resistant pathogenic bacteria. To search successfully for novel antibiotics from bacteria cultivated under diverse conditions, we need a fast and cost-effective screening method. A combination of Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA), automated chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization, and high-resolution mass or tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap XL was tested as the screening platform. Actinobacteria, known to produce well-recognized thiazolyl peptide antibiotics, were cultivated on a plate of solid medium and the antibiotics were extracted by organic solvent mixtures from the surface of colonies grown on the plate and analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS). LESA combined with high-resolution MS is a powerful tool with which to extract and detect thiazolyl peptide antibiotics from different Actinobacteria. Known antibiotics were correctly detected with high mass accuracy (antibiotics in particular and natural products in general. The method described in this paper is suitable for (1) screening the natural products produced by bacterial colonies on cultivation plates within the first 2 min following extraction and (2) detecting antibiotics at high mass accuracy; the cost is around 2 Euro per sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A simplified radiometabolite analysis procedure for PET radioligands using a solid phase extraction with micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ryuji; Halldin, Christer

    2013-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method has been developed for simple and high-speed direct determination of PET radioligands in plasma. Methods: This methodology makes use of a micellar medium and a solid-phase extraction cartridge for displacement of plasma protein bound radioligand and separation of PET radioligands from their radiometabolites without significant preparation. The plasma samples taken from monkey or human during PET measurements were mixed with a micellar eluent containing an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate and loaded onto SPE cartridges. The amount of radioactivity corresponding to parent radioligand (retained on the cartridge) and its radioactive metabolites (eluted with micellar eluent) was measured. Results: Under the optimized conditions, excellent separation of target PET radioligands from their radiometabolites was achieved with a single elution and short run-time of 1 min. This method was successfully applied to study the metabolism for 11 C-labelled radioligands in human or monkey plasma. The amount of parent PET radioligands estimated by micellar solid phase extraction strongly corresponded with that determined by radio-LC. The improved throughput permitted the analysis of a large number of plasma samples (up to 13 samples per one PET study) for accurate estimation of metabolite-corrected input function during quantitative PET imaging studies. Conclusion: Solid phase extraction together with micellar medium is fast, sensitive and easy to use, and therefore it is an attractive alternative method to determine relative composition of PET radioligands in plasma

  12. The application of three-phase liquid-liquid extraction to the analysis of bismuth and tellurium in sulphide concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction system consisting of one aqueous and two organic phases is described. Diantipyrylmethane (DAM) is used as the extractant for bismuth and tellurium, which are extracted into the smaller of the two organic phases from nitric acid and perchloric acid respectively. The extraction efficiency is in the range of 90 to 95 per cent, compensation for incomplete extraction being made by the technique of standard addition. Copper, lead, and zinc are not extracted in either procedure. When the solutions contain high concentrations of iron, thioglycolic acid is used as a masking agent for iron in the extraction of bismuth. Atomic-absorption spectrophotometry is used for the analysis of the third phase after it has been diluted with methanol. The precision for bismuth and tellurium is in the range of 3 to 4 per cent. The accuracy, as ascertained from comparative analyses of sulphide concentrates, is good

  13. Extraction and analysis of left ventricular contours in cardiac radionuclide angiographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of cardiac scintigraphic sequences is commonly realized with the help of functional or parametric images. The decomposition of the original sequence into a linear combination of the main temporal behaviors yields, after orthogonalization, a set of parametric images representing the pure temporal behaviors present in the original data. The properties of these images are used to extract automatically the left ventricular boundary. The Fourier Descriptors method is then used to get a quantified analysis of the shape of the ventricle. Because of their property of invariance by change of scale, the Fourier descriptors method applied on a sequence of left ventricular contours yields a quantified assessment of the cardiac contraction

  14. Towards automatic music transcription: note extraction based on independent subspace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhausen, Jens; Hoynck, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount of music available electronically the need of automatic search, retrieval and classification systems for music becomes more and more important. In this paper an algorithm for automatic transcription of polyphonic piano music into MIDI data is presented, which is a very interesting basis for database applications, music analysis and music classification. The first part of the algorithm performs a note accurate temporal audio segmentation. In the second part, the resulting segments are examined using Independent Subspace Analysis to extract sounding notes. Finally, the results are used to build a MIDI file as a new representation of the piece of music which is examined.

  15. Pure endmember extraction using robust kernel archetypoid analysis for hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Yang, Gang; Wu, Ke; Li, Weiyue; Zhang, Dianfa

    2017-09-01

    A robust kernel archetypoid analysis (RKADA) method is proposed to extract pure endmembers from hyperspectral imagery (HSI). The RKADA assumes that each pixel is a sparse linear mixture of all endmembers and each endmember corresponds to a real pixel in the image scene. First, it improves the re8gular archetypal analysis with a new binary sparse constraint, and the adoption of the kernel function constructs the principal convex hull in an infinite Hilbert space and enlarges the divergences between pairwise pixels. Second, the RKADA transfers the pure endmember extraction problem into an optimization problem by minimizing residual errors with the Huber loss function. The Huber loss function reduces the effects from big noises and outliers in the convergence procedure of RKADA and enhances the robustness of the optimization function. Third, the random kernel sinks for fast kernel matrix approximation and the two-stage algorithm for optimizing initial pure endmembers are utilized to improve its computational efficiency in realistic implementations of RKADA, respectively. The optimization equation of RKADA is solved by using the block coordinate descend scheme and the desired pure endmembers are finally obtained. Six state-of-the-art pure endmember extraction methods are employed to make comparisons with the RKADA on both synthetic and real Cuprite HSI datasets, including three geometrical algorithms vertex component analysis (VCA), alternative volume maximization (AVMAX) and orthogonal subspace projection (OSP), and three matrix factorization algorithms the preconditioning for successive projection algorithm (PreSPA), hierarchical clustering based on rank-two nonnegative matrix factorization (H2NMF) and self-dictionary multiple measurement vector (SDMMV). Experimental results show that the RKADA outperforms all the six methods in terms of spectral angle distance (SAD) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Moreover, the RKADA has short computational times in offline

  16. Combination of solvent extractants for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of fungicides from water and fruit samples by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Belda, Marta; Garrido, Isabel; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2017-10-15

    A multiresidue method was developed to determine twenty-five fungicides belonging to three different chemical families, oxazoles, strobilurins and triazoles, in water and fruit samples, using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS 2 ). Solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was used for the analysis in fruits, the extract being used as dispersant solvent in DLLME. Since some of the analytes showed high affinity for chloroform and the others were more efficiently extracted with undecanol, a mixture of both solvents was used as extractant in DLLME. After evaporation of CHCl 3 , the enriched phase was analyzed. Enrichment factors in the 23-119 and 12-60 ranges were obtained for waters and fruits, respectively. The approach was most sensitive for metominostrobin with limits of quantification of 1ngL -1 and 5ngkg -1 in waters and fruits, respectively, while a similar sensitivity was attained for tebuconazole in fruits. Recoveries of the fungicides varied between 86 and 116%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feature extraction with deep neural networks by a generalized discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlsatz, André; Lippel, Jens; Zielke, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    We present an approach to feature extraction that is a generalization of the classical linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the basis of deep neural networks (DNNs). As for LDA, discriminative features generated from independent Gaussian class conditionals are assumed. This modeling has the advantages that the intrinsic dimensionality of the feature space is bounded by the number of classes and that the optimal discriminant function is linear. Unfortunately, linear transformations are insufficient to extract optimal discriminative features from arbitrarily distributed raw measurements. The generalized discriminant analysis (GerDA) proposed in this paper uses nonlinear transformations that are learnt by DNNs in a semisupervised fashion. We show that the feature extraction based on our approach displays excellent performance on real-world recognition and detection tasks, such as handwritten digit recognition and face detection. In a series of experiments, we evaluate GerDA features with respect to dimensionality reduction, visualization, classification, and detection. Moreover, we show that GerDA DNNs can preprocess truly high-dimensional input data to low-dimensional representations that facilitate accurate predictions even if simple linear predictors or measures of similarity are used.

  18. Improved solid-phase extraction method for systematic toxicological analysis in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, T; Jurado, C; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    2001-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of drugs of abuse (opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines) and prescribed drugs (tricyclic antidepressants, phenotiazines, benzodiazepines, etc.) in biological fluids--blood, urine, bile, and gastric contents--was developed. This procedure involves solid-phase extraction with Bond-Elut Certify columns followed by analysis by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), after derivatization, when necessary. Pretreatment was performed on all samples: sonication for 15 min plus enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase in urine. With respect to the internal standards, nalorphine and trihexylamine were used for basic substances, allobarbital for acidic drugs, and prazepam for benzodiazepines. Acidic and basic compounds were extracted from different aliquots of samples at different pH levels: 6-6.5 for the acidic and neutral and 8-8.5 for the basic and the benzodiazepines. Several areas of experimental design were considered in the process of method optimization. These included internal standards, pH, sonication, flow rate and washing solvents. It was found that systematic analysis could be reliably performed using optimized extraction conditions. The recovery rates for the compounds tested were always higher than 61.02%.

  19. Proteome Analysis of Human Sebaceous Follicle Infundibula Extracted from Healthy and Acne-Affected Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scavenius, Carsten; Enghild, Jan J.; Brüggemann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common disease of the pilosebaceous unit of the human skin. The pathological processes of acne are not fully understood. To gain further insight sebaceous follicular casts were extracted from 18 healthy and 20 acne-affected individuals by cyanoacrylate-gel biopsies and further processed for mass spectrometry analysis, aiming at a proteomic analysis of the sebaceous follicular casts. Human as well as bacterial proteins were identified. Human proteins enriched in acne and normal samples were detected, respectively. Normal follicular casts are enriched in proteins such as prohibitins and peroxiredoxins which are involved in the protection from various stresses, including reactive oxygen species. By contrast, follicular casts extracted from acne-affected skin contained proteins involved in inflammation, wound healing and tissue remodeling. Among the most distinguishing proteins were myeloperoxidase, lactotransferrin, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and surprisingly, vimentin. The most significant biological process among all acne-enriched proteins was ‘response to a bacterium’. Identified bacterial proteins were exclusively from Propionibacterium acnes. The most abundant P. acnes proteins were surface-exposed dermatan sulphate adhesins, CAMP factors, and a so far uncharacterized lipase in follicular casts extracted from normal as well as acne-affected skin. This is a first proteomic study that identified human proteins together with proteins of the skin microbiota in sebaceous follicular casts. PMID:25238151

  20. Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery-A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Riaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance of rotating machinery in all industrial applications are the main concerns. Rotating machines are widely used in various industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery faults are very important and often complex and labor-intensive. Feature extraction techniques play a vital role for a reliable, effective and efficient feature extraction for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. Therefore, developing effective bearing fault diagnostic method using different fault features at different steps becomes more attractive. Bearings are widely used in medical applications, food processing industries, semi-conductor industries, paper making industries and aircraft components. This paper review has demonstrated that the latest reviews applied to rotating machinery on the available a variety of vibration feature extraction. Generally literature is classified into two main groups: frequency domain, time frequency analysis. However, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machine vibration signal processing methods to present their own limitations. In practice, most healthy ingredients faulty vibration signal from background noise and mechanical vibration signals are buried. This paper also reviews that how the advanced signal processing methods, empirical mode decomposition and interference cancellation algorithm has been investigated and developed. The condition for rotating machines based rehabilitation, prevent failures increase the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance is becoming necessary too. Rotating machine fault detection and diagnostics in developing algorithms signal processing based on a key problem is the fault feature extraction or quantification. Currently, vibration signal, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machinery based techniques most widely used techniques. Furthermore, the researchers are widely interested to make automatic

  1. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olguín, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, José A; Pérez, Carlos L; Mangas, Raisa; Hernández, Yasnay; Fernández, Gisselle; Hernández, Ivones; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1-500 µg/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25-50 µg/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  2. Modeling and analysis of power extraction circuits for passive UHF RFID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bo; Dai Yujie; Zhang Xiaoxing; Lue Yingjie

    2009-01-01

    Modeling and analysis of far field power extraction circuits for passive UHF RF identification (RFID) applications are presented. A mathematical model is derived to predict the complex nonlinear performance of UHF voltage multiplier using Schottky diodes. To reduce the complexity of the proposed model, a simple linear approximation for Schottky diode is introduced. Measurement results show considerable agreement with the values calculated by the proposed model. With the derived model, optimization on stage number for voltage multiplier to achieve maximum power conversion efficiency is discussed. Furthermore, according to the Bode-Fano criterion and the proposed model, a limitation on maximum power up range for passive UHF RFID power extraction circuits is also studied.

  3. Coacervative extraction as a green technique for sample preparation for the analysis of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-04-25

    One of the present trends in analytical chemistry is miniaturization, which is one of the methods of green analytical chemistry application. A particular emphasis is placed on the elimination of the use of large amounts of organic solvents which are toxic and harmful to the environment, maintaining high efficiency of the extraction process, high recovery values and low values of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) limits. These requirements are fulfilled by coacervative extraction (CAE) technique. In this review, theoretical aspects of the coacervation process are presented along with environmental and bioanalytical applications of this technique, its advantages, limitations and competitiveness with other techniques. Due to its simplicity and rapidity, CAE is an excellent alternative for currently practiced procedures of sample preparation for the analysis of organic compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blind Extraction of Chaotic Signals by Using the Fast Independent Component Analysis Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Bin, Chen; Jiu-Chao, Feng; Yong, Fang

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of using the fast independent component analysis (FastICA) algorithm to realize blind extraction of chaotic signals. Two cases are taken into consideration: namely, the mixture is noiseless or contaminated by noise. Pre-whitening is employed to reduce the effect of noise before using the FastICA algorithm. The correlation coefficient criterion is adopted to evaluate the performance, and the success rate is defined as a new criterion to indicate the performance with respect to noise or different mixing matrices. Simulation results show that the FastICA algorithm can extract the chaotic signals effectively. The impact of noise, the length of a signal frame, the number of sources and the number of observed mixtures on the performance is investigated in detail. It is also shown that regarding a noise as an independent source is not always correct

  5. Alcoholic extraction enables EPR analysis to characterize radiation-induced cellulosic signals in spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-11-19

    Different spices such as turmeric, oregano, and cinnamon were γ-irradiated at 1 and 10 kGy. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the nonirradiated samples were characterized by a single central signal (g = 2.006), the intensity of which was significantly enhanced upon irradiation. The EPR spectra of the irradiated spice samples were characterized by an additional triplet signal at g = 2.006 with a hyperfine coupling constant of 3 mT, associated with the cellulose radical. EPR analysis on various sample pretreatments in the irradiated spice samples demonstrated that the spectral features of the cellulose radical varied on the basis of the pretreatment protocol. Alcoholic extraction pretreatment produced considerable improvements of the EPR signals of the irradiated spice samples relative to the conventional oven and freeze-drying techniques. The alcoholic extraction process is therefore proposed as the most suitable sample pretreatment for unambiguous detection of irradiated spices by EPR spectroscopy.

  6. Equivalent water height extracted from GRACE gravity field model with robust independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyun; Mu, Dapeng; Liu, Xin; Yan, Haoming; Dai, Honglei

    2014-08-01

    The Level-2 monthly GRACE gravity field models issued by Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungs Zentrum (GFZ), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are treated as observations used to extract the equivalent water height (EWH) with the robust independent component analysis (RICA). The smoothing radii of 300, 400, and 500 km are tested, respectively, in the Gaussian smoothing kernel function to reduce the observation Gaussianity. Three independent components are obtained by RICA in the spatial domain; the first component matches the geophysical signal, and the other two match the north-south strip and the other noises. The first mode is used to estimate EWHs of CSR, JPL, and GFZ, and compared with the classical empirical decorrelation method (EDM). The EWH STDs for 12 months in 2010 extracted by RICA and EDM show the obvious fluctuation. The results indicate that the sharp EWH changes in some areas have an important global effect, like in Amazon, Mekong, and Zambezi basins.

  7. First Extraction of Transversity from a Global Analysis of Electron-Proton and Proton-Proton Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    We present the first extraction of the transversity distribution in the framework of collinear factorization based on the global analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering and in proton-proton collisions with a transversely polarized proton. The extraction relies on the knowledge of dihadron fragmentation functions, which are taken from the analysis of electron-positron annihilation data. For the first time, the transversity is extracted from a global analysis similar to what is usually done for the spin-averaged and helicity distributions. The knowledge of transversity is important for, among other things, detecting possible signals of new physics in high-precision low-energy experiments.

  8. Automatic extraction of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images using model driven analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Yamamoto, Shinji; Imao, Masanao.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic extraction system (called TOPS-3D : Top Down Parallel Pattern Recognition System for 3D Images) of soft tissues from 3D MRI head images by using model driven analysis algorithm. As the construction of system TOPS we developed, two concepts have been considered in the design of system TOPS-3D. One is the system having a hierarchical structure of reasoning using model information in higher level, and the other is a parallel image processing structure used to extract plural candidate regions for a destination entity. The new points of system TOPS-3D are as follows. (1) The TOPS-3D is a three-dimensional image analysis system including 3D model construction and 3D image processing techniques. (2) A technique is proposed to increase connectivity between knowledge processing in higher level and image processing in lower level. The technique is realized by applying opening operation of mathematical morphology, in which a structural model function defined in higher level by knowledge representation is immediately used to the filter function of opening operation as image processing in lower level. The system TOPS-3D applied to 3D MRI head images consists of three levels. First and second levels are reasoning part, and third level is image processing part. In experiments, we applied 5 samples of 3D MRI head images with size 128 x 128 x 128 pixels to the system TOPS-3D to extract the regions of soft tissues such as cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. From the experimental results, the system is robust for variation of input data by using model information, and the position and shape of soft tissues are extracted corresponding to anatomical structure. (author)

  9. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    2012-01-01

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study, DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...

  10. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...

  11. Spectroscopic analysis of the role of extractives on heat-induced discoloration of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of extractives on heat-induced discoloration of wood, samples of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood flour were extracted with various solvents prior to heat-treatment. Analysis of their color parameters and chromophoric structures showed that the chroma value of the unextracted sample decreased while that of the...

  12. Multi-resolution analysis for region of interest extraction in thermographic nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Fandiño Toro, H. A.; Benitez-Restrepo, H. D.; Orjuela-Vargas, S. A.; Castellanos-Domínguez, G.; Philips, W.

    2012-03-01

    Infrared Non-Destructive Testing (INDT) is known as an effective and rapid method for nondestructive inspection. It can detect a broad range of near-surface structuring flaws in metallic and composite components. Those flaws are modeled as a smooth contour centered at peaks of stored thermal energy, termed Regions of Interest (ROI). Dedicated methodologies must detect the presence of those ROIs. In this paper, we present a methodology for ROI extraction in INDT tasks. The methodology deals with the difficulties due to the non-uniform heating. The non-uniform heating affects low spatial/frequencies and hinders the detection of relevant points in the image. In this paper, a methodology for ROI extraction in INDT using multi-resolution analysis is proposed, which is robust to ROI low contrast and non-uniform heating. The former methodology includes local correlation, Gaussian scale analysis and local edge detection. In this methodology local correlation between image and Gaussian window provides interest points related to ROIs. We use a Gaussian window because thermal behavior is well modeled by Gaussian smooth contours. Also, the Gaussian scale is used to analyze details in the image using multi-resolution analysis avoiding low contrast, non-uniform heating and selection of the Gaussian window size. Finally, local edge detection is used to provide a good estimation of the boundaries in the ROI. Thus, we provide a methodology for ROI extraction based on multi-resolution analysis that is better or equal compared with the other dedicate algorithms proposed in the state of art.

  13. Effect temperature of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondari, Dewi; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2017-11-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been carried out at a pressure of 16 MPa, with temperatures between 20-40 °C, during extraction time of 6 hours and the flow rate of CO2 fluid 5.5 ml/min. The result of supercritical method was compared with the extraction maceration using a mixture of water and ethanol (70% v/v) for 24 hours. The main content in ginger that has a main role as an antioxidant is a gingerol compound that can help neutralize the damaging effects caused by free radicals in the body, as anti-coagulant, and inhibit the occurrence of blood clots. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on chemical components contained in rough extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and its antioxidant activity, total phenol and total flavonoid content. To determine the chemical components contained in the crude extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted by supercritical fluid and maceration extraction, GC-MS analysis was performed. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated based on a 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical damping method. The results of the analysis show that the result of ginger extract by using the supercritical CO2 extraction method has high antioxidant activity than by using maceration method. The highest total phenol content and total flavonoids were obtained on ginger extraction using supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, indicating that phenol and flavonoid compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. Chromatographic analysis showed that the chemical profile of ginger extract containing oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpene gingerol and esters. In supercritical fluid extraction, the compounds that can be identified at a temperature of 20-40 °C contain 27 compounds, and 11 compounds from the result of maceration extract. The main component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted using supercritical fluid

  14. Experiments made to separate the trace elements in seawater by extraction and their determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuss, E.; Lieser, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of trace element determination in seawater by neutron activation analysis are discussed. Experiments with tri-n-octylphosphinoxide (TOPO) did not bring satisfactory results because of the strong interference of the bremsstrahlung from 32 P. Experiments with oxin at different pH showed that in each case only few elements are extracted in greater amounts. An extraction apparatus is described making possible the extraction of up to 10 l water by 50 ml of an organic solution. Extraction experiments using different complexing agents were satisfactory but the evaporation of the organic phase to dryness for irradiation was difficult. (author)

  15. Consistent Feature Extraction From Vector Fields: Combinatorial Representations and Analysis Under Local Reference Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Harsh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents research on addressing some of the contemporary challenges in the analysis of vector fields—an important type of scientific data useful for representing a multitude of physical phenomena, such as wind flow and ocean currents. In particular, new theories and computational frameworks to enable consistent feature extraction from vector fields are presented. One of the most fundamental challenges in the analysis of vector fields is that their features are defined with respect to reference frames. Unfortunately, there is no single “correct” reference frame for analysis, and an unsuitable frame may cause features of interest to remain undetected, thus creating serious physical consequences. This work develops new reference frames that enable extraction of localized features that other techniques and frames fail to detect. As a result, these reference frames objectify the notion of “correctness” of features for certain goals by revealing the phenomena of importance from the underlying data. An important consequence of using these local frames is that the analysis of unsteady (time-varying) vector fields can be reduced to the analysis of sequences of steady (timeindependent) vector fields, which can be performed using simpler and scalable techniques that allow better data management by accessing the data on a per-time-step basis. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art analysis of steady vector fields is not robust, as most techniques are numerical in nature. The residing numerical errors can violate consistency with the underlying theory by breaching important fundamental laws, which may lead to serious physical consequences. This dissertation considers consistency as the most fundamental characteristic of computational analysis that must always be preserved, and presents a new discrete theory that uses combinatorial representations and algorithms to provide consistency guarantees during vector field analysis along with the uncertainty

  16. Analysis of ibuprofen and its main metabolites in roots, shoots, and seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry: uptake, metabolism, and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picó, Yolanda; Alvarez-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Wijaya, Leonard; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Alyemeni, Mohammed; Barceló, Damià

    2018-01-01

    A liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QqTOF-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of ibuprofen (IBU), 1- and 2-hydroxyibuprofen (1-OH IBU and 2-OH IBU), and carboxyibuprofen (CBX IBU) while preserving the ability of the instrument to get precursor and product ion mass spectra of non-target compounds. The trigger was the precursor ions reaching 100 cps intensity. Sample preparation was carried out by ultrasound solid-liquid extraction with methanol as extraction solvent at pH  70% for all target analytes at low and high concentration levels. The lowest limit of quantification was cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) treated at high IBU concentrations and its presence in vegetables irrigated with treated water. Up to 46 metabolites, mostly hydroxylated metabolites and conjugates with hexosides and amino acids, were identified. The most abundant metabolites were also identified in an eggplant sample. Graphical Abstract ᅟ Ibuprofen metabolite identification.

  17. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract’s antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1–500 µg/mL and benzo[a]pyrene (BP, the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25–50 µg/mL inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  18. Fifty years of solid-phase extraction in water analysis--historical development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, I

    2000-07-14

    The use of an appropriate sample handling technique is a must in an analysis of organic micropollutants in water. The efforts to use a solid phase for the recovery of analytes from a water matrix prior to their detection have a long history. Since the first experimental trials using activated carbon filters that were performed 50 years ago, solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an established sample preparation technique. The initial experimental applications of SPE resulted in widespread use of this technique in current water analysis and also to adoption of SPE into standardized analytical methods. During the decades of its evolution, chromatographers became aware of the advantages of SPE and, despite many innovations that appeared in the last decade, new SPE developments are still expected in the future. A brief overview of 50 years of the history of the use of SPE in organic trace analysis of water is given in presented paper.

  19. Simultaneous column chromatographic extraction and purification of abscisic acid in peanut plants for direct HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Wen; Fan, Wei-Wei; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hai-Hang

    2015-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a universal signaling molecule, plays important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. The low contents and complex components in plants make it difficult to be accurately analyzed. A novel one-step sample preparation method for ABA in plants was developed. Fresh peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plant materials were fixed by oven-drying, microwave drying, boiling or Carnoy's fixative, and loaded onto a mini-preparing column. After washed the impurities, ABA was eluted with a small amount of solvent. ABA in plant materials was completely extracted and purified in 2mL solution and directly analyzed by HPLC, with a 99.3% recovery rate. Multiple samples can be simultaneously prepared. Analyses using this method indicated that the endogenous ABA in oven-dried peanut leaves increased 20.2-fold from 1.01 to 20.37μgg(-1) dry weight within 12h and then decreased in 30% polyethylene glycol 6000 treated plants, and increased 3.34-fold from 0.85 to 2.84μgg(-1) dry weight in 5 days and then decreased in soil drought treated plants. The method combined the column chromatographic extraction and solid-phase separation technologies in one step and can completely extracted plant endogenous ABA in a purified and highly concentrated form for direct HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of Coal and Gangue Geometric Features with Multifractal Detrending Fluctuation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The separation of coal and gangue is an important process of the coal preparation technology. The conventional way of manual selection and separation of gangue from the raw coal can be replaced by computer vision technology. In the literature, research on image recognition and classification of coal and gangue is mainly based on the grayscale and texture features of the coal and gangue. However, there are few studies on characteristics of coal and gangue from the perspective of their outline differences. Therefore, the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA method is introduced in this paper to extract the geometric features of coal and gangue. Firstly, the outline curves of coal and gangue in polar coordinates are detected and achieved along the centroid, thereby the multifractal characteristics of the series are analyzed and compared. Subsequently, the modified local singular spectrum widths Δ h of the outline curve series are extracted as the characteristic variables of the coal and gangue for pattern recognition. Finally, the extracted geometric features by MFDFA combined with the grayscale and texture features of the images are compared with other methods, indicating that the recognition rate of coal gangue images can be increased by introducing the geometric features.

  1. Optimization of DNA extraction for RAPD and ISSR analysis of Arbutus unedo L. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Olga; Pereira, José Alberto; Baptista, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Genetic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure DNA. For the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) this represents a great challenge since leaves can accumulate large amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols and secondary metabolites, which co-purify with DNA. For this specie, standard protocols do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Here, we present for the first time an improved leaf-tissue protocol, based on the standard cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide protocol, which yields large amounts of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Key steps in the optimized protocol are the addition of antioxidant compounds-namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) and 2-mercaptoethanol, in the extraction buffer; the increasing of CTAB (3%, w/v) and sodium chloride (2M) concentration; and an extraction with organic solvents (phenol and chloroform) with the incubation of samples on ice. Increasing the temperature for cell lyses to 70 °C also improved both DNA quality and yield. The yield of DNA extracted was 200.0 ± 78.0 μg/μL and the purity, evaluated by the ratio A(260)/A(280), was 1.80 ± 0.021, indicative of minimal levels of contaminating metabolites. The quality of the DNA isolated was confirmed by random amplification polymorphism DNA and by inter-simple sequence repeat amplification, proving that the DNA can be amplified via PCR.

  2. Optimization of DNA Extraction for RAPD and ISSR Analysis of Arbutus unedo L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Baptista

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure DNA. For the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo this represents a great challenge since leaves can accumulate large amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols and secondary metabolites, which co-purify with DNA. For this specie, standard protocols do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Here, we present for the first time an improved leaf-tissue protocol, based on the standard cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide protocol, which yields large amounts of high-quality amplifiable DNA. Key steps in the optimized protocol are the addition of antioxidant compounds—namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol, in the extraction buffer; the increasing of CTAB (3%, w/v and sodium chloride (2M concentration; and an extraction with organic solvents (phenol and chloroform with the incubation of samples on ice. Increasing the temperature for cell lyses to 70 °C also improved both DNA quality and yield. The yield of DNA extracted was 200.0 ± 78.0 µg/µL and the purity, evaluated by the ratio A260/A280, was 1.80 ± 0.021, indicative of minimal levels of contaminating metabolites. The quality of the DNA isolated was confirmed by random amplification polymorphism DNA and by inter-simple sequence repeat amplification, proving that the DNA can be amplified via PCR.

  3. Microporous Carbon Spheres Solid Phase Membrane Tip Extraction for the Analysis of Nitrosamines in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Salisu Musa; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A simple solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) utilizing microporous carbon spheres (MCS) was developed for the analysis of nitrosamines in aqueous samples. The method termed MCS-SPMTE was optimized for various important extraction parameters namely conditioning organic solvent, extraction time, effects of salt addition and pH change, desorption time, desorption solvent and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, the method indicated good linearity in the range of 10-100 μg/ L with coefficients of determination, r 2 ≥0.9984. The method also demonstrated good reproducibility with % RSDs values ranging from 2.2 - 8.9 (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method ranged from 3.2 - 4.8 μg/ L and 10.9 - 15.9 μg/L respectively. Recoveries for both tap-water and lake water samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 83.2 - 107.5 %. (author)

  4. Extraction of flocculants from a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis and analysis of their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingrong Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary screening study, our laboratory isolated from the biofloc in aquaculture waters a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis, which produced highly efficient bio-flocculants. In the present study, we extracted the crude flocculants from this strain and analyzed their properties. Distribution analysis indicated that the flocculants were mainly distributed in the supernatant of the fermentation liquid. The flocculants were extracted using an ethanol extraction method, and the chemical compositions and morphology of the crude flocculants were analyzed using the Molish reaction, Fehling reaction, ninhydrin reaction, biuret reaction, phenol-sulfuric acid assay, Coomassie brilliant blue staining, ultraviolet scanning, infrared scanning and scanning electron microscopy. The carbohydrate composition of the polysaccharides in the flocculants was analyzed with thin layer chromatography. The results indicated that flocculants were solid substances with an ivory white color and their texture was loose and soft. Visualization under scanning electron microscopy revealed that their ultra-morphology consisted of small, long and fiber-like shapes. Chemical and physical analyses indicated that polysaccharides accounted for 34.5% of the components in the crude flocculants. The monosaccharides present in crude flocculants included mainly glucose, galactose and mannitose.

  5. Acute genotoxicity analysis in vivo of the aqueous extract of Maytenus guyanensis Amazonian chichuá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    Full Text Available Abstract The species Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, Celastraceae, present a wide variety of possible pharmacological activities and its roots and stems are used by popular medicine in the western Amazon rainforest. Few studies have demonstrated the genotoxic safety of the popular use of this species, and owing to this, the present study aimed to perform an analysis of the acute genotoxicity in vivo of the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis. Male and female mice from Mus musculus species, of weights ranging from 20 to 40 g, organized in eight groups with different treatments were used. The aqueous extracts of the bark of M. guyanensis were administered orally by gavage with 0.1 ml of the test substance per 10 g of the animal, followed by performance of comet assay in peripheral blood, PCE/NCE correlation and occurrence of micronuclei in the bone marrow. It was found that the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis, with ten times higher concentration than those used in ethnopharmacology, did not present genotoxic effect and, moreover, it has antigenotoxic action in mice treated acutely. Further studies regarding bioaccumulation and chronic effects of this species are suggested, in order to improve the understanding of its mechanism of action, ensuring the efficacy and safety of its utilization and developing phytotherapics and drugs.

  6. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN LATIN AMERICA: A CONTENT ANALYSIS IN THE EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ SATSUMI LÓPEZ- MORALES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Latin American countries are rich in natural resources. In this regard, the extractive industry in the region is globally important. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to analyze the presence of the dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the strategies of the main extractive companies in Latin Ame- rica, which include those listed in the ranking from “The greatest 500 companies of Latin America” from America Economía Magazine. In order to reach this assessment, a qualitative technique utilizing content analysis was carried out using the corporate web pages as a source of data. In addition, a matrix using 13 dimensions of CSR was developed to guide the research. 76 firms were identified from the extractive industry in Latin America, operating only in the mining and oil sectors. The main findings suggest that the majority of firms consider at least two dimensions of CSR, and that those such as the sustainable development and environment were those mentioned most. By country, Colombia shows the highest percentage of presence for these dimensions (86.2%. In addition, EXXONMOBIL and Carbones el Ce- rrejon (that operate in Colombia include 100% of the dimensions. Future research will be important in order to analyze the extent to which the dimensions are fulfilled in practice, and to carry out comparative studies with other regions and industries.

  7. Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nex

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc. and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A2 SIFT has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems.

  8. Analysis of trace dicyandiamide in stream water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huidong; Sun, Dongdi; Gunatilake, Sameera R; She, Jinyan; Mlsna, Todd E

    2015-09-01

    An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Analysis of Dyes Extracted from Millimeter-Size Nylon Fibers by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Learning Objective is to present to the forensic community a potential qualitative/quantitative method for trace-fiber color comparisons using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Developing a means of analyzing extracted dye constituents from millimeter-size nylon fiber samples was the objective of this research initiative. Aside from ascertaining fiber type, color evaluation and source comparison of trace-fiber evidence plays a critical role in forensic-fiber examinations. Literally thousands of dyes exist to date, including both natural and synthetic compounds. Typically a three-color-dye combination is employed to affect a given color on fiber material. The result of this practice leads to a significant number of potential dye combinations capable of producing a similar color and shade. Since a typical forensic fiber sample is 2 mm or less in length, an ideal forensic dye analysis would qualitatively and quantitatively identify the extracted dye constituents from a sample size of 1 mm or smaller. The goal of this research was to develop an analytical method for comparing individual dye constituents from trace-fiber evidence with dyes extracted from a suspected source, while preserving as much of the original evidence as possible

  10. Phytotoxic effects and chemical analysis of leaf extracts from three Phytolaccaceae species in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Ok; Johnson, Jon D; Lee, Eun Ju

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed phenolic compounds and other elements in leaf extracts and compared morphology of three species of the Phytolaccaceae family found in South Korea. To test allelochemical effects of the three Phytolacca species, we also examined seed germination and dry weight of seedlings of Lactuca indica and Sonchus oleraceus treated with leaf extracts. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were exotic Phytolacca esculenta (3.9 mg/l), native Phytolacca insularis (4.4 mg/l), and exotic Phytolacca americana (10.2 mg/l). There was no significant difference in concentrations between P. esculenta and P. insularis, but the concentration of total phenolics in P. americana was two times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis. Analysis of aqueous extracts by HPLC showed seven phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid). Total phenolics in P. americana were eight to 16 times higher than either P. esculenta or P. insularis, respectively. P. americana inhibited seed germination and dry weight of the two assay species. The phytotoxic effects of the two Phytolacca species were different, despite the fact that P. esculenta and P. insularis had similar levels of total phenolic compounds. We also found that P. americana had invaded Ullung Island, which suggested that P. americana had excellent adaptability to the environment. The three species of Phytolaccaceae in South Korea can be distinguished by their different allelopathic potentials and morphologies.

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimalarial Activity Aqueous Extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Olugbemiro Nafiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Root aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides was evaluated for antimalarial activity and analyzed for its phytochemical constituents. Twenty-four (24 albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK 65. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups of 3 mice each. Group 1 served as the control while groups II–IV were orally administered 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg body weights of extract. Groups 5 and 6 received 1.75 and 5 mg/kg of artesunate and chloroquine, respectively. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids (2.37%, saponin (0.336, tannin (0.012 per cent, phenol (0.008 per cent, and anthraquinone (0.002 per cent. There was 100 per cent parasite inhibition in the chloroquine group and 70 per cent in the 50 mg/kg body weight on day 12, respectively. The mean survival time (MST, for the control group was 14 days, artesunate 16 days, and chloroquine 30 days, while the groups that received 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight recorded similar MST of 17 days and the 150 mg/kg body weight group recorded 19 days. The results obtained indicated that the aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides may provide an alternative antimalarial.

  12. A single extraction and HPLC procedure for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-12-15

    A saponification/extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method were developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein (a carotenoid) in soybeans. Separation was achieved on a phenyl column with a ternary, isocratic solvent system of acetonitrile, methanol and water (48:22.5:29.5, v/v/v). Evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was used to quantify β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and α-, δ- and γ-tocopherols, while lutein was quantified with visible light absorption at 450 nm. Peak identification was verified by retention times and spikes with external standards. Standard curves were constructed (R(2)>0.99) to allow for sample quantification. Recovery of the saponification and extraction was demonstrated via analysis of spiked samples. Also, the accuracy of results of four soybeans using the described saponification and HPLC analytical method was validated against existing methods. This method offers a more efficient alternative to individual methods for quantifying lutein, tocopherols and sterols in soybeans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. L1-norm kernel discriminant analysis via Bayes error bound optimization for robust feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenming; Lin, Zhouchen; Wang, Haixian

    2014-04-01

    A novel discriminant analysis criterion is derived in this paper under the theoretical framework of Bayes optimality. In contrast to the conventional Fisher's discriminant criterion, the major novelty of the proposed one is the use of L1 norm rather than L2 norm, which makes it less sensitive to the outliers. With the L1-norm discriminant criterion, we propose a new linear discriminant analysis (L1-LDA) method for linear feature extraction problem. To solve the L1-LDA optimization problem, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm, in which a novel surrogate convex function is introduced such that the optimization problem in each iteration is to simply solve a convex programming problem and a close-form solution is guaranteed to this problem. Moreover, we also generalize the L1-LDA method to deal with the nonlinear robust feature extraction problems via the use of kernel trick, and hereafter proposed the L1-norm kernel discriminant analysis (L1-KDA) method. Extensive experiments on simulated and real data sets are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR FROM SULFIDE MINERAL SURFACES BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. (R826189)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur on oxidized sulfide minerals is described. Extraction of elemental sulfur in perchloroethylene and subsequent analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography were used to ascertain the total elemental ...

  15. Cellular Lipid Extraction for Targeted Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA), results in the formation of oxidized bioactive lipids, including numerous stereoisomers1,2. These metabolites can be formed from free or esterified fatty acids. Many of these oxidized metabolites have biological activity and have been implicated in various diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and cancer3-7. Oxidized bioactive lipids can be formed enzymatically or by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enzymes that metabolize fatty acids include cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs)1,8. Enzymatic metabolism results in enantioselective formation whereas ROS oxidation results in the racemic formation of products. While this protocol focuses primarily on the analysis of AA- and some LA-derived bioactive metabolites; it could be easily applied to metabolites of other fatty acids. Bioactive lipids are extracted from cell lysate or media using liquid-liquid (l-l) extraction. At the beginning of the l-l extraction process, stable isotope internal standards are added to account for errors during sample preparation. Stable isotope dilution (SID) also accounts for any differences, such as ion suppression, that metabolites may experience during the mass spectrometry (MS) analysis9. After the extraction, derivatization with an electron capture (EC) reagent, pentafluorylbenzyl bromide (PFB) is employed to increase detection sensitivity10,11. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is used to increase the selectivity of the MS analysis. Before MS analysis, lipids are separated using chiral normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC conditions are optimized to separate the enantiomers and various stereoisomers of the monitored lipids12. This specific LC-MS method monitors prostaglandins (PGs), isoprostanes (isoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), oxoeicosatetraenoic

  16. BioFoV - An open platform for forensic video analysis and biometric data extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Miguel; Correia, Paulo Lobato; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2016-01-01

    to tailor-made software, based on state of art knowledge in fields such as soft biometrics, gait recognition, photogrammetry, etc. This paper proposes an open and extensible platform, BioFoV (Biometric Forensic Video tool), for forensic video analysis and biometric data extraction, aiming to host some...... of the developments that researchers come up with for solving specific problems, but that are often not shared with the community. BioFoV includes a simple to use Graphical User Interface (GUI), is implemented with open software that can run in multiple software platforms, and its implementation is publicly available....

  17. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  18. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  19. Optimization of lipid extraction from Salvinia molesta for biodiesel production using RSM and its FAME analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, M; Shaija, A; Suchithra, T V

    2016-07-01

    The higher areal productivity and lipid content of microalgae and aquatic weed makes them the best alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Hence, an efficient and economic method of extracting lipid or oil from aquatic weed, Salvinia molesta is an important step towards biodiesel production. Since Salvinia molesta is an unexplored feedstock, its total lipid content was first measured as 16 % using Bligh and Dyer's method which was quite sufficient for further investigation. For extracting more amount of lipid from Salvinia molesta, methanol: chloroform in the ratio 2:1 v/v was identified as the most suitable solvent system using Soxhlet apparatus. Based on the literature and the preliminary experimentations, parameters such as solvent to biomass ratio, temperature, and time were identified as significant for lipid extraction. These parameters were then optimized using response surface methodology with central composite design, where experiments were performed using twenty combinations of these extraction parameters with Minitab-17 software. A lipid yield of 92.4 % from Salvinia molesta was obtained with Soxhlet apparatus using methanol and chloroform (2:1 v/v) as solvent system, at the optimized conditions of temperature (85 °C), solvent to biomass ratio (20:1), and time (137 min), whereas a predicted lipid yield of 93.5 % with regression model. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of S. molesta lipid using gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy (GCMS) with flame ionization detector showed that fatty acids such as C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2 contributed more than 9 % weight of total fatty acids. FAME consisted of 56.32, 28.08, and 15.59 % weight of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Higher cetane number and superior oxidation stability of S. molesta FAME could be attributed to its higher monounsaturated content and lower polyunsaturated content as compared to biodiesels produced from C. vulgaris, Sunflower

  20. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Unstable Simple Volatiles and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil from the Roots Bark of Oplopanax Horridus Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E-nerolidol (52.5%, τ-cadinol (21.6% and S-falcarinol (3.6%. Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E-nerolidol (2 g, τ-cadinol (62 mg and S-falcarinol (21 mg, were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  2. A chemical profiling strategy for semi-quantitative analysis of flavonoids in Ginkgo extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, An-Qi; Li, Xue-Jing; Fan, Xue; Yin, Shan-Shan; Lan, Ke

    2016-05-10

    Flavonoids analysis in herbal products is challenged by their vast chemical diversity. This work aimed to develop a chemical profiling strategy for the semi-quantification of flavonoids using extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGB) as an example. The strategy was based on the principle that flavonoids in EGB have an almost equivalent molecular absorption coefficient at a fixed wavelength. As a result, the molecular-contents of flavonoids were able to be semi-quantitatively determined by the molecular-concentration calibration curves of common standards and recalculated as the mass-contents with the characterized molecular weight (MW). Twenty batches of EGB were subjected to HPLC-UV/DAD/MS fingerprinting analysis to test the feasibility and reliability of this strategy. The flavonoid peaks were distinguished from the other peaks with principle component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis of the normalized UV spectrometric dataset. Each flavonoid peak was subsequently tentatively identified by the MS data to ascertain their MW. It was highlighted that the flavonoids absorption at Band-II (240-280 nm) was more suitable for the semi-quantification purpose because of the less variation compared to that at Band-I (300-380 nm). The semi-quantification was therefore conducted at 254 nm. Beyond the qualitative comparison results acquired by common chemical profiling techniques, the semi-quantitative approach presented the detailed compositional information of flavonoids in EGB and demonstrated how the adulteration of one batch was achieved. The developed strategy was believed to be useful for the advanced analysis of herbal extracts with a high flavonoid content without laborious identification and isolation of individual components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing sequential extraction methods for the analysis of multiple stable isotope systems from a bone sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, Elina; Arppe, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of bones, analysed either from the mineral phase (hydroxyapatite) or from the organic phase (mainly collagen) carry important climatological and ecological information and are therefore widely used in paleontological and archaeological research. For the analysis of the stable isotope compositions, both of the phases, hydroxyapatite and collagen, have their more or less well established separation and analytical techniques. Recent development in IRMS and wet chemical extraction methods have facilitated the analysis of very small bone fractions (500 μg or less starting material) for PO43-O isotope composition. However, the uniqueness and (pre-) historical value of each archaeological and paleontological finding lead to preciously little material available for stable isotope analyses, encouraging further development of microanalytical methods for the use of stable isotope analyses. Here we present the first results in developing extraction methods for combining collagen C- and N-isotope analyses to PO43-O-isotope analyses from a single bone sample fraction. We tested sequential extraction starting with dilute acid demineralization and collection of both collagen and PO43-fractions, followed by further purification step by H2O2 (PO43-fraction). First results show that bone sample separates as small as 2 mg may be analysed for their δ15N, δ13C and δ18OPO4 values. The method may be incorporated in detailed investigation of sequentially developing skeletal material such as teeth, potentially allowing for the investigation of interannual variability in climatological/environmental signals or investigation of the early life history of an individual.

  4. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora-Ioanna Lafka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model. As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm.

  5. Extractive Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (EAPPI) Mass Spectrometry: Rapid Analysis of Chemicals in Complex Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yonghua; Zhao, Wan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Extractive atmospheric pressure photoionization (EAPPI) mass spectrometry was designed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals in complex matrices. In this method, an ultrasonic nebulization system was applied to sample extraction, nebulization, and vaporization. Mixed with a gaseous dopant, vaporized analytes were ionized through ambient photon-induced ion-molecule reactions, and were mass-analyzed by a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). After careful optimization and testing with pure sample solution, EAPPI was successfully applied to the fast screening of capsules, soil, natural products, and viscous compounds. Analysis was completed within a few seconds without the need for preseparation. Moreover, the quantification capability of EAPPI for matrices was evaluated by analyzing six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The correlation coefficients (R (2) ) for standard curves of all six PAHs were above 0.99, and the detection limits were in the range of 0.16-0.34 ng/mg. In addition, EAPPI could also be used to monitor organic chemical reactions in real time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of mangostin derivatives in Tetragonula pagdeni propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been used as indigenous medicine for curing numerous maladies. The one that is of ethnopharmacological use is stingless bee propolis from Tetragonula pagdeni. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC investigation was developed and validated to determine the contents of bioactive compounds: 3-isomangostin, gamma-mangostin, beta-mangostin, and alpha-mangostin. HPLC analysis was effectively performed using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, with the gradient elution of methanol–0.2% formic acid and a flow rate of 1 ml/min, at 25 °C and detected at 245 nm. Parameters for the validation included accuracy, precision, linearity, and limits of quantitation and detection. The developed HPLC technique was precise, with lower than 2% relative standard deviation. The recovery values of 3-isomangostin, gamma-mangostin, beta-mangostin, and alpha-mangostin in the extracts were 99.98%, 99.97%, 98.98% and 99.19%, respectively. The average contents of these mixtures in the propolis extracts collected from different seasons were 0.127%, 1.008%, 0.323% and 2.703% (w/w, respectively. The developed HPLC technique was suitable and practical for the simultaneous analysis of these mangostin derivatives in T. pagdeni propolis and would be a valuable guidance for the standardization of its pharmaceutical products.

  7. Analysis for extraction and bunching of ion beam from spherical reflex triode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Abe, Takashi; Kasuya, Koichi; Niu, Keishiro.

    1978-11-01

    Since an ion beam is hoped to impinge on a target in a spherically symmetric way for inertial confinement fusion, an analysis is developed here for the intense ion beam which is extracted from a spherical reflex triode. The basic equations are the Poisson equation for the electric potential and the conservation equations of energies for the ion and electron velocities. According to the asymptotic solution, the extracted ion-beam-current density is proportional to the power of 3/2 of the voltage imposed on the triode. This dependence of the current density on the voltage is improved to be the power of 1.6 by the numerical analysis. A special time-dependence of the ion-beam power at the target surface is required for an optimal implosion of the target. Using the bunching theory for the ion beam, we derive numerically an optimal time-dependence of the voltage imposed on the triode. Asymptotic forms are also obtained analytically for the voltage. (author)

  8. Redox speciation analysis of antimony in soil extracts by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Pinochet, Hugo; Gregori, Ida de; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive atomic spectrometric method for the redox speciation analysis of antimony in soils is described. The method is based on the selective generation of stibine from Sb(III) in a continuous flow system using atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection. Sb(V) is masked by citric or oxalic acid in HCl medium. The procedure was optimized with synthetic solutions of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The effect of carboxylic acid and HCl concentration on the recovery of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species from standard solutions, and on the fluorescence signal were studied. Both species were extracted from soil with H 2 O, 0.05 mol l -1 EDTA and 0.25 mol l -1 H 2 SO 4 . Since the soil samples were collected from sites impacted by copper mining activities, the effect of Cu 2+ on the determination of antimony in synthetic solutions and soil extracts was studied. Cu 2+ decreased the Sb(III) signal, but had no effect on the total antimony determination. Therefore, the selective determination of Sb(III) was carried out in citric acid-HCl medium, using the analyte addition technique. Total antimony in soil extracts was determined using the standard calibration technique after reducing Sb(V) to Sb(III) at room temperature with KI-ascorbic acid. The Sb(V) concentration was calculated from the difference between total antimony and Sb(III). The limits of detection (PS Analytical, Excalibur Millennium model) were 17 and 10 ng l -1 for Sb(III) and total antimony, respectively, and the R.S.D. at the 0.5-μg l -1 level were 2.5 and 2.4%, respectively. The total antimony concentration of soils is in the mg kg -1 range; the Sb recovery from the different soils by the extracting solutions was between less than 0.02% and approximately 10%. Similar recoveries were obtained using EDTA and sulfuric acid solutions. Sb(V) was found to be the main antimony species extracted from soils

  9. Fault feature extraction method based on local mean decomposition Shannon entropy and improved kernel principal component analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlu Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To effectively extract the typical features of the bearing, a new method that related the local mean decomposition Shannon entropy and improved kernel principal component analysis model was proposed. First, the features are extracted by time–frequency domain method, local mean decomposition, and using the Shannon entropy to process the original separated product functions, so as to get the original features. However, the features been extracted still contain superfluous information; the nonlinear multi-features process technique, kernel principal component analysis, is introduced to fuse the characters. The kernel principal component analysis is improved by the weight factor. The extracted characteristic features were inputted in the Morlet wavelet kernel support vector machine to get the bearing running state classification model, bearing running state was thereby identified. Cases of test and actual were analyzed.

  10. Recent Developments in Solid-Phase Extraction for Near and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Huck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review with more than 100 references on the principles and recent developments in the solid-phase extraction (SPE prior and for in situ near and attenuated total reflection (ATR infrared spectroscopic analysis is presented. New materials, chromatographic modalities, experimental setups and configurations are described. Their advantages for fast sample preparation for distinct classes of compounds containing different functional groups in order to enhance selectivity and sensitivity are discussed and compared. This is the first review highlighting both the fundamentals of SPE, near and ATR spectroscopy with a view to real sample applicability and routine analysis. Most of real sample analyses examples are found in environmental research, followed by food- and bioanalysis. In this contribution a comprehensive overview of the most potent SPE-NIR and SPE-ATR approaches is summarized and provided.

  11. Extraction and analysis of discrete synoptic pathology report data using R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Boag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synoptic pathology reports can serve as a rich source of cancer information, particularly when the content is available as discrete electronic data fields. Our institution generates such reports as part of a province wide program in Ontario but the resulting data is not easily extracted and analyzed at the local level. Methods: A low cost system was developed using the open sourced and freely available R scripting/data analysis environment to parse synoptic report results into a dataframe and perform basic summary statistics. Results: As a pilot project text reports from 427 prostate needle biopsies were successfully read into R and the data elements split out and converted into appropriated data classes for analysis. Conclusion: This approach provides a simple solution at minimal cost that can make discrete synoptic report data readily available for quality assurance and research activities.

  12. A structured analysis of uncertainty surrounding modeled impacts of groundwater-extraction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Qureshi, M. Ejaz; Jakeman, Anthony J.

    2012-08-01

    Integrating economic and groundwater models for groundwater-management can help improve understanding of trade-offs involved between conflicting socioeconomic and biophysical objectives. However, there is significant uncertainty in most strategic decision-making situations, including in the models constructed to represent them. If not addressed, this uncertainty may be used to challenge the legitimacy of the models and decisions made using them. In this context, a preliminary uncertainty analysis was conducted of a dynamic coupled economic-groundwater model aimed at assessing groundwater extraction rules. The analysis demonstrates how a variety of uncertainties in such a model can be addressed. A number of methods are used including propagation of scenarios and bounds on parameters, multiple models, block bootstrap time-series sampling and robust linear regression for model calibration. These methods are described within the context of a theoretical uncertainty management framework, using a set of fundamental uncertainty management tasks and an uncertainty typology.

  13. Four-Channel Biosignal Analysis and Feature Extraction for Automatic Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghwa; André, Elisabeth

    This paper investigates the potential of physiological signals as a reliable channel for automatic recognition of user's emotial state. For the emotion recognition, little attention has been paid so far to physiological signals compared to audio-visual emotion channels such as facial expression or speech. All essential stages of automatic recognition system using biosignals are discussed, from recording physiological dataset up to feature-based multiclass classification. Four-channel biosensors are used to measure electromyogram, electrocardiogram, skin conductivity and respiration changes. A wide range of physiological features from various analysis domains, including time/frequency, entropy, geometric analysis, subband spectra, multiscale entropy, etc., is proposed in order to search the best emotion-relevant features and to correlate them with emotional states. The best features extracted are specified in detail and their effectiveness is proven by emotion recognition results.

  14. Study of Image Analysis Algorithms for Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Classification of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gamarra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microcopy and improvements in image processing algorithms have allowed the development of computer-assisted analytical approaches in cell identification. Several applications could be mentioned in this field: Cellular phenotype identification, disease detection and treatment, identifying virus entry in cells and virus classification; these applications could help to complement the opinion of medical experts. Although many surveys have been presented in medical image analysis, they focus mainly in tissues and organs and none of the surveys about image cells consider an analysis following the stages in the typical image processing: Segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The goal of this study is to provide comprehensive and critical analyses about the trends in each stage of cell image processing. In this paper, we present a literature survey about cell identification using different image processing techniques.

  15. Method of extracting significant trouble information of nuclear power plants using probabilistic analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio; Miyazaki, Takamasa

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze and evaluate large amounts of trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants, it is necessary to select information that is significant in terms of both safety and reliability. In this research, a method of efficiently and simply classifying degrees of importance of components in terms of safety and reliability while paying attention to root-cause components appearing in the information was developed. Regarding safety, the reactor core damage frequency (CDF), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of a reactor, was used. Regarding reliability, the automatic plant trip probability (APTP), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of automatic reactor trips, was used. These two aspects were reflected in the development of criteria for classifying degrees of importance of components. By applying these criteria, a simple method of extracting significant trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants was developed. (author)

  16. Chromatographic and Spectral Analysis of Two Main Extractable Compounds Present in Aqueous Extracts of Laminated Aluminum Foil Used for Protecting LDPE-Filled Drug Vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, Samuel O.; Syed, Sajid; Mamangun, Anicia; Skinner, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Laminated aluminum foils are increasingly being used to protect drug products packaged in semipermeable containers (e.g., low-density polyethylene (LDPE)) from degradation and/or evaporation. The direct contact of such materials with primary packaging containers may potentially lead to adulteration of the drug product by extractable or leachable compounds present in the closure system. In this paper, we described a simple and reliable HPLC method for analysis of an aqueous extract of laminated aluminum foil overwrap used for packaging LDPE vials filled with aqueous pharmaceutical formulations. By means of combined HPLC-UV, GC/MS, LC/MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopy, the two major compounds detected in the aqueous extracts of the representative commercial overwraps were identified as cyclic oligomers with molecular weights of 452 and 472 and are possibly formed from poly-condensation of the adhesive components, namely, isophthalic acid, adipic acid, and diethylene glycol. Lower molecular weight compounds that might be associated with the “building blocks” of these compounds were not detected in the aqueous extracts. PMID:20140083

  17. The Analysis of Tree Species Distribution Information Extraction and Landscape Pattern Based on Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The forest ecosystem is the largest land vegetation type, which plays the role of unreplacement with its unique value. And in the landscape scale, the research on forest landscape pattern has become the current hot spot, wherein the study of forest canopy structure is very important. They determines the process and the strength of forests energy flow, which influences the adjustments of ecosystem for climate and species diversity to some extent. The extraction of influencing factors of canopy structure and the analysis of the vegetation distribution pattern are especially important. To solve the problems, remote sensing technology, which is superior to other technical means because of its fine timeliness and large-scale monitoring, is applied to the study. Taking Lingkong Mountain as the study area, the paper uses the remote sensing image to analyze the forest distribution pattern and obtains the spatial characteristics of canopy structure distribution, and DEM data are as the basic data to extract the influencing factors of canopy structure. In this paper, pattern of trees distribution is further analyzed by using terrain parameters, spatial analysis tools and surface processes quantitative simulation. The Hydrological Analysis tool is used to build distributed hydrological model, and corresponding algorithm is applied to determine surface water flow path, rivers network and basin boundary. Results show that forest vegetation distribution of dominant tree species present plaque on the landscape scale and their distribution have spatial heterogeneity which is related to terrain factors closely. After the overlay analysis of aspect, slope and forest distribution pattern respectively, the most suitable area for stand growth and the better living condition are obtained.

  18. Solid/liquid phase change heat transfer in porous media. Effect of density inversion of water on melting process in a rectangular region; Takoshitsu sonai no ko-ekiso henka. Mizu no mitsudo gyakuten ga kukei ryoiki no yukai katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaguchi, K [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-25

    Solid/liquid phase change in porous media has a wide relation with freezing and melting of ground bed, storage of cold heat in soil, and underground heat exchangers. This paper describes an investigation on the effect of density inversion on melting of ice in porous media by using the previously reported numerical analysis method. The high-temperature side temperature and the Darcy number were varied and investigated systematically on the ice in a porous media sealed in a rectangular container of which right hand side is maintained at elevated temperatures and the other three sides are insulated of heat. As a result, a large number of findings were obtained including the following matters: when the Darcy number is fixed at 4.01 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the high-temperature side temperature, Tw, is varied, the fluid descends along the high-temperature side because of the density inversion at Tw=4{degree}C, and forms one weak circulation that rotates clockwise; however, when the temperature reaches 16{degree}C, the circulation disappears, and a circulation rotating counterclockwise is observed, becoming identical to the case of a fluid where there is no density inversion; and change in the Nusselt number against the melting ratio, R, is the smallest at Tw=8{degree}C, and decreases monotonously with the R. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Evaluation of supercritical fluid extraction/gas chromatography/matrix isolation-infrared spectrometry for analysis of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopari, A.S.; Bierma, D.R.; Applegate, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of soil samples for organic compounds typically first requires Soxhlet extraction or sonication. These processes are time consuming and generate large amounts of waste solvent. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which uses a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide, has recently been shown to extract organic compounds from soil samples in good yields. Moreover, SFE does not generate waste solvent and can be performed rapidly. Gas Chromatography/Matrix Isolation-Infrared Spectrometry (GC/MI-IR) has been used in our laboratories for determining organic compounds present in extracts from various matrices. The authors have interfaced an SFE extraction apparatus to GC/MI-IR instruments. In this paper the utility of SPE/GC/MI-IR instrumentation is discussed

  20. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  1. Extracting sensitive spectrum bands of rapeseed using multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wang, Fang; Shen, Luming; Liao, Guiping; Wang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Spectrum technology has been widely used in crop non-destructive testing diagnosis for crop information acquisition. Since spectrum covers a wide range of bands, it is of critical importance to extract the sensitive bands. In this paper, we propose a methodology to extract the sensitive spectrum bands of rapeseed using multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Our obtained sensitive bands are relatively robust in the range of 534 nm-574 nm. Further, by using the multifractal parameter (Hurst exponent) of the extracted sensitive bands, we propose a prediction model to forecast the Soil and plant analyzer development values ((SPAD), often used as a parameter to indicate the chlorophyll content) and an identification model to distinguish the different planting patterns. Three vegetation indices (VIs) based on previous work are used for comparison. Three evaluation indicators, namely, the root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the relative error employed in the SPAD values prediction model all demonstrate that our Hurst exponent has the best performance. Four rapeseed compound planting factors, namely, seeding method, planting density, fertilizer type, and weed control method are considered in the identification model. The Youden indices calculated by the random decision forest method and the K-nearest neighbor method show that our Hurst exponent is superior to other three Vis, and their combination for the factor of seeding method. In addition, there is no significant difference among the five features for other three planting factors. This interesting finding suggests that the transplanting and the direct seeding would make a big difference in the growth of rapeseed.

  2. Extracting intrinsic functional networks with feature-based group independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Vince D; Allen, Elena

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing use of functional imaging data to understand the macro-connectome of the human brain. Of particular interest is the structure and function of intrinsic networks (regions exhibiting temporally coherent activity both at rest and while a task is being performed), which account for a significant portion of the variance in functional MRI data. While networks are typically estimated based on the temporal similarity between regions (based on temporal correlation, clustering methods, or independent component analysis [ICA]), some recent work has suggested that these intrinsic networks can be extracted from the inter-subject covariation among highly distilled features, such as amplitude maps reflecting regions modulated by a task or even coordinates extracted from large meta analytic studies. In this paper our goal was to explicitly compare the networks obtained from a first-level ICA (ICA on the spatio-temporal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data) to those from a second-level ICA (i.e., ICA on computed features rather than on the first-level fMRI data). Convergent results from simulations, task-fMRI data, and rest-fMRI data show that the second-level analysis is slightly noisier than the first-level analysis but yields strikingly similar patterns of intrinsic networks (spatial correlations as high as 0.85 for task data and 0.65 for rest data, well above the empirical null) and also preserves the relationship of these networks with other variables such as age (for example, default mode network regions tended to show decreased low frequency power for first-level analyses and decreased loading parameters for second-level analyses). In addition, the best-estimated second-level results are those which are the most strongly reflected in the input feature. In summary, the use of feature-based ICA appears to be a valid tool for extracting intrinsic networks. We believe it will become a useful and important approach in the study of the macro

  3. Building Extraction from Airborne Laser Scanning Data: An Analysis of the State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomljenovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of building extraction approaches applied to Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS data by examining elements used in original publications, such as data set area, accuracy measures, reference data for accuracy assessment, and the use of auxiliary data. We succinctly analyzed the most cited publication for each year between 1998 and 2014, resulting in 54 ISI-indexed articles and 14 non-ISI indexed publications. Based on this, we position some built-in features of ALS to create a comprehensive picture of the state of the art and the progress through the years. Our analyses revealed trends and remaining challenges that impact the community. The results show remaining deficiencies, such as inconsistent accuracy assessment measures, limitations of independent reference data sources for accuracy assessment, relatively few documented applications of the methods to wide area data sets, and the lack of transferability studies and measures. Finally, we predict some future trends and identify some gaps which existing approaches may not exhaustively cover. Despite these deficiencies, this comprehensive literature analysis demonstrates that ALS data is certainly a valuable source of spatial information for building extraction. When taking into account the short civilian history of ALS one can conclude that ALS has become well established in the scientific community and seems to become indispensable in many application fields.

  4. Determination of extractable organohalogens in apple by neutron activation analysis and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Sun, H.B.; Zhang, J.L.; Sun, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to compounds such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which originate from by now well-known anthropogenic sources, there is increasing awareness of other halogenated compounds coming from a number of different processes, and probably also from natural source. To provide the reliable results and data for evaluation of hazard of extractable persistent organohalogen (EPOX) to food safety and to further characterize halogenated compounds in fruits, the concentrations of extractable organohalogen (EOX), EPOX, and identified organochlorine compounds including DDTs, hexachlorinated cyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes and PCBs in apple samples from Chinese homegrown and imports were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatography. The results indicated that the levels of EPOX in apples was in the order of EPOCl >> EPOBr > EPOI, which showed that EPOCl was the major fraction of the EPOX pollutions. Also, most chlorinated compounds in apple samples existed as inorganic species and water-soluble polar compounds, and about 1/10-4/5 of EOX was sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX contaminants. Meanwhile, about more than 94 % of EPOCl in detected specimens cannot be accounted for by DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs. Furthermore, the T-test result indicated that the EPOCl levels in apple were significantly higher than those in peeled apple , which stated that people consuming peeled apple will get lesser intakes of EPOCl pollutants than they consume unpeeled apple.

  5. Chemical analysis and antihyperglycemic activity of an original extract from burdock root (Arctium lappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousch, Didier; Bidel, Luc P R; Cazals, Guillaume; Ferrare, Karine; Leroy, Jeremy; Faucanié, Marie; Chevassus, Hugues; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Azay-Milhau, Jacqueline

    2014-08-06

    In the present study, we obtained a dried burdock root extract (DBRE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids derivatives. We performed the chemical characterization of DBRE and explored its antihyperglycemic potential in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chemical analysis of DBRE using LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of a great majority of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives (75.4%) of which 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-maloylquinic acid represents 44% of the extract. In the in vitro experiments, DBRE is able to increase glucose uptake in cultured L6 myocytes and to decrease glucagon-induced glucose output from rat isolated hepatocytes together with a reduction of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase activity. DBRE did not increase insulin secretion in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line. In vivo, DBRE improves glucose tolerance both after intraperitoneal and oral subchronic administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DBRE constitutes an original set of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives displaying antihyperglycemic properties.

  6. Fatigue Feature Extraction Analysis based on a K-Means Clustering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.M. Yunoh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on clustering analysis using a K-means approach for fatigue feature dataset extraction. The aim of this study is to group the dataset as closely as possible (homogeneity for the scattered dataset. Kurtosis, the wavelet-based energy coefficient and fatigue damage are calculated for all segments after the extraction process using wavelet transform. Kurtosis, the wavelet-based energy coefficient and fatigue damage are used as input data for the K-means clustering approach. K-means clustering calculates the average distance of each group from the centroid and gives the objective function values. Based on the results, maximum values of the objective function can be seen in the two centroid clusters, with a value of 11.58. The minimum objective function value is found at 8.06 for five centroid clusters. It can be seen that the objective function with the lowest value for the number of clusters is equal to five; which is therefore the best cluster for the dataset.

  7. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  8. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation: extracapsular cataract extraction versus phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd R.A. Manaf

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A randomized single blinded clinical trial to compare the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery between extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE and phacoemulsification (PEA was conducted at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM from March 2000 until August 2001. The cost of a cataract surgery incurred by hospital, patients and households were calculated preoperatively, one week, two months (for both techniques and six months (for ECCE only. Effectiveness of cataract surgery was assessed using Visual Function 14 (VF-14, quality of life measurement specifically for vision. The cost analysis results from each 50 subjects of ECCE and PEA group showed that average cost for one ECCE after six months post-operation is USD 458 (± USD 72 and for PEA is USD 528 (± USD 125. VF-14 score showed a significant increased after a week, two months and six months post-operation compared to the score before operation for both techniques (p<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between them (p = 0.225. This study indicated that ECCE is more cost effective compared to PEA with cost per one unit increment of VF-14 score of USD 14 compared to USD 20 for PEA. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:25-31 Keywords: cataract, cost-effectiveness, extracapsular cataract extraction, phacoemulsification, visual function 14

  10. A Study of Feature Extraction Using Divergence Analysis of Texture Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallada, W. A.; Bly, B. G.; Boyd, R. K.; Cox, S.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical study of texture analysis for feature extraction and classification of high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery (10 meters) is presented in terms of specific land cover types. The principal method examined is the use of spatial gray tone dependence (SGTD). The SGTD method reduces the gray levels within a moving window into a two-dimensional spatial gray tone dependence matrix which can be interpreted as a probability matrix of gray tone pairs. Haralick et al (1973) used a number of information theory measures to extract texture features from these matrices, including angular second moment (inertia), correlation, entropy, homogeneity, and energy. The derivation of the SGTD matrix is a function of: (1) the number of gray tones in an image; (2) the angle along which the frequency of SGTD is calculated; (3) the size of the moving window; and (4) the distance between gray tone pairs. The first three parameters were varied and tested on a 10 meter resolution panchromatic image of Maryville, Tennessee using the five SGTD measures. A transformed divergence measure was used to determine the statistical separability between four land cover categories forest, new residential, old residential, and industrial for each variation in texture parameters.

  11. Comparison of methods of extracting information for meta-analysis of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A common method for conducting a quantitative systematic review (QSR for observational studies related to nutritional epidemiology is the “highest versus lowest intake” method (HLM, in which only the information concerning the effect size (ES of the highest category of a food item is collected on the basis of its lowest category. However, in the interval collapsing method (ICM, a method suggested to enable a maximum utilization of all available information, the ES information is collected by collapsing all categories into a single category. This study aimed to compare the ES and summary effect size (SES between the HLM and ICM. METHODS: A QSR for evaluating the citrus fruit intake and risk of pancreatic cancer and calculating the SES by using the HLM was selected. The ES and SES were estimated by performing a meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model. The directionality and statistical significance of the ES and SES were used as criteria for determining the concordance between the HLM and ICM outcomes. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the directionality of SES extracted by using the HLM or ICM. The application of the ICM, which uses a broader information base, yielded more-consistent ES and SES, and narrower confidence intervals than the HLM. CONCLUSIONS: The ICM is advantageous over the HLM owing to its higher statistical accuracy in extracting information for QSR on nutritional epidemiology. The application of the ICM should hence be recommended for future studies.

  12. Singular value decomposition based feature extraction technique for physiological signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ding; Wang, Chien-Chih; Jiang, Bernard C

    2012-06-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) is one of the popular techniques to calculate and describe the complexity of the physiological signal. Many studies use this approach to detect changes in the physiological conditions in the human body. However, MSE results are easily affected by noise and trends, leading to incorrect estimation of MSE values. In this paper, singular value decomposition (SVD) is adopted to replace MSE to extract the features of physiological signals, and adopt the support vector machine (SVM) to classify the different physiological states. A test data set based on the PhysioNet website was used, and the classification results showed that using SVD to extract features of the physiological signal could attain a classification accuracy rate of 89.157%, which is higher than that using the MSE value (71.084%). The results show the proposed analysis procedure is effective and appropriate for distinguishing different physiological states. This promising result could be used as a reference for doctors in diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) disease.

  13. NETWORKS OF NANOPARTICLES IN ORGANIC – INORGANIC COMPOSITES: ALGORITHMIC EXTRACTION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiedmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising global demand in energy and the limited resources in fossil fuels require new technologies in renewable energies like solar cells. Silicon solar cells offer a good efficiency but suffer from high production costs. A promising alternative are polymer solar cells, due to potentially low production costs and high flexibility of the panels. In this paper, the nanostructure of organic–inorganic composites is investigated, which can be used as photoactive layers in hybrid–polymer solar cells. These materials consist of a polymeric (OC1C10-PPV phase with CdSe nanoparticles embedded therein. On the basis of 3D image data with high spatial resolution, gained by electron tomography, an algorithm is developed to automatically extract the CdSe nanoparticles from grayscale images, where we assume them as spheres. The algorithm is based on a modified version of the Hough transform, where a watershed algorithm is used to separate the image data into basins such that each basin contains exactly one nanoparticle. After their extraction, neighboring nanoparticles are connected to form a 3D network that is related to the transport of electrons in polymer solar cells. A detailed statistical analysis of the CdSe network morphology is accomplished, which allows deeper insight into the hopping percolation pathways of electrons.

  14. Application of extraction paper chromatography in the analysis of Pu in aqueous samples containing 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagasia, Poonam; Dhami, P.S.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Closing the fuel cycle is an inevitable option for sustained growth and is hallmark of Indian Atomic Energy Programme. Analysis of fissile component especially plutonium is very important for almost all the process streams at the back end of the fuel cycle. Among the various Isotopes of plutonium, 241 Pu is β emitter and decays to 241 Am (T 1/2 of ∼432 y) which is an α emitter and having γ energy of ∼60 keV. Its specific activity is about 56 times higher than that Pu. Therefore, Pu stream is always associated with 241 Am and its activity increases with time needing its separation prior to radiometric assay. Among the various separation techniques, solvent extraction method employing thenoytrifluoroacetone (TTA) is commonly employed for its selective separation under particular experimental conditions. In an alternate approach, 2-ethyl hexyl 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17) based extraction paper chromatography (EPC) was attempted for separation of 241 Am from plutonium prior to radiometry. Pu 4+ forms strong complex with KSM-17 and is held at the point of application whereas 241 Am migrates towards the solvent front under the experimental conditions. During migration clear separation is observed in ∼15 minutes using 0.5 M HNO 3 as developing reagent. After separation is achieved, 1 cm 2 spot area containing Pu is desorbed in 1 mL xylene phase and used for radiometric counting

  15. Extraction and Analysis of Autonomous System Level Internet Map of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Çetin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the high level, the Internet is a mesh that is composed of thousands of autonomous system (AS connected together. This mesh is represented as a graph where each autonomous system is considered as a node and the connections with Border Gateway Protocol neighbored autonomous systems considered as an edge. Analysis of this mesh and visual representation of the graph gives us the AS level topology of the Internet. In recent years there are increasing numbers of studies that are focused on the structure of the topology of the Internet. It is important to study the Internet infrastructure in Turkey and to provide a way to monitor the changes to it over time. In this study we present the AS level Internet map of Turkey with explanation of each step. In order to get the whole AS level map, we first determined the ASs that geographically reside in Turkey and afterwards determined the interconnections among this ASs, along with international interconnections. Then we extracted the relations between connected ASs and analyzed the structural properties of AS infrastructure. We explained the methods we used in each step. Using the extracted data we analyzed the AS level properties of Turkey and we provide the AS level Internet map of Turkey along with a web-based software that can monitor and provide information of ASs in Turkey.

  16. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Señoráns, Javier

    2004-08-27

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila Salim Al Hashmi; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Results: Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila; Salim; Al; Hashmi; Mohammad; Amzad; Hossain; Afaf; Mohammed; Weli; Qasim; Al-Riyami; Jamal; Nasser; Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L(T.vulgaris)by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Methods:The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor.Methanol crude extracts of T.vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane,chloroform,ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained.Results:Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds.Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important.Further,the T.vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation.The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T.vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis.Conclusions:All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris are biologically active molecules.Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T.vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  19. Melted Paraffin Wax as an Innovative Liquid and Solid Extractant for Elemental Analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papai, Rodrigo; Sato, Roseli Hiromi; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Krug, Francisco José; Gaubeur, Ivanise

    2017-03-07

    This work proposes a new development in the use of melted paraffin wax as a new extractant in a procedure designed to aggregate the advantages of liquid phase extraction (extract homogeneity, fast, and efficient transfer, low cost and simplicity) to solid phase extraction. As proof of concept, copper(II) in aqueous samples was converted into a hydrophobic complex of copper(II) diethyldithiocarbamate and subsequently extracted into paraffin wax. Parameters which affect the complexation and extraction (pH, DDTC, and Triton X-100 concentration, vortex agitation time and complexation time) were optimized in a univariate way. The combination of the extraction proposed procedure with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allowed the precise copper determination (coefficient of variation = 3.1%, n = 10) and enhanced detectability because of the concentration factor of 18 times. A calibration curve was obtained with a linear range of 0.50-10.00 mg L -1 (R 2 = 0.9990, n = 7), LOD = 0.12 mg L -1 , and LOQ = 0.38 mg L -1 under optimized conditions. An extraction procedure efficiency of 94% was obtained. The accuracy of the method was confirmed through the analysis of a reference material of human blood serum, by the spike and recovery trials with seawater, tap water, mineral water, and alcoholic beverages and by comparing with those results obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  20. Optimization of the microwave-assisted extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch and evaluation of the inhibitory effects of phlorotannin-containing extracts on HepG2 cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhizhou; Chen, Yongshun; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Haohuai; Yuan, Guanfu; Fan, Yaming; Chen, Kun

    2013-09-01

    The use of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch ( S. japonica) has been evaluated with particular emphasis on the influential parameters, including the ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature, and microwave power. The MAE procedure was optimized using single-factor design and orthogonal array design (OAD). The content of total phlorotannins in S. japonica was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. A maximum total phlorotannin content of 0.644 mg of phloroglucinol equivalent per gram of dry weight plant (mg PGE/g DW) was obtained using the optimized model, which included an ethanol concentration of 55%, solid/liquid ratio of 1:8, extraction time of 25 min, irradiation power of 400 W, and temperature of 60°C. Under similar conditions, the application of a conventional extraction method led to a lower phlorotannin yield of 0.585 mg PGE/g WD. These results demonstrated that the MAE approach provided better results for the extraction of phlorotannins from S. japonica and was a promising technique for the extraction of phenolic compounds from S. japonica and other materials. In addition, screening tests for the inhibitory activity showed that the phlorotannin-containing extracts significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by inducing their apoptosis. The morphological changes that occurred during cell apoptosis were characterized using Hoechst33258 staining.