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Sample records for solid-containing liquid stream

  1. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL

  2. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  3. Equipment to separate liquid droplets from the cooling air stream of a liquid cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.E.; Schwinn, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to separate off liquid droplets from the air stream of a cooling tower, one uses separator blades that are secured to the supporting construction. An improvement on this is proposed to make the repairs easier. According to the invention, the separator blades should be fabricated from springy material with self-supporting strength and can be fitted onto the supporting construction by means of slits and notches. (RW) [de

  4. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas....../liquid streams towards the first and second electrode; wherein the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode and/or the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode comprises a material suitable as an electrolyte material...... with the at least one scrubber, with the proviso that the fuel cell or electrolysis cell is not a solid oxide cell....

  5. Removal of radionuclides from liquid streams by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, U.A.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Separation of radionuclides in trace concentrations by cellulose acetate membranes has been under investigation in this laboratory, and the behaviour of some important radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr under reverse osmosis has been reported earlier. The present work deals with a few other typical radionuclides such as 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I which are not fully amenable to conventional methods for their removal. Separation of these radionuclides from liquid streams by the reverse osmosis process was studied using a small reverse osmosis test cell. Various parameters like membrane porosity, applied pressure and feed activity levels were investigated. Cellulose acetate membranes offer reasonable separation of 60 Co, 103 Ru and 131 I radionuclides, indicating the potential of reverse osmosis for treatment of effluents containing these radioisotopes. The percent separation is found to be in the order of Co > Ru > I. The percent radioactive separation improves with increases in feed activity. The performance data are explained in terms of solution-diffusion mechanism. It appears that the separation of radionuclides is not governed by diffusion alone, but by the interaction of solutes with the membranes. (author)

  6. Use of membrane separation processes for the separation of radionuclides from liquid and gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladisavljevic, G.T.; Rajkovic, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Use of membranes for the separation and recovery of radionuclides from contaminated liquid and gas streams has been discussed in this paper. The special attention has been paid to the use of ion-exchange membranes for electrodialysis and Donnan dialysis, as well as the use of facilitated liquid membranes for liquid pertraction. (author)

  7. Penetration of Liquid Jets into a High-velocity Air Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelko, Louis J

    1950-01-01

    Data are presented showing the penetration characteristics of liquid jets directed approximately perpendicular to a high-velocity air stream for jet-nozzle-throat diameters from 0.0135 to 0.0625 inch, air stream densities from 0.0805 to 0.1365 pound per cubic foot, liquid jet velocities from 168.1 to 229.0 feet per second and a liquid jet density of approximately 62 pounds per cubic foot. The data were analyzed and a correlation was developed that permitted the determination of the penetration length of the liquid jet for any operation condition within the range of variables investigated.

  8. Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electroaerodynamic Instability of a Liquid Sheet Sprayed with an Air Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Awasthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability of a thin sheet of viscous and dielectric liquid moving in the same direction as an air stream in the presence of a uniform horizontal electric field has been carried out using viscous potential flow theory. It is observed that aerodynamic-enhanced instability occurs if the Weber number is much less than a critical value related to the ratio of the air and liquid stream velocities, viscosity ratio of two fluids, the electric field, and the dielectric constant values. Liquid viscosity has stabilizing effect in the stability analysis, while air viscosity has destabilizing effect.

  9. Process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between streams of liquid water and gaseous halohydrocarbon and an apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Rolston, J.H.; Clermont, M.J.; Paterson, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between streams of liquid water and gaseous halohydrocarbons comprising: (a) bringing into contact a water stream, a halohydrocarbon stream, and a catalytic porous anion exchange resin so that the isotope-deficient halohydrocarbon stream is enriched; (b) decomposing the halohydrocarbon stream photolytically into two gaseous streams, one enriched and the other deficient; (c) removing as a product the first, enriched stream; and (d) recycling the second stream for enrichment. An apparatus is also provided

  10. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Riley, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe)

  11. A method for assay of special nuclear material in high level liquid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Subramani, C.R.; Swaminathan, K.; Asuvathraman, R.; Kutty, K.V.G.

    2003-01-01

    The assay of special nuclear material in the high level liquid waste streams assumes importance as this is the first stage in the extraction cycle and considerable losses of plutonium could occur here. This stream contains all the fission products as also the minor actinides and hence normal nuclear techniques cannot be used without prior separation of the special nuclear material. This paper presents the preliminary results carried out using wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence as part of the developmental efforts to assay SNM in these streams by instrumental techniques. (author)

  12. A numeric investigation of co-flowing liquid streams using the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Andy; Tagg, Randall

    2007-11-01

    We present a numerical investigation of co-flowing immiscible liquid streams using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for multi component, dissimilar viscosity, immiscible fluid flow. When a liquid is injected into another immiscible liquid, the flow will eventually transition from jetting to dripping due to interfacial tension. Our implementation of LBM models the interfacial tension through a variety of techniques. Parallelization is also straightforward for both single and multi component models as only near local interaction is required. We compare the results of our numerical investigation using LBM to several recent physical experiments.

  13. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.

    1988-08-01

    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs

  14. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  15. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay

    1960-01-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm 2 ), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm 2 ). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [fr

  16. Laser streaming: Turning a laser beam into a flow of liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Qiuhui; Zhu, Zhuan; Lin, Feng; Deng, Jiangdong; Ku, Geng; Dong, Suchuan; Song, Shuo; Alam, Md Kamrul; Liu, Dong; Wang, Zhiming; Bao, Jiming

    2017-09-01

    Transforming a laser beam into a mass flow has been a challenge both scientifically and technologically. We report the discovery of a new optofluidic principle and demonstrate the generation of a steady-state water flow by a pulsed laser beam through a glass window. To generate a flow or stream in the same path as the refracted laser beam in pure water from an arbitrary spot on the window, we first fill a glass cuvette with an aqueous solution of Au nanoparticles. A flow will emerge from the focused laser spot on the window after the laser is turned on for a few to tens of minutes; the flow remains after the colloidal solution is completely replaced by pure water. Microscopically, this transformation is made possible by an underlying plasmonic nanoparticle-decorated cavity, which is self-fabricated on the glass by nanoparticle-assisted laser etching and exhibits size and shape uniquely tailored to the incident beam profile. Hydrophone signals indicate that the flow is driven via acoustic streaming by a long-lasting ultrasound wave that is resonantly generated by the laser and the cavity through the photoacoustic effect. The principle of this light-driven flow via ultrasound, that is, photoacoustic streaming by coupling photoacoustics to acoustic streaming, is general and can be applied to any liquid, opening up new research and applications in optofluidics as well as traditional photoacoustics and acoustic streaming.

  17. In-line Kevlar filters for microfiltration of transuranic-containing liquid streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G J; Beddingfield, D H; Lieberman, J L; Curtis, J M; Ficklin, A C

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant has numerous ongoing efforts to minimize the generation of residue and waste and to improve safety and health. Spent polypropylene liquid filters held for plutonium recovery, known as "residue," or as transuranic mixed waste contribute to storage capacity problems and create radiation safety and health considerations. An in-line process-liquid filter made of Kevlar polymer fiber has been evaluated for its potential to: (1) minimize filter residue, (2) recover economically viable quantities of plutonium, (3) minimize liquid storage tank and process-stream radioactivity, and (4) reduce potential personnel radiation exposure associated with these sources. Kevlar filters were rated to less than or equal to 1 mu nominal filtration and are capable of reducing undissolved plutonium particles to more than 10 times below the economic discard limit, however produced high back-pressures and are not yet acid resistant. Kevlar filters performed independent of loaded particles serving as a sieve. Polypropylene filters removed molybdenum particles at efficiencies equal to Kevlar filters only after loading molybdenum during recirculation events. Kevlars' high-efficiency microfiltration of process-liquid streams for the removal of actinides has the potential to reduce personnel radiation exposure by a factor of 6 or greater, while simultaneously achieving a reduction in the generation of filter residue and waste by a factor of 7. Insoluble plutonium may be recoverable from Kevlar filters by incineration.

  18. Conceptual process design and economic analysis of a process based on liquid-liquid extraction for the recovery of glycols from aqueous streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of monoethylene glycol (MEG) and 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) from aqueous streams via liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) using a tailor-made ionic liquid [TOA MNaph] is evaluated as an alternative technology to conventional triple effect evaporation of water. In this paper, the conceptual

  19. Experimental Investigation Evaporation of Liquid Mixture Droplets during Depressurization into Air Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Bi, Q. C.; Terekhov, Victor I.; Shishkin, Nikolay E.

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop experimental method to study the evaporation process of liquid mixture droplets during depressurization and into air stream. During the experiment, a droplet was suspended on a thermocouple; an infrared thermal imager was used to measure the droplet surface temperature transition. Saltwater droplets were used to investigate the evaporation process during depressurization, and volatile liquid mixtures of ethanol, methanol and acetone in water were applied to experimentally research the evaporation into air stream. According to the results, the composition and concentration has a complex influence on the evaporation rate and the temperature transition. With an increase in the share of more volatile component, the evaporation rate increases. While, a higher salt concentration in water results in a lower evaporation rate. The shape variation of saltwater droplet also depends on the mass concentration in solution, whether it is higher or lower than the eutectic point (22.4%). The results provide important insight into the complex heat and mass transfer of liquid mixture during evaporation.

  20. Soil plutonium and cesium in stream channels and banks of Los Alamos liquid effluent-receiving areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1982-01-01

    Stream channel sediments and adjacent bank soils found in three intermittent streams used for treated liquid effluent disposal at Los Alamos, New Mexico were sampled to determine the distribution of 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu and 137 Cs. Radionuclide concentrations and inventories were determined as functions of distance downstream from the waste outfall and from the center of the stream channel, soil sampling depth, stream channel-bank physiography, and the waste use history of each disposal area. Radionuclide concentrations in channel sediments were inversely related to distances up to 10 km downstream from the outfalls. For sites receiving appreciable waste effluent additions, contaminant concentrations in bank soils decreased with perpendicular distances greater than 0.38 m from the stream channel, and with stream bank sampling depths greater than 20-40 cm. Concentrations and total inventories of radionuclides in stream bank soils generally decreased as stream bank height increased. Inventory estimates of radionuclides in channel sediments exhibited coefficients of variation that ranged 0.41-2.6, reflecting the large variation in radionuclide concentrations at each site. Several interesting temporal relationships of these radionuclides in intermittent streams were gleaned from the varying waste use histories of the three effluent-receiving areas. Eleven years after liquid wastes were added to one canyon, the major radionuclide inventories were found in the stream bank soils, unlike most of the other currently-used receiving areas. A period of time greater than 6 yr seems to be required before the plutonium in liquid wastes currently added to the canyon is approximately equilibrated with the plutonium in the bank soils. These observations are discussed relative to waste management practices in these southwestern intermittent streams. (author)

  1. Soil plutonium and cesium in stream channels and banks of Los Alamos liquid effluent-receiving areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Trujillo, G

    1982-10-01

    Stream channel sediments and adjacent bank soils found in three intermittent streams used for treated liquid effluent disposal at Los Alamos, New Mexico were sampled to determine the distribution of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 137Cs. Radionuclide concentrations and inventories were determined as functions of distance downstream from the waste outfall and from the center of the stream channel, soil sampling depth, stream channel-bank physiography, and the waste use history of each disposal area. Radionuclide concentrations in channel sediments were inversely related to distances up to 10 km downstream from the outfalls. For sites receiving appreciable waste effluent additions, contaminant concentrations in bank soils decreased with perpendicular distances greater than 0.38 m from the stream channel, and with stream bank sampling depths greater than 20-40 cm. Concentrations and total inventories of radionuclides in stream bank soils generally decreased as stream bank height increased. Inventory estimates of radionuclides in channel sediments exhibited coefficients of variation that ranged 0.41-2.6, reflecting the large variation in radionuclide concentrations at each site. Several interesting temporal relationships of these radionuclides in intermittent streams were gleaned from the varying waste use histories of the three effluent-receiving areas. Eleven yr after liquid wastes were added to one canyon, the major radionuclide inventories were found in the stream bank soils, unlike most of the other currently-used receiving areas. A period of time greater than 6 yr seems to be required before the plutonium in liquid wastes currently added to the canyon is approximately equilibrated with the plutonium in the bank soils. These observations are discussed relative to waste management practices in these southwestern intermittent streams.

  2. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  3. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors

  4. Acoustic streaming in simplified liquid rocket engines with transverse mode oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.; Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This study considers a simplified model of a liquid rocket engine in which uniform injection is imposed at the faceplate. The corresponding cylindrical chamber has a small length-to-diameter ratio with respect to solid and hybrid rockets. Given their low chamber aspect ratios, liquid thrust engines are known to experience severe tangential and radial oscillation modes more often than longitudinal ones. In order to model this behavior, tangential and radial waves are superimposed onto a basic mean-flow model that consists of a steady, uniform axial velocity throughout the chamber. Using perturbation tools, both potential and viscous flow equations are then linearized in the pressure wave amplitude and solved to the second order. The effects of the headwall Mach number are leveraged as well. While the potential flow analysis does not predict any acoustic streaming effects, the viscous solution carried out to the second order gives rise to steady secondary flow patterns near the headwall. These axisymmetric, steady contributions to the tangential and radial traveling waves are induced by the convective flow motion through interactions with inertial and viscous forces. We find that suppressing either the convective terms or viscosity at the headwall leads to spurious solutions that are free from streaming. In our problem, streaming is initiated at the headwall, within the boundary layer, and then extends throughout the chamber. We find that nonlinear streaming effects of tangential and radial waves act to alter the outer solution inside a cylinder with headwall injection. As a result of streaming, the radial wave velocities are intensified in one-half of the domain and reduced in the opposite half at any instant of time. Similarly, the tangential waves are either enhanced or weakened in two opposing sectors that are at 90° angle to the radial velocity counterparts. The second-order viscous solution that we obtain clearly displays both an oscillating and a steady flow

  5. Analysis of trace dicyandiamide in stream water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huidong; Sun, Dongdi; Gunatilake, Sameera R; She, Jinyan; Mlsna, Todd E

    2015-09-01

    An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....

  7. The streaming potential of liquid carbon dioxide in BreaSandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.; Glaser, S.; Morrison, F.; Hoversten, G.M.

    2004-10-01

    We report here, for the first time, evolution of the streaming potential coupling coefficient as liquid carbon dioxide infiltrates Berea sandstone. Using 125 Omega-m tap water, the coupling coefficient determined before and after each CO2 flood of five samples averaged approximately -30 mV/0.1 MPa. After liquid CO2 passed through the specimens displacing all mobile pore water, trapped water remained and the coupling coefficient was approximately -3 mV/0.1 MPa. A bound water limit of the coupling coefficient for liquid CO2 flow was found using an air-dried sample to be -0.02 mV/0.1 MPa. For initially water-saturated samples, bulk resistivity varied during CO2 invasion from 330 Ohm-m, to 150 Ohm-m during CO2/water mixing, to a final value of 380 Ohm-m. Results suggest that trapped and bound water control electrical conduction and the electrokinetic response. Applications include monitoring CO2 injectate in subsurface reservoirs using the self potential method.

  8. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels

  9. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Tm), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, Tecogen, a division of Thermo Power Corporation, a Thermo Electron company, is developing a real-time, field-deployable, alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (patent pending, to be assigned to the Department of Energy). The Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste Focus Area and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This instrument for direct counting of alpha-emitters in aqueous streams is presently being developed by Thermo Power under a development program funded by the DOE Environmental Management program (DOE-EM), administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Under this contract, Thermo Power has demonstrated a solid-state, silicon-based semiconductor instrument, which uses a proprietary film-based collection system to quantitatively extract the

  11. Process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between streams of liquid water and gaseous halohydrocarbon and an apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E. A.; Clermont, M. J.; Paterson, L. M.; Rolston, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope (e.g. deuterium) exchange from liquid water to a gaseous halohydrocarbon (e.g. fluoroform, CF 3 H-CF 3 D) is obtained at an operating temperature in the range 0 0 to 100 0 C. using a catalytically active mass comprising a porous anion exchange resin in the hydroxide ion form and enriched gaseous halohydrocarbon stream is decomposed by isotope selective photo-decomposition into a first, gaseous stream enriched in the hydrogen isotope, which is removed as a product, and a depleted gaseous halohydrocarbon stream, which is recirculated for enrichment again. The catalytically active mass may, for example, be in the form of resin particles suspended in a fluidized bed or packed as resin particles between sheets wound into a roll. One of the sheets may be corrugated and have open interstices to form a packing in a column which permits countercurrent gas and liquid flow past the resin. Preferably the wound sheets are hydrophilic to retard flooding by the liquid water. The liquid water stream may contain dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) added as co-solvent

  12. Source modulation-correlation measurement for fissile mass flow in gas or liquid fissile streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Valentine, T.E.; Abston, R.A.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of monitoring fissile mass flow on all three legs of a blending point, where the input is high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) and the product is PEU, can yield the fissile stream velocity and, with calibration, the [sup235]U content. The product of velocity and content integrated over the pipe gives the fissile mass flow in each leg. Also, the ratio of fissile contents in each pipe: HEU/LEU, HEU/PEU, and PEU/LEU, are obtained. By modulating the source on the input HEU pipe differently from that on the output pipe, the HEU gas can be tracked through the blend point. This method can be useful for monitoring flow velocity, fissile content, and fissile mass flow in HEU blenddown of UF[sub 6] if the pressures are high enough to contain some of the induced fission products. This method can also be used to monitor transfer of fissile liquids and other gases and liquids that emit radiation delayed from particle capture. These preliminary experiments with the Oak Ridge apparatus show that the method will work and the modeling is adequate

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and

  14. Determination of the mass-transfer coefficient in liquid phase in a stream-bubble contact device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. V.; Dmitrieva, O. S.; Madyshev, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    One of the most effective energy saving technologies is the improvement of existing heat and mass exchange units. A stream-bubble contact device is designed to enhance the operation efficiency of heat and mass exchange units. The stages of the stream-bubble units that are proposed by the authors for the decarbonization process comprise contact devices with equivalent sizes, whose number is determined by the required performance of a unit. This approach to the structural design eliminates the problems that arise upon the transition from laboratory samples to industrial facilities and makes it possible to design the units of any required performance without a decrease in the effectiveness of mass exchange. To choose the optimal design that provides the maximum effectiveness of the mass-exchange processes in units and their intensification, the change of the mass-transfer coefficient is analyzed with the assumption of a number of parameters. The results of the study of the effect of various structural parameters of a stream-bubble contact device on the mass-transfer coefficient in the liquid phase are given. It is proven that the mass-transfer coefficient increases in the liquid phase, in the first place, with the growth of the level of liquid in the contact element, because the rate of the liquid run-off grows in this case and, consequently, the time of surface renewal is reduced; in the second place, with an increase in the slot diameter in the downpipe, because the jet diameter and, accordingly, their section perimeter and the area of the surface that is immersed in liquid increase; and, in the third place, with an increase in the number of slots in the downpipe, because the area of the surface that is immersed in the liquid of the contact element increases. Thus, in order to increase the mass-transfer coefficient in the liquid phase, it is necessary to design the contact elements with a minimum width and a large number of slots and their increased diameter; in

  15. Criticality safety issues arising from the treatment of liquid effluent streams from the reprocessing of thermal oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.R.; Farrington, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    The BNFL THORP plant will reprocess irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors to recover plutonium dioxide and uranium trioxide in a pure form. A consequence of the reprocessing is that several liquid effluent streams are produced which can contain residual fissile material. Generally, the treatment of these effluent streams is carried out in large vessels which are not geometrically favourable with regard to nuclear safety. This is possible because the concentration of fissile material in solution is far less than the safely subcritical infinite sea concentrations. The situation is complicated by the presence of precipitated solids in some vessels and crud layers in others. Experimental measurements have been used to characterise these solids in order to extend the usual safe limits, and to provide an acceptable operating regime. Based on the experimental characterisation of the solids, the neutronics computer codes WIMS and MONK have been used to determine the optimum possible conditions existing, and to determine the safe fissile mass limits for these systems. The limits which are derived have been used to provide alarm and trip levels for instrumentation which has been employed in a novel way. It has been shown that the plant can be operated successfully and remains acceptably safe taking into account the presence of solids in the liquid effluent streams. (author)

  16. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the separation of 2,3-butanediol from aqueous streams using tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphthoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Chavez, Lesly Y.; Shazad, Maryam; Schuur, Boelo; Haan, André B. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Recovery of 2,3 butanediol from water using a task specific ionic liquid [TOA MNaph]. ► LLE data was correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC at three different temperatures. ► Both models describe the system adequately RSMD: 1.54% NRTL and 1.88% UNIQUAC. - Abstract: Microbiological production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) through fermentation using renewable feedstock is a promising option for the production of bio based chemicals. Liquid–liquid extraction could be a more efficient process, if a proper solvent is used. Tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphthoate [TOA MNaph] is a tailor made hydrophobic ionic liquid that may be applied for the recovery of 2,3-BD from aqueous streams. In this work, the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for {2,3-BD + water + [TOA MNaph]} at (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K have been obtained and correlated to the NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models. Root square mean deviations (RMSD) values of 1.54% (NRTL) and 1.88% (UNIQUAC) were obtained, showing that both models can properly describe the experimental data. Compared to conventional solvents [TOA MNaph] presents a good balance between distribution coefficient (D 2,3BD = 1.08) and selectivity (S = 11.47).

  17. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960); Transfert de chaleur par liquides entraines dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Physique-Chimie et basses temperatures, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm{sup 2}), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm{sup 2}). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [French] L'introduction d'un faible volume de liquide dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent utilise comme fluide refrigerant permet une amelioration considerable des coefficients d'echanges thermiques que l'on aurait si le gaz etait employe seul (nous avons obtenu un facteur d'amelioration superieur a 10). En regime turbulent etabli, on observe dans un tube deux modes d'ecoulements selon que le liquide mouille ou ne mouille pas la paroi. Dans le premier cas, on obtient sur la paroi un film annulaire liquide et des gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur gazeux. Dans le deuxieme cas, il se forme un veritable brouillard sans film liquide sur la paroi. Les etudes experimentales ont ete effectuees avec les melanges eau-hydrogene, eau-azote, ethanol-azote (liquides

  18. A new system for complete separation of 3He and T2 composed of a falling liquid film condenser and a cryogenic distillation column with a feedback stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-11-01

    A new system composed of a falling liquid film condenser and a cryogenic distillation column with a feedback stream, is developed for complete separation of 3 He and T 2 . For accomplishment of the separation, a sufficient flow rate of protium is added to the feed mixture. The resultant stream of 3 He, H 2 , HT and T 2 is fed to the falling liquid film condenser, and 3 He is removed almost completely. The H-T mixture from the bottom of the falling liquid film condenser is further processed by the cryogenic distillation column for complete separation of protium and tritium. The tritium recovery percentage of the system is 100%, and the two top streams can be transferred to a tritium waste treatment system. (author)

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has proven the technical viability of an on-line, real-time alpha radionuclide instrument for aqueous sample analysis through laboratory and initial field tests of the instrument. The instrument has been shown to be isotonically sensitive to extremely low (ten parts per trillion, or femto Curies per liter) levels of a broad range of radioisotopes. Performance enhancement and other scaling data obtained during the course of this investigation have shown that on-line, real-time operation is possible, with a sub 30-minute response time analyzing 20 ppb (30 pCi/1) natural uranium. Now that these initial field tests in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have been successfully completed, Thermo Power plans to conduct comprehensive field tests of the instrument. The purpose of these endurance tests will be to determine the endurance characteristics of the Thermo Alpha Monitor for Water when it is used by non-Thermo Power personnel in a series of one or more extended field tests. Such endurance testing is the vital next step towards the commercialization of the Alpha Monitor. Subsequently, it will be possible to provide the DOE with an instrument that has the capability of obtaining rapid feedback about the concentrations of alpha-emitting isotope contamination in effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area). It will also be useful for process control of remediation and D and D operations such as monitoring scrubber/rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium and D and D Focus Areas)

  1. Survey: utilization of zeolites for the removal of radioactivity from liquid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1981-08-01

    A survey was made of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the stability of inorganic ion exchangers when used for the decontamination of both low-level and high-level radioactive liquids. Results of past campaigns at the Savannah River Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rockwell Hanford Operations were examined. In addition, the performance of zeolites used for controlling water quality in nuclear fuel storage basins was evaluated. The literature survey served as a guide for identifying relevant material from foreign sources and supplemented the information obtained by direct contact of domestic researchers. The study included a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of zeolites. A secondary objective of the study was to compile data on the corrosion resistance of containment materials for zeolites

  2. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data and decontamination factors needed for the development of evaporator technology for use in volume reduction of radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON's evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

  3. Process for humidifying a gaseous fuel stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederquist, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel gas stream for a fuel cell is humidified by a recirculating hot liquid water stream using the heat of condensation from the humidified stream as the heat to vaporize the liquid water. Humidification is accomplished by directly contacting the liquid water with the dry gas stream in a saturator to evaporate a small portion of water. The recirculating liquid water is reheated by direct contact with the humidified gas stream in a condenser, wherein water is condensed into the liquid stream. Between the steps of humidifying and condensing water from the gas stream it passes through the fuel cell and additional water, in the form of steam, is added thereto

  4. Spin Diffusion and Spin Lattice Relaxation of Dipolar Order in Solids Containing Paramagnetic Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G.B.; Panich, A.M.; Goren, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomena of spin diffusion and spin lattice relaxation of nuclear dipolar order in solids containing paramagnetic impurities (PI) is considered. We show that at the beginning of the relaxation process the diffusion vanishing regime realizes with non-exponential time dependence, R(t) ∼ exp [- (t/T 1d ) α ], where T 1d ∼ C p -1/α , C p is PI's concentration. For a homogeneous distribution of Pis and nuclear spins, α=Q/6, where Q is the sample dimensionality; for an inhomogeneous distribution, the sample is divided into q-dimensional subsystems, each containing one PI, yield- ing α= (Q + q) /6. This result coincides with experimental data for CaF 2 doped with 0.8 - 10 -3 ωt % of Mn 2+ , where the non-exponential decay of the dipolar signal with α= 0.83 has been observed [3]. Fitting the experimental data yields a good agreement with T 1d = 66 ms . For another independent check of the obtained results we use dependence of the relaxation time on impurities concentration. In accordance that 1/α=1.2 , we have T 1d ∼ C p -1 '. 2 . Exactly this dependence on impurity concentration of the relaxation time has been found in the experiment. Then the relaxation regime starts as a non-exponential time dependent, proceed asymptotically to an to an exponential function of time, to so called diffusion limited relaxation regime with relaxation time T 1d D is inversely depends on impurities concentration. This kind of relaxation behavior of the dipolar order takes place in the experiment [2]. Using experimental results [2] from this two regime we can estimate the diffusion coefficient of the nuclear dipolar order in CaF 2 , which gives for typical values of impurity concentration C p ∼ 10 18 cm 3 the diffusion coefficient of dipolar order in the interval D ∼ 10 -11 -i- 10 -12 cm 2 /sec which is coincide to the case of Zeeman energy spin diffusion

  5. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  6. The development of a high performance liquid chromatograph with a sensitive on-stream radioactivity monitor for the analysis of 3H- and 14C-labelled gibberellins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, D.R.; Yokota, T.; Nash, L.; Crozier, A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a high performance liquid chromatograph for the separation of gibberellins is described. The system combines high efficiency, peak capacity, and sample capacity with rapid speed of analysis. In addition, the construction details of a sensitive on-stream radioactivity monitor are outlined. The overall versatility of the chromatograph has been demonstrated by the separation of a range of 3 H- and 14 C-labelled gibberellins and gibberellin precursors. The system also has considerable potential for the analysis of abscisic acid and acidic and neutral indoles. (author)

  7. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column

  8. Liquid-phase membrane extraction of targeted pesticides from manufacturing wastewaters in a hollow fibre contactor with feed-stream recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Jelena; Vladisavljević, Goran T; Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    A two-phase membrane extraction in a hollow fibre contactor with feed-stream recycle was applied to remove selected pesticides (tebufenozide, linuron, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and dimethoate) from their mixed aqueous solutions. The contactor consisted of 50 polypropylene hollow fibres impregnated with 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide in di-n-hexyl ether. For low-polar pesticides with log P ≥ 2 (tebufenozide and linuron), the maximum removal efficiency increased linearly from 85% to 96% with increasing the feed flow rate. The maximum removal efficiencies of more polar pesticides were significantly higher under feed recirculation (86%) than in a continuous single-pass operation (30%). It was found from the Wilson's plot that the mass transfer resistance of the liquid membrane can be neglected for low-polar pesticides. The pesticide removals from commercial formulations were similar to those from pure pesticide solutions, indicating that built-in adjuvants did not affect the extraction process.

  9. Removal of radionuclides from process streams - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzkovitch, I.J.; Ritcey, G.M.

    1979-04-01

    This report details the origin and control of radium 226, thorium 230 and lead 210 contamination of mill effluent streams from conventional and non-conventional milling of uranium ores, reviews the basic chemistry of the radionuclides as it relates to potential alternatives for control and presents these alternatives along with a summary of published cost data. The conclusions from the study indicate that the current technology, using sulphuric acid processing, solubilizes only a comparatively small quantity of the radionuclides, with the solid containing approximately the same concentration as the original ore. Present technolgy does not provide for complete removal and isolation of the radionuclides. Current practice for control of thorium 230 in liquid effluents by neutralization is adequate to meet present Governmental guidelines. Radium in solution is presently being controlled by precipitation with barium chloride but levels of less than 3 pCi/L of soluble radium could be difficult if not impossible to achieve consistently by this treatment. Indications are that the concentration of lead 210 in liquid effluent may exceed present guidelines. No specific control procedures are employed for lead 210. Methods of isolating radium 226 are required for treating effluents from conventional milling as well as from alternative processes under development. Ion exchange is suggested as a means of isolating these radionuclides. (OT)

  10. Methodological aspects on international biofuels trade: International streams and trade of solid and liquid biofuels in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biomass for fuel is increasing in industrialised countries. Rapidly developing biomass markets for energy purposes along with weak information on biofuels trade that statistics offer have been incentives for several recently published studies investigating the status of biofuels trade. The comparison of the studies is often challenging due particularly to the various approaches to the indirect trade of biofuels and the diverse data sources utilised. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the Finnish situation with respect to the status of the streams of international biofuels trade. Parallel to this, the study aimed to identify methodological and statistical challenges in observing international biofuels trade. The study analysed available statistical information and introduced a procedure to obtain a clear overview on import and export streams of biofuels. In Finland, the total direct import and export of biofuels, being mainly composed of wood pellets and tall oil, is tiny in comparison with the total consumption of biofuels. Instead, the indirect trade has remarkable importance. Large import volumes of industrial raw wood make Finland a net importer of biofuels. In 2004, approximately 22% (64 PJ) of wood-based energy in Finland originated from imported wood. The study showed that the indirect trade of biofuels may be a significant sector of global biofuels trade. In the case of Finland, a comprehensive compilation of statistics on energy and forestry enabled the determination of the trade status satisfactory. However, national and international statistics should be further developed to take better into consideration international trade and to support continuously developing biofuels markets. (author)

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  12. Methods and Production of Cementation Materials for Immobilisation into Waste Form. Research of Cementation Processes for Specific Liquid Radioactive Waste Streams of Radiochemical Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    In the near future Russian Federation is planning to use industrial cementation facilities at two radiochemical combines - PA 'Mayak' and Mountain Chemical Combine. Scope of the research within the IAEA CRP contact No. 14176 included the development of cementation processes for specfic liquid radioactive waste streams that are present in these enterprisers. The research on cementation of liquid waste from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing at PA 'Mayak' allowed obtaining experimental data characterizing the technological process and basic characteristics of the produced cement compounds (e.g. mechanical strength, water resistance, frost resistance, flowability, etc.) immobilizing different streams of waste (e.g. hydrated-salt sludges, filter material pulps, mixture of hydrated salt slurries and filter material pulps, tritium liquid waste). Determined optimum technological parameters will allow industrial scale production of cement compound with required quality and higher flowability that is necessary for providing uniform filling of compartments of storage facilities at these sites. The research has been also carried out for the development of cementation technology for immobilization of pulps from storage tanks of Mountain Chemical Combine radiochemical plant. Cementation of such pulps is a difficult technological task because pulps are of complex chemical composition (e.g. hydroxides of manganese, iron, nickel, etc., as well as silicon oxide) and a relatively high activity. The research of cementation process selection for these pulps included studies of the impact of sorbing additive type and content on cement compounds leachability, flowability, impact of cement compound age to its mechanical strength, heat generation of cement compounds and others. The research results obtained allowed testing of cementation facility with a pulse type mixer on the full-scale. Use of such mixer for pulp cementation makes possible to prepare a homogeneous cement compound with the

  13. Investigation of H2S and CO2 Removal from Gas Streams Using Hollow Fiber Membrane Gas–liquid Contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mirfendereski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical absorption of H2S and CO2 from CH4 was carried out in a polypropylene porous asymmetric hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC. A 0.5 mol L–1 aqueous solution of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA was used as chemical absorbent solution. Effects of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, H2S concentration and CO2 concentration on the H2S outlet concentrations and CO2 removal percentage were investigated. The results showed that the removal of H2S with aqueous solution of MDEA was very high and indicated almost total removal of H2S. Experimental results also indicated that the membrane contactor was very efficient in the removal of trace H2S at high gas/ liquid flow ratio. The removal of H2S was almost complete with a recovery of more than 96 %. Using feed gas mixtures containing 5000 ppm H2S with CO2 concentrations in the range of 4–12 vol.%, the outlet H2S concentration of less than 1.0 ppm was attained with less than 4.0 vol.% of CO2 permeated and absorbed.

  14. Applications of liquid phase chromatographies for the analysis of streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2000-06-01

    India has opted for a closed fuel cycle comprising of reprocessing and recycling technology. The back end of such nuclear fuel cycle involves the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels for recovery of plutonium and depleted uranium by Purex technology. Wastes arising from the reprocessing plant are classified as high, intermediate and low level wastes (HLW, ILW, LLW). HLW is mixture of over 50 elements present in different chemical forms. The accurate analyses of dissolver solution and HLW are the most challenging but essential tasks for reprocessing plant operations and also for further development of treatment methods. Inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques are suitable for analysis of metallic anions. Ion chromatography has proven capability to analyse number of cations or anions at ppm or even ppb level in single run. The report reviews the literature regarding the title subject. To assess the technical feasibility of ion chromatography for waste analysis, a simulated PHWR-HLW analogue was prepared. The PHWR-HLW analogue and ground water samples were analysed on DIONEX-DX 500 and Metrohm IC. Results obtained clearly demonstrated the usefulness of ion chromatography as vital analytical tool. HLW and other process or waste streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle can be analysed for alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth and transition metal cations and important anions. Use of fraction collector along with ion chromatography can enhance it's sensitivity to few Bq/ml for radioactive samples. (author)

  15. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  16. Determination of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by non-aqueous reversed phase liquid chromatography: Application and limitation in refining streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Saroj K; Muller, Hendrik; Al-Qunaysi, Thunayyan A; Koseoglu, Omer R

    2018-01-19

    The heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) cause detrimental effects to hydrocracker operations by deactivating the catalysts and depositing in the downstream of the reactor/ exchangers. Therefore, it is essential to continuously monitor the accumulation of HPAHs in a hydrocracker unit. To accurately measure the concentration of HPAHs, the development of a fast and reliable analytical method is inevitable. In this work, an analytical method based on non-aqueous reversed phase chromatography in combination with high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was developed. As a first step, five different types of stationary phases were evaluated for the separation of HPAHs in non-aqueous mode and the best suited phase was further used for the fractionation of HPAHs in a fractionator bottom sample obtained from a refinery hydrocracker unit. The eight major fractions or peaks obtained from the separation were further characterized by UV spectroscopy and FT-ICR MS and the compounds in the fractions were tentatively confirmed as benzoperylene, coronene, methylcoronene, naphthenocoronene, benzocoronene, dibenzoperylene, naphthocoronene and ovalene. The developed liquid chromatography method can be easily adapted in a refinery laboratory for the quantitation of HPAHs in hydrocracking products. The method was further tested to check the interference of sulfur aromatics and/or large alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons on the determination of HPAHs in hydrocracking products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  18. Akamai Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Akamai offers world-class streaming media services that enable Internet content providers and enterprises to succeed in today's Web-centric marketplace. They deliver live event Webcasts (complete with video production, encoding, and signal acquisition services), streaming media on demand, 24/7 Webcasts and a variety of streaming application services based upon their EdgeAdvantage.

  19. Dual-mode nonlinear instability analysis of a confined planar liquid sheet sandwiched between two gas streams of unequal velocities and prediction of droplet size and velocity distribution using maximum entropy formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Debayan; Nath, Sujit; Bhanja, Dipankar

    2018-04-01

    Twin fluid atomizers utilize the kinetic energy of high speed gases to disintegrate a liquid sheet into fine uniform droplets. Quite often, the gas streams are injected at unequal velocities to enhance the aerodynamic interaction between the liquid sheet and surrounding atmosphere. In order to improve the mixing characteristics, practical atomizers confine the gas flows within ducts. Though the liquid sheet coming out of an injector is usually annular in shape, it can be considered to be planar as the mean radius of curvature is much larger than the sheet thickness. There are numerous studies on breakup of the planar liquid sheet, but none of them considered the simultaneous effects of confinement and unequal gas velocities on the spray characteristics. The present study performs a nonlinear temporal analysis of instabilities in the planar liquid sheet, produced by two co-flowing gas streams moving with unequal velocities within two solid walls. The results show that the para-sinuous mode dominates the breakup process at all flow conditions over the para-varicose mode of breakup. The sheet pattern is strongly influenced by gas velocities, particularly for the para-varicose mode. Spray characteristics are influenced by both gas velocity and proximity to the confining wall, but the former has a much more pronounced effect on droplet size. An increase in the difference between gas velocities at two interfaces drastically shifts the droplet size distribution toward finer droplets. Moreover, asymmetry in gas phase velocities affects the droplet velocity distribution more, only at low liquid Weber numbers for the input conditions chosen in the present study.

  20. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO 3 -impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables

  1. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  2. Stream systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  3. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATION OF MINIMUM PRESSURE PERTAINING TO DESTRUCTION OF SURFACE CORROSION LAYER DUE TO IMPACT OF WORKING LIQUID REVERSIVE STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to balance of external and internal force capacities a variation quasistatic problem has been solved in the paper. The problem allows to determine optimum values of α and β angles in the accepted field of sliding lines when destruction pressure takes on a minimum value pmin. It has been ascertained that the minimum pressure pmin which is necessary for destruction of a corrosion layer is registered at stream compression coefficient λ = 0,063 and the pressure is equal to 8-17 MPa for the investigated speed range v = 80-140 m/s.

  5. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene from crude C{sub 4} cracker stream with a solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer (SCILL). DSC and solubility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangartz, T.; Korth, W.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In petroleum as well as in fine chemical industry, selective catalytic hydrogenation is an important reaction. The selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene (BD) to butene (trans-,1- and cis-butene) from the crude C4 steam cracker fraction represents one example, but under today's technical conditions undesired butane forms inevitably in relevant amounts. To increase the butene yield, the concept of Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL) was employed. The SCILL catalyst, in contrast to the uncoated catalyst, yielded a remarkably high selectivity to butenes (S{sub butenes} > 99 %) even at high residence times or at high hydrogen partial pressure. Nearly no butane (S{sub butane} {approx} 0 %) was analytically detected. We expected that due to different solubility, the poorer soluble compounds discharged from the ionic liquid and, thus, caused the shift in selectivity to a great extent. Temperature dependent solubility measurements in the used ionic liquid ([DMIM][DMP]) revealed that the order of increasing solubility is 1,3-butadiene > butenes > butane which matches the assumption. However, since differences in solubility cannot explain this SCILL effect satisfyingly, ionic liquids are expected to affect the surface of the catalyst (side-specific ligand-type effect). Investigations using spectroscopic methods (e.g. FTIR) confirmed this suggestion. (orig.)

  6. Liquid metal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Roach, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal monitor of the by-pass plugging meter kind described in British Patent 1,308,466, is further provided with a pump arranged to oppose flow through a by-pass thereby to provide a constant pressure difference across an orifice and improve the sensitivity of the instrument. The monitor estimates the impurity content in a liquid metal stream. (author)

  7. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  8. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  9. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  10. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  11. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  12. Simulation Of Gas Focused Liquid Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor, Rizwan

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of dissertation is to develop an experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of micron-sized liquid jet, produced by an injection molded Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). In these nozzles, liquid jets are efficiently orientedly transporting mass and momentum. They are produced by intelligently projecting hydrodynamic focusing effect from a high-speed stream of a co-flowing lower density and lower viscosity gas on a stream of liquid from a feeding capillary. L...

  13. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes

  14. Ultrasound-driven Viscous Streaming, Modelled via Momentum Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James PACKER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices can use steady streaming caused by the ultrasonic oscillation of one or many gas bubbles in a liquid to drive small scale flow. Such streaming flows are difficult to evaluate, as analytic solutions are not available for any but the simplest cases, and direct computational fluid dynamics models are unsatisfactory due to the large difference in flow velocity between the steady streaming and the leading order oscillatory motion. We develop a numerical technique which uses a two-stage multiscale computational fluid dynamics approach to find the streaming flow as a steady problem, and validate this model against experimental results.

  15. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  16. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  17. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  18. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  19. POLA RASIO KEUANGAN PADA SAAT UP STREAM DAN DOWN STREAM DI INDUSTRI REALESTAT YANG GO PUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has purpose to explain differences on indicator financial ratio in up and down stream condition. This research uses real estate industries listed on Jakarta Stock Exchange as a sample. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling method with object to gain sample according to the research aim. Based on those criteria, there are 18 companies, which have fulfilling the conditions needed, starting from 1994 until 2002. The classification of business cycle on up and down stream conditions to used stock pricing indexes of property and real estate which calculated by arithmatic mean method. Based on those criteria, the classifications from 1994 until 1997 are represented by up stream condition and from 1998 until 2002 are represented by down stream condition. The result shows indicators: profitability ratios, gross margin ratios, capital turnover ratios, asset to equity ratios, growth ratios, liquidity ratios, leverage ratios, and cash flow ratios are different in up and down stream conditions, both simultaneously and partially. Simultaneously, there is a significant difference between up and down stream condition with wilks lambda of 0,346 and p value of 0,000. This research shows financial ratio indicator has differences on business cycle. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitan ini mempunyai tujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan indikator rasio keuangan pada kondisi up stream dan down stream. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel pada industri di sektor properti yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta. Pemilihan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Purposive Sampling yaitu sampel diambil berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria tertentu yang sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian ini. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut, terdapat 18 perusahaan yang dapat dijadikan sampel mulai tahun 1994 sampai dengan 2002. Untuk menentukan perubahan business cycle pada kondisi up stream dan down stream dilakukan dengan menggunakan indeks harga saham di sektor properti

  20. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2013-08-20

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  1. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  2. The Liquid Annular Reactor System (LARS) propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Horn, F.; Lenard, R.

    1990-01-01

    A concept for very high specific impulse (greater than 2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed the liquid annular reactor system (LARS), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (approximately 6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate (approximately 10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100 percent dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use seven rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated, and have critical radii of approximately 100 cm (core L/D approximately equal to 1.5)

  3. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  4. Production of liquid nitrogen using liquefied natural gas as sole refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, R.; Ayres, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the liquefaction of a nitrogen stream produced by a cryogenic air separation unit having at least one distillation column. It comprises compressing the nitrogen stream to a pressure of at least 350 psi in a multi-stage compressor wherein interstage cooling is provided by heat exchange against vaporizing liquefied natural gas; condensing the compressed nitrogen stream by heat exchange against vaporizing liquefied natural gas; reducing the pressure of the condensed, compressed nitrogen stream thereby producing a two phase nitrogen stream; phase separating the two phase nitrogen stream into a liquid nitrogen stream and a nitrogen vapor stream; and warming the nitrogen vapor stream to recover refrigeration

  5. LHCb trigger streams optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, D.; Kazeev, N.; Neychev, R.; Panin, A.; Trofimov, I.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vesterinen, M.

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.

  6. Asteroid/meteorite streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  8. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  9. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  10. Streaming potential near a rotating porous disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieve, Dennis C; Sides, Paul J

    2014-09-23

    Theory and experimental results for the streaming potential measured in the vicinity of a rotating porous disk-shaped sample are described. Rotation of the sample on its axis draws liquid into its face and casts it from the periphery. Advection within the sample engenders streaming current and streaming potential that are proportional to the zeta potential and the disk's major dimensions. When Darcy's law applies, the streaming potential is proportional to the square of the rotation at low rate but becomes invariant with rotation at high rate. The streaming potential is invariant with the sample's permeability at low rate and is proportional to the inverse square of the permeability at high rate. These predictions were tested by determining the zeta potential and permeability of the loop side of Velcro, a sample otherwise difficult to characterize; reasonable values of -56 mV for zeta and 8.7 × 10(-9) m(2) for the permeability were obtained. This approach offers the ability to determine both the zeta potential and the permeability of materials having open structures. Compressing them into a porous plug is unnecessary. As part of the development of the theory, a convenient formula for a flow-weighted volume-averaged space-charge density of the porous medium, -εζ/k, was obtained, where ε is the permittivity, ζ is the zeta potential, and k is the Darcy permeability. The formula is correct when Smoluchowski's equation and Darcy's law are both valid.

  11. Wadeable Streams Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of small streams throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with the states to conduct the assessment in 2004-2005. Data for each parameter sampled in the Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  12. Plan and schedule for disposition and regulatory compliance for miscellaneous streams. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    On December 23, 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 (Consent Order). The Consent Order lists regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (State Waste Discharge Permit Program) or WAC 173-218 (Washington Underground Injection Control Program) where applicable. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized in the Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams Phase II Streams Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams are addressed in two RL reports: open-quotes Plan and Schedule to Discontinue Disposal of Contaminated Liquids into the Soil Column at the Hanford Siteclose quotes (DOE-RL 1987), and open-quotes Annual Status of the Report of the Plan and Schedule to Discontinue Disposal of Contaminated Liquids into the Soil Column at the Hanford Siteclose quotes. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent streams discharged to the ground that are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams. Miscellaneous Streams discharging to the soil column at the Hanford Site are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. This document provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of Miscellaneous Streams. The disposition process for the Miscellaneous Streams is facilitated using a decision tree format. The decision tree and corresponding analysis for determining appropriate disposition of these streams is presented in this document

  13. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  14. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  15. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  16. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  17. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  18. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  19. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  20. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  1. Distribution of sulfur-containing aromatics between [hmim][Tf2N] and supercritical CO2: a case study for deep desulfurization of oil refinery streams by extraction with ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2006), s. 70-77 ISSN 1463-9262 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * diesel fuel desulfurization * supercritical carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.192, year: 2006

  2. Collaborative Media Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Kahmann, Verena

    2008-01-01

    Mit Hilfe der IP-Technologie erbrachte Multimedia-Dienste wie IPTV oder Video-on-Demand sind zur Zeit ein gefragtes Thema. Technisch werden solche Dienste unter dem Begriff "Streaming" eingeordnet. Ein Server sendet Mediendaten kontinuierlich an Empfänger, welche die Daten sofort weiterverarbeiten und anzeigen. Über einen Rückkanal hat der Kunde die Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme auf die Wiedergabe. Eine Weiterentwicklung dieser Streaming-Dienste ist die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit anderen dens...

  3. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  4. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  5. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  6. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  7. Liquid-Arc/Spark-Excitation Atomic-Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagen, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Constituents of solutions identified in situ. Liquid-arc/spark-excitation atomic-emission spectroscopy (LAES) is experimental variant of atomic-emission spectroscopy in which electric arc or spark established in liquid and spectrum of light from arc or spark analyzed to identify chemical elements in liquid. Observations encourage development of LAES equipment for online monitoring of process streams in such industries as metal plating, electronics, and steel, and for online monitoring of streams affecting environment.

  8. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Monat, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  9. Concept development of exchange liquid regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, D.L.

    1985-08-01

    Concepts are described for regeneration of the intermediate liquid used for isotope exchange in indirect laser isotope separation processes where the laser operates on a process gas distinct from the feed stream. The specific case of regeneration of an exchange liquid consisting of water, sodium hydroxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide for a process to separate deuterium from hydrogen using laser irradiation of trifluoromethane gas is developed. A water feed stream is converted to steam which rises in a chemical process column where it redeuterates a descending flow of exchange liquid without causing significant changes in its chemical composition

  10. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  11. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  12. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  13. A method for the separation of non-ferrous metal containing particles from a particle stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weijden, R.D.; Rem, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the recovery of non-ferrous metal-comprising particles from a particle stream. According to the invention, the particle stream is put onto a conveyor belt in the form of a monolayer such that with the aid of a liquid, at least the non-ferrous metal comprising

  14. Acoustofluidics: Theory and simulation of streaming and radiation forces at ultrasound resonances in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    fields, which are directly related to the acoustic radiation force on single particles and to the acoustic streaming of the liquid. For the radiation pressure effects, there is good agreement between theory and simulation, while the numeric results for the acoustic streaming effects are more problematic...

  15. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  17. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  18. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  19. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  20. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  1. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  2. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  3. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  4. Galaxies with jet streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research work on supersonic gas flow. Notable examples have been observed in cosmic radio sources, where jet streams of galactic dimensions sometimes occur, apparently as the result of interaction between neighbouring galaxies. The current theory of jet behaviour has been convincingly demonstrated using computer simulation. The surprisingly long-term stability is related to the supersonic velocity, and is analagous to the way in which an Appollo spacecraft re-entering the atmosphere supersonically is protected by the gas from the burning shield. (G.F.F.)

  5. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  6. The metaphors we stream by: Making sense of music streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja Nylund

    2016-01-01

    In Norway music-streaming services have become mainstream in everyday music listening. This paper examines how 12 heavy streaming users make sense of their experiences with Spotify and WiMP Music (now Tidal). The analysis relies on a mixed-method qualitative study, combining music-diary self-reports, online observation of streaming accounts, Facebook and last.fm scrobble-logs, and in-depth interviews. By drawing on existing metaphors of Internet experiences we demonstrate that music-streaming...

  7. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ''an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.'' It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research

  8. Tracking Gendered Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent features of digital music services is the provision of personalized music recommendations that come about through the profiling of users and audiences. Based on a range of "bot experiments," this article investigates if, and how, gendered patterns in music recommendations are provided by the streaming service Spotify. While our experiments did not give any strong indications that Spotify assigns different taste profiles to male and female users, the study showed that male artists were highly overrepresented in Spotify's music recommendations; an issue which we argue prompts users to cite hegemonic masculine norms within the music industries. Although the results should be approached as historically and contextually contingent, we argue that they point to how gender and gendered tastes may be constituted through the interplay between users and algorithmic knowledge-making processes, and how digital content delivery may maintain and challenge gender relations and gendered power differentials within the music industries. Seen through the lens of critical research on software, music and gender performativity, the experiments thus provide insights into how gender is shaped and attributed meaning as it materializes in contemporary music streams.

  9. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070171

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  10. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  11. Liquid-Feed Methanol Fuel Cell With Membrane Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Vamos, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Fuel cell generates electricity from direct liquid feed stream of methanol/water solution circulated in contact with anode, plus direct gaseous feed stream of air or oxygen in contact with cathode. Advantages include relative simplicity and elimination of corrosive electrolytic solutions. Offers potential for reductions in size, weight, and complexity, and for increases in safety of fuel-cell systems.

  12. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  13. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  14. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  15. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  16. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  17. Use of the PISCES Database: power plant aqueous stream compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, G.P.; Orr, D.A.; Wetherold, R.G.; O'Neil, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies (PISCES) Database sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute is a powerful tool for evaluating and comparing the level of trace substances in power plant process streams. In this paper, data are presented on the level of several selected trace metals found in a few of the aqueous streams present in power plants. A brief discussion of other features of the Database is presented. The majority of the data is for coal fired power plants, with only 5% pertaining to oil and gas. Sources of pollution include: ash streams; cooling water; coal pile runoff; FGD liquids; makeup water; and wastewater. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  19. Data streams: algorithms and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2005-01-01

    ... massive data sets in general. Researchers in Theoretical Computer Science, Databases, IP Networking and Computer Systems are working on the data stream challenges. This article is an overview and survey of data stream algorithmics and is an updated version of [175]. S. Muthukrishnan Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, muthu@cs...

  20. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and TelegraphCQ lang...

  2. Stream Deniable-Encryption Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Moldovyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for stream deniable encryption of secret message is proposed, which is computationally indistinguishable from the probabilistic encryption of some fake message. The method uses generation of two key streams with some secure block cipher. One of the key streams is generated depending on the secret key and the other one is generated depending on the fake key. The key streams are mixed with the secret and fake data streams so that the output ciphertext looks like the ciphertext produced by some probabilistic encryption algorithm applied to the fake message, while using the fake key. When the receiver or/and sender of the ciphertext are coerced to open the encryption key and the source message, they open the fake key and the fake message. To disclose their lie the coercer should demonstrate possibility of the alternative decryption of the ciphertext, however this is a computationally hard problem.

  3. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  4. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha

    2016-01-01

    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  5. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-01-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  6. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  7. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  8. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  9. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  10. The Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in Highly Turbulent Gas Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Single acetone and heptane droplets were suspended from a hypodermic needle in turbulent airflow, and the Nusselt number was obtained from direct measurements of the droplet diameter and evaporation rate...

  11. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  12. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  13. Final Technical Report: Electrohydrodynamic Tip Streaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basaran, Osman [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-01-06

    When subjected to strong electric fields, liquid drops and films form conical tips and emit thin jets from their tips. Such electrodydrodynamic (EDH) tip streaming or cone-jetting phenomena, which are sometimes referred to as electrospraying, occur widely in nature, e.g., in ejection of streams of small charged drops from pointed tips of raindrops in thunderclouds, and technology, e.g., in electrospray mass spectrometry or electric field-driven solvent extraction. More recently, EHD cone-jetting has emerged as a powerful technique for direct printing of solar cells, micro- and nano- particle production, and microencapsulation for controlled release. In many of the aforementioned situations, of equal importance to the processes by which one drop disintegrates to form several drops are those by which (a) two drops come together and coalesce and (b) two drops are coupled to form a double droplet system (DDS) or a capillary switch (CS). the main objective of this research program is to advance through simulation, theory, and experiment the breakup, coalescence, and oscillatory dynamics of single and pairs of charged as well as uncharged drops.

  14. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly......Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  15. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  16. Waste streams from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Ericsson, A.-M.

    1978-03-01

    The three main products from reprocessing operations are uranium, plutonium and vitrified high-level-waste. The purpose of this report is to identify and quantify additional waste streams containing radioactive isotops. Special emphasis is laid on Sr, Cs and the actinides. The main part, more than 99 % of both the fission-products and the transuranic elements are contained in the HLW-stream. Small quantities sometimes contaminate the U- and Pu-streams and the rest is found in the medium-level-waste

  17. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  18. Magnetic propulsion of intense lithium streams in a tokamak magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the effect and gives the theory of magnetic propulsion which allows driving free surface plasma facing liquid lithium streams in tokamaks. In the approximation of a thin flowing layer the MHD equations are reduced to one integrodifferential equation which takes into account the propulsion effect, viscosity, and the drag force due to magnetic pumping and other interactions with the magnetic field. A stability criterion is obtained for stabilization of the 'sausage' instability of the streams by centrifugal force

  19. Effect of boiling regime on melt stream breakup in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been performed examining the breakup and mixing behavior of an initially coherent stream of high-density melt as it flows downward through water. This work has application to the quenching of molten core materials as they drain downward during a postulated severe reactor accident. The study has included examination of various models of breakup distances based upon interfacial instabilities dominated either by liquid-liquid contact or by liquid-vapor contact. A series of experiments was performed to provide a data base for assessment of the various modeling approaches. The experiments involved Wood's metal (T/sub m/ = 73 0 C, rho = 9.2 g/cm 3 , d/sub j/ = 20 mm) poured into a deep pool of water. The temperature of the water and wood's metal were varied to span the range from single-phase, liquid-liquid contact to the film boiling regime. Experiment results showed that breakup occurred largely as a result of the spreading and entrainment from the leading edge of the jet. However, for streams of sufficient lengths a breakup length could be discerned at which there was no longer a coherent central core of the jet to feed the leading edge region. The erosion of the vertical trailing column is by Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities and related disengagement of droplets from the jet into the surrounding fluid. For conditions of liquid-liquid contact, the breakup length has been found to be about 20 jet diameters; when substantial vapor is produced at the interface due to heat transfer from the jet to the water, the breakup distance was found to range to as high as 50 jet diameters. The former values are close to the analytical prediction of Taylor, whereas the latter values are better predicted by the model of Epstein and Fauske

  20. Liquid waste processing at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes-Edwards, L.M.; Edwards, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the radioactive waste processing at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Topics covered are the following: Reduction of liquid radioactive discharges (system leakage, outage planning); reduction of waste resin generation (waste stream segregation, processing methodology); reduction of activity released and off-site dose. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Sewage treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  2. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  3. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Steven [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-23

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  4. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  5. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  6. STREAMS - Technology Programme. Yearbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)

  7. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On-stream analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An outline of some commercially available on-stream analysis systems in given. Systems based on x-ray tube/crystal spectrometers, scintillation detectors, proportional detectors and solid-state detectors are discussed

  9. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  10. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  11. Study of stream flow effects on bubble motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of air bubbles at constant-pressure by submerged orifices was investigated in both quiescent and moving streams inside a vertical tube. Parameters affecting the bubble rise velocity, such as bubble generating frequency and diameter, were studied and analyzed for bubbles rising in a chain and homogeneous mixture. A special technique for measuring bubble motion parameters has been developed, tested, and employed throughout the experimental investigation. The method is based on a water-air impedance variation. Results obtained in stagnant liquid show that increasing the bubble diameter serves to increase bubble rise velocity, while an opposite trend has been observed for stream liquid where the bubble diameter increase reduces the bubble rise velocity. The increase of bubble generation frequency generally increases the bubble rise velocity. Experimental data covered with bubble radial distribution showed symmetrical profiles of bubble velocity and frequency, and the radial distribution of the velocity profiles sometimes has two maxima and one minimum depending on the liquid velocity. Finally, in stagnant liquid, a normalized correlation has been developed to predict the terminal rise velocity in terms of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, single bubble rise velocity, and conduit dimensions. Another correlation is presented for forced bubbly flow, where the bubble rise velocity is expressed as a function of bubble generating frequency, bubble diameter, and water superficial velocity

  12. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  13. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  14. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Fred F.; Goldsmith, William A.; Allen, Douglas F.; Mezga, Lance J.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  15. Gas dynamic virtual nozzle for generation of microscopic droplet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePonte, D P; Weierstall, U; Schmidt, K; Warner, J; Starodub, D; Spence, J C H; Doak, R B [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)], E-mail: dandeponte@gmail.com

    2008-10-07

    As shown by Ganan-Calvo (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 285-8), a free liquid jet can be compressed in diameter through gas dynamic forces exerted by a coaxially co-flowing gas, obviating the need for a solid nozzle to form a microscopic liquid jet and thereby alleviating the clogging problems that plague conventional droplet sources of small diameter. We describe in this paper a novel form of droplet beam source based on this principle. The source is miniature, robust, dependable, easily fabricated, essentially immune to clogging and eminently suitable for delivery of microscopic liquid droplets, including hydrated biological samples, into vacuum for analysis using vacuum instrumentation. Monodisperse, single-file droplet streams are generated by triggering the device with a piezoelectric actuator.

  16. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  17. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  18. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  19. Alpha contaminated liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Mattia, B.; Bianchini, E.; Frazzoli, F.V.

    1987-01-01

    The present report takes into consideration the possibility to carry out an in-line control of activity in liquid streams of fuel cycle nuclear plants, epecially for waste streams. The instrument developed for this purpose, has been characterized by means of static and dinamic measurements with Pu and Am bearing solutions. The results so far obtained show that the minimum detectable Pu amount is about .01mg/l and that it is possible to apply such a technique as alarm system able to detect the overcoming of a present threshold of actinides concentrations. The report also presents an approach to the spectra deconvolution in order to determine the amount of single isotopes

  20. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  1. Challenging the myths: the mid-stream asset provider's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, R.

    1996-01-01

    The term 'mid-stream asset business' implies custom processing and gathering, meaning that a gas producer sells his gas at the wellhead, thereby transferring the business of gathering, processing and marketing of the gas and liquids to a third party. The concept is popular in the United States, but is not yet common in Canada. In Canada, producers own the gas gathering and processing systems. The mid-stream asset business was claimed to be more user friendly than the old custom processing business. Three myths about the mid-stream asset business were challenged: (1) all the risk is on the producer, the processor takes no risk, (2) the mid-stream asset business is an expensive means of financing further exploration, and (3) owning and operating gathering and processing facilities is an integral part of a producer's business. Arguments were brought forth to dispel these myths and to emphasize that a processor should be prepared to accept risks associated with the commodity, prices, production and operations. To be operationally effective, the producer's flexibility and strategic advantages must approach the same level as if he were the owner of the facility

  2. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  3. Stream ciphers and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W; Renvall, Ari R

    2004-01-01

    This is the unique book on cross-fertilisations between stream ciphers and number theory. It systematically and comprehensively covers known connections between the two areas that are available only in research papers. Some parts of this book consist of new research results that are not available elsewhere. In addition to exercises, over thirty research problems are presented in this book. In this revised edition almost every chapter was updated, and some chapters were completely rewritten. It is useful as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject, as well as a reference book for researchers in related fields. · Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory. · Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere. · A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject. · Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas. · Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.

  4. Streaming simplification of tetrahedral meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Huy T; Callahan, Steven P; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Silva, Cláudio T

    2007-01-01

    Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are commonly used in scientific computing to represent scalar, vector, and tensor fields in three dimensions. Visualization of these meshes can be difficult to perform interactively due to their size and complexity. By reducing the size of the data, we can accomplish real-time visualization necessary for scientific analysis. We propose a two-step approach for streaming simplification of large tetrahedral meshes. Our algorithm arranges the data on disk in a streaming, I/O-efficient format that allows coherent access to the tetrahedral cells. A quadric-based simplification is sequentially performed on small portions of the mesh in-core. Our output is a coherent streaming mesh which facilitates future processing. Our technique is fast, produces high quality approximations, and operates out-of-core to process meshes too large for main memory.

  5. Pollutant transport in natural streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the downstream effect of chemical and radioactive pollutant releases to tributary streams and rivers. The one-dimensional dispersion model was employed along with a dead zone model to describe stream transport behavior. Options are provided for sorption/desorption, ion exchange, and particle deposition in the river. The model equations are solved numerically by the LODIPS computer code. The solution method was verified by application to actual and simulated releases of radionuclides and other chemical pollutants. (U.S.)

  6. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  7. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  8. Stream-processing pipelines: processing of streams on multiprocessor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    In this paper we study the timing aspects of the operation of stream-processing applications that run on a multiprocessor architecture. Dependencies are derived for the processing and communication times of the processors in such a system. Three cases of real-time constrained operation and four

  9. CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

    In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

  10. Optimal Liquidation under Stochastic Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Becherer, Dirk; Bilarev, Todor; Frentrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We solve explicitly a two-dimensional singular control problem of finite fuel type for infinite time horizon. The problem stems from the optimal liquidation of an asset position in a financial market with multiplicative and transient price impact. Liquidity is stochastic in that the volume effect process, which determines the inter-temporal resilience of the market in spirit of Predoiu, Shaikhet and Shreve (2011), is taken to be stochastic, being driven by own random noise. The optimal contro...

  11. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  12. The case for a large heavy oil stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, P.

    2005-01-01

    EnCana Corporation markets significant proprietary and third party crude oil production in North America. This presentation presented details of EnCana's projected resources as well as estimated proved reserves in Canadian oil sands. Details of the Western Canadian heavy oil market were presented. Issues concerning Western Canadian Select (WCS) were also presented, including details of distillation and asphalt characteristics. Details of the WCS synthetic bitumen synergy were examined, as well as quality management issues. It was suggested that further optimization of WCS facilities include reduced operating complexity; less tank proliferation; delivery quality consistency; and reliability. WCS refiner advantages were also evaluated. Shipping and ramping details were discussed, along with growth potential. It was noted that WCS satisfies all the criteria for a benchmark crude. It was concluded that the case for a large Canadian heavy oil stream includes reduced operating complexity; optimized logistics; delivery quality consistency; improved stream liquidity; and enhanced price discovery. tabs., figs

  13. Collective cell streams in epithelial monolayers depend on cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirók, András; Varga, Katalin; Méhes, Előd; Szabó, András

    2013-01-01

    We report spontaneously emerging, randomly oriented, collective streaming behavior within a monolayer culture of a human keratinocyte cell line, and explore the effect of modulating cell adhesions by perturbing the function of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. We demonstrate that decreasing cell adhesion induces narrower and more anisotropic cell streams, reminiscent of decreasing the Taylor scale of turbulent liquids. To explain our empirical findings, we propose a cell-based model that represents the dual nature of cell–cell adhesions. Spring-like connections provide mechanical stability, while a cellular Potts model formalism represents surface-tension driven attachment. By changing the relevance and persistence of mechanical links between cells, we are able to explain the experimentally observed changes in emergent flow patterns. (paper)

  14. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  15. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Kosinka, Jin; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these 'stretch-free' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  17. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear reactor cavity streaming shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, R.J.; Stephen, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The upper portion of a nuclear reactor vessel supported in a concrete reactor cavity has a structure mounted below the top of the vessel between the outer vessel wall and the reactor cavity wall which contains hydrogenous material which will attenuate radiation streaming upward between vessel and the reactor cavity wall while preventing pressure buildup during a loss of coolant accident

  19. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  20. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  1. Liquidity risk and contagion for liquid funds

    OpenAIRE

    Darolles , Serge; Dudek , Jeremy; Le Fol , Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Fund managers face liquidity problems but they have to distinguish the market liquidity risk implied by their assets and the funding liquidity risk. This latter is due to both the liquidity mismatch between assets and liabilities and the redemption risk due to the possible outflows from clients. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of contagion looking at common market liquidity problems to detect funding liquidity problems. Using the CDS Bond Spread basis as a liquidity indica...

  2. Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

    2013-02-12

    A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

  3. Surface boiling of superheated liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-01-01

    A basic vaporization mechanism that possibly affects the qualitative and quantitative prediction of the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous superheated liquids was experimentally and analytically investigated. The studies are of relevance for the instantaneous failure of a containment vessel filled with liquefied gas. Even though catastrophical vessel failure is a rare event, it is considered to be a major technological hazard. Modeling the initial phase of depressurisation and vaporization of the contents is an essential step for the subsequent analysis of the spread and dispersion of the materials liberated. There is only limited understanding of this inertial expansion stage of the superheated liquid, before gravity and atmospheric turbulence begin to dominate the expansion. This work aims at a better understanding of the vaporization process and to supply more precise source-term data. It is also intended to provide knowledge for the prediction of the behavior of large-scale releases by the investigation of boiling on a small scale. Release experiments with butane, propane, R-134a and water were conducted. The vaporization of liquids that became superheated by sudden depressurisation was studied in nucleation-site-free glass receptacles. Several novel techniques for preventing undesired nucleation and for opening the test-section were developed. Releases from pipes and from a cylindrical geometry allowed both linear one-dimensional, and radial-front two-dimensional propagation to be investigated. Releases were made to atmospheric pressure over a range of superheats. It was found that, above a certain superheat temperature, the free surface of the metastable liquid rapidly broke up and ejected a high-velocity vapor/liquid stream. The zone of intense vaporization and liquid fragmentation proceeded as a front that advanced into the test fluids. No nucleation of bubbles in the bulk of the superheated liquid was observed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  4. Surface boiling of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, P.

    1997-01-01

    A basic vaporization mechanism that possibly affects the qualitative and quantitative prediction of the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous superheated liquids was experimentally and analytically investigated. The studies are of relevance for the instantaneous failure of a containment vessel filled with liquefied gas. Even though catastrophical vessel failure is a rare event, it is considered to be a major technological hazard. Modeling the initial phase of depressurisation and vaporization of the contents is an essential step for the subsequent analysis of the spread and dispersion of the materials liberated. There is only limited understanding of this inertial expansion stage of the superheated liquid, before gravity and atmospheric turbulence begin to dominate the expansion. This work aims at a better understanding of the vaporization process and to supply more precise source-term data. It is also intended to provide knowledge for the prediction of the behavior of large-scale releases by the investigation of boiling on a small scale. Release experiments with butane, propane, R-134a and water were conducted. The vaporization of liquids that became superheated by sudden depressurisation was studied in nucleation-site-free glass receptacles. Several novel techniques for preventing undesired nucleation and for opening the test-section were developed. Releases from pipes and from a cylindrical geometry allowed both linear one-dimensional, and radial-front two-dimensional propagation to be investigated. Releases were made to atmospheric pressure over a range of superheats. It was found that, above a certain superheat temperature, the free surface of the metastable liquid rapidly broke up and ejected a high-velocity vapor/liquid stream. The zone of intense vaporization and liquid fragmentation proceeded as a front that advanced into the test fluids. No nucleation of bubbles in the bulk of the superheated liquid was observed. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  6. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  7. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  8. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  9. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  10. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  11. A survey on Big Data Stream Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... huge amount of stream like telecommunication systems. So, there ... streams have many challenges for data mining algorithm design like using of ..... A. Bifet and R. Gavalda, "Learning from Time-Changing Data with. Adaptive ...

  12. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  13. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  14. Liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  15. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  16. Supported liquid phase catalyst coating in micro flow Mizoroki-Heck reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, S.C.; Noël, T.; Wang, Q.; Hessel, V.

    2015-01-01

    A Supported Liquid Phase Catalyst (SLPC) coating was successfully applied for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction in micro flow. Foremost, extended on stream operation was enabled and the on stream performance stability was verified. Stable catalytic activity was achieved during two consecutive runs totaling

  17. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  18. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard H. Heede

    1980-01-01

    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  19. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  20. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  1. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  2. Americium removal from nitric acid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve americium removal from nitric acid (7M) waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Partial neutralization of the acid waste followed by solid supported liquid membranes (SLM) are useful in transferring and concentrating americium from nitrate solutions. Specifically, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) supported on Accurel polypropylene hollow fibers assembled in modular form transfers >95% of the americium from high nitrate (6.9M), low acid (0.1M) feeds into 0.25M oxalic acid stripping solution. Maximum permeabilities were observed to be 0.001 cm/sec, consistent with typical values for other systems. The feed:strip volume ratio shows an inverse relationship to the fraction of metal ion transferred. Cation exchangers may be used to concentrate americium from the strip solution. Furthermore, O0D (iB)CMPO (or CMPO) (octylphenyl-N-N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) has been tested in an extraction chromatography mode. Preliminary results show CMPO to be effective in removing americium if the feed is neutralized to 1.0M acidity and iron(III) is complexed with 0.20M oxalic acid. 3 figs

  3. Numerical modeling of liquid feeding in the liquid-fed ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.L.; Donovan, T.E.

    1979-10-01

    A modeling scheme developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory numerically simulates the behavior of the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) during liquid feeding. The computer code VECTRA (Vorticity Energy Code for TRansport Analysis) was used to simulate the LFCM in the idling and liquid feeding modes. Results for each simulation include molten glass temperature profiles and isotherm contour plots, stream function contour plots, heat generation rate contour plots, refractory isotherms, and heat balances. The results indicated that the model showed no major deviations from real LFCM behavior and that high throughput should be attainable. They also indicated that reboil was a possibility as a steady liquid feeding state was approached, very steep temperature gradients exist in the Monofrax K-3, and that phase separation could occur in the bottom corners during liquid feeding and over the entire floor while idling

  4. Autoignition of liquid-fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzutani, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the published autoignition data of liquid fuel sprays that were extensively reviewed by classifying them into the following three categories; liquid fuels injected into a stagnant hot atmosphere, liquid fuels injected into a hot air stream (vitiated or unvitiated), and droplet cluster ignited behind an incident or reflected shock. Comparison of these data with the counterparts of gaseous fuels and single droplets revealed that it was the ignition process dominated by droplet evaporation whereas it was the one dominated by chemical kinetics. It consisted, depending on the experimental condition, of the data and of the ignition process dominated by the shattering of droplets by an incident shock. In addition, theoretical works on spray autoignition were reviewed, pointing out that they were still far from universally predicting the ignition delays of liquid fuel sprays

  5. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development

  6. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  7. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart

    2010-01-01

    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  8. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice......Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together....... Despite this fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming education research hardly address the issue of teaching the skills needed for systematic development of programs. We provide a conceptual framework for incremental program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which unifies best...

  9. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  10. Experimental test of liquid droplet radiator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, A. T.; Simon, M. A.

    The liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is a heat rejection system for space power systems wherein an array of heated liquid droplets radiates energy directly to space. The use of submillimeter droplets provides large radiating area-to-mass ratio, resulting in radiator systems which are several times lighter than conventional solid surface radiators. An experiment is described in which the power radiated by an array of 2300 streams of silicone oil droplets is measured to test a previously developed theory of the LDR radiation process. This system would be capable of rejecting several kW of heat in space. Furthermore, it would be suitable as a modular unit of an LDR designed for 100-kW power levels. The experiment provided confirmation of the theoretical dependence of droplet array emissivity on optical depth. It also demonstrated the ability to create an array of more than 1000 droplet streams having a divergence less than 1 degree.

  11. Radioactive tracer method as an instrument for testing effectiveness of effluent treatment installations and mixing patterns in natural streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpilowski, S; Strzelczak, G; Winnicki, R [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The radiotracer methods of evaluation of sewage flow rate, testing of effluent treatment plants and mixing patterns in natural streams have been described. Experimental works were carried out for industrial installations and natural streams. As a tracer of liquid phase an aqueous KBr solution labelled with /sup 82/Br have been used. The sediment materials have been labelled with /sup 198/Au in the form of colloidal gold. The results of investigations have been utilized for treatment process analysis and water pollution control.

  12. Electrical processes for liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bridger, N.J.; Junkison, A.R.; Pottinger, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the development of electrical techniques for the treatment of liquid waste streams. Part I is concerned with solid/liquid separation and the demonstration of the electrokinetic thickening of flocs at inorganic membranes suitable for intermediate-level wastes and electrochemical cleaning of stainless steel microfilters and graphite ultrafilters. Part II describes work on the development of electrochemical ion exchange, particularly the use of inorganic absorption media and polarity reversal to enhance system selectivity. Work on the adsorption and desorption of plutonium in acid nitrate solution at various electrode materials is also included. (author)

  13. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction, are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic field direction, Phi 0 , and the initial speed gradient, (deltaV/deltaR) 0 . It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between approx.0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of n, B, and V are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of B depend sensitively on Phi 0 . By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that approx.r -2 , whereas does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 Au is such that the base of the field line corotates with the Sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows

  14. StreamStats, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at https://streamstats.usgs.gov, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  15. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Animal models for auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  17. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  18. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  19. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering 99 TcO 4 - from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO 4 - ), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for 99 TcO 4 - . Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO 4 - and TcO 4 -

  20. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-11

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}.

  1. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF

  2. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  3. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium data for mono ethylene glycol extraction from water with the new ionic liquid tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphtoate as solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal recovery of mono ethylene glycol (MEG) from aqueous streams is one of the most energy demanding operations in industry, because of the large amount of water that needs to be evaporated. The use of alternative technologies such as liquid–liquid extraction could save energy. A new tailor made

  4. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for mono ethylene glycol extraction from water with the new ionic liquid tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphtoate as solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal recovery of mono ethylene glycol (MEG) from aqueous streams is one of the most energy demanding operations in industry, because of the large amount of water that needs to be evaporated. The use of alternative technologies such as liquid–liquid extraction could save energy. A new tailor made

  5. An automated, self-verifying system for monitoring uranium in effluent streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, R.J.; Pickett, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In nuclear facilities such as nuclear fuel fabrication plants, a constant vigil is required to ensure that the concentrations of uranium in process or waste streams do not exceed required specifications. The specifications may be dictated by the process owner, a regulatory agency such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Agency or Environmental Protection Agency, or by criticality safety engineering criteria. Traditionally, uranium monitoring in effluent streams has been accomplished by taking periodic samples of the liquid stream and determining the concentration by chemical analysis. Despite its accuracy, chemical sampling is not timely enough for practical use in continuously flowing systems because of the possibility that a significant quantity of uranium may be discharged between sampling intervals. To completely satisfy regulatory standards, the liquid waste stream must be monitored for uranium on a 100% basis. To this end, an automated, radioisotopic liquid-waste monitoring system was developed by GE Nuclear Energy as an integral part of the uranium conversion and waste recovery operations. The system utilizes passive gamma-ray spectroscopy and is thus a robust, on-line, and nondestructive assay for uranium. The system provides uranium concentration data for process monitoring and assures regulatory compliance for criticality safety. A summary of the principles of system operation, calibration, and verification is presented in this paper

  6. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  7. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  8. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  9. Liquid diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The liquid diode is designed for a flowmeter chamber which has an inlet and an outlet duct, and a flow chamber with a cross-section which is greater than inlet. In the space between the inlet and outlet are two screens with a number of spheres, which may be of different sizes and weights. The screen on the inlet side is smaller than that at the outlet, so that the spheres are able to block the inlet under reverse flow conditions, but do not block the outlet. The system functions as a non-return valve. (G.C.)

  10. Characterization of HIFU transducers designed for sonochemistry application: Acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, L; Touyeras, F; Hihn, J-Y; Bailly, Y

    2016-03-01

    Cavitation distribution in a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound sonoreactors (HIFU) has been extensively described in the recent literature, including quantification by an optical method (Sonochemiluminescence SCL). The present paper provides complementary measurements through the study of acoustic streaming generated by the same kind of HIFU transducers. To this end, results of mass transfer measurements (electrodiffusional method) were compared to optical method ones (Particle Image Velocimetry). This last one was used in various configurations: with or without an electrode in the acoustic field in order to have the same perturbation of the wave propagation. Results show that the maximum velocity is not located at the focal but shifted near the transducer, and that this shift is greater for high powers. The two cavitation modes (stationary and moving bubbles) are greatly affect the hydrodynamic behavior of our sonoreactors: acoustic streaming and the fluid generated by bubble motion. The results obtained by electrochemical measurements show the same low hydrodynamic activity in the transducer vicinity, the same shift of the active focal toward the transducer, and the same absence of activity in the post-focal axial zone. The comparison with theoretical Eckart's velocities (acoustic streaming in non-cavitating media) confirms a very high activity at the "sonochemical focal", accounted for by wave distortion, which induced greater absorption coefficients. Moreover, the equivalent liquid velocities are one order of magnitude larger than the ones measured by PIV, confirming the enhancement of mass transfer by bubbles oscillation and collapse close to the surface, rather than from a pure streaming effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruin, D.

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruin, D

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. From Funding Liquidity to Market Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Lund, Jesper; Gyntelberg, Jacob

    This paper shows empirically that funding liquidity drives market liquidity. As it becomes harder to secure term funding in the money markets, liquidity deteriorates in the Danish bond market. We show that the first principal component of bond market liquidity is driven by the market makers...... for other European government bonds using MTS data. The findings suggest that regulatory bond based liquidity buffers for banks will have limited effectiveness....

  14. BLOSTREAM: A HIGH SPEED STREAM CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI H. KASHMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although stream ciphers are widely utilized to encrypt sensitive data at fast speeds, security concerns have led to a shift from stream to block ciphers, judging that the current technology in stream cipher is inferior to the technology of block ciphers. This paper presents the design of an improved efficient and secure stream cipher called Blostream, which is more secure than conventional stream ciphers that use XOR for mixing. The proposed cipher comprises two major components: the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG using the Rabbit algorithm and a nonlinear invertible round function (combiner for encryption and decryption. We evaluate its performance in terms of implementation and security, presenting advantages and disadvantages, comparison of the proposed cipher with similar systems and a statistical test for randomness. The analysis shows that the proposed cipher is more efficient, high speed, and secure than current conventional stream ciphers.

  15. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  16. Organic carbon spiralling in stream ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Mulholland, P J; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V

    1982-01-01

    The term spiralling has been used to describe the combined processes of cycling and longitudinal transport in streams. As a measure or organic carbon spiralling, we introduced organic carbon turnover length, S, defined as the average or expected downstream distance travelled by a carbon atom between its entry or fixation in the stream and its oxidation. Using a simple model for organic carbon dynamics in a stream, we show that S is closely related to fisher and Likens' ecosystem efficiency. Unlike efficiency, however, S is independent of the length of the study reach, and values of S determined in streams of differing lengths can be compared. Using data from three different streams, we found the relationship between S and efficiency to agree closely with the model prediction. Hypotheses of stream functioning are discussed in the context of organic carbeon spiralling theory.

  17. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  18. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  19. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  20. On-stream chemical element monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averitt, O.R.; Dorsch, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method for on-stream chemical element monitoring are described wherein a multiplicity of sample streams are flowed continuously through individual analytical cells and fluorescence analyses are performed on the sample streams in sequence, together with a method of controlling the time duration of each analysis as a function of the concomitant radiation exposure of a preselected perforate reference material interposed in the sample-radiation source path

  1. Smart Streaming for Online Video Services

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...

  2. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  3. System of liquid thermostatic control for jet experiments on NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanov, S.I.; Bogatkin, R.A.; Ershov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The system of liquid thermostating of a sensor of NMR spectrometer, used as a registering device in the method of continuous and interrupting stream, is described. Such method of thermostating permits to make kinetic measurements in the temperature range from -40 to +60 deg C with the accuracy +-0.1 deg C and removes the necessity for applying secondary temperature NMR standards

  4. Ionic liquids as alternative solvents for aromatics extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansmeier, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was the development of an extraction process for the removal of multiple aromatics from several petrochemical streams by means of an ionic liquid. Due to environmental legislation, the demand of ‘clean’ fuels is increasing and most likely will increase even more towards

  5. Exploring liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) concepts-Liquid metal film flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Ni, M.; Miraghaie, R.; Burris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fast moving liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has been looked upon with considerable interest over the past several years, both by the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. Flowing liquid walls provide an ever replenishing contact surface to the plasma, leading to very effective particle pumping and surface heat flux removal. A key feasibility issue for flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, pertains to their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior under the spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device. MHD forces hinder the development of a smooth and controllable liquid metal flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

  6. Structured multi-stream command language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    A multi-stream command language was implemented to provide the sequential and decision-making operations necessary to run the neutral-beam ion sources connected to the Doublet III tokamak fusion device. A multi-stream command language was implemented in Pascal on a Classic 7870 running under MAX IV. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to provide a brief description of the programs comprising the command language including the operating system interaction. Second, to give a description of the language syntax and commands necessary to develop a procedure stream. Third, to provide a description of the normal operating procedures for executing either the sequential or interactive streams

  7. About the theory of congested transport streams

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy GUK

    2009-01-01

    Talked about a theory, based on integrity of continuous motion of a transport stream. Placing of car and its speed is in a stream - second. Principle of application of the generalized methods of design and new descriptions of the states of transport streams opens up. Travelling and transport potentials are set, and also external capacity of the system a «transport stream» is an exergy, that allows to make differential equation and decide the applied tasks of organization of travelling motion....

  8. The Overview and Appliance of some Streaming Video software solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Qin , Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic streaming media technology, the streaming media system structure, principles of streaming media technology; streaming media file formats and so on. After that, it discusses the use streaming media in distance education, broadband video on demand, Internet broadcasting, video conferences and a more detailed exposition in streaming media. As the existing technology has been unable to satisfy the increasing needs of the Internet users, the streaming media technol...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or malfunction) greater than the agitator stuffing box pressure; or (B) Equipped with a barrier fluid... purges the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agitator stuffing box pressure; or (B) Equipped with a barrier fluid degassing reservoir that is routed to... barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service. (iii) Each...

  11. Interaction between stream temperature, streamflow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Four alpine streams were monitored to continuously collect stream temperature and streamflow for periods ranging from a week to a year. In a small stream in the Colorado Rockies, diurnal variations in both stream temperature and streamflow were significantly greater in losing reaches than in gaining reaches, with minimum streamflow losses occurring early in the day and maximum losses occurring early in the evening. Using measured stream temperature changes, diurnal streambed infiltration rates were predicted to increase as much as 35% during the day (based on a heat and water transport groundwater model), while the measured increase in streamflow loss was 40%. For two large streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, annual stream temperature variations ranged from 0° to 25°C. In summer months, diurnal stream temperature variations were 30–40% of annual stream temperature variations, owing to reduced streamflows and increased atmospheric heating. Previous reports document that one Sierra stream site generally gains groundwater during low flows, while the second Sierra stream site may lose water during low flows. For August the diurnal streamflow variation was 11% at the gaining stream site and 30% at the losing stream site. On the basis of measured diurnal stream temperature variations, streambed infiltration rates were predicted to vary diurnally as much as 20% at the losing stream site. Analysis of results suggests that evapotranspiration losses determined diurnal streamflow variations in the gaining reaches, while in the losing reaches, evapotranspiration losses were compounded by diurnal variations in streambed infiltration. Diurnal variations in stream temperature were reduced in the gaining reaches as a result of discharging groundwater of relatively constant temperature. For the Sierra sites, comparison of results with those from a small tributary demonstrated that stream temperature patterns were useful in delineating discharges of bank storage following

  12. Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors Materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Stephen; O'Neill, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of t...

  13. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  14. Assessment of options for the treatment of Sizewell PWR liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, J.; Allam, J.; Knibbs, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the origins of PWR liquid waste streams, their composition and rates of arising. Data has been collected from operational PWRs and estimates obtained for Sizewell B PWR liquid waste streams. Current liquid waste treatment practices are reviewed and assessments made of established and novel treatment techniques which could be applicable to Sizewell B. A short list of treatment options is given and recommendations are made relating to established treatment technologies suitable for Sizewell B and also to development work on more novel treatments which could lead to a reduction in waste disposal volumes. (author)

  15. Shifting stream planform state decreases stream productivity yet increases riparian animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venarsky, Michael P.; Walters, David M.; Hall, Robert O.; Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    In the Colorado Front Range (USA), disturbance history dictates stream planform. Undisturbed, old-growth streams have multiple channels and large amounts of wood and depositional habitat. Disturbed streams (wildfires and logging tested how these opposing stream states influenced organic matter, benthic macroinvertebrate secondary production, emerging aquatic insect flux, and riparian spider biomass. Organic matter and macroinvertebrate production did not differ among sites per unit area (m−2), but values were 2 ×–21 × higher in undisturbed reaches per unit of stream valley (m−1 valley) because total stream area was higher in undisturbed reaches. Insect emergence was similar among streams at the per unit area and per unit of stream valley. However, rescaling insect emergence to per meter of stream bank showed that the emerging insect biomass reaching the stream bank was lower in undisturbed sites because multi-channel reaches had 3 × more stream bank than single-channel reaches. Riparian spider biomass followed the same pattern as emerging aquatic insects, and we attribute this to bottom-up limitation caused by the multi-channeled undisturbed sites diluting prey quantity (emerging insects) reaching the stream bank (riparian spider habitat). These results show that historic landscape disturbances continue to influence stream and riparian communities in the Colorado Front Range. However, these legacy effects are only weakly influencing habitat-specific function and instead are primarily influencing stream–riparian community productivity by dictating both stream planform (total stream area, total stream bank length) and the proportional distribution of specific habitat types (pools vs riffles).

  16. A Statistical Method to Predict Flow Permanence in Dryland Streams from Time Series of Stream Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Arismendi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent and ephemeral streams represent more than half of the length of the global river network. Dryland freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to changes in human-related water uses as well as shifts in terrestrial climates. Yet, the description and quantification of patterns of flow permanence in these systems is challenging mostly due to difficulties in instrumentation. Here, we took advantage of existing stream temperature datasets in dryland streams in the northwest Great Basin desert, USA, to extract critical information on climate-sensitive patterns of flow permanence. We used a signal detection technique, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, to extract information from daily time series of stream temperature to diagnose patterns of stream drying. Specifically, we applied HMMs to time series of daily standard deviation (SD of stream temperature (i.e., dry stream channels typically display highly variable daily temperature records compared to wet stream channels between April and August (2015–2016. We used information from paired stream and air temperature data loggers as well as co-located stream temperature data loggers with electrical resistors as confirmatory sources of the timing of stream drying. We expanded our approach to an entire stream network to illustrate the utility of the method to detect patterns of flow permanence over a broader spatial extent. We successfully identified and separated signals characteristic of wet and dry stream conditions and their shifts over time. Most of our study sites within the entire stream network exhibited a single state over the entire season (80%, but a portion of them showed one or more shifts among states (17%. We provide recommendations to use this approach based on a series of simple steps. Our findings illustrate a successful method that can be used to rigorously quantify flow permanence regimes in streams using existing records of stream temperature.

  17. A statistical method to predict flow permanence in dryland streams from time series of stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Dunham, Jason B.; Heck, Michael; Schultz, Luke; Hockman-Wert, David

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent and ephemeral streams represent more than half of the length of the global river network. Dryland freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to changes in human-related water uses as well as shifts in terrestrial climates. Yet, the description and quantification of patterns of flow permanence in these systems is challenging mostly due to difficulties in instrumentation. Here, we took advantage of existing stream temperature datasets in dryland streams in the northwest Great Basin desert, USA, to extract critical information on climate-sensitive patterns of flow permanence. We used a signal detection technique, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), to extract information from daily time series of stream temperature to diagnose patterns of stream drying. Specifically, we applied HMMs to time series of daily standard deviation (SD) of stream temperature (i.e., dry stream channels typically display highly variable daily temperature records compared to wet stream channels) between April and August (2015–2016). We used information from paired stream and air temperature data loggers as well as co-located stream temperature data loggers with electrical resistors as confirmatory sources of the timing of stream drying. We expanded our approach to an entire stream network to illustrate the utility of the method to detect patterns of flow permanence over a broader spatial extent. We successfully identified and separated signals characteristic of wet and dry stream conditions and their shifts over time. Most of our study sites within the entire stream network exhibited a single state over the entire season (80%), but a portion of them showed one or more shifts among states (17%). We provide recommendations to use this approach based on a series of simple steps. Our findings illustrate a successful method that can be used to rigorously quantify flow permanence regimes in streams using existing records of stream temperature.

  18. An ecohydrological stream type cassification of intermittent and ephemeral streams in the Southwestern United States 2397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephemeral and intermittent streams are the predominant fluvial forms in arid and semi-arid environments. Various studies have shown biological and habitat diversity in these lands to be considerably higher along stream corridors in comparison to adjacent uplands, yet knowledge of how these streams f...

  19. InSTREAM: the individual-based stream trout research and environmental assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Stephen K. Jackson; Roland H. Lamberson

    2009-01-01

    This report documents Version 4.2 of InSTREAM, including its formulation, software, and application to research and management problems. InSTREAM is a simulation model designed to understand how stream and river salmonid populations respond to habitat alteration, including altered flow, temperature, and turbidity regimes and changes in channel morphology. The model...

  20. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  1. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  2. Evaluation of the streaming-matrix method for discrete-ordinates duct-streaming calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.A.; Urban, W.T.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new deterministic streaming technique called the Streaming Matrix Hybrid Method (SMHM) is applied to two realistic duct-shielding problems. The results are compared to standard discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo calculations. The SMHM shows promise as an alternative deterministic streaming method to standard discrete-ordinates

  3. Leaf litter processing in West Virginia mountain streams: effects of temperature and stream chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquelyn M. Rowe; William B. Perry; Sue A. Perry

    1996-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter detrital processing in headwater streams, which receive the majority of their nutrient input as terrestrial leaf litter. Early placement of experimental leaf packs in streams, one month prior to most abscission, was used as an experimental manipulation to increase stream temperature during leaf pack breakdown. We studied leaf...

  4. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  5. Streaming Multiframe Deconvolutions on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. A.; Budavári, T.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence distorts all ground-based observations, which is especially detrimental to faint detections. The point spread function (PSF) defining this blur is unknown for each exposure and varies significantly over time, making image analysis difficult. Lucky imaging and traditional co-adding throws away lots of information. We developed blind deconvolution algorithms that can simultaneously obtain robust solutions for the background image and all the PSFs. It is done in a streaming setting, which makes it practical for large number of big images. We implemented a new tool that runs of GPUs and achieves exceptional running times that can scale to the new time-domain surveys. Our code can quickly and effectively recover high-resolution images exceeding the quality of traditional co-adds. We demonstrate the power of the method on the repeated exposures in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Stripe 82.

  6. Streaming Algorithms for Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Hachenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    this problem in a streaming setting, where we only have a limited amount of storage, so that we cannot store all the points. We analyze the competitive ratio of our algorithms, allowing resource augmentation: we let our algorithm maintain a simplification with 2k (internal) points and compare the error of our...... simplification to the error of the optimal simplification with k points. We obtain the algorithms with O(1) competitive ratio for three cases: convex paths, where the error is measured using the Hausdorff distance (or Fréchet distance), xy-monotone paths, where the error is measured using the Hausdorff distance...... (or Fréchet distance), and general paths, where the error is measured using the Fréchet distance. In the first case the algorithm needs O(k) additional storage, and in the latter two cases the algorithm needs O(k 2) additional storage....

  7. Decontamination by foams: a promising treatment for the removal of radioactive dust from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    Foams provide a promising method for the treatment of gas streams containing radioactive aerosol particles. They contain a very large surface area of liquid-gas interface in small cells; thus it is possible to achieve rapid capture of airborne particles in the liquid phase, particularly if the aerosol can be incorporated in the foam structure. The foam can be collapsed into a small volume of liquid, immobilising any trapped aerosol in a form that may be treated as liquid waste. A review of the literature has been undertaken to define and assess the mechanics of aerosol behaviour in contact with foams. Applications are also examined in which foams have been used to treat aerosols. Key issues are identified which require further study. In particular, the efficiency of sub-micron particle removal can be determined using recently developed analysers and the use of the process gas to generate the foam could have a major impact on the design of commercial units. (author)

  8. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like iron, aluminium, lead, zinc, etc .. Metals are cast ... dropping molten liquid of the alloys on a rapidly spinning copper wheel. ... Ed. Computer simulation studies in ... liquids, modelling ofliquids and study of the dynamic behaviour of liquids ...

  9. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a

  10. Cryptanalysis of the full Spritz stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Isobe, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Spritz is a stream cipher proposed by Rivest and Schuldt at the rump session of CRYPTO 2014. It is intended to be a replacement of the popular RC4 stream cipher. In this paper we propose distinguishing attacks on the full Spritz, based on a short-term bias in the first two bytes of a keystream an...

  11. Predicting quality of experience in multimedia streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Oredope, A.; Liotta, A.; Cuadra Sánchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    Measuring and predicting the user’s Quality of Experience (QoE) of a multimedia stream is the first step towards improving and optimizing the provision of mobile streaming services. This enables us to better understand how Quality of Service (QoS) parameters affect service quality, as it is actually

  12. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  13. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  14. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. However, the query languages have mostly been SQL-based and aimed for low-level analysis of base data; therefore, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide rea...

  15. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  16. Round-Robin Streaming with Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao; Vingelmann, Peter; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    We consider three types of application layer coding for streaming over lossy links: random linear coding, systematic random linear coding, and structured coding. The file being streamed is divided into sub-blocks (generations). Code symbols are formed by combining data belonging to the same...

  17. Streaming for Mathematics in Victorian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Streaming (or ability grouping) for mathematics learning is a contentious issue. It can also be considered an issue of equity or social justice as some students may be adversely affected by the practice. Currently, the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) does not appear to have clear guidelines on streaming.…

  18. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  19. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s –1 within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  20. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  1. Neotropical Amphibian Declines Affect Stream Ecosystem Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, S.; Pringle, C. M.; Bixby, R. J.; Whiles, M. R.; Lips, K. R.; Brenes, R.; Colon-Gaud, J. C.; Kilham, S.; Hunte-Brown, M.

    2005-05-01

    Global declines of amphibians are well documented, yet effects of these dramatic losses on ecosystem structure and function are poorly understood. As part of a larger collaborative project, we compared two upland Panamanian streams. Both streams are biologically and geologically similar; however, one stream (Fortuna) has recently experienced almost complete extirpation of stream-dwelling frogs, while the other (Cope) still has intact populations. We experimentally excluded tadpoles from localized areas in each stream. We then compared chlorophyll a, algal community composition, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), inorganic matter, and insect assemblages in control and exclusion areas. Additionally, we sampled the natural substrate of both streams monthly for chlorophyll a, algal community composition, AFDM, and inorganic matter. At Cope, chlorophyll a, AFDM, and inorganic matter were greater in areas where tadpoles were excluded than in their presence. Numbers of dominant algal species (e.g., Nupela praecipua and Eunotia siolii) were greater in the exclusion versus control treatments. Monthly sampling of natural substrate indicated higher chlorophyll a and AFDM at Cope compared to Fortuna. Our data suggest that stream-dwelling anuran larvae have significant impacts on algal communities. These results also have implications for predicting the relevance of short-term experimental manipulations to long-term, whole-stream processes.

  2. Shifting stream planform state decreases stream productivity yet increases riparian animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venarsky, Michael P.; Walters, David M.; Hall, Robert O.; Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    In the Colorado Front Range (USA), disturbance history dictates stream planform. Undisturbed, old-growth streams have multiple channels and large amounts of wood and depositional habitat. Disturbed streams (wildfires and logging production, emerging aquatic insect flux, and riparian spider biomass. Organic matter and macroinvertebrate production did not differ among sites per unit area (m−2), but values were 2 ×–21 × higher in undisturbed reaches per unit of stream valley (m−1 valley) because total stream area was higher in undisturbed reaches. Insect emergence was similar among streams at the per unit area and per unit of stream valley. However, rescaling insect emergence to per meter of stream bank showed that the emerging insect biomass reaching the stream bank was lower in undisturbed sites because multi-channel reaches had 3 × more stream bank than single-channel reaches. Riparian spider biomass followed the same pattern as emerging aquatic insects, and we attribute this to bottom-up limitation caused by the multi-channeled undisturbed sites diluting prey quantity (emerging insects) reaching the stream bank (riparian spider habitat). These results show that historic landscape disturbances continue to influence stream and riparian communities in the Colorado Front Range. However, these legacy effects are only weakly influencing habitat-specific function and instead are primarily influencing stream–riparian community productivity by dictating both stream planform (total stream area, total stream bank length) and the proportional distribution of specific habitat types (pools vs riffles).

  3. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  4. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves; Tognetti, Érica Rodrigues; Aguiar, Mônica Lopes; Gonçalves, José Antônio Silveira; Coury, José Renato

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency var...

  5. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Martins Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency varied from 87% to 98% for particles from 0.1 µm to 2.0 µm.

  6. Stream Response to an Extreme Defoliation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Loffredo, J.; Addy, K.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Berdanier, A. B.; Schroth, A. W.; Inamdar, S. P.; Bowden, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme climatic events are known to profoundly impact stream flow and stream fluxes. These events can also exert controls on insect outbreaks, which may create marked changes in stream characteristics. The invasive Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) experiences episodic infestations based on extreme climatic conditions within the northeastern U.S. In most years, gypsy moth populations are kept in check by diseases. In 2016 - after successive years of unusually warm, dry spring and summer weather -gypsy moth caterpillars defoliated over half of Rhode Island's 160,000 forested ha. No defoliation of this magnitude had occurred for more than 30 years. We examined one RI headwater stream's response to the defoliation event in 2016 compared with comparable data in 2014 and 2015. Stream temperature and flow was gauged continuously by USGS and dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured with a YSI EXO2 sonde every 30 minutes during a series of deployments in the spring, summer and fall from 2014-2016. We used the single station, open channel method to estimate stream metabolism metrics. We also assessed local climate and stream temperature data from 2009-2016. We observed changes in stream responses during the defoliation event that suggest changes in ET, solar radiation and heat flux. Although the summer of 2016 had more drought stress (PDSI) than previous years, stream flow occurred throughout the summer, in contrast to several years with lower drought stress when stream flow ceased. Air temperature in 2016 was similar to prior years, but stream temperature was substantially higher than the prior seven years, likely due to the loss of canopy shading. DO declined dramatically in 2016 compared to prior years - more than the rising stream temperatures would indicate. Gross Primary Productivity was significantly higher during the year of the defoliation, indicating more total fixation of inorganic carbon from photo-autotrophs. In 2016, Ecosystem Respiration was also higher and Net

  7. Distortion of liquid film discharging from twin-fluid atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, C.; Sirignano, W. A.

    2001-11-01

    The nonlinear distortion and disintegration of a thin liquid film exiting from a two-dimensional twin-fluid atomizer is analyzed numerically. Pulsed gas jets impacting on both sides of the discharging liquid film at the atomizer exit generate dilational and/or sinuous deformations of the film. Both liquid phase and gas phase are inviscid and incompressible. For the liquid phase the so-called long-wavelength approximation is employed yielding a system of unsteady one-dimensional equations for the planar film. Solution of Laplace's equation for the velocity potential yields the gas-phase velocity field on both sides of the liquid stream. Coupling between both phases is described through kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions at the phase interfaces, and includes the solution of the unsteady Bernoulli equation to determine the gas-phase pressure along the interfaces. Both gas- and liquid-phase equations are solved simultaneously. Solution of Laplace's equation for the gas streams is obtained by means of a boundary-element method. Numerical solutions for the liquid phase use the Lax-Wendroff method with Richtmyer splitting. Sheet distortion resulting from the stagnation pressure of the impacting gas jets and subsequent disturbance amplification due to Kelvin-Helmholtz effects are studied for various combinations of gas-pulse timing, gas-jet impact angles, gas-to-liquid-density ratio, liquid-phase Weber number and gas-jet-to-liquid-jet-momentum ratio. Dilational and sinuous oscillations of the liquid are examined and film pinch-off is predicted.

  8. Liquid droplet radiator technology issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattick, A.T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1985-01-01

    The operation of the liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is analyzed to establish design constraints for the LDR components and to predict the performance of an integrated LDR system. The design constraints largely result from mass loss considerations: fluid choice is governed by evaporation loss; droplet generation techniques must be capable of precise aiming of >10 5 droplet streams; and collection losses must be less than 1 droplet in 10 7 . Concepts for droplet generation and collection components are discussed and incorporated into a mass model for an LDR system. This model predicts that LDR's using lithium, Dow 705 silicone fluid, or NaK may be several times lighter than heat pipe radiators. 13 refs

  9. Electrohydrodynamic actuation of co-flowing liquids by means of microelectrode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Pablo; Ferney, Mathieu; Ramos, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Electric fields induce forces at the interface between liquids with different electrical properties (conductivity and/or permittivity). We explore how to use these forces for manipulating two coflowing streams of liquids in a microchannel. A microelectrode array is fabricated at the bottom of the channel and one of the two liquids is labelled with a fluorescent dye for observing the phenomenon. The diffuse interface between the two liquids is deflected depending on the ac signal and conductivity (or permittivity) ratio between the liquids. Only a few volts are needed for observing the interface destabilization, in contrast with other electrode configurations where hundreds of volts are applied.

  10. Electrohydrodynamic actuation of co-flowing liquids by means of microelectrode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Pablo; Ferney, Mathieu; Ramos, Antonio, E-mail: pablogarcia@us.es [Depto. de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, University of Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    Electric fields induce forces at the interface between liquids with different electrical properties (conductivity and/or permittivity). We explore how to use these forces for manipulating two coflowing streams of liquids in a microchannel. A microelectrode array is fabricated at the bottom of the channel and one of the two liquids is labelled with a fluorescent dye for observing the phenomenon. The diffuse interface between the two liquids is deflected depending on the ac signal and conductivity (or permittivity) ratio between the liquids. Only a few volts are needed for observing the interface destabilization, in contrast with other electrode configurations where hundreds of volts are applied.

  11. Motion of shocks through interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Scudder, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A model for the motion of flare-generated shocks through interplanetary streams is presented, illustrating the effects of a stream-shock interaction on the shock strength and geometry. It is a gas dynamic calculation based on Whitham's method and on an empirical approximation for the relevant characteristics of streams. The results show that the Mach number of a shock can decrease appreciably to near unity in the interaction region ahead of streams and that the interaction of a spherically symmetric shock with a spiral-shaped corotating stream can cause significant distortions of the initial shock front geometry. The geometry of the February 15--16, 1967, shock discussed by Lepping and Chao (1972) is qualitatively explained by this model

  12. The composition of corotating energetic particle streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, R.E.; von Rosenvinge, T.T.; McDonald, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    The relative abundances of 1.5--23 MeV per nucleon ions in corotating nucleon streams are compared with ion abundances in particle events associated with solar flares and with solar and solar wind abundances. He/O and C/O ratios are found to be a factor of the order 2--3 greater in corotating streams than in flare-associated events. The distribution of H/He ratios in corotating streams is found to be much narrower and of lower average value than in flare-associated events. H/He in corotating energetic particle streams compares favorably in both lack of variability and numerical value with H/He in high-speed solar wind plasma streams. The lack of variability suggests that the source population for the corotating energetic particles is the solar wind, a suggestion consistent with acceleration of the corotating particles in interplanetary space

  13. The ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina; Bengtsson, Mia M; Romani, Anna M; Packmann, Aaron I

    2016-04-01

    Streams and rivers form dense networks, shape the Earth's surface and, in their sediments, provide an immensely large surface area for microbial growth. Biofilms dominate microbial life in streams and rivers, drive crucial ecosystem processes and contribute substantially to global biogeochemical fluxes. In turn, water flow and related deliveries of nutrients and organic matter to biofilms constitute major constraints on microbial life. In this Review, we describe the ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms and highlight the influence of physical and ecological processes on their structure and function. Recent advances in the study of biofilm ecology may pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the effects of climate and environmental change on stream biofilms and the biogeochemistry of stream ecosystems.

  14. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-10-18

    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present Stream

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Pereiro, A.B.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  16. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  17. Hydraulic Properties related to Stream Reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E. C.; Wallace, J. R. [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  18. Hydraulic properties related to stream reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E C; Wallace, J R [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  20. Mortandad Canyon: Elemental concentrations in vegetation, streambank soils, and stream sediments - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.

    1997-06-01

    In 1979, stream sediments, streambank soils, and streambank vegetation were sampled at 100 m intervals downstream of the outfall of the TA-50 radioactive liquid waste treatment facility in Mortandad Canyon. Sampling was discontinued at a distance of 3260 m at the location of the sediment traps in the canyon. The purpose of the sampling was to investigate the effect of the residual contaminants in the waste treatment facility effluent on elemental concentrations in various environmental media

  1. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment

  2. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  3. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  4. Introduction to stream: An Extensible Framework for Data Stream Clustering Research with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hahsler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, data streams have become an increasingly important area of research for the computer science, database and statistics communities. Data streams are ordered and potentially unbounded sequences of data points created by a typically non-stationary data generating process. Common data mining tasks associated with data streams include clustering, classification and frequent pattern mining. New algorithms for these types of data are proposed regularly and it is important to evaluate them thoroughly under standardized conditions. In this paper we introduce stream, a research tool that includes modeling and simulating data streams as well as an extensible framework for implementing, interfacing and experimenting with algorithms for various data stream mining tasks. The main advantage of stream is that it seamlessly integrates with the large existing infrastructure provided by R. In addition to data handling, plotting and easy scripting capabilities, R also provides many existing algorithms and enables users to interface code written in many programming languages popular among data mining researchers (e.g., C/C++, Java and Python. In this paper we describe the architecture of stream and focus on its use for data stream clustering research. stream was implemented with extensibility in mind and will be extended in the future to cover additional data stream mining tasks like classification and frequent pattern mining.

  5. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment—Influences of human activities on streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Coles, James F.

    2018-04-16

    Healthy streams and the fish and other organisms that live in them contribute to our quality of life. Extensive modification of the landscape in the Midwestern United States, however, has profoundly affected the condition of streams. Row crops and pavement have replaced grasslands and woodlands, streams have been straightened, and wetlands and fields have been drained. Runoff from agricultural and urban land brings sediment and chemicals to streams. What is the chemical, physical, and biological condition of Midwestern streams? Which physical and chemical stressors are adversely affecting biological communities, what are their origins, and how might we lessen or avoid their adverse effects?In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment to evaluate how human activities affect the biological condition of Midwestern streams. In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Rivers and Streams Assessment, the USGS sampled 100 streams, chosen to be representative of the different types of watersheds in the region. Biological condition was evaluated based on the number and diversity of fish, algae, and invertebrates in the streams. Changes to the physical habitat and chemical characteristics of the streams—“stressors”—were assessed, and their relation to landscape factors and biological condition was explored by using mathematical models. The data and models help us to better understand how the human activities on the landscape are affecting streams in the region.

  6. Experimental test of liquid droplet radiator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattick, A.T.; Simon, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is evolving rapidly as a lightweight system for heat rejection in space power systems. By using recirculating free streams of submillimeter droplets to radiate waste energy directly to space, the LDR can potentially be an order of magnitude lighter than conventional radiator systems which radiate from solid surfaces. The LDR is also less vulnerable to micrometeoroid damage than are conventional radiators, and it has a low transport volume. Three major development issues of this new heat rejection system are the ability to direct the droplet streams with sufficient precision to avoid fluid loss, radiative performance of the array of droplet streams which comprise the radiating elements of the LDR, and the efficacy of the droplet stream collector, again with respect to fluid loss. This paper reports experimental results bearing on the first two issues - droplet aiming in a multikilowatt-sized system, and radiated power from a large droplet array. Parallel efforts on droplet collection and LDR system design are being pursued by several research groups

  7. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  8. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratios representing the liquidity as current assets, assets implied in the determination of liquidity ratios. The end of the paper consists of the conclusions drawn from the issues presented in the paper but also our views on this research topic.

  9. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  10. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  11. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  13. Ecological health in the Nation's streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic biological communities, which are collections of organisms, are a direct measure of stream health because they indicate the ability of a stream to support life. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a national assessment of stream health by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The assessment was unique in that it integrated the condition of three biological communities—algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish—as well as measures of streamflow modification, pesticides, nutrients, and other factors. At least one biological community was altered at 83 percent of assessed streams, and the occurrence of altered communities was highest in urban streams. Streamflows were modified at 86 percent of assessed streams, and increasing severity of streamflow modification was associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities. Agricultural and urban land use in watersheds may contribute pesticides and nutrients to stream waters, and increasing concentrations of these chemicals were associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities.

  14. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit

    2016-11-02

    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  15. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  16. Quality models for audiovisual streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Truong Cong; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Cheon Seog; Ro, Yong Man

    2006-01-01

    Quality is an essential factor in multimedia communication, especially in compression and adaptation. Quality metrics can be divided into three categories: within-modality quality, cross-modality quality, and multi-modality quality. Most research has so far focused on within-modality quality. Moreover, quality is normally just considered from the perceptual perspective. In practice, content may be drastically adapted, even converted to another modality. In this case, we should consider the quality from semantic perspective as well. In this work, we investigate the multi-modality quality from the semantic perspective. To model the semantic quality, we apply the concept of "conceptual graph", which consists of semantic nodes and relations between the nodes. As an typical of multi-modality example, we focus on audiovisual streaming service. Specifically, we evaluate the amount of information conveyed by a audiovisual content where both video and audio channels may be strongly degraded, even audio are converted to text. In the experiments, we also consider the perceptual quality model of audiovisual content, so as to see the difference with semantic quality model.

  17. Effect of main stream void distribution on cavitating hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.

    1993-01-01

    For the safety analysis of a loss of coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor, it is important to establish an analytical method which predicts the pump performance under gas-liquid two-phase flow condition. J.H. Kim briefly reviewed several major two-phase flow pump models, and discussed the parameters that could significantly affect two-phase pump behavior. The parameter pointed out to be of the most importance is void distribution at the pump inlet. This says that the pipe bend near the pump inlet makes the void distribution at the pump inlet nonuniform, and this matter can have a significant effect on the impeller blade performance. This paper proposes an analytical method of solution for a partially cavitating hydrofoil placed in the main stream of incompressible homogeneous bubbly two-phase flow conditions whose void fraction is exponentially distributed normal to chordline. The paper clarifies the effect of main stream void distribution parameter on the partially cavitating hydrofoil characteristics

  18. Ground-based thermal imaging of stream surface temperatures: Technique and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Petre, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a ground-based handheld thermal imaging system for measuring water temperatures using data from eight southwestern USA streams and rivers. We found handheld thermal imagers could provide considerably more spatial information on water temperature (for our unit one image = 19,600 individual temperature measurements) than traditional methods could supply without a prohibitive amount of effort. Furthermore, they could provide measurements of stream surface temperature almost instantaneously compared with most traditional handheld thermometers (e.g., >20 s/reading). Spatial temperature analysis is important for measurement of subtle temperature differences across waterways, and identification of warm and cold groundwater inputs. Handheld thermal imaging is less expensive and equipment intensive than airborne thermal imaging methods and is useful under riparian canopies. Disadvantages of handheld thermal imagers include their current higher expense than thermometers, their susceptibility to interference when used incorrectly, and their slightly lower accuracy than traditional temperature measurement methods. Thermal imagers can only measure surface temperature, but this usually corresponds to subsurface temperatures in well-mixed streams and rivers. Using thermal imaging in select applications, such as where spatial investigations of water temperature are needed, or in conjunction with stationary temperature data loggers or handheld electronic or liquid-in-glass thermometers to characterize stream temperatures by both time and space, could provide valuable information on stream temperature dynamics. These tools will become increasingly important to fisheries biologists as costs continue to decline.

  19. Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa Sousa, Leonardo [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Foston, Marcus [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Bokade, Vijay [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); Azarpira, Ali [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lu, Fachuang [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ralph, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Dale, Bruce [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Balan, Venkatesh [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-05-05

    One of the key challenges facing lignin conversion to fuels and chemicals is related to the level of carbohydrate and ash impurities found in extracted lignin. Structural modifications of lignin may also occur as a result of biomass pretreatment and harsh lignin extraction protocols. Extractive-Ammonia (EA) is a new pretreatment technology that uses liquid ammonia to cleave lignin–carbohydrate complexes, decrystallize cellulose, solubilize lignin, and selectively extract lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, enabling better utilization of both lignin and carbohydrate components in a biorefinery. The EA-based biorefinery produces two different lignin-rich streams, with different properties, that could potentially be upgraded to fuels and chemicals using green processes. Here, a water/ethanol-based fractionation method was developed to enrich the ammonia-soluble extractives, resulting in a major product stream containing 92% lignin. Detailed characterization of the various streams resulting from EA treatment, including compositional analysis, structural characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, elemental analysis, molecular weight analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis provides a broad evaluation of the EA-derived lignin product stream structures and properties, assessing their potential for commercial applications. In conclusion, EA-derived lignins preserve much of lignin's functionality, including the sensitive β-aryl ether units. Furthermore, we observed nitrogen incorporation in the lignin-rich streams, notably due to the presence of hydroxycinnamoyl amides formed during ammonia pretreatment.

  20. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  1. Fast algorithm for automatically computing Strahler stream order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfear, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient algorithm was developed to determine Strahler stream order for segments of stream networks represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The algorithm correctly assigns Strahler stream order in topologically complex situations such as braided streams and multiple drainage outlets. Execution time varies nearly linearly with the number of stream segments in the network. This technique is expected to be particularly useful for studying the topology of dense stream networks derived from digital elevation model data.

  2. Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Martin; Green, Roy; Ohlin, Mathias

    2012-07-21

    In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

  3. Thickness of residual wetting film in liquid-liquid displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor; Gaul, William; Vigil, R. Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a nonwetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. Here we develop a hydrodynamic, testable theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob of one fluid moving in another, with neither phase being gas. In its relationship to the capillary number Ca, the thickness of the film is predicted to be proportional to Ca2 at lower Ca and to level off at a constant value of ˜20% the channel radius at higher Ca. The thickness of the film is deduced to be approximately unaffected by the viscosity ratio of the fluids. We have conducted our own laboratory experiments and compiled experimental data from other studies, all of which are mutually consistent and confirm the salient features of the theory. At the same time, the classic law, originally deduced for films surrounding moving gas bubbles but often believed to hold for liquids as well, fails to explain the observations.

  4. A morphological comparison of narrow, low-gradient streams traversing wetland environments to alluvial streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu, Michael C

    2002-12-01

    Twelve morphological features from research on alluvial streams are compared in four narrow, low-gradient wetland streams located in different geographic regions (Connecticut, Indiana, and Wisconsin, USA). All four reaches differed in morphological characteristics in five of the features compared (consistent bend width, bend cross-sectional shape, riffle width compared to pool width, greatest width directly downstream of riffles, and thalweg location), while three reaches differed in two comparisons (mean radius of curvature to width ratio and axial wavelength to width ratio). The remaining five features compared had at least one reach where different characteristics existed. This indicates the possibility of varying morphology for streams traversing wetland areas further supporting the concept that the unique qualities of wetland environments might also influence the controls on fluvial dynamics and the development of streams. If certain morphological features found in streams traversing wetland areas differ from current fluvial principles, then these varying features should be incorporated into future wetland stream design and creation projects. The results warrant further research on other streams traversing wetlands to determine if streams in these environments contain unique morphology and further investigation of the impact of low-energy fluvial processes on morphological development. Possible explanations for the morphology deviations in the study streams and some suggestions for stream design in wetland areas based upon the results and field observations are also presented.

  5. Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beth A. Plale

    2009-10-10

    Real time data, which we call data streams, are readings from instruments, environmental, bodily or building sensors that are generated at regular intervals and often, due to their volume, need to be processed in real time. Often a single pass is all that can be made on the data, and a decision to discard or keep the instance is made on the spot. Too, the stream is for all practical purposes indefinite, so decisions must be made on incomplete knowledge. This notion of data streams has a different set of issues from a file, for instance, that is byte streamed to a reader. The file is finite, so the byte stream is becomes a processing convenience more than a fundamentally different kind of data. Through the duration of the project we examined three aspects of streaming data: the first, techniques to handle streaming data in a distributed system organized as a collection of web services, the second, the notion of the dashboard and real time controllable analysis constructs in the context of the Fermi Tevatron Beam Position Monitor, and third and finally, we examined provenance collection of stream processing such as might occur as raw observational data flows from the source and undergoes correction, cleaning, and quality control. The impact of this work is severalfold. We were one of the first to advocate that streams had little value unless aggregated, and that notion is now gaining general acceptance. We were one of the first groups to grapple with the notion of provenance of stream data also.

  6. How and Why Does Stream Water Temperature Vary at Small Spatial Scales in a Headwater Stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. C.; Gannon, J. P.; Kelleher, C.

    2017-12-01

    The temperature of stream water is controlled by climatic variables, runoff/baseflow generation, and hyporheic exchange. Hydrologic conditions such as gaining/losing reaches and sources of inflow can vary dramatically along a stream on a small spatial scale. In this work, we attempt to discern the extent that the factors of air temperature, groundwater inflow, and precipitation influence stream temperature at small spatial scales along the length of a stream. To address this question, we measured stream temperature along the perennial stream network in a 43 ha catchment with a complex land use history in Cullowhee, NC. Two water temperature sensors were placed along the stream network on opposite sides of the stream at 100-meter intervals and at several locations of interest (i.e. stream junctions). The forty total sensors recorded the temperature every 10 minutes for one month in the spring and one month in the summer. A subset of sampling locations where stream temperature was consistent or varied from one side of the stream to the other were explored with a thermal imaging camera to obtain a more detailed representation of the spatial variation in temperature at those sites. These thermal surveys were compared with descriptions of the contributing area at the sample sites in an effort to discern specific causes of differing flow paths. Preliminary results suggest that on some branches of the stream stormflow has less influence than regular hyporheic exchange, while other tributaries can change dramatically with stormflow conditions. We anticipate this work will lead to a better understanding of temperature patterns in stream water networks. A better understanding of the importance of small-scale differences in flow paths to water temperature may be able to inform watershed management decisions in the future.

  7. Where the Gulf Stream ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Gremikha site is an old naval base and nuclear submarines refueling facility, without any operational activity and partially abandoned for 15 years, located on the East of the Kola peninsula at about 160 km of Mourmansk. It was mainly used for the maintenance of the submarines of the Soviet fleet, and in particular those of the 'alfa' class having a liquid metal cooled (bismuth/lead) fast reactor. The base, today under the responsibility of SevRAO (a daughter company of Rosatom, is in a dramatic situation which represents a threat for the environment. Moreover, there exists a risk of diversion of the nuclear materials which are stored in non-secure conditions. The CEA project fits into the site rehabilitation program which should lead to the decontamination and closing down of the site by 2015. The operations to be performed are the following: recovery of the 'alpha' reactor cores, of the spent fuels of PWR propulsion reactors, of the solid and liquid radioactive wastes, and the cleansing of the site. A radiological and technological status of the site was performed between 2005 and 2007. The feasibility study was launched in December 2006 and is on the way of completion. It allows to define the operations to be performed, the technical and financial means to be implemented, and the schedule of realisation. The Kurchatov Institute (Moscow) is the coordinator of the site operations. France is financing the realisation of the status and the feasibility study. The results of this study will allow to determine the share of works supported by the different donors (France, the BERD (NDEP), Norway and Italy). This DVD presents a documentary about the Gremikha site, its radiological situation and the first remedial actions carried out so far. (J.S.)

  8. Implied liquidity : towards stochastic liquidity modeling and liquidity trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcuera, J.M.; Guillaume, F.M.Y.; Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implied (il)liquidity of vanilla options. Implied liquidity is based on the fundamental theory of conic finance, in which the one-price model is abandoned and replaced by a two-price model giving bid and ask prices for traded assets. The pricing is done by

  9. Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    disambiguation. The first algorithm operates in two passes in a semi-streaming fashion, using a constant amount of working memory and an auxiliary tape storage which is written in the first pass and consumed by the second. The second algorithm is a single-pass and optimally streaming algorithm which outputs...... as much of the parse tree as is semantically possible based on the input prefix read so far, and resorts to buffering as many symbols as is required to resolve the next choice. Optimality is obtained by performing a PSPACE-complete pre-analysis on the regular expression. In the second part we present...... Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...

  10. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A streaming video system was developed and implemented at SSC to support various propulsion projects at SSC. These projects included J-2X and AJ-26 rocket engine...

  11. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  12. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  13. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  14. Radiation streaming with SAM-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gangi, N.; Cohen, M.O.; Waluschka, E.; Steinberg, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The SAM-CE Monte Carlo code has been employed to calculate doses, due to neutron streaming, on the operating floor and other locations of the Millstone Unit II Nuclear Power Facility. Calculated results were compared against measured doses

  15. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, Daniel F.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Chon, Tae Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Robinson, Wayne A.; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the

  16. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  17. Development of a liquid filter testing technique using radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Ramarathinam, K.; Khan, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Efficient removal of suspended matter from liquids was always in demand in industries as a process requirement for the recovery of suspended materials. In nuclear industry the filters are required to remove fine suspended matter from water in reactors, effluent treatment plants, fuel reprocessing plants etc. The filters are used to maintain clarity and to limit the activity level to a minimum. In effluent treatment plants low level liquid waste is discharged to the environment after removing active suspended matter by filters. Various type of liquid filters are available in the market to meet the demands of different industries. These filters must be evaluated for their removal effectiveness for particulate matter from liquids. The filters are evaluated using several techniques like gravimetric analysis, turbidity measurement, direct counting of particles using optical and electronic instruments etc. All the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. Counting of radioactive particles using radiation counters is a simple and sensitive technique. It involves the neutron activation of selected test powders which are dispersed in the liquid and led through the test filter; the up-stream and down-stream concentrations are measured using GM counter. This technique was found to be consistent and reproducible in the low, middle and high ranges of efficiency. Selection of a test powder, its activation and use for evaluating liquid filters are dealt with. (auth.)

  18. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, R.C.

    1986-03-01

    This document summarizes radioactive liquids discharged to the ground in the 200 areas of the Hanford site and is provided pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5484.1A, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements.'' There are twenty-eight liquid discharge streams in the 200 areas excluding sanitary sewers. Twenty-five streams were normally or potentially contaminated with radioactive material in 1985. Two streams had no potential for radioactive contamination but were included as adjustments in this report to maintain an accurate record of the total volume of the discharges to each disposal site. One stream, the 242-S Evaporator cooling water discharge, was not used during 1985

  19. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  20. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  1. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  2. Stream sediment sampling and analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Voris, P.V.; Headington, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    The objectives were to sample and analyze sediments from upstream and downstream locations (relative to the Goodyear Atomic plant site) of three streams for selected pollutants. The three streams sampled were the Scioto River, Big Beaver Creek, and Big Run Creek. Sediment samples were analyzed for EPA's 129 priority pollutants (Clean Water Act) as well as isotopic uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U) and technetium-99

  3. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  4. Rotenone persistence model for montane streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient and effective use of rotenone is hindered by its unknown persistence in streams. Environmental conditions degrade rotenone, but current label instructions suggest fortifying the chemical along a stream based on linear distance or travel time rather than environmental conditions. Our objective was to develop models that use measurements of environmental conditions to predict rotenone persistence in streams. Detailed measurements of ultraviolet radiation, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), substrate composition, amount of organic matter, channel slope, and travel time were made along stream segments located between rotenone treatment stations and cages containing bioassay fish in six streams. The amount of fine organic matter, biofilm, sand, gravel, cobble, rubble, small boulders, slope, pH, TDS, ORP, light reaching the stream, energy dissipated, discharge, and cumulative travel time were each significantly correlated with fish death. By using logistic regression, measurements of environmental conditions were paired with the responses of bioassay fish to develop a model that predicted the persistence of rotenone toxicity in streams. This model was validated with data from two additional stream treatment reaches. Rotenone persistence was predicted by a model that used travel time, rubble, and ORP. When this model predicts a probability of less than 0.95, those who apply rotenone can expect incomplete eradication and should plan on fortifying rotenone concentrations. The significance of travel time has been previously identified and is currently used to predict rotenone persistence. However, rubble substrate, which may be associated with the degradation of rotenone by adsorption and volatilization in turbulent environments, was not previously considered.

  5. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  6. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibe, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs. Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them. We conducted two quantitative investigations, namely an online survey with YouNow users (N = 123 and observations of live streams on YouNow (N = 434. YouNow is a service with video streams mostly made by adolescents for adolescents. YouNow users like to watch streams, to chat while watching, and to reward performers by using emoticons. While broadcasting, there is no anonymity (as in nearly all other WWW services. Synchronous SNSs remind us of the film The Truman Show, as anyone has the chance to consciously broadcast his or her own life real-time.

  7. STREAMS - Supporting Underrepresented Groups in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Knighton, K.; Johnson, A.

    2009-12-01

    In Fall 2008, STREAMS (Supporting Talented and Remarkable Environmental And Marine Science students) Scholarship initiative began at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, the only public university in Pinellas County. STREAMS is a partnership between the University of South Florida St. Petersburg’s (USFSP) Environmental Science and Policy Program and University of South Florida’s (USF) College of Marine Science. The STREAMS Student Scholarship Program has facilitated increased recruitment, retention, and graduation of USFSP environmental science and USF marine science majors. The STREAMS program has increased opportunities for minorities and women to obtain undergraduate and graduate degrees, gain valuable research experience and engage in professional development activities. STREAMS scholars have benefited from being mentored by USFSP and USF faculty and as well as MSPhDs students and NSF Florida-Georgia LSAMP Bridge to Doctorate graduate fellows. In addition, STREAMS has facilitated activities designed to prepare student participants for successful Earth system science-related careers. We will elucidate the need for this initiative and vision for the collaboration.

  8. REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2005-01-01

    STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls

  9. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. South Stream Project and the Ukrainian Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ioana Banciu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to develop an analysis of the South Stream project in view of the Ukrainian crisis. We cannot put aside the internal factor as Ukraine is facing serious internal issues such as corruption and instability, therefore Russia’s invasion of Ukraine can not be simply ignored in this pipeline project. The article uses mostly facts that happened throughout last years, as well as for and against declarations in the case of the South Stream project and its mother Russia. When we hear about South Stream, we think of Russia and since 2007, this pipeline has encouraged Putin’s faith in energy superpower. A good point to start with was to gather all declarations since then and cover all actions that regard the South Stream game. In Russian foreign policy for the South Stream race, Soft Power was used more than enough and it has recently made room for Hard Power, which is the Ukraine never ending episode. Insights of the South Stream story have been lately related both softly and hardly, this is the reason why I have chosen to analyse both sides in order to complete the energy landscape.

  11. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  12. Impact of stream restoration on flood waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, J.; Doyle, M.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of channelized or incised streams has the potential to reduce downstream flooding via storing and dissipating the energy of flood waves. Restoration design elements such as restoring meanders, reducing slope, restoring floodplain connectivity, re-introducing in-channel woody debris, and re-vegetating banks and the floodplain have the capacity to attenuate flood waves via energy dissipation and channel and floodplain storage. Flood discharge hydrographs measured up and downstream of several restored reaches of varying stream order and located in both urban and rural catchments are coupled with direct measurements of stream roughness at various stages to directly measure changes to peak discharge, flood wave celerity, and dispersion. A one-dimensional unsteady flow routing model, HEC-RAS, is calibrated and used to compare attenuation characteristics between pre and post restoration conditions. Modeled sensitivity results indicate that a restoration project placed on a smaller order stream demonstrates the highest relative reduction in peak discharge of routed flood waves compared to one of equal length on a higher order stream. Reductions in bed slope, extensions in channel length, and increases in channel and floodplain roughness follow restoration placement with the watershed in relative importance. By better understanding how design, scale, and location of restored reaches within a catchment hydraulically impact flood flows, this study contributes both to restoration design and site decision making. It also quantifies the effect of reach scale stream restoration on flood wave attenuation.

  13. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) and Lake-Catchment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsLake and stream conditions respond to both natural and human-related landscape features. Characterizing these features within contributing areas (i.e., delineated watersheds) of streams and lakes could improve our understanding of how biological conditions vary spatially and improve the use, management, and restoration of these aquatic resources. However, the specialized geospatial techniques required to define and characterize stream and lake watersheds has limited their widespread use in both scientific and management efforts at large spatial scales. We developed the StreamCat and LakeCat Datasets to model, predict, and map the probable biological conditions of streams and lakes across the conterminous US (CONUS). Both StreamCat and LakeCat contain watershed-level characterizations of several hundred natural (e.g., soils, geology, climate, and land cover) and anthropogenic (e.g., urbanization, agriculture, mining, and forest management) landscape features for ca. 2.6 million stream segments and 376,000 lakes across the CONUS, respectively. These datasets can be paired with field samples to provide independent variables for modeling and other analyses. We paired 1,380 stream and 1,073 lake samples from the USEPAs National Aquatic Resource Surveys with StreamCat and LakeCat and used random forest (RF) to model and then map an invertebrate condition index and chlorophyll a concentration, respectively. Results/ConclusionsThe invertebrate

  14. PROXY-BASED PATCHING STREAM TRANSMISSION STRATEGY IN MOBILE STREAMING MEDIA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Jianxin; Lei Zhengxiong; Ma Xutao; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    A mobile transmission strategy, PMPatching (Proxy-based Mobile Patching) transmission strategy is proposed, it applies to the proxy-based mobile streaming media system in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) network. Performance of the whole system can be improved by using patching stream to transmit anterior part of the suffix that had been played back, and by batching all the demands for the suffix arrived in prefix period and patching stream transmission threshold period. Experimental results show that this strategy can efficiently reduce average network transmission cost and number of channels consumed in central streaming media server.

  15. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  16. Improvements in iodine and ruthenium removal from advanced liquid processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibo, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-27

    SRNL has considerable experience in designing, engineering, and operating systems for removing iodine-129 (I-129) and ruthenium-106 (Ru-106) from waste streams that are directly analogous to the Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) waste streams. SRNL proposes to provide the technical background and design and engineering support for an improved I-129 and Ru-106 removal system for application to ALPS on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS).

  17. Resource synergy in stream periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Walter [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Fanta, S.E. [University of Illinois; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Francoeur, Steven N. [Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI

    2011-03-01

    1. Light and nutrients play pivotal roles in determining the growth of autotrophs, yet the potential for synergistic interactions between the two resources in algal communities is poorly understood, especially in stream ecosystems. In this study, light and phosphorus were manipulated in large experimental streams to examine resource colimitation and synergy in stream periphyton. 2. Whole-stream metabolism was simultaneously limited by light and phosphorus. Increasing the supply of either light or phosphorus resulted in significant increases in primary production and the transformation of the streams from heterotrophy to autotrophy. 3. Resource-driven changes in periphyton community structure occurred in concert with changes in production. Algal assemblages in highly shaded streams were composed primarily of small diatoms such as Achnanthidium minutissima, whereas larger diatoms such as Melosira varians predominated at higher irradiances. Phosphorus enrichment had relatively little effect on assemblage structure, but it did substantially diminish the abundance of Meridion circulare, a diatom whose mucilaginous colonies were conspicuously abundant in phosphorus-poor, high-light streams. Bacterial biomass declined relative to algal biomass with increases in primary productivity, regardless of whether the increases were caused by light or phosphorus. 4. Synergistic effects on primary production appeared to occur because the availability of one resource facilitated the utilization of the other. Light increased the abundance of large diatoms, which are known to convert high concentrations of nutrients into primary production more effectively than smaller taxa. Phosphorus enrichment led to the replacement of Meridion circulare by non-mucilaginous taxa in phosphorus-enriched streams, and we hypothesize that this change enabled more efficient use of light in photosynthesis. Higher ratios of chlorophyll a : biomass in phosphorus-enriched streams may have also led to more

  18. THE ORBIT OF THE ORPHAN STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberg, Heidi Jo; Willett, Benjamin A.; Yanny, Brian; Xu Yan

    2010-01-01

    We use recent Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) spectroscopy and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and SEGUE imaging data to measure the sky position, distance, and radial velocities of stars in the tidal debris stream that is commonly referred to as the 'Orphan Stream'. We fit orbital parameters to the data and find a prograde orbit with an apogalacticon, perigalacticon, and eccentricity of 90 kpc, 16.4 kpc, and e = 0.7, respectively. Neither the dwarf galaxy UMa II nor the Complex A gas cloud has velocities consistent with a kinematic association with the Orphan Stream. It is possible that Segue-1 is associated with the Orphan Stream, but no other known Galactic clusters or dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way lie along its orbit. The detected portion of the stream ranges from 19 to 47 kpc from the Sun and is an indicator of the mass interior to these distances. There is a marked increase in the density of Orphan Stream stars near (l, b) = (253 0 , 49 0 ), which could indicate the presence of the progenitor at the edge of the SDSS data. If this is the progenitor, then the detected portion of the Orphan Stream is a leading tidal tail. We find blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars and F turnoff stars associated with the Orphan Stream. The turnoff color is (g - r) 0 = 0.22. The BHB stars have a low metallicity of [Fe/H] WBG = -2.1. The orbit is best fit to a halo potential with a halo plus disk mass of about 2.6 x 10 11 M sun , integrated to 60 kpc from the Galactic center. Our fits are done to orbits rather than full N-body simulations; we show that if N-body simulations are used, the inferred mass of the galaxy would be slightly smaller. Our best fit is found with a logarithmic halo speed of v halo = 73 ± 24 km s -1 , a disk+bulge mass of M(R 11 M sun , and a halo mass of M(R 11 M sun . However, we can find similar fits to the data that use a Navarro-Frenk-White halo profile or that have smaller disk masses and correspondingly larger

  19. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  20. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  1. RStorm: Developing and Testing Streaming Algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  2. RStorm : Developing and testing streaming algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  3. Sampling, Splitting and Merging in Coinductive Stream Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan); C. Bolduc; J. Desharnais; B. Ktari

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of \\emph{stream calculus} and \\emph{stream circuits} for defining and

  4. Sampling, splitting and merging in coinductive stream calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of stream calculus and stream circuits for defining and proving properties

  5. Slope failure as an upslope source of stream wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Large woody debris is recognized as an important component of stream geomorphology and stream ecosystem function, and forest-land management is recognized as an important control on the quantity (and size and species distributions) of wood available for recruitment to streams. Much of the wood present in streams comes from adjacent forests, and riparian management...

  6. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  7. Liquid waste sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    A liquid pumping pressure regulator is disposed on the midway of a pressure control tube which connects the upper portion of a sampling pot and the upper portion of a liquid waste storage vessel. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the sampling pot is made negative, and liquid wastes are sucked to the liquid pumping tube passing through the sampling pot, the difference between the pressure on the entrance of the liquid pumping pressure regulator of the pressure regulating tube and the pressure at the bottom of the liquid waste storage vessel is made constant. An opening degree controlling meter is disposed to control the degree of opening of a pressure regulating valve for sending actuation pressurized air to the liquid pumping pressure regulator. Accordingly, even if the liquid level of liquid wastes in the liquid waste storage vessel is changed, the height for the suction of the liquid wastes in the liquid pumping tube can be kept constant. With such procedures, sampling can be conducted correctly, and the discharge of the liquid wastes to the outside can be prevented. (T.M.)

  8. Stream temperature responses to timber harvest and best management practices—findings from the ODF RipStream project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy D. Groom

    2013-01-01

    Studies over the past 40 years have established that riparian buff er retention along streams protects against stream temperature increase. Th is protection is neither universal nor complete; some buff ered streams still warm, while other streams’ temperatures remain stable. Oregon Department of Forestry developed riparian rules in the Forest Practices Act (FPA) to...

  9. Separation of thiophene from heptane with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domańska, Urszula; Lukoshko, Elena Vadimovna; Królikowski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ILs was measured. ► High selectivity and distribution ratio for the extraction of thiophene was found. ► [BMPYR][TCM] was proposed as entrainer for the separation process. ► Extraction of sulphur-compounds from alkanes was proposed. -- Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) are well known novel green solvents, which can be used for removing sulfur compounds from gasoline and diesel oils. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data are presented for mixtures of {ionic liquid (1) + thiophene (2) + heptane (3)} at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure to analyze the performance of the ionic liquid (IL) in the extraction of thiophene from the alkanes. Three pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids have been studied: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, ([BMPYR][FAP]), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tetracyanoborate, [BMPYR][TCB] and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide, [BMPYR][TCM]. The results are discussed in terms of the selectivity and distribution ratio of separation of related systems. The immiscibility in the binary liquid systems of (thiophene + heptane) with all used ILs was observed. The [TCM] − anion in comparison with [TCB] − and [FAP] − anions shows much higher selectivity and slightly lower distribution ratio for extraction of thiophene. The non-random two liquid NRTL model was used successfully to correlate the experimental tie-lines and to calculate the phase composition error in mole fraction in the ternary systems. The average root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the phase composition was 0.047. The densities of [BMPYR][TCM] in temperature range from (298.15 to 348.15) K were measured. The data presented here show that the [BMPYR][TCM] ionic liquid can be used as an alternative solvent for the separation of thiophene from the hydrocarbon stream using solvent liquid–liquid extraction at ambient conditions

  10. Characteristics of radioactive waste streams generated in HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a study concerned with identification and characterization of radioactive waste streams from an HTGR fuel reprocessing plant. Approximate quantities of individual waste streams as well as pertinent characteristics of selected streams have been estimated. Most of the waste streams are unique to HTGR fuel reprocessing. However, waste streams from the solvent extraction system and from the plant facilities do not differ greatly from the corresponding LWR fuel reprocessing wastes

  11. Self-focusing relativistic electron streams in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A relativistic electron stream propagating through a dense plasma induces current and charge densities which determine how the stream can self-focus. Magnetic self-focusing is possible because stream-current neutralization, although extensive, is not complete. Electric self-focusing can occur because the stream charge becomes overneutralized when the net current is smaller than a critical value. Under some circumstances, the latter process can cause the stream to focus into a series of electron bunches

  12. A survey of systems for massive stream analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Maninder Pal; Hoque, Mohammad A.; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2016-01-01

    The immense growth of data demands switching from traditional data processing solutions to systems, which can process a continuous stream of real time data. Various applications employ stream processing systems to provide solutions to emerging Big Data problems. Open-source solutions such as Storm, Spark Streaming, and S4 are the attempts to answer key stream processing questions. The recent introduction of real time stream processing commercial solutions such as Amazon Kinesis, IBM Infospher...

  13. Emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Watts, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Stream-river models have been developed which provide an accurate prediction of normal and accidental pollutant releases to streams and rivers. Stream parameters are being developed for the Savannah River Plant streams and the Savannah River to allow quick response in case of an accidental release of radioactive material. These data are stored on permanent disk storage for quick access via the JOSHUA operating system. This system provides an efficient and flexible emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

  14. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    OpenAIRE

    ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMUSANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; ANDRA MANCIU

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidit...

  15. Streaming Media Seminar--Effective Development and Distribution of Streaming Multimedia in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainhart, Robert; Gerraughty, James; Anderson, Kristine M.

    2004-01-01

    Concisely defined, "streaming media" is moving video and/or audio transmitted over the Internet for immediate viewing/listening by an end user. However, at Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA), streaming media is approached from a broader perspective. The working definition includes…

  16. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  17. MEKANISME SEGMENTASI LAJU BIT PADA DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  18. The role of remediation, natural alkalinity sources and physical stream parameters in stream recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Natalie A; DeRose, Lisa; Korenowsky, Rebekah; Bowman, Jennifer R; Lopez, Dina; Johnson, Kelly; Rankin, Edward

    2013-10-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) negatively impacts not only stream chemistry, but also aquatic biology. The ultimate goal of AMD treatment is restoration of the biological community, but that goal is rarely explicit in treatment system design. Hewett Fork in Raccoon Creek Watershed, Ohio, has been impacted by historic coal mining and has been treated with a calcium oxide doser in the headwaters of the watershed since 2004. All of the acidic inputs are isolated to a 1.5 km stretch of stream in the headwaters of the Hewett Fork watershed. The macroinvertebrate and fish communities have begun to recover and it is possible to distinguish three zones downstream of the doser: an impaired zone, a transition zone and a recovered zone. Alkalinity from both the doser and natural sources and physical stream parameters play a role in stream restoration. In Hewett Fork, natural alkaline additions downstream are higher than those from the doser. Both, alkaline additions and stream velocity drive sediment and metal deposition. Metal deposition occurs in several patterns; aluminum tends to deposit in regions of low stream velocity, while iron tends to deposit once sufficient alkalinity is added to the system downstream of mining inputs. The majority of metal deposition occurs upstream of the recovered zone. Both the physical stream parameters and natural alkalinity sources influence biological recovery in treated AMD streams and should be considered in remediation plans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  20. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  1. Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.D.; Nankani, F.D.; Bray, L.A.; Eakin, D.E.; Larson, D.E.

    1990-12-01

    It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment. This paper discusses the process design of a system that will remove both radioactive particulates and certain dissolved fission products from process liquid waste streams. Supporting data obtained from literature sources as well as from laboratory- and pilot-scale tests are presented. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Detection of solvent losses (entrainment) in gas streams of process vessels using radioisotope tracing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Juhari Mohd Yusof

    2002-01-01

    Liquid droplets (MDEA aqueous solution) entrained in the gas streams can cause severe problems on chemical plants. On-line detection of liquid entrainment (carry over) into gas streams from process vessel is investigated using radioisotope iodine ( 131 I). In order to obtain information on whether there is any carry-over of MDEA in the vapour space leaving from the process system, a number of test and calibration injections involving the released of certain amount of tracer activity (mCi) at the inlet and overhead lines of the process vessels were made using a special injection device. MDEA solvent- tagged tracer in the overhead line of the designated process vessels was monitored using radiation scintillation detectors mounted externally at specified locations of the vessels. Output pulses (response curves) with respect to time of measurements from all detectors were plotted and analysed for the finger prints of solvent losses leaving the vessels. From this study, no distinguishable peaks were detected at the outlet vessels of the overhead lines. Thus, no significant MDEA solvent losses in the form of vapour being discovered along the gas streams due to the process taking place in the system. (Author)

  3. 7Q10 flows for SRS streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS streams include reactor coolant water discharged from the reactors and process water released from the process facilities. The most straight forward way to estimate the stream daily natural flow is to subtract the measured upstream reactor and/or facility daily effluents from the measured downstream daily flow. Unfortunately, this method does not always work, as indicated by the fact that sometimes the measured downstream volumetric flow rates are lower than the reactor effluent volumetric flow rates. For those cases that cannot be analyzed with the simple subtracting method, an alternative method was used to estimate the stream natural flows by statistically separating reactor coolant and process water flow data. The correlation between the calculated 7Q10 flows and the watershed areas for Four Mile Branch and Pen Branch agrees with that calculated by the USGS for Upper Three Runs and Lower Three Runs Creeks. The agreement between these two independent calculations lends confidence to the 7Q10 flow calculations presented in this report

  4. Streaming instabilities in a collisional dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A pair of low-frequency electrostatic modes, which are very similar to those experimentally observed by Praburam and Goree [Phys. Plasmas 3, 1212 (1996)], are found to exist in a dusty plasma with a significant background neutral pressure and background ion streaming. One of these two modes is the dust-acoustic mode and the other one is a new mode which is due to the combined effects of the ion streaming and ion--neutral collisions. It has been shown that in the absence of the ion streaming, the dust-acoustic mode is damped due to the combined effects of the ion--neutral and dust--neutral collisions and the electron--ion recombination onto the dust grain surface. This result disagrees with Kaw and Singh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 423 (1997)], who reported collisional instability of the dust-acoustic mode in such a dusty plasma. It has also been found that a streaming instability with the growth rate of the order of the dust plasma frequency is triggered when the background ion streaming speed relative to the charged dust particles is comparable or higher than the ion--thermal speed. This point completely agrees with Rosenberg [J. Vac. Soc. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)

  5. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  6. Jet Noise Scaling in Dual Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    Power spectral laws in dual stream jets are studied by considering such flows a superposition of appropriate single-stream coaxial jets. Noise generation in each mixing region is modeled using spectral power laws developed earlier for single stream jets as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. Similarity arguments indicate that jet noise in dual stream nozzles may be considered as a composite of four single stream jets representing primary/secondary, secondary/ambient, transition, and fully mixed zones. Frequency filter are designed to highlight spectral contribution from each jet. Predictions are provided at an area ratio of 2.0--bypass ratio from 0.80 to 3.40, and are compared with measurements within a wide range of velocity and temperature ratios. These models suggest that the low frequency noise in unheated jets is dominated by the fully mixed region at all velocity ratios, while the high frequency noise is dominated by the secondary when the velocity ratio is larger than 0.80. Transition and fully mixed jets equally dominate the low frequency noise in heated jets. At velocity ratios less than 0.50, the high frequency noise from primary/bypass becomes a significant contributing factor similar to that in the secondary/ambient jet.

  7. In-stream Physical Heterogeneity, Rainfall Aided Flushing, and Discharge on Stream Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pattiyage I A; Wai, Onyx W H

    2015-08-01

    Implications of instream physical heterogeneity, rainfall-aided flushing, and stream discharge on water quality control have been investigated in a headwater stream of a climatic region that has contrasting dry and wet seasons. Dry (low flow) season's physical heterogeneity showed a positive correlation with good water quality. However, in the wet season, physical heterogeneity showed minor or no significance on water quality variations. Furthermore, physical heterogeneity appeared to be more complementary with good water quality subsequent to rainfall events. In many cases stream discharge was a reason for poor water quality. For the dry season, graywater inputs to the stream could be held responsible. In the wet season, it was probably the result of catchment level disturbances (e.g., regulation of ephemeral freshwater paths). Overall, this study revealed the importance of catchment-based approaches on water quality improvement in tandem with in-stream approaches framed on a temporal scale.

  8. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  9. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  10. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  11. Advanced liquid radwaste decontamination by using a centrifuge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscheschlok, K.; Szukala, M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water streams basically include undissolved suspended solids which contain almost the main part of the activated products. The centrifuge system, called LRS (Liquid Radwaste Treatment System), is able to remove these solids from the liquid content and fills the dewatered product into disposal containers. For this purpose a chemical pre-treatment step is often used for selective precipitation of special radionuclides and flocculents to agglomerate smaller sized particles (colloids) to make them separatable with the LRS. The plant arrangement, the process optimization and the collected operational experiences are described. 2 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  12. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  13. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R.; King, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R ampersand D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams

  14. Distribution of mercury, Cesium-137, and plutonium in an intermittent stream at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.; Gladney, E.S.; Dreicer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study on the distribution of Hg, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 239 240 Pu in channel sediments and adjacent bank soils in an intermittent stream used for treated liquid effluent disposal since 1963 are summarized. Concentrations of the three radionuclides and Hg in stream bank soils were comparable to adjacent channel sediments demonstrating that the stream bank serves as a deposition site for chemicals released to the channel. This finding has important implications on the long-term behavior of effluent contaminants since other studies at Los Alamos have shown that the vegetated stream banks retard downstream movement of chemicals bound to soils and provide a pathway for transport of these materials to biota. Concentrations of the radionuclides and mercury were more uniformly distributed with distance and depth in the channel sediments than in the bank soils. The action of periodic surface water in the channel partially explains those differences. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that 50 to 85% of the variability in contaminant concentrations in bank and channel locations was due to variation with distance while depth contributed relatively little to variability

  15. Java parallel secure stream for grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Chen, Y.; Watson, W.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of high speed wide area networks makes grid computing a reality. However grid applications that need reliable data transfer still have difficulties to achieve optimal TCP performance due to network tuning of TCP window size to improve the bandwidth and to reduce latency on a high speed wide area network. The authors present a pure Java package called JPARSS (Java Parallel Secure Stream) that divides data into partitions that are sent over several parallel Java streams simultaneously and allows Java or Web applications to achieve optimal TCP performance in a gird environment without the necessity of tuning the TCP window size. Several experimental results are provided to show that using parallel stream is more effective than tuning TCP window size. In addition X.509 certificate based single sign-on mechanism and SSL based connection establishment are integrated into this package. Finally a few applications using this package will be discussed

  16. Activity Based Costing in Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to integrate Value Stream Map (VSM with the cost aspects. A value stream map provides a blueprint for implementing lean manufacturing concepts by illustrating information and materials flow in a value stream. The objective of the present work is to integrate the various cost aspects. The idea is to introduce a cost line, which enhances the clarity in decision making. The redesigned map proves to be effective in highlighting the improvement areas, in terms of quantitative data. TAKT time calculation is carried out to set the pace of production. Target cost is set as a bench mark for product cost. The results of the study indicates that implementing VSM led to reduction in the following areas: processing lead time by 34%, processing cycle time was reduced by 35%, Inventory level by 66% and product cost from Rs 137 to Rs 125. It was found that adopting VSM in a small scale industry can make significant improvements.

  17. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Furtlehner, Cyril; Germain-Renaud, Cecile; Sebag, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  18. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  19. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-07-09

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  20. Electrogravitational stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Alfaisal A.

    2011-01-01

    The electrogravitational instability of on oscillating streaming fluid cylinder under the action of the selfgravitating, capillary and electrodynamic forces has been discussed. The model is governed by the Mathieu second order integro-differential equation. Some limiting cases are recovering from the present general one. The capillary force is destabilizing in a small axisymmetric domain 0< x<1 and stabilizing otherwise. In the absence of electric fields, we found that the model is unstable in a small domain while it is selfgravitating stable in all other domains. The presence of the electric field led to the presence of a great number of stable waves. The electric field has a strong stabilizing influence on the selfgravitating instability of the model. The capillary force has a strong destabilizing influence on the selfgravitating instability of the model. Generally, the uniform stream supports the unstable waves, while the oscillating streaming has stability tendency.

  1. Programmable stream prefetch with resource optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2013-01-08

    A stream prefetch engine performs data retrieval in a parallel computing system. The engine receives a load request from at least one processor. The engine evaluates whether a first memory address requested in the load request is present and valid in a table. The engine checks whether there exists valid data corresponding to the first memory address in an array if the first memory address is present and valid in the table. The engine increments a prefetching depth of a first stream that the first memory address belongs to and fetching a cache line associated with the first memory address from the at least one cache memory device if there is not yet valid data corresponding to the first memory address in the array. The engine determines whether prefetching of additional data is needed for the first stream within its prefetching depth. The engine prefetches the additional data if the prefetching is needed.

  2. Mining Building Metadata by Data Stream Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Emil; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2016-01-01

    to handle data streams with only slightly similar patterns. We have evaluated Metafier with points and data from one building located in Denmark. We have evaluated Metafier with 903 points, and the overall accuracy, with only 3 known examples, was 94.71%. Furthermore we found that using DTW for mining...... ways to annotate sensor and actuation points. This makes it difficult to create intuitive queries for retrieving data streams from points. Another problem is the amount of insufficient or missing metadata. We introduce Metafier, a tool for extracting metadata from comparing data streams. Metafier...... enables a semi-automatic labeling of metadata to building instrumentation. Metafier annotates points with metadata by comparing the data from a set of validated points with unvalidated points. Metafier has three different algorithms to compare points with based on their data. The three algorithms...

  3. Advanced content delivery, streaming, and cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Sitaraman, Ramesh Kumar; Robinson, Dom

    2014-01-01

    While other books on the market provide limited coverage of advanced CDNs and streaming technologies, concentrating solely on the fundamentals, this book provides an up-to-date comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art advancements in CDNs, with a special focus on Cloud-based CDNs. The book includes CDN and media streaming basics, performance models, practical applications, and business analysis. It features industry case studies, CDN applications, and open research issues to aid practitioners and researchers, and a market analysis to provide a reference point for commercial entities. The book covers Adaptive Bitrate Streaming (ABR), Content Delivery Cloud (CDC), Web Acceleration, Front End Optimization (FEO), Transparent Caching, Next Generation CDNs, CDN Business Intelligence and more.

  4. Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Calic

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.

  5. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  6. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  7. Methanotrophy in surface sediments of streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Peter, Hannes; Battin, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Because streams are often found to be supersaturated in methane (CH4), they are considered as atmospheric sources of this greenhouse gas. However, little is known about the processes driving CH4 cycling in these environments, i.e. production, consumption and fluxes. CH4 is thought to be produced in deeper anoxic sediments, before it migrates up to reach the oxic stream water, where it can be oxidized by methanotrophs. In order to gain insights into this process, we investigated 14 different streams across Switzerland. We characterized the chemistry of surface and sediment waters by measuring dissolved chemical profiles. We also sampled surface sediments and determined methanotrophic rates with laboratory incubations and Michaelis-Menten modeling. Interestingly, rates were strongly correlated with the CH4 concentrations in stream waters, rather than in sediment waters. This indicates that methantrophic populations feed on CH4 from the surface streamwater, even though CH4 concentrations are higher in the sediment waters. Methanotrophy rates were also correlated with Crenothrix counts (based on 16S rRNA sequencing), a strict methanotroph, while this latter was correlated with pmoA counts (based on quantitative PCR), a gene involved in methanotrophy. These results show that Crenothrix genera are the most active methanotrophs in surface sediments of streams, and can represent more than 2% of microbial communities. Remarkably, the dominating Crenothrix species was detected in all 14 samples. This work allows the assessment of in situ methanotrophic rates, of the environmental parameters driving this process, and of the microbial populations carrying it out, and thus brings useful insights about carbon cycling in streams.

  8. Consequences of variation in stream-landscape connections for stream nitrate retention and export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, A. M.; Helton, A. M.; Grimm, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic and material connections among streams, the surrounding terrestrial landscape, and groundwater systems fluctuate between extremes in dryland watersheds, yet the consequences of this variation for stream nutrient retention and export remain uncertain. We explored how seasonal variation in hydrologic connection among streams, landscapes, and groundwater affect nitrate and ammonium concentrations across a dryland stream network and how this variation mediates in-stream nitrate uptake and watershed export. We conducted spatial surveys of stream nitrate and ammonium concentration across the 1200 km2 Oak Creek watershed in central Arizona (USA). In addition, we conducted pulse releases of a solution containing biologically reactive sodium nitrate, with sodium chloride as a conservative hydrologic tracer, to estimate nitrate uptake rates in the mainstem (Q>1000 L/s) and two tributaries. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations generally increased from headwaters to mouth in the mainstem. Locally elevated concentrations occurred in spring-fed tributaries draining fish hatcheries and larger irrigation ditches, but did not have a substantial effect on the mainstem nitrogen load. Ambient nitrate concentration (as N) ranged from below the analytical detection limit of 0.005 mg/L to 0.43 mg/L across all uptake experiments. Uptake length—average stream distance traveled for a nutrient atom from the point of release to its uptake—at ambient concentration ranged from 250 to 704 m and increased significantly with higher discharge, both across streams and within the same stream on different experiment dates. Vertical uptake velocity and aerial uptake rate ranged from 6.6-10.6 mm min-1 and 0.03 to 1.4 mg N m-2 min-1, respectively. Preliminary analyses indicate potentially elevated nitrogen loading to the lower portion of the watershed during seasonal precipitation events, but overall, the capacity for nitrate uptake is high in the mainstem and tributaries. Ongoing work

  9. STRIP: stream learning of influence probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutzkov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    cascades, and developing applications such as viral marketing. Motivated by modern microblogging platforms, such as twitter, in this paper we study the problem of learning influence probabilities in a data-stream scenario, in which the network topology is relatively stable and the challenge of a learning...... algorithm is to keep up with a continuous stream of tweets using a small amount of time and memory. Our contribution is a number of randomized approximation algorithms, categorized according to the available space (superlinear, linear, and sublinear in the number of nodes n) and according to dierent models...

  10. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  11. Flow of a stream through a reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, K.

    1967-01-01

    If a reservoir is fed from a single source, which may not always be pure, the extent to which the inflowing stream mixes with the water in the reservoir is important for the quality of the water supplied by the reservoir. This question was investigated at the Lingese Reservoir, containing between one and two million cubic metres of water, in the Bergisches Land (North Rhine-Westphalia). The investigation was carried out at four different seasons so that the varying effects of the stream-water temperatures could be studied in relation to the temperature of the reservoir water. The stream was radioactively labelled at the point of inflow into the reservoir, and its flow through the reservoir was measured in length and depth from boats, by means of 1-m-long Geiger counters. In two cases the radioactivity of the outflowing water was also measured at fixed points. A considerable variety of intermixing phenomena were observed; these were mainly of limnological interest. The results of four experiments corresponding to the four different seasons are described in detail. They were as follows: (1) The mid-October experiment where the stream, with a temperature of 8.0 deg. C, was a good 5 deg. C colder than the water of the reservoir, whose temperature was almost uniform, ranging from 13.2 deg. C at the bed to 13.6 deg. C at the surface. (2) The spring experiment (second half of March), when the stream temperature was only 0.3 deg. C below that of the reservoir surface (7.8 deg. C), while the temperature of the bed was 5.8 deg. C. (3) The winter experiment (early December) where at first the temperature of the stream was approximately the same as that of the surface so that, once again, the stream at first flowed 1/2 - 1 m below the surface. During the almost wind-free night a sudden fall in temperature occurred, and the air temperature dropped from 0 deg. C to -12 deg. C. (4) The summer experiment (end of July to mid-August) when the stream was nearly 1 deg. C colder than

  12. Investigating methods of stream planform identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohberg, M. M.; Lusk, K.; Miller, D.; Stonedahl, F.; Stonedahl, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    Stream planforms are used to map scientific measurements, estimate volumetric discharge, and model stream flow. Changes in these planforms can be used to quantify erosion and water level fluctuations. This research investigated five cost-effective methods of identifying stream planforms: (1) consumer-grade digital camera GPS (2) multi-view stereo 3D scene reconstruction (using Microsoft Photosynth (TM)) (3) a cross-sectional measurement approach (4) a triangulation-based measurement approach and (5) the 'square method' - a novel photogrammetric procedure which involved floating a large wooden square in the stream, photographing the square and banks from numerous angles and then using the square to correct for perspective and extract the outline (using custom post-processing software). Data for each of the five methods was collected at Blackhawk Creek in Davenport, Iowa. Additionally we placed 30 control points near the banks of the stream and measured 88 lengths between these control points. We measured or calculated the locations of these control points with each of our five methods and calculated the average percent error associated with each method using the predicted control point locations. The effectiveness of each method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, affordability, environmental intrusiveness, and ease of use. The camera equipped with GPS proved to be a very ineffective method due to an extremely high level of error, 289%. The 3D point cloud extracted from Photosynth was missing markers for many of the control points, so the error calculation (which yielded 11.7%) could only be based on five of the 88 lengths and is thus highly uncertain. The two non-camera methods (cross-sectional and triangulation measurements) resulted in low percent error (2.04% and 1.31% respectively) relative to the control point lengths, but these methods were very time consuming, exhausting, and only provided low resolution outlines. High resolution data collection would

  13. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  14. Interface for the rapid analysis of liquid samples by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turteltaub, Kenneth; Ognibene, Ted; Thomas, Avi; Daley, Paul F; Salazar Quintero, Gary A; Bench, Graham

    2014-02-04

    An interface for the analysis of liquid sample having carbon content by an accelerator mass spectrometer including a wire, defects on the wire, a system for moving the wire, a droplet maker for producing droplets of the liquid sample and placing the droplets of the liquid sample on the wire in the defects, a system that converts the carbon content of the droplets of the liquid sample to carbon dioxide gas in a helium stream, and a gas-accepting ion source connected to the accelerator mass spectrometer that receives the carbon dioxide gas of the sample in a helium stream and introduces the carbon dioxide gas of the sample into the accelerator mass spectrometer.

  15. Separation of rate processes for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water in packed columns 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Hartog, J. den; Goodale, J.W.; Rolston, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Wetproofed platinum catalysts in packed columns promote isotopic exchange between counter-current streams of hydrogen saturated with water vapour and liquid water. The net rate of deuterium transfer from isotopically enriched hydrogen has been measured and separated into two rate processes involving the transfer of deuterium from hydrogen to water vapour and from water vapour to liquid. These are compared with independent measurements of the two rate processes to test the two-step successive exchange model for trickle bed reactors. The separated transfer rates are independent of bed height and characterize the deuterium concentrations of each stream along the length of the bed. The dependences of the transfer rates upon hydrogen and liquid flow, hydrogen pressure, platinum loading and the effect of dilution of the hydrophobic catalyst with inert hydrophilic packing are reported. The results indicate a third process may be important in the transfer of deuterium between hydrogen and liquid water. (author)

  16. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  18. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  19. Tracking the Key Constituents of Concern of the WTP LAW Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrouki, Ridha B. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Abramowitz, Howard [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The testing results presented in the present report were also obtained on a DM10 melter system operated with the primary WTP LAW offgas system components with recycle, as specified in the statement of work (SOW) [6] and detailed in the Test Plan for this work [7]. The primary offgas system components include the SBS, the WESP, and a recycle system that allows recycle of liquid effluents back to the melter, as in the present baseline for the WTP LAW vitrification. The partitioning of technetium and other key constituents between the glass waste form, the offgas system liquid effluents, the offgas stream that exits the WESP, and the liquid condensate from the vacuum evaporator were quantified in this work. The tests employed three different LAW streams spanning a range of waste compositions anticipated for WTP. Modifications to the offgas system and operational strategy were made to expedite the approach to steady state concentrations of key constituents in the glass and offgas effluent solutions during each test.

  20. StreamQRE: Modular Specification and Efficient Evaluation of Quantitative Queries over Streaming Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouras, Konstantinos; Raghothaman, Mukund; Alur, Rajeev; Ives, Zachary G; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions. The former allows the programmer to employ relational constructs to partition the input data by keys and to integrate data streams from different sources, while the latter can be used to exploit the logical hierarchy in the input stream for modular specifications. We first present the core language with a small set of combinators, formal semantics, and a decidable type system. We then show how to express a number of common patterns with illustrative examples. Our compilation algorithm translates the high-level query into a streaming algorithm with precise complexity bounds on per-item processing time and total memory footprint. We also show how to integrate approximation algorithms into our framework. We report on an implementation in Java, and evaluate it with respect to existing high-performance engines for processing streaming data. Our experimental evaluation shows that (1) StreamQRE allows more natural and succinct specification of queries compared to existing frameworks, (2) the throughput of our implementation is higher than comparable systems (for example, two-to-four times greater than RxJava), and (3) the approximation algorithms supported by our implementation can lead to substantial memory savings.

  1. Spray process for the recovery of CO.sub.2 from a gas stream and a related apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2014-02-11

    A method for recovering carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a gas stream is disclosed. The method includes the step of reacting CO.sub.2 in the gas stream with fine droplets of a liquid absorbent, so as to form a solid material in which the CO.sub.2 is bound. The solid material is then transported to a desorption site, where it is heated, to release substantially pure CO.sub.2 gas. The CO.sub.2 gas can then be collected and used or transported in any desired way. A related apparatus for recovering carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a gas stream is also described herein.

  2. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Bruce; Eggert, Susan L; Meyer, Judy L; Webster, Jackson R

    2015-05-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance, biomass, and secondary production in rockface (RF) and mixed substrates (MS) of forested headwater streams. Using a mesh canopy covering the entire treatment stream, we examined effects of litter ex'clusion, small- and large-wood removal, and addition of artificial wood (PVC) and leaves of varying quality on organic matter standing crops and invertebrate community structure and function. We assessed differences in functional feeding group distribution between substrate types as influenced by organic matter manipulations and long-term patterns of predator and prey production in manipulated vs. reference years. Particulate organic matter standing crops in MS of the treatment stream declined drastically with each successive year of litter exclusion, approaching zero after three years. Monthly invertebrate biomass and annual secondary production was positively related to benthic organic matter in the MS habitats. Rockface habitats exhibited fewer changes than MS habitats across all organic matter manipulations. With leaf addition, the patterns of functional group distribution among MS and RF habitats returned to patterns seen in reference streams. Secondary production per unit organic matter standing crop was greatest for the leaf addition period, followed by the reference streams, and significantly less for the litter exclusion and wood removal periods. These data indicate that the limited organic matter remaining in the stream following litter exclusion and wood removal was more refractory than that in the reference streams, whereas the added leaf material was more labile and readily converted into

  3. Stream remediation following a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Reiter, G.A.; Challenger, G.

    2000-01-01

    On June 10, 1999, a pipe ruptured on the Olympic Pipe Line causing the release, explosion and fire of up to one million litres of gasoline in Bellingham, Washington. It affected approximately 5 km of the Whatcom Creek ecosystem. Following the incident, several concurrent activities in the source area and downstream occurred. This paper discussed the remediation of the affected stream bed sections. During the period July 6 - August 16, an interagency project was implemented. It involved mechanical, manual, and hydraulic in-situ treatment techniques to remove the gasoline from the stream bed and the banks. In addition, a series of controlled, hydraulic flushes were conducted. The sluice or control gates at the head of the Whatcom Creek were opened each night, and bigger flushes took place before and after the treatments. Simultaneously, water and sediment were sampled and analysed. The data obtained provided information on the state of the initial stream water and stream sediment and on the effects that the remediation had had. The residual gasoline was successfully removed from the sediments and river banks in six weeks. No downstream movement of the released gasoline towards Bellingham was detected. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  4. Stream-crossing structure for deer fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; James A. Hays; Louis Brunett

    1963-01-01

    Stream crossings are the most vulnerable points in a deer-proof fence. When an inadequately constructed crossing washes out, enclosed deer may escape and unwanted animals enter. Structures of the type described here have withstood 2 years of frequent, severe flooding in the pine-hardwood hills of central Louisiana.

  5. Streaming Media for Web Based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Chad; Rizzo, Frank; Bangert, Linda

    This paper discusses streaming media for World Wide Web-based training (WBT). The first section addresses WBT in the 21st century, including the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) standard that allows multimedia content such as text, pictures, sound, and video to be synchronized for a coherent learning experience. The second…

  6. The Chameleon Architecture for Streaming DSP Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, N.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Platzner, M.; Wolkotte, P.T.; Teich, J.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Heysters, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We focus on architectures for streaming DSP applications such as wireless baseband processing and image processing. We aim at a single generic architecture that is capable of dealing with different DSP applications. This architecture has to be energy efficient and fault tolerant. We introduce a

  7. Quality of experience models for multimedia streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.; Cuadra Sánchez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how quality is perceived by viewers of multimedia streaming services is essential for efficient management of those services. Quality of Experience (QoE) is a subjective metric that quantifies the perceived quality, which is crucial in the process of optimizing tradeoff between quality

  8. Stream temperature investigations: field and analytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the user of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP). Planning a temperature study is discussed in terms of understanding the management objectives and ensuring that the questions will be accurately answered with the modeling approach being used. A sensitivity analysis of SNTEMP is presented to illustrate which input variables are most important in predicting stream temperatures. This information helps prioritize data collection activities, highlights the need for quality control, focuses on which parameters can be estimated rather than measured, and offers a broader perspective on management options in terms of knowing where the biggest temperature response will be felt. All of the major input variables for stream geometry, meteorology, and hydrology are discussed in detail. Each variable is defined, with guidance given on how to measure it, what kind of equipment to use, where to obtain it from another agency, and how to calculate it if the data are in a form other than that required by SNTEMP. Examples are presented for the various forms in which water temperature, discharge, and meteorological data are commonly found. Ranges of values for certain input variables that are difficult to measure of estimate are given. Particular attention is given to those variables not commonly understood by field biologists likely to be involved in a stream temperature study. Pertinent literature is cited for each variable, with emphasis on how other people have treated particular problems and on results they have found.

  9. Microbial incorporation of nitrogen in stream detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Sanzone; Jennifer L. Tank; Judy L. Meyer; Patrick J. Mulholland; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2001-01-01

    We adapted the chloroform fumigation method to determine microbial nitrogen (N) and microbial incorporation of 15N on three common substrates [leaves, wood and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM)] in three forest streams. We compared microbial N and 15 content of samples collected during a 6-week15N-NH...

  10. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit; Birkner, Rü diger; Canini, Marco; Feamster, Nick; Mac-Stoker, Chris; Willinger, Walter

    2016-01-01

    , processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have

  11. Event Streams Clustering Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Bouali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data streams are usually of unbounded lengths which push users to consider only recent observations by focusing on a time window, and ignore past data. However, in many real world applications, past data must be taken in consideration to guarantee the efficiency, the performance of decision making and to handle data streams evolution over time. In order to build a selectively history to track the underlying event streams changes, we opt for the continuously data of the sliding window which increases the time window based on changes over historical data. In this paper, to have the ability to access to historical data without requiring any significant storage or multiple passes over the data. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for clustering multiple data streams using incremental support vector machine and data representative points’ technique. The algorithm uses a sliding window model for the most recent clustering results and data representative points to model the old data clustering results. Our experimental results on electromyography signal show a better clustering than other present in the literature

  12. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  13. Climate change and alpine stream biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S.; Joseph Giersch, J.

    2017-01-01

    micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities. Herein, we describe the current state of alpine stream biology from an organism-focused perspective. We begin by reviewing seven standard and emerging approaches that combine to form the current state of the discipline. We follow with a call...

  14. Learning from medical data streams: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Rodrigues, P.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Gaber, M.M.; Gama, J.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical practice and research are facing a new challenge created by the rapid growth of health information science and technology, and the complexity and volume of biomedical data. Machine learning from medical data streams is a recent area of research that aims to provide better knowledge

  15. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal holes and interplanetary disturbances are important aspects of the physics of the Sun and heliosphere. Interplanetary disturbances are identified as an increase in the density turbulence compared with the ambient solar wind. Erupting stream disturbances are transient large-scale structures of ...

  16. Staying in "the stream of life"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgitte; Delmar, Charlotte; Dolmer, Ilone

    2009-01-01

    Staying in the stream of life is about being the author of one's own meaningful life. It takes into account life phenomena embodied in the maintenance aspect of health care; dignity in relation to identity and integrity; and an understanding of the dialectical relation between frailty and strength....

  17. Zips : mining compressing sequential patterns in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Calders, T.G.K.; Yang, J.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Chau, D.H.; Vreeken, J.; Leeuwen, van M.; Faloutsos, C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a streaming algorithm, based on the minimal description length (MDL) principle, for extracting non-redundant sequential patterns. For static databases, the MDL-based approach that selects patterns based on their capacity to compress data rather than their frequency, was shown to be

  18. Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS MandO 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''

  19. Applications of on-stream analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits of on-stream analysis include increased metal recovery, reduced consumption of reagents, increases in concentrate grade and savings in labour. A poorly designed analysis zone can give rise to incorrect assays as a result of segregation or excessive or variable aeration

  20. On the dynamics of stream piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, L.; Willett, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    Drainage network reorganization by stream piracy is invoked repeatedly to explain the morphology of unique drainage patterns and as a possible mechanism inducing abrupt variations of sediment accumulation rates. However, direct evidence of stream piracy is usually rare, and is highly interpretation dependent. As a first step in assessing how probable capture events are and establishing the conditions that favor stream piracy versus the those that favor stable landscapes, we formulate analytically the physics of divide migration and capture events and study this formulation from a dynamical system point of view. The formulation is based on a one-dimensional topographic cross section between two channels that share a water divide. Two hillslope profiles diverge from the divide and drain into two fluvial bedrock tributaries, whose erosion rate is controlled by a stream power law. The rate of erosion at the bounding channels is thus a function of the upstream drainage area and local slope. A tectonically induced downward perturbation of the elevation of one of the bounding channels lowers the channel slope but at the same time increases the drainage area due to outward migration of the water divide. The changes in slope and area have opposing effect on the erosion rate at the bounding channels, so that the perturbation may either grow or be damped. We define the geomorphic and tectonic parameters that control the behavior of the system and find the regimes that lead to stable landscapes and to capture events.

  1. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  2. Live Streaming | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Live Streaming. Watch Academy events live here! There are no live events currently happening. Watch out this space for updates or suscribe to our YouTube channel by clicking here. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  3. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  4. Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry across stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, A.; Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Kortelainen, P.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Johnes, P.; Dodds, W. K.; Johnson, S.; Brookshire, J.; Spencer, R.; Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Helton, A. M.; Barnes, R.; Argerich, A.; Haq, S.; Sullivan, P. L.; López-Lloreda, C.; Coble, A. A.; Daley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are altering carbon and nitrogen concentrations in surface waters globally. The stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen regulates important watershed biogeochemical cycles; however, controls on carbon and nitrogen ratios in aquatic environments are poorly understood. Here we use a multi-biome and global dataset (tropics to Arctic) of stream water chemistry to assess relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), providing a new conceptual framework to consider interactions between DOC and the multiple forms of dissolved nitrogen. We found that across streams the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) pool is comprised of very little ammonium and as DOC concentrations increase the TDN pool shifts from nitrate to DON dominated. This suggests that in high DOC systems, DON serves as the primary source of nitrogen. At the global scale, DOC and DON are positively correlated (r2 = 0.67) and the average C: N ratio of dissolved organic matter (molar ratio of DOC: DON) across our data set is approximately 31. At the biome and smaller regional scale the relationship between DOC and DON is highly variable (r2 = 0.07 - 0.56) with the strongest relationships found in streams draining the mixed temperate forests of the northeastern United States. DOC: DON relationships also display spatial and temporal variability including latitudinal and seasonal trends, and interactions with land-use. DOC: DON ratios correlated positively with gradients of energy versus nutrient limitation pointing to the ecological role (energy source versus nutrient source) that DON plays with stream ecosystems. Contrary to previous findings we found consistently weak relationships between DON and nitrate which may reflect DON's duality as an energy or nutrient source. Collectively these analyses demonstrate how gradients of DOC drive compositional changes in the TDN pool and reveal a high degree of variability in the C: N ratio

  5. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.

    2017-05-22

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  6. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Streams - Wadeable Streams Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  7. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  8. Stream hydraulics and temperature determine the metabolism of geothermal Icelandic streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demars B. O.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystem metabolism plays a critical role in planetary biogeochemical cycling. Stream benthic habitat complexity and the available surface area for microbes relative to the free-flowing water volume are thought to be important determinants of ecosystem metabolism. Unfortunately, the engineered deepening and straightening of streams for drainage purposes could compromise stream natural services. Stream channel complexity may be quantitatively expressed with hydraulic parameters such as water transient storage, storage residence time, and water spiralling length. The temperature dependence of whole stream ecosystem respiration (ER, gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP − ER has recently been evaluated with a “natural experiment” in Icelandic geothermal streams along a 5–25 °C temperature gradient. There remained, however, a substantial amount of unexplained variability in the statistical models, which may be explained by hydraulic parameters found to be unrelated to temperature. We also specifically tested the additional and predicted synergistic effects of water transient storage and temperature on ER, using novel, more accurate, methods. Both ER and GPP were highly related to water transient storage (or water spiralling length but not to the storage residence time. While there was an additional effect of water transient storage and temperature on ER (r2 = 0.57; P = 0.015, GPP was more related to water transient storage than temperature. The predicted synergistic effect could not be confirmed, most likely due to data limitation. Our interpretation, based on causal statistical modelling, is that the metabolic balance of streams (NEP was primarily determined by the temperature dependence of respiration. Further field and experimental work is required to test the predicted synergistic effect on ER. Meanwhile, since higher metabolic activities allow for higher pollutant degradation or uptake

  9. Liquid Sloshing Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raouf A.

    2005-06-01

    The problem of liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers remains of great concern to aerospace, civil, and nuclear engineers; physicists; designers of road tankers and ship tankers; and mathematicians. Beginning with the fundamentals of liquid sloshing theory, this book takes the reader systematically from basic theory to advanced analytical and experimental results in a self-contained and coherent format. The book is divided into four sections. Part I deals with the theory of linear liquid sloshing dynamics; Part II addresses the nonlinear theory of liquid sloshing dynamics, Faraday waves, and sloshing impacts; Part III presents the problem of linear and nonlinear interaction of liquid sloshing dynamics with elastic containers and supported structures; and Part IV considers the fluid dynamics in spinning containers and microgravity sloshing. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in mechanical and aeronautical engineering, designers of liquid containers, and applied mathematicians.

  10. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  11. Ionic liquid marbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2007-10-09

    Liquid marbles have been reported during this decade and have been argued to be potentially useful for microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications. The liquid marbles described to date have been composed of either water or glycerol as the liquid and hydrophobized lycopodium or silica as the stabilizing particles. Both of these components are potentially reactive and do not permit the use of organic chemistry; the liquids are volatile. We report the use of perfluoroalkyl particles (oligomeric (OTFE) and polymeric (PTFE) tetrafluoroethylene, which are unreactive) to support/stabilize a range of ionic liquid marbles. Ionic liquids are not volatile and have been demonstrated to be versatile solvents for chemical transformations. Water marbles prepared with OTFE are much more robust than those prepared with hydrophobized lycopodium or silica.

  12. Quantum liquids get thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    A liquid exists when interactions that attract its constituent particles to each other are counterbalanced by a repulsion acting at higher densities. Other characteristics of liquids are short-range correlations and the existence of surface tension (1). Ultracold atom experiments provide a privileged platform with which to observe exotic states of matter, but the densities are far too low to obtain a conventional liquid because the atoms are too far apart to create repulsive forces arising from the Pauli exclusion principle of the atoms' internal electrons. The observation of quantum liquid droplets in an ultracold mixture of two quantum fluids is now reported on page 301 of this issue by Cabrera et al. (2) and a recent preprint by Semeghini et al. (3). Unlike conventional liquids, these liquids arise from a weak attraction and repulsive many-body correlations in the mixtures.

  13. A multi-purpose ultrasonic streaming mixer for integrated magnetic bead ELISAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhoff, Lukas; Lang, Walter; Vellekoop, Michael J; Zirath, Helene; Peham, Johannes; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert; Salas, Mariugenia; Haller, Anna; Spittler, Andreas; Schnetz, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic streaming mixer for disposable and on-chip magnetic bead ELISAs. The ultrasonic transducer is placed at system-level to keep cost per chip as low as possible, and is coupled to the chip by means of a solid ultrasonic horn. The system provides mixing of liquids, as well as dispersion of the superparamagnetic beads in the ELISA. Additionally it can be used clean the chamber surface from nonspecifically bound proteins during the washing steps in the ELISA protocol. Using our system the time for the ELISA protocol has been greatly reduced down to 30 min. (paper)

  14. Design integration of liquid surface divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.; Cowgill, D.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Nelson, B.E.; Fogarty, P.J.; Rognlien, T.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Hassanein, A.; Smolentsev, S.S.; Kotschenreuther, M.

    2004-01-01

    The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied

  15. Transformation of QSPA plasma streams in longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this work is analysis of efficiency of QSPA powerful plasma streams transportation in longitudinal magnetic field in dependence on operational mode of accelerator and plasma stream parameters

  16. A Function-Based Framework for Stream Assessment & Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report lays out a framework for approaching stream assessment and restoration projects that focuses on understanding the suite of stream functions at a site in the context of what is happening in the watershed.

  17. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  18. EFFECTS OF STREAM RESTORATION ON DENITRIFICATION In AN URBANIZING WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased delivery of nitrogen due to urbanization and stream ecosystem degradation is contributing to eutrophication in coastal regions of the eastern United States. We tested whether geomorphic restoration involving hydrologic “reconnection” of a stream to its floodplain could ...

  19. Best Management Practices Monitoring Guide for Stream Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Best Management Practices Monitoring Guide for Stream Systems provides guidance on establishing a water quality monitoring program that will demonstrate the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollution in stream systems.

  20. Factoring stream turbulence into global assessments of nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stanley B; Azizian, Morvarid; Cook, Perran; Boano, Fulvio; Rippy, Megan A

    2018-03-16

    The discharge of excess nitrogen to streams and rivers poses an existential threat to both humans and ecosystems. A seminal study of headwater streams across the United States concluded that in-stream removal of nitrate is controlled primarily by stream chemistry and biology. Reanalysis of these data reveals that stream turbulence (in particular, turbulent mass transfer across the concentration boundary layer) imposes a previously unrecognized upper limit on the rate at which nitrate is removed from streams. The upper limit closely approximates measured nitrate removal rates in streams with low concentrations of this pollutant, a discovery that should inform stream restoration designs and efforts to assess the effects of nitrogen pollution on receiving water quality and the global nitrogen cycle. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Nord-Stream-Antrag stösst auf Ablehnung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Nord Stream küsib Eestilt taas uuringuluba. 2007 ei rahuldanud vabariigi valitsus Nord Stream AG uurimisloa taotlust. Andrus Ansip ja Mart Laar on seisukohal, et tuleks jääda kord tehtud otsuse juurde

  2. Volume reduction/solidification of liquid radioactive waste using bitumen at Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.E.; Baker, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Ontario Hydro at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' has undertaken a program to render the station's liquid radioactive waste suitable for discharge to Lake Huron by removing sufficient radiological and chemical contaminants to satisfy regulatory requirements for emissions. The system will remove radionuclide and chemical contaminants from five different plant waste streams. The contaminants will be immobilized and stored at on-site radioactive waste storage facilities and the purified streams will be discharged. The discharge targets established by Ontario Hydro are set well below the limits established by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) and are based on the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable Approach (B.A.T.E.A.). ADTECHS Corporation has been selected by Ontario Hydro to provide volume reduction/solidification technology for one of the five waste streams. The system will dry and immobilize the contaminants from a liquid waste stream in emulsified asphalt using thin film evaporation technology

  3. Fast acoustic streaming in standing waves: generation of an additional outer streaming cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Daru, Virginie; Bailliet, Hélène; Moreau, Solène; Valière, Jean-Christophe; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Weisman, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Rayleigh streaming in a cylindrical acoustic standing waveguide is studied both experimentally and numerically for nonlinear Reynolds numbers from 1 to 30 [Re(NL)=(U0/c0)(2)(R/δν)(2), with U0 the acoustic velocity amplitude at the velocity antinode, c0 the speed of sound, R the tube radius, and δν the acoustic boundary layer thickness]. Streaming velocity is measured by means of laser Doppler velocimetry in a cylindrical resonator filled with air at atmospheric pressure at high intensity sound levels. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically with high resolution finite difference schemes. The resonator is excited by shaking it along the axis at imposed frequency. Results of measurements and of numerical calculation are compared with results given in the literature and with each other. As expected, the axial streaming velocity measured and calculated agrees reasonably well with the slow streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for fast streaming (ReNL>1). Both experimental and numerical results show that when ReNL is increased, the center of the outer streaming cells are pushed toward the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes.

  4. Three-dimensional model of corotating streams in the solar wind 3. Magnetohydrodynamic streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzo, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-fold: (1) to examine how the presence of the spiral magnetic field affects the evolution of interplanetary corotating solar wind streams, and (2) to ascertain the nature of secondary large-scale phenomena likely to be associated with streams having a pronounced three-dimensional (3-D) structure. The dynamics are presumed to be governed by the nonlinear polytropic, single-fluid, 3-D MHD equations. Solutions are obtained with an explicit, Eulerian, finite differences technique that makes use of a simple form of artificial diffusion for handling shocks. For smooth axisymmetric flows, the picture of magnetically induced meridional motions previously established by linear models requires only minor correction. In the case of broad 3-D streams input near the sun, inclusion of the magnetic field is found to retard the kinematic steepening at the stream front substantially but to produce little deviation from planar flow. For the more realistic case of initially sharply bounded streams, however, it becomes essential to account for magnetic effects in the formulation. Whether a full 3-D treatment is required depends upon the latitudinal geometry of the stream

  5. HUNTING THE PARENT OF THE ORPHAN STREAM: IDENTIFYING STREAM MEMBERS FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 ± 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V GSR = 82.1 ± 1.4 km s –1 . The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.63 ± 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, σ([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

  6. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  7. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  8. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  9. Liquid Metal Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series...

  10. Liquidity and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework to study the links between the supply of liquid assets for the financial market and the international allocation of economic activity. Private assets’ liquidity properties - their usefulness as collateral or media of exchange in financial transactions - affect assets’ values and interest rates, with consequences on firm entry, production, aggregate productivity, and total market capitalization. In a closed economy, the liquidity market increases the size and ...

  11. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  12. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  13. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  14. Stream II-V5: Revision Of Stream II-V4 To Account For The Effects Of Rainfall Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.

    2010-01-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  15. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  16. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  17. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2012-07-26

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Simulation of water vapor condensation on LOX droplet surface using liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Eugene A.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of ice or water layers on liquid oxygen (LOX) droplets in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) environment was investigated. Formulation of such ice/water layers is indicated by phase-equilibrium considerations under conditions of high partial pressure of water vapor (steam) and low LOX droplet temperature prevailing in the SSME preburner or main chamber. An experimental investigation was begun using liquid nitrogen as a LOX simulant. A monodisperse liquid nitrogen droplet generator was developed which uses an acoustic driver to force the stream of liquid emerging from a capillary tube to break up into a stream of regularly space uniformly sized spherical droplets. The atmospheric pressure liquid nitrogen in the droplet generator reservoir was cooled below its boiling point to prevent two phase flow from occurring in the capillary tube. An existing steam chamber was modified for injection of liquid nitrogen droplets into atmospheric pressure superheated steam. The droplets were imaged using a stroboscopic video system and a laser shadowgraphy system. Several tests were conducted in which liquid nitrogen droplets were injected into the steam chamber. Under conditions of periodic droplet formation, images of 600 micron diameter liquid nitrogen droplets were obtained with the stroboscopic video systems.

  19. Adaptive Media Streaming to Mobile Devices: Challenges, Enhancements, and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Kristian; Kupka, Tomas; Riiser, Haakon; Ni, Pengpeng; Eg, Ragnhild; Griwodz, Carsten; Halvorsen, Pål

    2014-01-01

    Video streaming is predicted to become the dominating traffic in mobile broadband networks. At the same time, adaptive HTTP streaming is developing into the preferred way of streaming media over the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate how different components of a streaming system can be optimized when serving content to mobile devices in particular. We first analyze the media traffic from a Norwegian network and media provider. Based on our findings, we outline benefits and chal...

  20. A chaotic stream cipher and the usage in video protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Shiguo; Sun Jinsheng; Wang Jinwei; Wang Zhiquan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a chaotic stream cipher is constructed and used to encrypt video data selectively. The stream cipher based on a discrete piecewise linear chaotic map satisfies the security requirement of cipher design. The video encryption scheme based on the stream cipher is secure in perception, efficient and format compliant, which is suitable for practical video protection. The video encryption scheme's performances prove the stream cipher's practicability